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SCIENCE Form 1

UNIT 5 :
The Air Around Us
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5.1 The Composition of Air

The Earths surface is surrounded by a larger of air


known as atmosphere
Air is a mixture of various substances which is tasteless,
colourless and odourless but we can feel it through
wind when it moves
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Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and inert


gases have a fixed percentage of component
in the mixture of air

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Other substances such as dust,


microorganisms and water vapour can also be
found in the air but their contents vary
depends on the quality of air of that
environment

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Inert gas / noble gas

Krypton
for fluorescent bulbs.
Helium

Xenon

For sun lamps

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For earthquake prediction

Neon for light

To determine the percentage of oxygen in air

As the candle continue to burn the flame get


smaller and finally it goes off.
The water lever increases and occupied the space
of oxygen in the gas jar.
Conclusion:
Oxygen makes up of approximately 21% of the
volume of air.
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Air contains water vapour

Water droplets that formed on the outer wall of the test


tube can be clearly seen.
Collect the liquid droplets and test with a blue cobalt
chloride paper. The paper then turns to pink in colour, this
proofs that the liquid is water.
Conclusion
Air contains water vapour.
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Air contains microorganisms

Coloured spots of microorganisms (fungi) are


found on the surface of the nutrient agar
Conclusion:
Air contains microorganisms.
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Air contains dust

Dust can be seen on the sticky surface of glass


slide.
Conclusion :
Air contains dust.
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Exercise 5.1

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21 %
78 %
0.03 %
0.97 %

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5.2 The Properties of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are the two main


gases that made up the air for sustaining life
The properties of gases can be studied and
observed by carrying out the following tests

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Test 1: Solubility in water

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The water level in the test


tube rises slightly

The water level in the test


tube rises a lot.

Oxygen only dissolve a little


in water

Carbon dioxide is soluble in


water

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Test 2: Reaction with sodium hydroxide

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The level of sodium


hydroxide solution in the
test tube does not change

The level of sodium


hydroxide solution in the
test tube rises a lot

Oxygen is not soluble in


sodium hydroxide

Carbon dioxide is very


soluble in sodium hydroxide
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Test 3: Glowing wooden splinter

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The glowing wooden


splinter bursts into flame

The glowing wooden


splinter extinguished

Oxygen helps in combustion

Carbon dioxide does not


help in combustion

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Test 4 : Burning wooden splinter

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The burning wooden


splinter burns brightly

The burning wooden


splinter extinguished

Oxygen supports
combustion

Carbon dioxide does not


supports combustion

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Test 5: Tested with moist litmus paper

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The colour of both litmus


paper does not change

The colour of blue litmus


paper turns red

Oxygen is neutral

Carbon dioxide is acidic

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Test 6: Lime water test

Oxygen
No change

Carbon dioxide
The lime water turns chalky

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Test 6: Bicarbonate indicator test

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

The red colour of indicator


does not change

The red colour of indicator


turns yellow

Oxygen in neutral

Carbon dioxide is acidic

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