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Phase Shift in Formula One with KERS

Yogesh Yadav
Mechanical Engineering, Raffles University, Neemrana, Rajasthan, India
International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2, March-April, 2015, pp. 38-44
ISSN Online: 2347-5188 Print: 2347-8772, DOA : 15042015
IASTER 2015, www.iaster.com

ABSTRACT
The Formula One (F1) racing sport is currently leading the way for automotive engineering this
paper briefly provides an overview on automobile engineering successes from the F1, and focuses on
a potential engineering success titled the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS), which is currently
exclusive to the F1. In which the energy lost in deceleration of vehicles can be recovered and the total
energy consumption is possibly decreased and exhaust emissions reduce, the KERS converts kinetic
energy to electric energy during deceleration, which then can be used for acceleration that helps in
reducing the environment pollution due to the emission of gases and depletion of non-renewable
energy resources.

Keywords: Cars, ERS, Formula One, KERS.


1. INTRODUCTION
The F1 is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Federation International
Automobile (FIA). The "formula", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all
participants' cars must comply. The F1 season comprises of a sequence of races, known as grand prix
(taken from French, that initially implies extraordinary prizes), held all through the world
intentionally constructed circuits and open streets. The results of every race are assessed utilizing
points system to determine two annual world championships, one for the drivers and one for the
constructors.
The hustling drivers, constructor groups, track authorities, coordinators, and circuits are obliged to be
holders of substantial super licenses, the most noteworthy class of racing permit issued by the FIA.
Formula one car are the speediest street course racing cars on the planet, owing to high cornering
velocities accomplished through the era of a lot of aeromechanic down-power. Formula one cars race
at rates of up to 360 km/h (220 mph) with motors at present constrained in execution to a most
extreme of 15,000 rpm. The cars are fit for sidelong increasing speed in abundance of 5G in corners.
The execution of the cars is exceptionally subject to electronic traction control beside other controls
such as footing control and other driving supports and on aeromechanics, suspension and tyres
[1].The internal combustion engine has always been the beating heart of a formula one car, though
today it represents just one element of an enormously sophisticated power unit, where KERS requires
an electrical storage device with high power density, due to the high power levels generated at heavy
braking. The car batteries does not generally meet these prerequisites, particularly in the practical
perspective, however distinctive sorts of capacitors can be utilized to acquire a cheap and effective

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

system. To get such an energy storage device small, lightweight and inexpensive while the technology
is sustainable requires avoidance of rare metals and hazardous materials.

2. F1ERS (ENERGY RESERVATION SYSTEM)


The new power units are a far cry from Formula One engines in the early 1950s which produced
power outputs of around 100 bhp / liter which is same as the current road cars manage now. That
figure rose steadily until the arrival of F1 racings first 'turbo age' of 1.5 liter turbo engines in the
1970s when anything up to 750 bhp / liter was being pumped out. Then, once the sport returned to
normal aspiration in 1989 that figure fell back, before steadily rising again. It wasnt long before
outputs crept back towards the 1000 bhp barrier, with some teams producing more than 300 bhp / liter
in 2005, the final year of 3 liter V10 engines.
From 2006 to 2013, the regulations required the use of 2.4 liter V8 engines limited to 18,000rpm, with
power outputs falling around 20 percent. However, the introduction of a Kinetic Energy Recovery
System (KERS) in 2009, which captured waste energy created under braking and transformed it into
electrical energy, ensured the teams had an extra 80bhp or so to play with for just over six seconds a
lap. The brake system on a Formula One car isnt just responsible for scrubbing off speed its also
indirectly liable for providing additional power, in as much as kinetic energy generated under braking
(which would otherwise escape as heat) is converted into electrical energy and returned to the power
train by the cars sophisticated Energy Recovery Systems (ERS). Indeed, ERS has prompted a few
progressions to the braking mechanism of the F1 cars, which have effective impact on the rear axle.
Since 2014, groups have been permitted to actualize electronically-controlled braking mechanisms so
that the drivers have the capacity to keep up a sensible level of equalization and strength under
braking [2].
Today's ERS has taken the idea of KERS to an alternate level, doubling the force with an executing
impact around ten times more significant. ERS contains two engine generator units (MGU-K and
MGU-H), in addition to an Energy Store (ES) and control gadgets. The engine generator units change
over mechanical and heat energy to electrical energy and the other way around.
MGU-K ('K' kinematics) works like an upgraded adaptation of the past KERS, changing over motor
energy created under braking into power as opposed to getting waste as heat. It additionally goes
about as an engine under speeding up, returning up to 120kW (more or less 160bhp) force to the drive
train from the Energy Store.
MGU-H (h heat) is an energy recuperation framework joined with the turbocharger of the motor and
proselytes heat energy from chemical energy into electrical energy. The vitality can then be utilized to
power the MGU-K (and accordingly came back to the drivetrain) or be held in the ES for consequent
utilization. Not at all like the MGU-K which is restricted to recouping 2MJ of energy every lap, is the
MGU-H unlimited. The MGU-H additionally controls the velocity of the turbo, speeding it up (to
avert turbo slack) or backing it off set up of a more customary waste entryway.
A most extreme of 4MJ every lap can be come back to the MGU-K and from that point to the
drivetrain - that is ten times more than was conceivable with KERS, the 'jolt on' recuperation
framework ERS supplanted in 2014. That implies drivers have entry to an extra 160bhp or somewhere
in the vicinity for give or take 33 seconds every lap. For administrative reasons the force unit is
considered to comprise of six different components, of which four of each are accessible to every

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

driver per season before they are penalized. The components are the four force unit parts, in addition
to the internal ignition motor and the turbocharger. Amid a race drivers may utilize steering wheel
controls to change to diverse force unit settings, or to change the rate of ERS energy harvest. Such
changes are controlled and directed by the standard electrical control unit (ECU), required on all F1
autos. At the same time for all the things the driver can transform from the cockpit, one thing he can't
do is begin his own particular car. Not at all like street cars, Formula One car don't have their own
particular installed beginning frameworks so separate initial gadgets must be utilized to start motors in
the pits and on the network [1].
For security, every car is fitted with ERS status lights which send caution signals and mechanics of the
cars electrical wellbeing status when it is halted or in the pits. In the event that the car is protected, the
lights - which are arranged on the roll hoop and the back tail light - will gleam green; if not, they shine
red. The lights must stay on for 15 minutes after the force unit has been switched off [2].

3. KERS STORAGE
As mentioned in the upper section that the energy generated on applying brakes cant be easily handled or
stored for this J.Walsh, T.Muneer and A.N. Celik[3] mentioned ways to mange that huge amount of energy.
3.1

KERS with Ultra-Capacitor (UC) Bank Storage

A kinetic energy recovery system using ultra-capacitors(UC) as the storage medium is one solution to
storing the energy for later use in automobile propulsion. The energy created by an onboard generator
can be stored within the electric field of a capacitor with the potential energy of the charges.The
amount of energy that can be stored is determined by the capacitance level of the capacitor device.
The larger the capacitance levels of the capacitor, the larger the quantity of charge that can be stored,
which is measured in farads . The construction of an UC is such that the electrolyte is dispersed and is
in contact with the surface area electrode material; this has the result of the cell operating as two
capacitors in series. The cells within the UC can be connected in series and parallel to achieve the
required level of capacitance and the required voltage. UC have been developed with up to 1000 F
capacity and energy density of 15 Wh/kg and power density of 4kW/kg. Such high levels of power
density allow quick charge and discharge times as the amount of power that can be transferred is
much higher when compared with conventional batteries for energy storage. UCs also have the
advantage of requiring no maintenance like batteries, but unlike batteries UCs do not deteriorate with
use, which means they do not need to be replaced on a regular basis, such as electric batteries, which
makes them suitable for energy storage for KERS in automobiles. The makeup of the capacitor in its
construction and materials will determine the overall level of charge that can be stored and the leakage
current that is experienced by the device[3].
3.2

KERS with Battery Storage

The battery is an electrochemical device that can convert the electrical energy and store it as chemical
energy. This energy when required can then be converted back from chemical to electrical energy to
supply power to electric motors. In market today there are many types of battery and the difference is
the chemical used inside batteries to store the energy. The mainly used batteries are: lead acid battery,
nickel-cadmium battery, nickel metal hydrate battery, lithium ion battery and many more.

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Lead-Acid Battery: The lead acid batteries have an efficiency of 80%, which is a ratio of the
thermodynamic voltage over the operating voltage. These batteries are relatively inexpensive and
have a life cycle of 5001000 charges and can store high levels of power with very little loss during
storage. Lead acid batteries have a density of approximately 2535 Wh/kg, which is a limitation as
additional weight of batteries to operate a kinetic energy recovery system decreases the overall
efficiency.
Nickel-Cadmium Battery: A nickel cadmium battery has a larger operational temperature range
and can operate to 40 C; this would allow it to operate better during cold periods whereas the lead
acid batteries can work upto -10 C this make ni-cd battery more efficient than lead-acid. The nickel
cadmium battery has a longer life cycle of up to 2000 cycles and an efficiency of 75%. But the nickel
cadmium battery does have disadvantages such as its high initial cost, low cell voltage, as well as the
environmental aspects of handling and disposing of cadmium.
Nickel-Metal Hydrate: Nickel metal hydrate NiMH batteries have many advantages over lead acid
and nickel cadmium batteries as an energy storage medium. The nickel metal hydrate battery has a
longer life cycle of up to 2000 cycles, an efficiency of 70%, a high specific power density of 200300
W/kg, and a rapid recharge profile with very low levels of storage loss.4 Nickel metal hydrate
batteries do not have as high a discharge rate as nickel cadmium batteries but it does have a similar
cell structure.6 Nickel metal hydrate batteries have a good energy density of greater than 70 Wh/kg
and can be charged to 80% of full capacity in approximately 40 min.4 The nickel metal hydrate
battery does, however, has a disadvantage such as high initial cost over other battery types. Lithiumion batteries have seen major development since their introduction back in 1991.
Lithium-Ion Batteries: The lithium-ion seems to hold the most promise for a rechargeable battery
for the future. These batteries use litigated carbon material for the negative terminal and litigated
transition metal for the positive terminal of the battery. The electrolyte is made up of either a solid
polymer or an organic solution. During discharging of these cells the lithium ions travel from the
negative terminal to the positive terminal made up of manganese, cobalt, or nickel oxide via either a
solid polymer or organic electrolyte. The reverse process occurs during charging of the battery cells.
Lithium-ion batteries have a higher specific energy density level in the region of 80130 Wh/kg
compared to lead acid 3550 Wh/kg, nickel cadmium 5060 Wh/kg, and nickel metal hydrate
batteries with 7095 Wh/kg energy density. Lithium-ion batteries are effective at holding large levels
of charge in cells lighter in weight than that of alternative battery types. Li [3].
3.3

KERS with Flywheels

The flywheels are used in the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine has always been
the beating heart of a Formula One car, though today it represents just one element of an enormously
sophisticated power unit.The internal combustion engine itself is a stressed component within the car
which is bolted to the carbon fiber 'tub'. Despite its relatively diminutive size and 15,000rpm rev limit,
direct fuel injection, a single turbocharger and some remarkable engineering make it capable of producing
around 600bhp.
Here the rotational force is transferred to the transmission system, and in turn send power to the
wheels to propel the automobile. The amount of energy storage required for the flywheels used for the
internal combustion engine is relatively small; however, if a flywheel is used to store large amounts of
energy, then the flywheels design needs to be optimized to be able to transfer energy to and from the

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

flywheel effectively. The amount of energy that can be stored by the flywheel can be enhanced by
increasing its angular velocity but without increasing the inertia. There are several advantages with
the use of a flywheel as a method of energy storage, i.e., they are not affected by temperature as a
battery would.
The manufacturing process for the production of a flywheel is more environmentally friendly,
producing less waste chemicals. A flywheel is a reliable method of storing energy with repeatable
characteristics. The amount of energy that is stored at any given time within the flywheel can be
measured by monitoring the rotational speed of the flywheel disk or rotor. Flywheels are very efficient
with small losses. Some flywheels have efficiencies that approach the figure of 98% for energy
conversion to and from the flywheel, and the losses in the flywheel can be accounted for by the
friction and wind-age losses [3].
3.4

KERS with Hydraulic Compressed Air System

The hydraulic system operates by compressing air into a storage tank; this stored energy can then be
used to accelerate the vehicle using an air engine in cooperation with the internal combustion engine
to propel the automobile forward. The air engine uses the expansion of the compressed air to drive
pistons with efficiencies of up to 90%. This system would be charged under the regenerative braking
condition and would discharge the tank as required to aid acceleration with the opening of air valves
controlled by a central control system. Some of the advantages of this system are its ability to be
charged from an external source if required with very little additional equipment to be added to the
system, and the expansion of air has the effect of cooling the system so no additional equipment is
required for this purpose. Once the storage tank has been charged, it is very efficient and does not
loose charge. However, the rate of energy absorption is limited when compared with that of flywheels,
ultra-capacitors, or chemical batteries, mainly due to the size of storage tank and system for transfer
of energy [3].
With the discussion in the above sections the ultra-capacitors are the most convenient and successful
way to work with KERS.

4. KERS MODEL
KERS is at present utilized as a part of both motorsports and generation vehicles with significant
accomplishment for both execution improving and fuel-sparing purposes.
Formula one race use KERS to get 60 kW additional forces for a restricted time on every lap, bringing
about diminished lap times and advantage at overtaking. In the car business KERS is proposed to be
utilized by most vehicle makers, yet in shifting degrees and competence. KERS model vary from
manufacturing company to company because the efficiency and cost must be balanced here J. Walsh,
T. Muneer and A.N. Celiktaken Mitshubishi Galant [3] and Nicklas Blomquist has done with vehicles
having European driving cycle [4].
Parameters to calculate the additional power generated and required for KERS [4].
Vehicular mass: The vehicular mass is an essential parameter that ascertains the vitality needed for
speeding-up and have check on the measure of energy being changed to heat while applying the chafing
brakes [4].

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Rolling resistance: This gives an idea to the measure of extra vivacity expected to speed-up the
vehicle to a certain rate. The rolling resistance is isolated into three power segments: F0, F1 and F2
where F0 is measured in N and relates to the static resistance which need to be overcome to get the
vehicle rolling. This resistance comes, specifically, from the contact in the vehicle's bearings and tires.
F1 is measured in N/(km/h) and compares to the extra drive from the vehicle's moving parts, as a
consequence of expanded rotational velocity. F2 is measured in N/(km/h)2 and relates to the power
expected to beat the vehicle's air resistance and the dormancy of the vehicle external portable parts
amid acceleration.[4]
Engine Efficiency: The fuel utilization can be computed for the driving cycle and contrasted and
the vehicle manufacturers data, in this manner a first evidence can be found on whether the model is
right and that is mean the fitness of motor. The proficiency of an advanced diesel motor at low load is
somewhere around 20% and 30%. [4]
Idle energy consumption: It is the vitality connected to keep the motor out of gear pace while the
vehicle is stationary, done by applying grip. This energy consumption is calculated from the fuel
energy density, engine idle efficiency, a fuel consumption measurement and the immobile duration.[4]
Engine braking force: It is measured in the same way as the rolling resistance and are likewise

divided into F0Gn, F1Gn and F2Gn. The braking power of motor shifts for every chosen gear, which
gives individual parameters for each gear [4].

5. IMPLEMENTING KERS IN F1
KERS basically designed for stopping the wastage of energy, the Fig1. [5] is displaying the functional
and operational idea of KERS in F1. The main parts of a F1 racing are: Brakes, Engine, Motor
Generate Unit (MGU), Power Control Unit (PCU), Battery and Steering Wheel.
In KERS the brake paddle are there below the steering wheel just as normal cars along with this other
two types of brakes are there one is fuel brake and
other one is activating clutch during brake and run
the engine at idle. The energy generated by each
brake is different and thats why the other
parameters play an important role while designing
the KERS based cars [6]. On applying the brake
which reduces the engine speed from some
160kmph above to below 60-70kmph hell of energy
is released and that is stored as discussed above in
ultra-capacitors to be used in future for additional
power which cause a shift in racing by reducing the
fuel requirement for that lap and time period.
Fig. 1: Operating KERS in F1 Cars

The calculated results [3] of the operation of the kinetic energy recovery system when operating in an
urban environment show significant reductions in the amount of fuel consumed by a vehicle operating
with an internal combustion engine. The average reduction level for the seven vehicles modeled for
route 1 driving cycle was 35%, but it must also be noted that a significant proportion of this reduction,
approximately 14%, can be attributed to the nature of the driving cycle due to the fact that up to 27%

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

of the route the vehicle is descending and under braking conditions. This high level of ideal conditions
could lead to more optimistic results by the kinetic energy recovery system for the vehicles sampled.
The amount of re-generable braking energy in the extra urban part is about six times higher than in
urban driving, but the energy required for accelerating and maintaining that speed is still several times
higher. This gives that a higher proportion of energy can be recovered during urban driving and a
compromise in size, weight and cost must be made when an appropriate storage capacity shall be
selected [4].

6. CONCLUSION
From the above discussion and going through the case study of J.Walsh, T.Muneer and A.N. Celik [3],
it has been found the KERS technology is proved a new silhouette for F1 race cars and the daily cars.
This new era of technology has changed the scenario of current engines, which reduces the CO 2
emission and reuse of energy which brings the concept of green car technology. But one needs to be
very careful and active while in the cockpit of these cars, all the rules and regulations must be
followed otherwise lead to hazardous consequences just as in the case of the RedBull, where failure of
KERS put the car on ashes [7]. The automotive industrys future lies with KERS.

REFERENCES
[1]

Online available at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formula_One#Cars_and_technology

[2]

Online available at, http://www.formula1.com/

[3]

J. Walsh, T. Muneer and A. N. Celik, Design and analysis of kinetic energy recovery system
for automobiles: Case study for commuters in Edinburgh, Journal Of Renewable And
Sustainable Energy, Feb 2011, pp 013105-1 013105-11.

[4]

N. Blomquist, Paper Based Supercapacitors for Vehicle- KERS Application, M.Sc Physics
Thesis, Mid Sweden University, June2012

[5]

Rodolfo Riva, DensityDesign Research Lab - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via
Wikimedia Commons, URL,
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kinetic_Energy_Recovery_System.gif#/media/File:Ki
netic_Energy_Recovery_System.gif.

[6]

K.Nasholm and J. Walker, Future Vehicle Technology and its Implementation, Masters
Thesis, Dept. of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sewden, 2011.

[7]

Online available at, http://www.autosport.com/news/report.php/id/69199

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