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I. Bare infinitive: (bare) ng t nguyn mu khng To
1. Sau modal verbs: Will. Shall/ should / could/ can / may / must/ might/ had better/would rather
and why not..........?
2. Sau auxilary verbs: do, does, did.
3. Sau make, let, help (sau help c th c To inf).
Passive voice dng to inf theo sau. Tr let (But in passive : feel,...... +O + to infinitive)
4. Sau ng t ch gic quan:(verbs of perception): see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice
Vo (bare) hnh ng xong
S + V + object
Vo (ing) hnh ng ang din ra
5. Sau had better (tt hn) would rather (th th hn), had sooner.
6. Sau thnh ng: to do nothing but + Vo (bare): khng lm g c m ch.
Can not but + Vo(bare): khng cn cch no khc.
7. Causative form (Th sai khin):
S + have + object (ch ngi) + Vo (bare).
8. Simple present tense: I, you, we, they +Vo (bare).
9. Bt u cu mnh lnh: (imprative)
10. Do anything/ nothing/ everything But/ Except + bare infinitive
II. To infinitive (V1) ng t nguyn mu c To)
Present infinitive
to do
Present continuous infinitive to be doing
Perfect infinitive
to have done
Perfect continuous infinitive to have been doing
Present infinitive passive
to be done
Perfect infinitive passive
to have been done
1. Lm subject V(sing) (review formal subject)
2. Lm object of verb: S + V + to inf (as an object)
3. Lm b ng cho tn ng (object complement) ;
S + V + obj + to infinitive
4. Lm adjective rt gn adjective clause (relative clause) ng sau danh t review how to
reduce relative clause.
5. Lm adverb rt gn: adverbbial clause of result: ng sau adj
Rt gn: adverbial clause of purpose: ch mc ch
5a. Rt gn clause of result theo cng thc sau (phrase of result)
S + V + too adj/adv (for object )+ to inf
S + V + too + adjective + a + noun + infinitive
S + V + adj/adv enough (for object)+to inf (enough + noun + to- inf)
5b. Rt gn: clause of purpose theo mu sau (phrase of purpose)
to inf
in order for object to inf
so as to inf
6. It + take+ (object) + time + to inf
7. Causative form: S+ get + object (ch ngi) + to inf
8. to inf after question words : what / where/ who / whom/ which/ when / how
9. Noun / pronoun + to-inf to infinitive after nouns or pronouns as a modifier to replace a relative
Ex : I have a lot of work to do ( which I have to do )
To- inf dng sau the first/ the last/ the only...... or The superlative + N :to replace a relative clause



EX: He was the first students to find the answer
10.a Nhng ng t sau y, theo sau l to infinitive: S + V + to inf
1. afford
: cung cp
21. manage : xoay x
2. agree
: ng
22. mean
: mun
3. appear
: c v
23. need
: cn (ch ng, ngi)
4. arrange
: sp xp
24. offer
: mi
5. ask
: hi
25. plan
: d nh, k hoch
6. attempt
: c gng
26. prepare
: chun b
7. beg
: ngh, xin
27. pretend
: gi v
8. care
: quan tm
28. promise : ha
9. claim
: cho l, tuyn b
29. refuse
: t chi
10. consent : ng , tn thnh
30. regret
: tic (tng lai)
11. decide
: quyt nh
31. remember : nh (tng lai)
12. demand : yu cu
32. seem
: dng nh
13. deserve : xng ng
33. struggle : u tranh, c gng
14. expect
: trng i
34. swear
: th
15. dare
: dm
35. threaten : da
16. fail
: tht bi
36. tend
: c khuynh hng
17. forget
: qun (tng lai)
37. volunteer : tnh nguyn, xung phong
18. hesitate : ngp ngng
38. wait
: i
19. hope
: hy vng
39. want
: mun (ch ng)
20. learn
: hc
40. wish
: ao c
10.b Nhng ng t sau y, theo sau l Obj + to inf: S + V + objective + to inf
1. advise
: khuyn
23. require
: yu cu
2. allow
: cho php
24. recommend
: khuyn
3. ask
: hi, i hi
25. teach
: dy
4. beg
: nn n, xin
26. tell
: bo
5. cause
: gy ra
27. urge
: thc gic, thuyt phc
6. challenge
: thch thc, thch
28. want
: mun
7. convince
: thuyt phc
29. warn
: cnh bo
8. dare
: dm
30. help
: gip
9. encourage
: khuyn khch
31. would like
: thch
10. expect
: trng i
32. would prefer
: thch
11. forbid
: cm
33. appoint
: ch nh ai lm g
12. force
: bt buc
34. charge
: giao nhim v
13. hire
: thu, mn
35. choose
: la chn
14. instruct
: ch dn
36. compel
: cng bch
15. invite
: mi
37. defy
: thch
16. need
: cn
38. desire
: ao c, thm thung
17. tempt
: cm d
39. direct
: hng dn, ch huy
18. intend
: d nh
40. implore
: yu cu
19. order
: ra lnh
41. provoke
: xi gic
20. permit
: cho php
42. Teach, explain, know, understand, discover,
21. persuade
: thuyt phc
consider, think, believe + how + to inf:Ch cch thc
22. remind
: nhc li
III. Gerund: Danh ng t:
A. Gerund as a noun (subj , obj, complement & appositive)
1. Lm ch ng V(sing) (real subject & informal subject).
2. Lm tn ng
Object of verb: S + V + V- ing (gerund).



Object of preposition sau preposition + V-ing.
3. Lm subject complement:
Ex: My hobby is swimming (gerund)
4. Lm appositive (ng ng v)
Ex: My hobby, swimming makes me healthy.
5. ng sau thnh ng:
it is no use, it is no good:
there is no use, there is no good: v ch
cant stand / bear / help: khng th chu c
6. Sau hai tnh t: busy, worth
7. Thnh lp noun compound (danh t kp):
N + gerund child bearing
Gerund + N flying machine
Ex :weigh-lifting, lorry-driving, dining-room, swimming pool
8. after prepositions
(Prepositional Object )
Ex: she is interested in listening to music.
Note : look forward to / be ( get) used to / be accustomed to/ object to / confess to / contribute to /
take to + Ving ( to here :preposition)
9. Adverbial Modifier ( trng ng)
By/Without + V-ing ( th cch)
He earns money by doing manual work.
He looked at me without saying anything
For + V-ing
( mc ch)
Money is used for buying things.
After/at/in/on/before while/ upon + V-ing ( thi gian)
On returning home I found that the door was open.
We ate while listening to the radio.
B. Gerund as a verb: c object hoc c b ngha bi mt trng t
1. admit
: tha nhn
26. hate
: ght
2. advise
: khuyn (khng object)
27. mention : nhc ti, ni ti
3. anticipate : tham gia
28. mind
: phin
4. appreciate : nh gi cao
29. miss
: nh, l, mt
5. avoid
: trnh
30. postpone : nh, han.
6. complete : han thnh
31. prevent
: ngn cn
7. consider
: xem xt
32. practise : luyn tp
8. delay
: tr han
33. recall
: gi li, nh li.
9. dread
: s
34. recollect : gi li.
10. detest
: ght
35. recommend: khuyn, dn d.
11. discuss
: tho lun
36. regret
: tic nui (qu kh)
12. dislike
: khng thch
37. remember: nh (qa kh)
13. deny
: t chi
38. resent
: tc gin, pht .
14. enjoy
: thng thc
39. resist
: cng li, phn khng.
15. excuse
: xin li
40. risk
: liu lnh.
16. finish
: hon thnh
41. stop
: ngng, t b.
17. forget
: qun (qa kh)
42. start
: (hoc To inf)
18. forgive
: tha th
43. suggest : ngh
19. fancy
: tng tng
44. tolerate
: b qua
20. imagine : tng tng
45. understand: hiu
21. involve
: lm lin ly
46. restrict
: hn ch, gim bt, ngn nga.
22. include
: bao gm
* cant bear, cant stand, cant help
23. keep
: tip tc
* it is no use, it is no good, there is no use .
24. love
: (hoc To inf)
* look forward to
25. like
: thch
* busy, be worth



* there's no point in have difficulty/ trouble
IV. Past participle: qu kh phn t VoED/V3
1. Thm tr t have+Vo-ED/V3 (past participle) perfect tense
2. Thm tr t Be +VoED/V3(past participle) passive voice.
3. Lm chc nng nh adjective passive meaning c th rt gn mnh tnh t.
(adjective clauses or relative clauses)
+ C th rt gn mnh trng ng ch thi gian.
+ C th rt gn cu khi mt ch ng thc hin hai hnh ng.
4. Thnh lp adjective compound: tnh t kp
man made
+ V (PP VoED/V3 ) new born
well known
6. Thm the thnh lp danh t tp hp V(plural)
educated(adj) the educated:nhng ngi c gio dc.
7. Thnh lp causative form: th truyn khuyn
S +have/get +object (ch vt)+ V (PP Vo ED/V3)
V. Present participle (Vo + ing) hin ti phn t.
1. Thm tr t Be + Vo-ing thnh lp th continuous tense.
2. Lm tnh t Mang ngha ch ng (active meaning)
C th rt gn mnh tnh t (adjective clause or relative clause)
C th rt gn mnh trng ng ch thi gian, nhng b, l do v iu kin .
Mt ch ng thc hin 2 hnh ng c th dng present participle rt gn.
3. Thm mo t the thnh lp danh t tp hp:
Ex: to live the living: nhng ngi ang sng.
4. Thnh lp tnh t kp (adjective compound).
peace loving
Vo + ing
good loking
hard - working
Stop + to V: c ngha l: dng li lm mt vic g d
Ex: I met my old friend when I was going to work, so I stopped to talk with him. (ti ang i, ti
dng li ni chuyn)
Stop + Ving ~ give up: B thi khng lm mt vic g
Ex: The students stopped talking when the teacher came in. (trong trng hp ny c ngha l nhm
hc sinh thi khng ni chuyn na).
Forget + to V: qun lm g ~ (not) remember to + V
Ex: I forgot to lock the door, so I had to come back to lock it. (cu ny ngha l ti qun khng kho
ca v th ti phi quay tr v kho)
Forget + Ving: Qun l lm g ~ (not) remember + Ving
Ex: I forgot meeting him. (Cu ny ngha l ti gp anh ta ri nhng khng nh l mnh gp)
Regret + to V: tic nui khi lm g(thng l thng bo cho ai mt tin khng tt)
Ex: I regret to tell you that the match has been cancelled.
Regret + Ving: Hi hn l lm g
Ex: I regret telling him my problem.(ti hi tic l ni cho anh ta bit v kh khn ca ti.)
V ing: mt vic xy ra
To-infinitive: mt vic cha xy ra/ cn phi lm
V ing: th lm mt vic g
To infinitive: c gng lm mt vic g




V ing (need + to be + Vpp): mang ngha b ng (ch ng ch vt)

To infinitive: mang ngha ch ng (ch ng ch ngi)
V ing: thch/ght tht s
To-infinitive: thch v cho l tt nn lm
Prefer + V-ing to V-ing: thch ci g hn ci g
Feel like + Vo ing: thch ci g
Advise, allow, permit
O + To infi
Vo- ing
Advise/allow/recommend/permit/forbid + O + to Infinitive
Advise/allow/recommend/permit (no Object) + Gerund (V-ing )
Go on + to inf = move to something different
Go on + gerund = continue doing the same thing
Mean (meaning 'intend')+ to infinitive: I mean to get to the top by sunrise.
Mean {meaning 'involve' (used only with an impersonal subject)} + the gerund:
He is determined to get a seat even if it means standing in a queue all night.
Prefer to do and prefer doing
*'prefer to (do)' or 'prefer ~ing' (what you prefer in general):
* I don't like cities. I prefer to live in the country. or I prefer living in the country
The differences in structure after prefer. We say:
- Prefer sth to sth else. Or prefer doing sth to doing sth else.
But prefer to do sth rather than (do) sth else.
* I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.
* I prefer driving to travelling by train.
but * I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.
* Ann prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.
Would prefer (I'd prefer...) (what somebody wants in a particular situation not in general):
* 'Would you prefer tea or coffee?' 'Coffee, please.'
We say 'would prefer to do' (not 'doing'):
* 'Shall we go by train?' 'Well, I'd prefer to go by car.' (not 'I'd prefer going')
* I'd prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go to the cinema.
Verbs + possessive adjective/pronoun object + gerund
Would you mind + Vo- ing?
Would you mind if + S + past Subjunctive ?
Recommend, begin, start, continue + To inf /Vo ing
* Mt s ng t c theo sau bi ng t dng nguyn mu khng TO
Sau tt c cc ng t tnh thi v mt s tr ng t ta phi dng ng t nguyn mu khng TO
nh: (do; does; did; will; can; could; would; should; may; might; must; had better; shall; be going to)
- Make:
He makes me laugh .
Dont make her cry!
- Let:
She lets us go.
Let it be as it is.
- Had better: We had better work hard for the exam.
You had better not smoke.



Ch : Sau make c th l mt ng t nguyn mu khng to hoc mt tnh t. Tuy nhin nu
ng t make chia dng b ng th theo sau n l mt ng t c TO
He made me sad. (sad: tnh t.)
The students were made to study hard by the teachers. (= The teacher made the students study hard.)
Be made To V
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund , infinitive, participle).
1. I caught him (climb) _____ over my wall. I asked him (explain) _____ but he refused (say) _____
anything, so in the end I had (let) _____ him (go) _____.
2. When at last I succeeded in (convince) _____ him that I wanted (get) _____ home quickly he put
his foot on the accelerator and I felt the car (leap) _____ forward.
3. I'm not used to (drive) _____on the left.
When you see everyone else (do)____ it you'll find it quite easy (do) _____yourself.
4. It is pleasant (sit) _____by the fire at night and (hear) _____the wind (howl) _____outside.
5. There was no way of (get) _____out of the building except by (climb) _____down a rope and Ann
was too terrified (do) _____this.
6. We heard the engines (roar) _____as the plane began (move) _____ and we saw the people on the
ground (wave) _____good-bye.
7. It's no good (write) _____ to him; he never answers letters. The only thing (do) _____ is
(go)_____ and (see) _____him.
8. Why did you go all round the field instead of (walk) _____ across it?
I didn't like (cross) _____it because of the bull. I never see a bull without (think) _____that it
wants (chase) _____ me.
9. The people in the flat below seem (be) _____ having a party. You can hear the champagne corks
(thud)_____ against their ceiling.
10. I don't like (get) _____bills but when I do get them I like (pay) _____them promptly.
11. Ask him (come) _____in. Don't keep him (stand) _____at the door.
12. The boys next door used (like) _____(make) _____ and (fly) _____ model aero planes, but they
seem to have stopped (do) _____ that now.
13. I knew I wasn't the first (arrive)_____, for I saw smoke (rise) _____from the chimney.
14. We watched the men (saw) _____the tree and as we were walking away heard it (fall) _____with a
tremendous crash.
15. I hate (see) _____a child (cry) _____.
16. We watched the children (jump) _____from a window and (fall) _____into a blanket held by the
people below.
17. It is very unpleasant (wake) _____ up and (hear) _____ the rain (beat) _____on the windows.
18. He saw the lorry (begin) _____ (roll) _____ forwards but he was too far away (do) _____
anything (stop) _____it.
19. There are people who can't help (laugh) _____when they see someone (slip) _____on a banana
20. I prefer (drive) _____ to (be driven) _____.
II. Multiple choices
1. All the passengers were made ________ their seat belts during the turbulence.
a. buckle
b. to buckle
c. buckling
d. for buckling.
2. ________ good ice cream, you need to use a lot of cream.
a. Make
b. Making
c. To make
d. For make
3. I got my friend ________ her car for the weekend.
a. to let me to borrow
b. to let me borrow
c. let me borrow
d. let me to borrow
4. How can you let such a silly incident ________ your friendship?



a. wreck
b. to wreck
c. wrecking
d. that wrecks
5. How about going to the theater?' 'OK,' but I would rather ______ a concert.'
a. attend
b. to attend
c. attending
d. have attended
6. The skiers would rather ________ through the mountains than go by bus.
a. to travel on train
b. traveled by train
c. travel by train
d. traveling by the train
7. If we leave now for our trip, we can drive half the distance before we stop ___ lunch.
a. having
b. to have
c. having had d. for having
8. The examiner made us ___ our identification in order to be admitted to the test center.
a. show
b. showing
c. to show
d. showed
9. As we entered the room, we saw a rat ________ towards a hole in the skirting board.
a. scamper
b. to scamper c. scampering
d. was scampering
10. I remember ________ to Paris when I was a very small child.
a. to be taken
b. to take
c. being taken d. taking
11. My parents wouldn't _______ to the party.
a. allow me go
b. allow me to go c. allow me going
d. allow to go
12. We are going to have my house _______ tomorrow morning.
a. paint
b. painting
c. painted
d. to be painted
13. We hope that the students themselves will enjoy ______ part in the projects.
a. to take
b. taking
c. to be taken d. being taken
14. Sally's low test scores kept her from _______ to the university.
a. admitting
b. to admit
c. to be admitted
d. being admitted
15. Are you sure you told me about the party? I don't recall _______ about it.
a. having told
b. to have told
c. having been told d. to have been told
16. I meant to get up early but I forgot _______ up my alarm clock.
a. wind
b. to wind
c. wind
d. wound
17. Look at the state of the gate. It needs ________ as soon as possible.
a. to repair
b. repairing
c. being repaired
d. be repaired
18. Alice didn't expect ________ to Bill's party.
a. asking
b. being asked
c. to ask
d. to be asked
19. We asked ________ the piano so early in the morning, but she won't.
a. Marie to stop playing
b. Marie stop to play
c. that Marie stops playing
d. Marie to stop to play
20. A good teacher makes her students ________ the world from new perspectives.
a. to view b. view
c. to be viewed
d. viewing
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund , infinitive, participle).
climbing, to explain, to say, to let, go
convincing, to get, leap
driving, doing, to do
to sit, (to) hear, howling
getting, climbing, to do
roar/roaring, to move/moving, waving
writing, to do, to go, see
walking, to cross, thinking, to chase
to be having, thudding
getting, to pay
10. to come, standing
11. to like making and flying . . . doing
12. to arrive, rising



13. sawing, fall/falling
14. to see/seeing, crying/cry
15. jump/jumping, fall/falling
16. to wake, (to) hear, beating
17. beginning to roll/begin to roll/begin rolling, to do, to stop
18. laughing, slipping/slip
19. driving, being driven
II. Multiple choices
1. B.

2. C.

3. B

4. A.

5. A.

6. C.

7. B.

8. A

9. C.

10. C.

11. B. 12. C.

13. B.

14. D.

15. C.

16. B.

17. B.

18. D.

19. A.

20. B.