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Precise Definition : We say lim f

=

for every e > 0 there is a d > 0 such that

whenever 0 <

(

x

)

L

x

Æ

a

<

d

f (x) -

L

<

e

x a

-

then

Limits

Definitions

if

Limit at Infinity : We say lim f

x Æ•

(

x

)

=

L

if we

.

can make f (x) as close to L as we want by

taking x large enough and positive.

“Working” Definition : We say lim f

x

Æ

a

(

x

)

=

L

if we can make f (x) as close to L as we want by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .

Right hand limit : lim f

x

Æ a

+

(

x

)

= L

. This has

the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a .

Left hand limit : lim f

(

x

)

=

L

. This has the

 

-

 

x

Æ

a

There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = L x Æ-•
There is a similar definition for
lim
f
(
x
)
= L
x Æ-•
except we require x large and negative ee
Infinite Limit : We say
lim f
(((( ( xx)) )
x
=
== ••
if ii ff
we
ww
x
Æ a
can make f (x) arbitrarily l
yy ll
arar
ar
ge ee
gg
(a(andnd pp
(and positive)
by taking x sufficiently cl ll yy cc ssee se to tto o of a)
by taking x sufficiently cl ll
yy
cc
ssee
se to
tto o
of a) without lettin
gg g
xx
x
= a
== aa

aa a

(( (on either side

milmil

There is a simil

except we mak

a aa d d defin ee ffii nn titi ti
a aa
d
d
defin
ee
ffii
nn
titi
ti

kk

e e e

f f f ( ((((x x x
f
f
f
(
((((x
x
x

on for lim f

x

Æ

a

(

x

)

= -•

ee

mmaa

) arbitrarily large and

same definition as the limit except it requires x < a . negati titi ve.
same definition as the limit except it requires
x < a .
negati
titi
ve.
vve.e.
Relationship between the limit
mm
iitt
a
a
a
nd
ndnd
o
onnee
one-sided limits
lim f ( x ) = L fi lim f ( x ) = lim
lim f
(
x
)
=
L
lim f
( x
)
=
lim
f
(
x
)
=
L
lim
llii
mm
f
ff
(
x
)
=
lim
f
(
x
)
=
L
fi lim f
( x
x
Æ a
+
-
-
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a
xx
x
Æ a
ÆÆaaaa
x
Æ
a
x
Æ a
lim
f
(
x
)
lim
f
(
x
xx
fifi fi
ll lim
imim
ff
f
(
x
)
Does Not Exist
+
-
x
Æ
a
x
Æ
a
ÆÆÆÆ Æ
a
Properties
PP
rroo
Assume lim f
(
x
)
and lim g x
(
)
both
bo
bo
tt
h h
exist
eexx
iisstt
and
aa
nn
c is any number then,
x
Æ a
x
Æ a
1. lim È Î
cf
(
x
)
˘ ˚ =
c
lim
f
( x
)
(
)
lim f
(
x
)
È f
x
x
Æ
a
x
Æ
a
x
Æ
a
4.
lim
Í
˘ ˙ =
˚
provided lim g x
(
x
Æ
a
g
(
x
)
lim
g
(
x
)
x
Æ
a
Î
x
Æ
a
2. lim È f
(
x
)
±
g
(
x
)
˘ ˘ ˘˘ ˘
== lllliiii
= lim
mmmm
ffff
ff
f
(((( ( ((
xxxx x
)
± lim g
(
x
)
n
Î
˚ ˚˚ ˚ ˚
n
È
˘
x
Æ
a
x
xx Æ
ÆÆaaaa
a
x
Æ
a
5. lim È
f
(
x
)
=
lim
f
(
x
)
Î
˘ ˚
Î
˚
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a
È
n
3. lim È f
(
xxxxxxxx x
)))))))) )
gggggggg
g
(
((((((((
xxxxxxxx
x
))))))))
)
˘ ˘ ˘ ˘˘
== lim
= llii
f
( x
)
lim
g
(
x
)
6. lim
f
(
x
)
n lim
f
(
x
)
Î
˚ ˚ ˚˚ ˚
Î
˘ ˚ =
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a
x
Æ
a
x Æ
a
x
Æ
a

)

)

= L

0

Basic Limit Evaluations at ± •

Note ee oo tt sgsg sg n nn(((( ( (( aa a ) x xx
Note ee
oo
tt
sgsg
sg
n
nn(((( ( ((
aa
a
)
x xx
1. lim ee e
ll
imim
= •
xƕ
xx
Æ•Æ•

2. lim

x Æ•

3.

ln (

x )

= 1 if a > 0 and sgn (a) = -1 if a < 0 .

&

= •

x

lim e
xÆ-

&

b

r

x

=

0

lim ln

=

x Æ 0

0

-

(

x )

= -•

5. lim

n even :

x Ʊ•

x

n

= •

6. lim x

7.

8.

9.

n odd :

n even :

n odd :

n odd :

x Æ•

n = •

x

lim

Ʊ•

a x

lim

x Æ•

lim

a x

n

a x

n

x

Æ-•

&

lim

x Æ- •

x n

= -•

=

sgn

If r > 0 then lim

x Æ•

+L+

b x

+

+

c

c

=

c x

+

d

b x

sgn

a

a

sgn

(

(

)

a

(

)

r

4. If r > 0 and x is real for negative x

then lim

x Æ-•

b

r

x

=

0

+L+

n

+L+

= -

)

Evaluation Techniques L’Hospital’s Rule

f

(

x

)

0

If lim

lim

x

Æ

a

x

Æ

a

g

(

)

x

)

f

(

x

=

g

(

x

)

0

f

¢

(

x

x

Æ

)

g

¢

(

x

)

a

=

lim

x

Æ

a

or

lim

Continuous Functions If f (x) is continuous at a then lim f

x

Æ

a

(

x

)

=

f

(

a

)

Continuous Functions and Composition

f (x) is continuous at b and

lim g

x

Æ

a

(

x

)

=

b

then

f = ±• ±• then,
g

x

(

x

)

(

)

a is a number, or -•

lim f ( g ( x )) = f ( lim g ( x )
lim
f
( g
(
x
))
=
f
(
lim
g
(
x
)
)
=
f
(
b
)
x
Æ a
x
Æ
a
Factor and Cancel
x
2 +
4
x
-
12
(
x
-
2
)(
x
+
6
)
lim
= lim
2
x
Æ 2
x -
2
x
x
Æ
2
x
(
x
-
2
)
x + 6
8
= lim
=
=
4
x Æ 2
x 2
Rationalize Numerator/Denominator
3
-
x
3
-
x
3
+
x
lim
=
lim
2
2
x
Æ
9
x
-
81
x
Æ
9
x
-
81 3 +
x
9
-
x
-
1
=
lim
=
lim
x
Æ
9
(
2
x
Æ
9
)(
x
-
81
)(
3
+
x
)
(
x
+
9
3
+
x
)
- 1
1
= = -
(
18
)(
6
)
108
Combine Rational Expressions 1 Ê 1 1 ˆ 1 Ê x - ( x +
Combine Rational Expressions
1
Ê
1
1
ˆ
1
Ê x
-
(
x
+
h
)
ˆ
lim
-
=
lim
Á
h
Æ
0
h
Á Ë
x
+
h
x
˜ ¯
h
Æ
0
h
x
(
x
+
h
)
˜ ˜
Ë Á
¯¯ ¯
1
Ê
-
h
ˆ
--
-
1
=
lim
Á
˜
=
lim
-
Á
2
h Æ 0
h
x
(
x
+
h
)
h ÆÆÆÆ
Æ
xxxx
x
( ( (
x ++
xxxx +
h
hh))))) ) )
x
Ë
¯ ˜

Polynomials at Infinity

p(x) and q(x) are polynomials. To comput tte e e ccoomm pupu p ( x
p(x) and q(x) are polynomials. To comput tte e e
ccoomm
pupu
p
( x
)
lim
factor largest power o o o
ff f
xx x
out tt
ouou
of both
o
o
ff
bo
bo
x Ʊ•
q
(
x
)
p(x) and q(x) and then compute limit.
cc
oomm
pupu
tt
ee
llii
mimi
22 2
(( (
44 4
)) )
4
xx x
33 3
2
3 -
3
x
- 4
2222 2
2 3
xx x
x
lim
=
lim
mm
=
lim
= -
2
55 5
5
22 2
x Æ-•
5
x
- 2
x
x ÆÆ
Æ
xx x
( ( (
-- - 2
) x Æ-•
- 2
2
x xx
x
Piecewise Fun
unun
ctct
ct
ii ion
onon
Ï x
2 + 5
if
x
< -
2
lim g
(
x
xx
)) )
wh
ww
hh
ere
ere
ere
gg
g
(
x ) = Ì
x Æ- 2
1
- 3
x
if
x
-
2
Ó
Compute two one sided limits,
oomm
pupu
tt
ee
tt
wwoo
lim
llii
mm
g gg
(( (
2
x xx
)) )
= lim
x +
5
=
9
-
Æ- ÆÆÆÆ--
x Æ- 2
lim
llii
mm
g
( x
)
=
lim 1
-
3
x
=
7
+
+
x
xxÆÆÆÆ--2222 2
Æ-
x Æ- 2
One sided limits are different so
OO
lim g
(
x
)
x Æ- 2

doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had

been equal then

and had the same value.

lim g

x Æ- 2

(

x

)

would have existed

Partial list of continuous titinuousnuous func ffununcc 1. Polynomials s s for rr ffoo aa
Partial list of continuous
titinuousnuous
func
ffununcc
1. Polynomials s s
for rr
ffoo
aa a
ll
llll
xx
2. Rational
func
ffununcc
ti
titi
on,
on,on,
xcept
division
on
on
by zero
bb
yy
zzereroo
n
3.
xx
x (n
((
nn
odd
odd
odd
ffoo
for all x.
x xx
(( (n
nn
eevvee
even) for
all
x 0 .
x xx
55 5.
ee e
for all x.
ffoo
rr
6.
ln
lnln
x xx
for
x > 0 .

Some Continuous Functions

tt tions and the values of x for which they are continuous.

7. cos(x) and sin (x) for all x.

for x’s that give

8. tan (x)

and sec(x) provided

 

3

p

p

p

3

p

x

L -

,

2

,

-

2

,

2

,

2

,

L

9. cot (x) and csc(x) provided

x L, -2p , -p ,0,p , 2p ,L

Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose that f (x) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f (a) and f (b) .