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A clever alternative fo the use of radiographic grids is

the air-gap technique. The use of the air-gap technique


is irnother nreth<td of reducing scatter radiation, thereby
enhancing image contrast.
\X/hen the air-gap technique is used, the image receptor
is rnoved 10 to 15 cm from the parienr (Figure
18-19). A portion of the scattered x-rays generated in the
patient would be scattered away from the image receptor
and not be detected. Since fewer st:attered x-rays interact
with the image receptor, the contrasr is enhanced.
GenerallS when an air-gap technique is used, the mAs
is increased approximately I0% for every centimeter of
air-gap. Usually thc tcclrni<1uc facrors are abour the same
as those for an 8:1 grid. Theref,ore the patient dose is
higher than that of the nongrid technique and is approximately
equrivalent to that of an intermediate grid
teclrniquc.
One disadvantage of the air-gap technique is
image magnification with associated focal spot
blur.
The air-gap rechnique has found applicittion, particulrrrly
irr chcst racliograplry rrnd ccrcbral rrrrgiography. The
magnification rhat accompanies tl-rese techniques is usually

acceptable. In chest radiography, hclwever, sonle racliologic


technologists increase the SID from 180 to 300
cm. This results in very little magnificarion and a sharper
image. Of course, the technique factors must be increased,
but the patienr dose does not (Figure 1,8-20).
The air-gap technique is not normally as effective with
high-kVp radiography because in high-kVp radiographS
the direction of the scamered x-rays is more forward (to-ward
the image recepror). At tube potentials below approximately
90 kVp, the scattered x-rays are directed
more to the side and therefore have a higher probability
of being scattercd away from the image receptor. Nevertheless,
at some cenrers, 120- to 140-kVp air-gap chesr
radiography is used with good resulrs.
The air-gap techniqrre is somerimes called air fihration,
6.jt it should be obvious from Figure 18-19 that
air fihration is an improper name for this procedure. In
the air-gap technique the air does not act as d fiher of
low-energy scattered x-rays; rather, the distance between
the patient irnd the itnage receptor pennits the scattered
x-rays to escape from the image receptor without interaction.
Since fewer x-rays reach rhe image receptor,
tcchniqr"re frtctors nrust lre increasecl relative to cotltact
radiography.

radiografi grid isthe celah udara teknik. Penggunaan celah udara-techniqueis metode lain
untuk mengurangi radiasi menyebar, therebyenhancing contrast.When gambar teknik celah
udara yang digunakan, gambar receptoris pindah 10 sampai 15 cm dari pasien (Figure1819). Sebagian dari tersebar sinar-x yang dihasilkan dalam thepatient akan tersebar jauh dari
citra receptorand tidak terdeteksi. Karena sedikit tersebar reseptor x-ray gambar
interactwith, kontras enhanced.Generally ketika teknik celah udara digunakan, Masis
meningkat sekitar I0% untuk setiap sentimeter ofair-gap. Biasanya faktor techenique adalah
abour yang sameas mereka untuk grid 8:1. Oleh karena itu ishigher dosis pasien
dibandingkan dengan teknik nongrid dan approximatelyequivalent dengan suatu kelemahan
gridteclrnique.One menengah pembesaran celah udara teknik isImage dengan tempat
teknik terkait focal blur.The celah udara telah menemukan applicattion, particulalyin dada
radiographyand cerebral angiografi. Pembesaran yang menyertai thekniques biasanya
diterima. Dalam radiografi dada, namun, beberapa radiologis. teknolog meningkatkan SID
180-300 cm. Hal ini menyebabkan pembesaran sangat sedikit dan sharperimage a. Tentu
saja, faktor teknik harus ditingkatkan, tetapi dosis patienr tidak (Gambar 1,8-20) Teknik
celah udara ini. Biasanya tidak efektif withhigh-kVp radiografi karena tinggi kVp arah
radiographythe dari x tersebar -sinar yang lebih maju (ke-bangsal recepror gambar). Pada
potensi tabung bawah approximately90 kVp, tersebar x-rays directedmore ke samping dan
karena itu memiliki probabilityof tinggi yang tersebar jauh dari reseptor gambar. Namun
demikian, di beberapa pusat, 120 - 140 kVp-celah udara chestradiography digunakan
dengan teknik yang baik resulrs.The celah udara kadang-kadang disebut filtrasi udara, tetapi
harus jelas dari Gambar 18-19 bahwa udara filtrasi adalah nama yang tidak tepat untuk
prosedur ini. Inthe celah udara teknik udara tidak bertindak sebagai d fiher oflow-energi
tersebar sinar-x, melainkan, yang betweenthe jarak pasien dan izin citra reseptor yang
scatteredx-sinar untuk melarikan diri dari reseptor gambar tanpa sedikit interaction.Since xray mencapai reseptor gambar, faktor teknik harus ditingkatkan relatif terhadap
contactradiography