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Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology

Fall 2014

COURSE: POWER SYSTEM I (EEE 3205)

LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION
Instructor : Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Baki
Room # 4A08
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Give a basic idea of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS).

OBJECTIVES

OF

THE COURSE

Give students a solid foundation of the principles of power system.


Help students develop an understanding of the concepts of power
transmission and distribution.
Teach fundamental parameters related to power transmission and
distribution system.

ASSESSMENT POLICY
Class tests

15 % (3 class tests will be taken, each


of weighting 5%)
No class test will be repeated if you fail to
attend.

Assignments with Viva 5 %


Class Attendance and
10 %
class performance
Final Examination
70 %

HOW TO PREPARE FOR THE EXAMS


DON T

DEPEND ONLY ON POWER POINT SLIDES.

You need to follow all the four components mentioned below:


1.
Power point presentation;
2.
Writing on board;
3.
Oral explanations;
4.
References from books (most important);
The occasional presence of blank slides in PP presentation indicates
that the instructor filled in those slides during lecture.

S. Pabla

REFERENCE BOOKS

AND

NOTES

Power System Analysis


John J. Grainger, W. D. Stevenson, Jr.
Power System Analysis and Design, 4th and 5th Edition
J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma, Thomas J. Overbye
A Textbook of Power System Engineering, 1st Edition, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
R. K. Rajput
Principles of Power System
V. K. Mehta, Rohit Mehta
Modern Power System Analysis, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Education (P) Ltd.
D P Kothari I J Nagrath
A Textbook on Power System Engineering, 2nd Edition, Dhanpat Rai & Co.
A. Chakrabarti, M. L. Soni, P. V. Gupta, U.S. Bhatnagar
e-book: Electrical Distribution ( www.wiley.com)
Electric Power Distribution, 6th Edition, McGraw Hill Education (P) Ltd.
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MAJOR TOPICS
Parameters of Power System:
Inductance and capacitance of power transmission line; Line resistance;
Representation of Line:
Equivalent circuit of short, medium and long lines, transmission line as a two ports network ,
travelling waves on transmission lines; skin effect; Ferranti effect; Corona effect;
Power Factor and Voltage Control (Reactive Power Control):
Methods of voltage control: tap changing transformer; phase shifting; booster and regulating
transformer, series/shunt capacitor, static var compensation (SVC);
Mechanical characteristic of overhead transmission line:
Sag and tension analysis; effect of temperature, wind and ice loading, supports of different levels,
dampers, insulators of overhead lines;
Transmission Lines Cables:
Potential distribution of over suspension insulator string, Underground cables: insulating resistance,
capacitance, dielectric stress, grading of cables, capacitance of three phase cables, heating of cables,
most economic conductor size.

MAJOR TOPICS (CONTINUED)


Principles of Power System Operation:
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
High voltage DC Transmission
Distribution of Power:
Basic distribution systems and distribution voltage levels , distributor calculation of radial feeders,
Distribution substation and feeder, distribution automation, types and factors affecting distribution
losses, different American and European distribution networks.
Power System Stability:
Improving dynamic stability by Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS).
Smart Grid:
Basic concept of Smart Grid and its benefits.

MAJOR COMPONENTS
SYSTEM

GENERATION

TRANSMISSION

OF

POWER

DISTRIBUTION
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SERIES IMPEDANCE OF
TRANSMISSION LINES
An electric transmission line has four parameters (Figure 1):
Series resistance
Series inductance
Shunt capacitance
Shunt conductance

Figure 1. Transmission Line Model

DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC


FLUX IN A SINGLE PHASE CIRCUIT

Figure 2. Magnetic and electric fields associated with a two-wire line.

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OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE

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Main Components of Overhead


Lines

Conductors (Carry electric power)


Supports ( Poles or Towers)
Insulators (Insulate the conductors from the ground)
Cross arms (Provide support to insulator)
Miscellaneous items ( danger plates, lightning
arrestors, anti-climbing wires, spacer, damper etc.)

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Main Components of Overhead


Lines

source: www.nationalgrid.com/uk

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Properties of Conductor Materials


High electric conductivity;
High tensile strength in order to
withstand mechanical strength;
Low cost so that it could be used for long
distances;
Low specific gravity so that weight per
unit volume is small;
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Types of Conductor
The transmission line is required to have good conductivity
and high strength to prevent snapping under normal and
abnormal conditions. Though copper has high conductivity it
is not used for transmission purposes primarily due to its
higher cost and being heavier than aluminum.
Aluminum replaces copper, for same resistance, because:
Larger diameter
Lower voltage gradient at the surface of the conductor
Less tendency to develop corona
Lower cost
Lighter than copper

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Types of Conductor
The following types of conductors are mainly used for
transmission purposes:
All Aluminum Conductors (AAC)
All Aluminum Alloy Conductors (AAAC)
Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)
Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR)
Alternate layer of strands are laid in spiraled form in opposite
directions to prevent unwinding and make the outer radius of
one layer coincide with the inner radius of the next (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Alternate layer of strands spiraled in opposite directions.

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ACSR
ACSR has a steel central core of few strands and surrounded by
aluminum strands in one or more layers;
The steel core provides the strength;
Surrounded aluminum conductors carry the current;
ACSR satisfies the requirement of a good transmission line, i.e.
it has both good conductivity and sufficient strength;
More tensile strength in ACSR results in less sagging so greater
span length between towers;
The total number of strands in concentrically stranded cables
is 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, or more.
Used in high voltage transmission lines;

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ACSR

Ratio of diameter is
generally 1:6 but can
be made 1:4 to get
more tensile strength

Aluminum

Galvanized Steel
Figure 4. Cross section of ACSR.

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ACSR
A type of conductor known as expanded ACSR has a filler
such as paper separating the inner steel strands from the
outer aluminum strands. The paper gives a larger diameter
(and hence, lower corona) for a given conductivity and
tensile strength. Expanded ACSR is used for some extrahigh-voltage (EHV) lines.
Some voltage classifications are as follows:
HV: 115 kV, 138 kV, 230 kV
EHV: 345 kV, 500 kV, 765 kV
UHV: 1000 kV, 1500 kV

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QUESTIONS

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