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Review Lesson

PART 1: VERBS

A. Study Charts
Affirmative

Negative

Be

He is tired.
I am afraid.
He was absent.

He isnt tired.
Im not afraid.
He wasnt absent.

Simple Present Tense

I work.
He works.

I dont work.
He doesnt work.

Simple Past

I worked.
I ate.
I fell.
I studied.

I didnt work.
I didnt eat.
I didnt fall.
I didnt study.

Future

I am going to study.
I will study.

I am not going to study.


I wont study.

Present Continuous

He is sleeping.

He isnt sleeping.

Past Continuous

He was sleeping.

He wasnt sleeping.

Present Perfect

You have broken the mirror.

You havent broken the mirror.

Present Perfect Continuous

We have been studying for


two hours.

We havent been studying for two


hours.

Modals

He can study.
You should go.

He cannot study.
You shouldnt go.

BePresent

BePast

I am
You, We, They are
He, She, It is

I, He, She, It was


You, We, They were

Part 1: Verbs

R-1

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. For the simple present tense, use the s form for he, she, it, singular
subjects, gerund subjects, and subjects beginning with every and no.
Study

Edit

She has a computer.


He needs my help.
Your composition looks good.
Learning a new language takes time.
Everyone deserves a good life.
Nobody wants to get old.
Wrong: She have a computer.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

s
My brother work in a restaurant.
in Australia.
My best friend lives
Getting a college degree require hard work.
Nobody know how I feel.
No one have time for me now.
Every child deserves love.
Everybody want respect.
That building needs repair.

Rule 2. When the subject is I, we, they, you, or a plural word, use the base form,
not the -s form.
Study

Edit

I like ice cream.


You live near me.
We walk to school.
My parents live in China.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Note: People is a plural word.

They has free time now.


People complains a lot.
My parents lives in Germany.
The students want more practice.
All her friends has a cell phone.

Some people have a hard life.


Wrong: Some people has a hard life.

Rule 3. To form the negative of the simple present tense, use dont with I, you,
we, they, and plural subjects. Use doesnt with he, she, it, and singular subjects.
Always use the base form after dont or doesnt.
Study

Edit

I speak Italian. I dont speak German.


We know the question. We dont know the
answer.
He has a bike. He doesnt have a car.
She lives in Los Angeles. She doesnt live in
San Diego.
Wrong: She doesnt lives in San Diego.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

R-2

Review Lesson

He dont know your name.


We doesnt speak French.
Some people doesnt have a cell phone.
They dont want to go home.
I dont like his new jacket.
She doesnt lives in New York.

Rule 4. To describe regular activity or repeated action, use the base form or the
s form for the simple present tense. Dont use the -ing form.
Study

Edit

I always drink coffee in the morning.


She never walks to school.
Wrong: She never walking to school.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I usually sitting near the door.


We always watch TV at night.
She driving to school every day.
I brush my teeth three times a day.
She doesnt eating breakfast every day.

Rule 5. Use the correct form of be.


(I am, He is, She is, It is, You are, We are, They are)
(I was, He was, She was, It was, You were, We were, They were)
Study

Edit

My parents are very kind.


We are sorry about your problem.
Your sister is intelligent.
You were late yesterday.
My brother was at the soccer game last week.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My friends is always good to me.


We was in Canada last summer.
You were in class yesterday.
Most people is kind.
They wasnt here yesterday.

Rule 6. Do not use a form of be to form the simple present or the simple past
tense.
Study

Edit

I like my new dog.


Wrong: I am like my new dog.
She bought a new CD player.
Wrong: She was bought a new CD player.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Shes needs some help.


Im know Spanish well.
She was took the test last week.
The accident was happened at four oclock.
I left my keys at home.
He was opened the present.

Rule 7. Many past-tense verbs are irregular. Use the correct form. For a complete
list of irregular verbs, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix M.
Study

Edit

She left early this morning.


We saw the movie last night.
I knew the answer.
She fell down two days ago.
Wrong: She falled down.

1. They went home early last night.


2. She heared the news on the radio this
morning.
3. He see the accident yesterday.
4. They wrote a composition last night.

Part 1: Verbs

R-3

Rule 8. After do, does, and did, use the base form.
Study

Edit

Doesnt she have a cell phone?


Does she know the answer?
Did you drive the car?
Did he bring his book today?
Wrong: Did he brought his book today?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Did you saw the movie yesterday?


Does she understands the problem?
Did you find the newspaper?
Does the teacher have your paper?
Does your father knows your cell phone
number?
6. Does he has a laptop computer?

Rule 9. To make the negative of regular and irregular past-tense verbs, use
didnt + the base form.
Study

Edit

She saw the movie. She didnt see the play.


She studied French. She didnt study German.
Wrong: She dont studied German.
She lost her keys. She didnt lose her wallet.
Wrong: She didnt lost her wallet.

1.
2.
3.
4.

He didnt went to the party last Saturday.


I dont watched the news last night.
She didnt find a job last week.
He took the keys. He didnt take the money.

Rule 10. In American English, the negative of have as a main verb is dont have.
The negative of has is doesnt have. The negative of had is didnt have.
Study

Edit

British: He has money. He hasnt any time.


Change to American English:
American: He has money. He doesnt have any 1. She hadnt time to do her homework last
time.
night.
2. I havent money for the bus.
3. He hasnt a car.

Rule 11. Use was/were with born. Do not use did with born. Do not put an ending
on born.
Study

Edit

I was born in 1978.


Wrong: I borned in 1978.
Where were your parents born?
Wrong: Where did your parent born?

1.
2.
3.
4.

R-4

Review Lesson

They were born in Guatemala.


I borned in July.
When was your parents born?
Did you born before 1985?

Rule 12. Continuous tenses = a form of be + verb -ing.


Study

Edit

We are correcting sentences.


She was driving when she had an accident.
They have been living in the U.S. for three
years.
Wrong: They have living in the U.S. for
three years.
The teacher is teaching us about verbs.
Wrong: The teacher teaching us about
verbs.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

He eating lunch now.


Hes work now.
I sleeping when the phone rang.
They are driving home now.
The baby has sleeping for four hours.
Im read a great book now.
You have been working for six hours.

Rule 13. Dont use a continuous tense with nonaction verbs (believe, care, cost,
hate, have, hear, know, like, love, matter, mean, need, own, prefer, remember, see,
seem, think (about), understand, want, and sense perception verbs: taste, smell,
feel, sound, look).
Study

Edit

I remember my first day in the U.S.


We dont need your help now.
I like your new shirt.
Wrong: I am liking your new shirt.

1. Are you wanting to go home now?


2. I am not remembering the name of my first
teacher.
3. This music sounds beautiful.
4. He is understanding English now.
5. Do you own a cell phone now?

Rule 14. Present perfect tense = have/has + past participle. Use the present
perfect for:
actions or states that started in the past and continue to the present.
activities that repeat in a present time period.
an indefinite time in the past.
Study

Edit

I have taken several art courses.


She has been here since May.
Wrong: She been here since May.
The teacher has given several tests.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Note: Dont confuse the -ing form with the


-en form.

I have made many mistakes.


They been here for two hours.
Ive look at the clock five times.
She has eating dinner already.
Have you ever been in France?
We havent given our parents a gift yet.

Wrong: The teacher has giving several tests.

Part 1: Verbs

R-5

Rule 15. Present perfect continuous = have/has + been + verb-ing. Use the
present perfect continuous for actions that started in the past and continue to
the present.
Study

Edit

He has been studying for two hours.


We have been working for five weeks.
Wrong: We been working for five weeks.
She has been giving me piano lessons for
three years.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Note: Dont confuse the -ing form with the


-en form.
Wrong: She has been given me piano
lessons for three years.

You have been worked for two hours.


Theyve been sleeping for five hours.
Ive living in Chicago for three months.
Shes been taken English classes for three
years.
5. She been sleeping for six hours.
6. I have studying English for three years.

Rule 16. After certain verbs (want, need, expect, try), use an infinitive
(to + base form).
Study

Edit

I needed to find a job.


Wrong: I needed to found a job.
I expect to get an A in this course.
Wrong: I expect get an A.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Note: If two infinitives are connected with


and, dont repeat to. The second verb is an
infinitive without to.
She wants to get married and have children.

R-6

Review Lesson

She needs buy a new car.


I wanted called you yesterday.
She wanted to left early last night.
She wants to finish college and finding a job.
He expected to receive a letter yesterday.
I like to receive and to send letters.

Rule 17. Include be and to with the following expressions: be supposed to,
be allowed to, be permitted to, be able to. Be sure to put a d at the end of
supposed, allowed, permitted.
Study

Edit

Are you able to find a job?


I am supposed to write my composition on
the computer.
Wrong: I supposed to write my composition
on the computer.
The child is not permitted to see the movie.
Wrong: The child is not permitted see the
movie.
We are not allowed to talk during a test.
Wrong: We are not allow to talk during
a test.

1. You are able to speak English well.


2. We not supposed to talk during a test.
3. Youre not allowed park on this side of the
street.
4. We not permitted to use our dictionaries
during a test.
5. Youre not suppose to write on that paper.

Rule 18. Future = will + base form or am/is/are + going to + base form.
Study

Edit

She will eat dinner later.


She is going to eat dinner later.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Note: Dont use be together with a simple


future tense verb.
Wrong: I will be eat dinner later.
Note: Dont use will and going to together.
Wrong: I will going to eat dinner later.

He will coming home later.


She will become a doctor.
I going to visit my parents on Saturday.
You will be have a good time on your
vacation.
5. I will going to visit my cousins next week.

Rule 19. When talking about the future, use the simple-present tense in a time
clause or an if clause.
Study

Edit

She will eat dessert after she finishes dinner.


If you are at the library, the librarian will
help you.
I will do my homework after I go home.
Wrong: I will do my homework after I will
go home.

1. When I will return to my country, I will visit


my parents.
2. He will go to the movies if he will have time.
3. She will visit the Eiffel Tower when she is in
Paris.
4. If Im home before 10 p.m., Ill call you.

Part 1: Verbs

R-7

Rule 20. We show purpose with to + the base form.


Study

Edit

He used a knife to open the box.


She needs money to go to college.
I came to this school to learn English.
Wrong: I came to this school for learning
English.
Wrong: I came to this school for learn
English.

1. I turned on the TV for watch the weather.


2. She used a spell check to check her spelling
mistakes.
3. He came to the U.S. for improving his skills.

Rule 21. After a modal, use the base form. (Modals = can, could, will, would,
should, may, might, must.)
Study

Edit

They can learn English.


You should drive carefully.
Wrong: You should to drive carefully.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Note: To make a negative of a modal, put not


after the modal.
They couldnt help me.
Wrong: They dont could help me.

She dont can drive.


I cant to help you.
You shouldnt making so much noise.
It may rain tonight.
You must to leave immediately.
You should not drive so fast.

Rule 22. Dont forget the d in used to.


Study

Edit

They used to have a dog.


I used to live with my grandparents.
Wrong: I use to live with my grandparents.

1. She use to own a house, but she sold it.


2. I used to live with my uncle.
3. They use to play video games.

R-8

Review Lesson

Rule 23. After prepositions, use the -ing form. Some prepositions are for, about,
of, from, after, before, in, without, by.
Study

Edit

After finishing dinner, we watched TV.


Instead of using a fork, we used a spoon.
You cant get ahead without working hard.
Shes interested in learning about computers.
Before eating dinner, wash your hands.
Wrong: Before eat dinner, wash your hands.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Hes concerned about lose his job.


He thanked me for give him my seat.
Are you good at writing compositions?
She complains about not get enough sleep.
Instead of write your composition by hand,
you can use the computer.

Rule 24. Dont mix can and be able to.


Study

Edit

I can play the guitar.


I am able to play the guitar.
Wrong: I can able to play the guitar.

1. Are you able to finish the job?


2. She cant able to do her homework with the
TV on.
3. I cant help you.

EXERCISE 1
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,write C.
s
He drink coffee every day.

You were late yesterday.

1. She going to buy a new computer next month.


2. She goes to the library once a week.
3. My brother work very hard.
4. She didnt went home after work yesterday.
5. My father have a new car.
6. My cousin lives in New York.
7. I watching TV last night when the telephone rang.
8. My sister likes dogs. She doesnt likes cats.
9. Ill be know a lot of grammar at the end of the semester.
10. He speaks Russian. He doesnt speak Ukrainian.
11. She will take a vacation next month.

Part 1: Verbs

R-9

12. Hes a doctor. He been a doctor since 1997.


13. Nobody know how to fix the problem.
14. We cant able to help you now.
15. I have saw a lot of good movies lately.
16. He was driving to work when he had a flat tire.
17. Last week, she was lost her gloves.
18. I have eating Mexican food many times.
19. She forgot to turned off the oven.
20. If we will have time next week, we will go to the zoo.
21. You should to buy a faster computer.
22. I want eat lunch now.
23. Every student need a textbook.
24. She doesnt has a computer.
25. I not want to go outside now.
26. You done a good job on your last composition.
27. She quitted her job two months ago.
28. My father was borned in 1945.
29. Shes been talking on the phone for two hours.
30. Were you excited about go to Paris?
31. She cant understand the lesson.
32. I finded a job yesterday.
33. She didnt understood the explanation.
34. Some American people is very friendly.
35. She will become a teacher when she graduates.
36. Im not able find a good job.
37. Most people want to be rich.
38. You wasnt in class yesterday.
39. He has already taking care of the problem.
40. She came to the U.S. for find a better job.
41. They didnt driving to Canada. They flew there.
42. Be quiet. The baby sleeping.
43. I want to go back to my country and visiting my parents.

R-10 Review Lesson

44. You not supposed to talk in the library.


45. She expected received a letter, but she didnt.
46. She isnt interested in watching the baseball game.
47. I am not knowing the answer to your question.
48. I use to walk to school, but now I take the bus.
49. We visiting our grandparents every week.
50. Were not allow to write in our books.
51. When I am at the post office tomorrow, Ill buy stamps.
52. Are we suppose to write a composition today?

PART 2: ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND NOUN MODIFIERS

A. Study Chart
Adjectives

Adverbs

Noun Modifiers

Adjectives describe a
noun.

Adverbs describe a verb.

Noun modifiers make nouns


more specific.

He is a careful driver.
He is a good cook.
She is a hard worker.

He drives carefully.
He cooks well.
She works hard.

He has a drivers license.


He uses a gas stove.
She is a city worker.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. A descriptive adjective has no plural form.


Study

Edit

His ideas are so different from mine.


He has two wonderful daughters.
Wrong: He has two wonderfuls daughters.

1. Her children are beautifuls.


2. You have pretty eyes.
3. Boston and Chicago are Americans cities.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

R-11

Rule 2. After a form of be or other linking verbs (seem, look, smell, sound, taste,
feel), use an adjective, not an adverb.
Study

Edit

I am very proud of you.


The pie tastes good.
The coffee smells fresh.
Wrong: The coffee smells freshly.

1. She seems responsible.


2. She is very carefully when she drives.
3. That music sounds beautifully.

Rule 3. To describe an action, use an adverb, not an adjective.


Study

Edit

He speaks English fluently.


I type very quickly.
Wrong: I type very quick.

1. You should drive careful.


2. He spoke very quiet.
3. Please speak more softly.

Rule 4. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: fast, hard, late1,
early. They do not use -ly.
Study

Edit

She has an early class. She arrives early.


He is a fast worker. He works fast.
Wrong: He works fastly.

1.
2.
3.
4.

She worked very hardly last week.


She talks very fastly.
Im trying hard to find a job.
She came late to the meeting.

Rule 5. Good is an adjective. The adverb is well.


Study

Edit

He is a good cook.
He cooks well.
Wrong: He cooks good.

1. He writes English very good.


2. He is a good writer.
3. I didnt do too good on my math test.

1Hard

and late have an -ly form, but the meaning is different:


Lately she has had a lot of problems. (lately = recently)
Hes lazy. He hardly does any work at all. (hardly = almost nothing)

R-12 Review Lesson

Rule 6. Some -ed words are adjectives: concerned, located, situated, married,
divorced, crowded, allowed, permitted, worried, tired. Dont omit the -ed for these
words. Since these words are not verbs, be sure to include a verb (usually a form
of be).
Study

Edit

My sister isnt married.


We are not permitted to use a book during
the test.
My college is located nearby.
Wrong: My college located nearby.
Im bored.
Wrong: Im bore.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Are you tire?


Im not worried about my grades.
Shes concern about her son.
The elevator isnt crowded.
The college situated on the corner of
Broadway and Wilson Avenues.

Rule 7. You can put very before adjectives and adverbs. You cannot put very
before verbs.
Study

Edit

You have a very good accent.


You speak English very well.
I want to meet your mother very much.
Wrong: I very want to meet your mother.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I very like your new car.


His new suit is very expensive.
He dresses very stylishly.
She very wants to be a pilot.

Rule 8. Use too much before nouns. Use too before adjectives and adverbs.
Study

Edit

That car costs too much money for me.


That car is too expensive. I cant buy it.
Wrong: That car is too much expensive.
I cant buy it.

1. Hes too young to retire.


2. He drives too much slowly on the highway.
He can get a ticket.
3. Its too much hot in here. Lets turn on the
air conditioner.

Rule 9. Use too, too much, too many only if there is a problem. If there is no
problem, use very and a lot of.
Study

Edit

My brother is a very good student.


My brother is 14. Hes too young to drive.
I ate too much candy, and now I feel sick.
He has a lot of friends. Hes happy.
Wrong: He has too many friends.

1. My brother got a scholarship to a good


college because hes too smart.
2. He found a job because he has too much
experience in his field.
3. He finally found a good job. Now he makes
too much money.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

R-13

Rule 10. When a noun describes a noun, the first noun is always singular.
Study

Edit

She had a two-week vacation.


I need a five-dollar bill.
Wrong: I need a five-dollars bill.

1. Put your shoes in a shoes box.


2. We have a three-days weekend next week.
3. I need an eye exam. My eyes are bad.

Rule 11. This and that are singular. These and those are plural.
Study

Edit

This watermelon is big.


That watermelon is small.
Those cherries are good.
These grapes are delicious.
Wrong: This grapes are delicious.

1.
2.
3.
4.

That shoes are mine.


Those are beautiful boots.
This are my English books.
This gloves are too big for me.

Rule 12. Combine two affirmative statements with too. Combine two negative
statements with either.
Study

Edit

I exercise every day, and my sister does too.


I dont play tennis, and my sister doesnt
either.
Wrong: I dont play tennis, and my sister
doesnt too.

1. My mother doesnt like sports. My sister


doesnt too.
2. She cant speak Spanish, and I cant either.
3. My mother likes classical music, and I too.
4. I dont play tennis, and my sister doesnt
too.

Note: Include an auxiliary verb before too


and either.
My friend has a dog, and I do too.
Wrong: My friend has a dog, and I too.

R-14 Review Lesson

EXERCISE 2
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.
ly
He drives very careful .

He speaks English fluently.

1. Her daughters are very intelligents.


2. He is very proudly because his daughter graduated from college.
3. The bread tastes fresh.
4. Im too much busy today. I dont have time for you.
5. She very likes her new job.
6. This books are mine.
7. We had a three-weeks vacation.
8. I dont type very fast or very well.
9. I cant speak Italian, and my friend cant too.
10. She studied hard for the test.
11. You are not allow to talk during a test.
12. My house located in a suburb.
13. Im concerned about learning English.
14. My sister has a Japanese car, and I too.
15. They speak English perfectly.
16. She doesnt know him very good.
17. My sister likes tennis. Her daughter does too.
18. Hes always tire because he works so hardly.
19. She gets up early every day.
20. The bus is very crowd in the morning.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

R-15

PART 3: COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

A. Study Charts
Short Adjectives and Adverbs

Add -er / -est


Adjectives That End in -y

Change y to i, add -er / -est


Longer Adjectives

Add more /most before the adjective


-ly Adverbs

Add more / most before the adverb


Irregular Forms

Simple

Comparative

Superlative

tall
big
old

taller
bigger
older

tallest
biggest
oldest

busy
easy

busier
easier

busiest
easiest

important
wonderful

more important
more wonderful

most important
most wonderful

quickly
easily

more quickly
more easily

most quickly
most easily

good
well
bad
badly
far*
far
little
a lot

better
better
worse
worse
farther
further
less
more

best
best
worst
worst
farthest
furthest
least
most

Language Note:
Far, farther, farthest is used for distance.
He rode his bike the farthest.

Far, further, furthest is used for concepts.


He explained his idea further.

Examples

Comparison Patterns

Comparative
Forms

He is taller than his father.


He is more intelligent than his brother.
He drives more carefully than you do.

short adjective / adverb + -er + than


more + long adjective + than
more + -ly adverb + than

Superlative
Forms

He is the tallest person in his family.


He is the most intelligent person in
his family.
He drives the most carefully of anyone
in his family.

the + short adjective / adverb + -est


the most + long adjective
the most + -ly adverb

Equality with
Adjectives
and Adverbs

He is as tall as his brother.


She doesnt dance as well as me.

as adjective as
as adverb as

Equality with
Quantities

He has as much money as you do.


as much noncount noun as
I dont have as many friends as you do. as many plural noun as

R-16 Review Lesson

Equality with
Verbs

You dont drive as much as I do.


You eat more. I dont eat as much.

as much (as)

Equality with
Nouns

He is the same height as his brother.


He and his brother are the same height.

the same noun (as)

Equality with
SensePerception
Verbs

She looks like her father.


They look alike.
A CD almost sounds like live music.
They sound almost alike.
This coat feels like real fur.

look like / look alike


sound like / sound alike
taste like / taste alike
feel like / feel alike
smell like / smell alike

Equality of
Characteristics

She is like her mother. They are both


very talented.
She and her mother are alike.

be like / be alike

Same

The new dollar bills are not the same as


the old dollar bills.
The new dollar bills and the old dollar
bills are not the same.

the same (as)

Different

The new dollar bills are different from


the old dollar bills.
The new dollar bills and the old dollar
bills are different.

different (from)

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. Choose the correct form of the adjective or adverb. A simple adjective or
adverb (tall, good, important, fast) describes one thing or person. A comparative
adjective or adverb (taller, better, more important, faster) compares two things or
people. A superlative adjective or adverb (the tallest, the best, the most important,
the fastest) points out the number-one item in a group of three or more.
Study

Edit

He is tall.
He is taller than his father.
Hes the tallest person in his family.
Wrong: He is a taller person.
Golf is a popular sport.
Baseball is more popular than golf.
Soccer is the most popular sport in the
world.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

biggest
New York is the bigger city in the U.S.
Trigonometry is difficult than algebra.
Chicago is a bigger city.
Los Angeles is big than Chicago.
My grandfather is very oldest.
You drive most carefully than your brother.
She is the more beautiful woman I have ever
seen.
8. The dictionary is a heavier book.
Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives

R-17

Rule 2. Use -er and -est with short adjectives (including adjectives that end
in -y) and short adverbs ( fast, late, early, hard). Use more and most with longer
adjectives and -ly adverbs.
Study

Edit

My aunt is nicer than my uncle.


Book 2 is easier than Book 3.

1.
2.
3.
4.

My aunt is more intelligent than my uncle.


The car is running more smoothly than
before.
Jake is the tallest person in my family.
He is the laziest person Ive ever met.
She is the most interesting person in my
family.
She dresses the most stylishly of all her
classmates.

I am more old than you are.


My sister is more intelligent than my brother.
Who is the most lazy person in your family?
What is the most unusual place you have
visited?
5. My dictionary is heavier than my textbook.
6. He wrote the composition more carefully
than I did.
7. You speak English fluentlier than I do.

Rule 3. Before a superlative form, use the. Use than before the second item of
comparison.
Study

Edit

New York is the biggest city in the U.S.


Los Angeles is bigger than Chicago.

1. Books in the U.S. are more expensive books


in my country.
2. My aunt is intelligent, but my uncle is even
more intelligent than.
3. Alaska is largest state in the U.S.
4. Is Alaska larger than California?

Note: Omit than if you omit the second item


of comparison.
Los Angeles is big, but New York is bigger.

Rule 4. Dont use more and -er together. Dont use most and -est together.
Study

Edit

You are older than I am.


Wrong: You are more older than I am.
He is the tallest person in his family.
Wrong: He is the most tallest person in his
family.

1. You drive more worse than I do.


2. You are the most youngest person in the
class.
3. You type more quickly than I do.
4. She speaks more faster than you do.
5. This book is more better than the other one.

R-18 Review Lesson

Rule 5. With nouns, use the same . . . (as). With adjectives and adverbs, use
as . . . as.
Study

Edit

She and her husband are the same age.


She is the same age as her husband.
Wrong: She is the same age like her husband.
She is as pretty as her sister.
Wrong: She is the same pretty as her sister.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I am the same tall as my brother.


Im not as athletic as you are.
A nickel is the same shape like a quarter.
She isnt as strong than her husband.
Her shoes are the same color as her dress.
I am not the same height my friend.

Rule 6. For sense similarities, use look like, sound like, feel like, etc. For other
similarities, use be like.
Study

Edit

She is like her mother. They have the same


interests.
The weather in Cuba is like the weather in
Puerto Rico. Both islands are tropical.
She looks like her mother. They have almost
the same face.

1. I am look like my twin brother.


2. You are look like your father. You both love
sports.
3. Shes beautiful. She looks like a movie star.
4. I look like my friend. We have the same
character.
5. When you sing, you sound like Bob Dylan.
6. The weather in Chicago looks like the
weather in Detroit.

Note: Dont include be with a senseperception verb.


Wrong: She is looks like her mother.

Rule 7. To make the negative of sense-perception verbs, use dont or doesnt.


Study

Edit

She doesnt sound like a professional singer. 1. Polyester doesnt feel like silk.
2. He has an accent. He isnt sound like an
My photo ID doesnt look like me at all.
American.
Wrong: My photo ID isnt look like me at all.
3. This drink looks like coffee, but it isnt smell
like coffee.

Rule 8. The connector after the same is as. The connector after different is from.
Study

Edit

Large is the same as big.


Wrong: Large is the same like big.
Large is different from long.
Wrong: Large is different than long.

1. This dish is the same like the one you made


yesterday.
2. My English book is different than yours.
3. Your idea is the same as mine.

Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives

R-19

EXERCISE 3

EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them.
Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,
write C.
I am the most oldest of all my cousins.
She is older than her husband. C
1. Hes taller than his brother.
2. He speaks English more better than his brother.
3. Hes as smart as his brother.
4. Alaska is the biggest state in the U.S.
5. January is the colder month of the year.
6. New York is one of the most interesting cities in the world.
7. She is funniest girl in the class.
8. Hes not as old as his wife.
9. She is beautiful, but her sister is even more beautiful than.
10. Hes not the same tall as his son.
11. He and his wife are the same age.
12. Oranges dont taste as tangerines.
13. She looks like her mother. They are both pretty.
14. She isnt look like her father. She has her mothers eyes and smile.
15. Asian music doesnt look like Western music.
16. Decaf coffee tastes like regular coffee to me.
17. My house in this city is very different than my house in my hometown.
18. A quarter is the same like twenty-five cents.
19. He doesnt have as many problems as I do.
20. I dont drink as much coffee my brother.
21. You and I are alike in many ways. We both love sports and jazz.
22. He is same his father in many ways. Theyre both very intelligent.

R-20 Review Lesson

PART 4: COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS 2

A. Study Chart
Singular Count

Plural Count

Noncount

a peach
one peach

some peaches

some milk

two peaches

two glasses of milk

a couple of peaches

a couple of glasses of milk

no peaches

no milk

any peaches (in questions


and negatives)

any milk (in questions and


negatives)

a lot of peaches
lots of peaches
plenty of peaches

a lot of milk
lots of milk
plenty of milk

many peaches

much milk (in questions and


negatives)

too many peaches

too much milk

a few peaches

a little milk

several peaches

several glasses of milk

How many peaches?

How much milk?

a glass
one glass

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. With noncount nouns, use much and little. With count nouns, use many
and few.
Study

Edit

I dont have many friends.


I dont have much time.
She ate a few cookies.
She drank a little milk.

1.
2.
3.
4.

few
We saw a little good movies.
Much people came to the party.
A few people were late.
I get a little help from my friends.

For a list of noncount nouns, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix A.

Part 4: Count and Noncount Nouns

R-21

Rule 2. In affirmative statements, use a lot of, not much.


Study

Edit

He drinks a lot of coffee.


I have a lot of time today.
Wrong: I have much time today.

1. I drank a lot of orange juice today.


2. The teacher gave me much information
about registration.
3. You should drink much water every day.

Rule 3. With a unit of measure or container, use of. Use of with a lot and a couple.
Study

Edit

I drank a cup of tea.


She bought a loaf of bread.
I have a couple of tickets for the baseball
game.
They ate a lot of cookies.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Note: If you omit the noun, omit of.


They ate a lot of cookies, but I didnt eat a lot.
Note: Dont use of after a little.
Wrong: I drink a little of juice every
morning.

I always put a little salt in the soup.


He put a little of sugar in his tea.
He bought a jar olive oil.
I need to buy a gallon of milk.
Put a spoonful sugar in the tea.
I need to buy a couple bananas.
She uses a lot sugar.
I have a lot of free time on Monday, but I
dont have a lot of on Tuesday.
9. I have a couple of questions about the
grammar. My friend has a couple of too.

Rule 4. To emphasize a positive quantity, use a before few and little (to mean
some or enough). To emphasize a negative quantity, use very or nothing before
few and little (to mean almost none).
Study

Edit

I saw a few good movies last week.


I rarely see movies in my language because
there are very few available here.
I have a little money. Lets go to the movies.
I have little money. I cant even buy a cup of
coffee.

1. Their marriage was a failure because they


had little in common.
2. Hes a lucky man. He has few good friends.
3. I cant help you today. I have a little time.
4. I bought a few bananas. Do you want one?

R-22 Review Lesson

Rule 5. Dont make a noncount noun plural. Some unexpected words that are
noncount nouns are: advice, information, equipment, furniture, and homework.
(See Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix A for a list of noncount nouns.)
Study

Edit

The teacher gave us a lot of homework.


All this equipment is very heavy.
I have a lot of information about the new
courses.
I want to give you some advice.
Wrong: I want to give you some advices.

1. He bought a lot of furnitures for his new


home.
2. My mother gave me a lot of advices.
3. Do you have any informations about the new
biology course?
4. I finished all my homework.
5. He works with a lot of heavy equipments.
6. He put a lot of sugars in his tea.

EXERCISE 4

EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them.
Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,
write C.
My counselor gave me a lot of informations about colleges.
The teacher gave us a lot of homework last week.

1. He has many money.


2. He has many credit cards.
3. There were a lot of people at the party. Everyone had a great time.
4. I cant talk to you now. I have very little time.
5. She drank three glasses of water today.
6. She put a little of milk in her coffee.
7. The soup has no taste. There is no salt in the soup.
8. He has a lot of mistakes on his test, but he doesnt have a lot on his
composition.
9. There are some people from Guatemala in my class.
10. I have much work to do. I have little free time today.
11. The teacher gave me a lot of advices about how to study.
12. You can get a lot of information from the Internet.
13. Do we have a lot of homeworks today?
14. I ate a little of rice with dinner.
15. A little students were absent today.
16. I sent a couple letters to my friends.
17. I drink two cups coffee every day.
Part 4: Count and Noncount Nouns

R-23

PART 5: NOUNS: SINGULAR/PLURAL AND POSSESSIVE

A. Study Charts
Regular Plural Forms
Singular

Plural

girl
boy
box
watch
dish
class
lady
shelf

girls
boys
boxes
watches
dishes
classes
ladies
shelves

Irregular Plural Forms3


Singular

Plural

man
woman
mouse
tooth
foot
goose
child
person

men
women
mice
teeth
feet
geese
children
people (OR persons)

3For

R-24 Review Lesson

other irregular plurals, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix I.

Possessive Forms of Nouns


Noun

Ending

Examples

Singular nouns:
teacher
mother

Add apostrophe + s
teachers
mothers

The teachers office is on the third floor.


My mothers name is Elena.

Plural nouns ending


in -s:
parents
students
ladies

Add apostrophe only

Irregular plural
nouns:
men
women

Add apostrophe + s

parents
students
ladies

My parents house has 3 bedrooms.


Do you know the students names?
Wheres the ladies room?

mens
womens

Thomas and Robert are mens names.


Mary and Susan are womens names.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. For possession of singular nouns and irregular plural nouns, put the
apostrophe before the s. For possession of plural nouns ending in s, put the
apostrophe after the s.
Study

Edit

The boys name is Sam.


The boys names are Sam and Mark.
The childrens names are Lee and Ann.
The mens names are Harry and William.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The childrens toys are on the floor.


My parents house is old.
All the teachers offices are on the third floor.
My teachers name is Barbara.
The childs name is Kim.
My parents names are Sylvia and Paul.

Part 5: Nouns: Singular/Plural and Possessive

R-25

Rule 2. Possession shows ownership or relationship. Use correct word order and
form for possession:

The mans dog.

possessor + apostrophe s + possessed


OR

The boys dog.

possessor + s apostrophe + possessed


Study

Edit

The teachers office is on the second floor.


My brothers wives are very nice.
My sisters car is new.
Wrong: The car of my sister is new.

1.
2.
3.
4.

The students books


Books the students are blue.
My parents house is near mine.
The children toys are on the floor.
The name of my brother is Fred.

Rule 3. Dont use an apostrophe for a plural ending.


Study

Edit

The workers are in the factory.


Two girls are crying.
Wrong: Two girls are crying.

1. How many cousins do you have?


2. Where do your brothers live?
3. Do your parents have a car?

Rule 4. To talk about more than one thing, use the plural form. After one of the,
some of the, all of the, use the plural form.
Study

Edit

She bought a lot of books.


Some of my teachers are very strict.
One of the classrooms has carpeting.
Five people in my class speak Polish.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

R-26 Review Lesson

A lot of teacher at this school speak Spanish.


Do you have a lot of friend?
One of my brother lives in Boston.
All of the orange are delicious.
She has a lot of cousins.

Rule 5. Dont put an s ending on an irregular plural noun.


Study

Edit

They have beautiful children.


Two women came late to the meeting.
Wrong: Two womens came late.

1. There are two mens from Taiwan in my class.


2. The children are eating ice cream.
3. How many womens were at the meeting?

Rule 6. Use the singular form after every. Use the plural form after all.
Study

Edit

Every child needs love.


All children need love.

1. Every students passed the test.


2. All the students were unhappy with the test.

EXERCISE 5

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

women
EXAMPLES Only three woman came to the party.
My sisters son lives in Los Angeles. C
1. They have four childrens.
2. There were two men in the office.
3. One of my friend has twin sons.
4. My parents house is not very big.
5. Car of my father is new.
6. What is name your sister?
7. Do you have any brothers?
8. Robert and Paul are mens names.
9. Your sister husband is a very nice man.
10. All of the student in this class can speak English.
11. Every student in this class can speak English.
12. All the teachers have offices. The teachers offices are on the second
floor.

Part 5: Nouns: Singular/Plural and Possessive

R-27

PART 6: PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 4

A. Study Charts
Subject
Pronoun

Object
Pronoun

Possessive
Adjective

Possessive
Pronoun

Reflexive
Pronoun

I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they
who

me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them
whom

my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their
whose

mine
yours
his
hers

ours
yours
theirs
whose

myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. After a verb or preposition, use the object pronoun.


Study

Edit

I saw her at the park.


You dont know me very well.
They always talk about us.
Wrong: They always talk about we.

1. She loves her boyfriend and always talks


him
about he.
2. You know my parents. You met they at the
party.
3. I want to know about your sister. Tell me
about her.

4For

R-28 Review Lesson

a list of word order of object pronouns, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix F.

Rule 2. Before a noun, use the possessive adjective. When the noun is omitted,
use the possessive pronoun.
Study

Edit

I have my books. Do you have yours?


If you dont have your dictionary, you can
borrow mine.
Our friends are in the U.S. Theirs are not.

1. We bought ours books at the bookstore on


the corner.
2. Theirs parents dont speak English.
3. They gave their children a good education.
4. My textbook is new. Yours is used.

Rule 3. After want, need, expect, would like, use the object form, plus an
infinitive.
Study

Edit

He wants me to mail the package.


I expect them to answer my question.
I want her to help me.
Wrong: I want that she helps me.

1. My brother watches too much TV. I want that


he read more.
2. The teacher wanted me to correct my
mistakes.
3. The teacher expects we write five
compositions.
4. My parents would like I called them every
week.

Rule 4. You say something. You tell someone something.


Study

Edit

He said his name clearly.


He told me his problem.
Wrong: He said me his problem.

1. He told the answer.


2. She said something, but I didnt hear it.
3. She told her name, but I forgot it.

Rule 5. Dont confuse her and his.


Study

Edit

She loves her son.


He loves his wife.

1. The boy gave her mother a present.


2. My sister loves his husband.

Part 6: Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

R-29

Rule 6. Dont confuse there, theyre, and their.


Study

Edit

Theyre my friends.
Their names are Bob and Alice.
They live over there.

1. These are my brothers. Theyre names are


Peter and Tim.
2. They take their kids to that park over there.
3. Their very nice people.
4. What are their names?

Rule 7. Dont confuse its and its.


Study

Edit

Its a hot day today.


How does an elephant use its trunk?

1. This is a grammar book. Its interesting.


2. The library has its own computer lab. Its on
the first floor.

Rule 8. Dont confuse your and youre.


Study

Edit

Youre my best friend.


I like your personality.

1. I dont know youre name.


2. Your a good student.
3. Youre late for class.

Rule 9. Dont confuse whos and whose.


Study

Edit

Whos your English teacher?


Whose book is this?

1. Whos coat is that?


2. Whos your best friend?

Rule 10. Before the verb, use subject pronouns. After a verb or preposition, use
object pronouns. Be careful with compound subjects and objects. If a compound
subject or object includes the speaker, the speaker is last.
Study

Edit

They invited my friend and me to a party.


Wrong: They invited my friend and I.
I spoke with him and his cousin.
Wrong: I spoke with he and his cousin.
My friend and I went to New York.
Wrong: My friend and me went to New York.
Wrong: Me and my friend went to New York.

1. Just between you and I, I didnt study for


the test.
2. Me and him had a fight.
3. Id like to go with them and their friends to
the concert.
4. I saw her and her cousin at the park.
5. I and my sister took a trip together.

R-30 Review Lesson

Rule 11. Use the correct reflexive form. See the chart on page R-28 for the
correct form.
Study

Edit

I looked at myself in the mirror.


They always talk about themselves.
Wrong: They always talk about themself.

1. All of you need to prepare yourself for the


test.
2. He loves hisself very much.
3. The teachers always make theyselves
available for help.
4. She corrected herself when she made a
mistake.

EXERCISE 6
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.
I dont know yours parents.
Whos that man over there?

1. Do you like dogs? Yes, I like it very much.


2. Wheres your sister? I want to talk to she.
3. Theyre very lonely because they parents dont live in the U.S.
4. You didnt bring your book today. You can use mine.
5. Him and his wife bought a new house.
6. My neighbors take theirs children to a museum once a week.
7. He didnt wash him hands before dinner.
8. They helped theyselves to more dessert.
9. My parents wanted that I become a teacher.
10. I didnt see my friends at school, but I saw them at the library.
11. Mary speaks English well, but his brother doesnt.
12. I have two cats. I got them from my friend.
13. They lost there suitcases at the airport.
14. I know what movie youre talking about, but I cant remember
its name.
15. That boy is making a lot of noise. I want he be quiet.
16. The teacher expects us to write five compositions.
17. My parents gave my sisters and I a good education.
18. He never likes to talk about himself.
19. Whos book is this?
Part 6: Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

R-31

20. We lost ours books.


21. They always look at themself in the mirror.
22. I told them the answer.
23. I dont even know youre name.
24. She said me the secret.
25. Me and my friends like to play video games.

PART 7: SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND WORD ORDER

A. Study Chart
Examples

Explanation

Subject

Verb

Complement

She
You
Jack

speaks
are
didnt go

English.
early.
to work.

A simple sentence has a subject and


a verb. The basic sentence word order
is:
subject + verb + complement

I woke up late, so I missed my bus.


My counselor didnt have much time, but
she helped me anyway.

A compound sentence combines two


simple sentences with and, but, or, so.

When you are late, you miss important


information.
The man whom you met is my boss.
I know that you passed the test.

A complex sentence has a dependent


clause and a main clause. Each clause
has a subject and a verb.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has
a mistake.

Rule 1. Every sentence must have a verb. Remember: Many -ed words are
adjectives: married, worried, tired, bored, interested, crowded, etc.
Study

Edit

My teacher is very patient.


The college is located downtown.
The elevator was very crowded.
They are satisfied with their grades.
Wrong: They satisfied with their grades.

1.
2.
3.
4.

R-32 Review Lesson

am
I very tired today.
^
My sister is married.
The bus crowded every morning.
I concerned about your health.

Rule 2. A verb must have a subject.5


Study

Edit

I didnt understand the lesson because it was


too hard for me.
It is important to have a good job.
Wrong: Is important to have a good job.

1. Lets stay inside. Is cold today.


2. Is impossible to learn English in a month.
3. I dont like birds as pets because make a lot
of noise.

Rule 3. Dont repeat the subject with a pronoun.


Study

Edit

My sister plays the piano.


Wrong: My sister she plays the piano.

1.
2.
3.
4.

My parents they have a new house.


My friend she is a doctor.
Your brother is very nice.
My friends and I we like to play soccer.

Rule 4. To introduce the subject, sometimes we need there + a form of be.


Study

Edit

There were a lot of people at the party.


Wrong: Were a lot of people at the party.
Theres a map on the wall.
Wrong: Its a map on the wall.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Its a telephone in the kitchen.


In the park a beautiful garden.
There will be a concert tonight.
Are some Puerto Rican students in my class.

Rule 5. Put the subject before the verb in all clauses.


Study

Edit

The children came home late.


Wrong: Came home late the children.
The little girl is very happy.
Wrong: Is very happy the little girl.

1. The workers began to work when arrived the


boss.
2. I didnt go to work because the office was
closed.
3. Everything that said the teacher is important.
4. Was very interesting the movie.

5Exception:

The verb in an imperative does not state the subject.


Come here. Sit down.

Part 7: Sentence Structure and Word Order

R-33

Rule 6. Dont separate the verb from the object.


Study

Edit

Verb

Object

She typed the report very slowly.


Verb

Object

They opened the window carefully.


Wrong: They opened carefully the window.

1.
2.
3.
4.

She likes very much her new apartment.


He looks all the time at the clock.
She opened her eyes slowly.
You drove very quickly the car.

Rule 7. We do not usually put more than one word between the subject and the
verb. Put a phrase before the subject or at the end of the verb phrase.
Study

Edit

Once in a while, she eats meat.


She eats meat once in a while.
Wrong: She once in a while eats meat.

1. We every day practice grammar.


2. Every other day I visit my parents.
3. He in the kitchen eats breakfast.

Rule 8. Dont use a double negative.


Study

Edit

There arent any elevators in the building.


Wrong: There arent no elevators in the
building.
Nobody wants to go home.
Wrong: Nobody doesnt want to go home.
He doesnt have any time.
Wrong: He doesnt have no time.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There arent no Korean students in my class.


I have no time for television.
I dont want no milk in my coffee.
She doesnt have any children.
Nobody doesnt know how I feel.
I havent never seen the movie.

Rule 9. Put a one-word adverb (always, never, probably, even, just, especially,
etc.) in the right place.
Study

Edit

A. Between the subject and the verb:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I always watch the news at night.


B. After the verb be:
You are especially kind.
C. Between the auxiliary verb and the main
verb:
I will probably call you later.
He has never seen a play.

R-34 Review Lesson

She always is late to class.


I have wanted always to visit London.
You have never seen my vacation pictures.
We are making probably progress.
He can study with noise. He even can study
with loud rock music.
6. They are probably right.
7. I dont want to bother you. Just I need to
ask you a question.

Rule 10. Most frequency words can come before the subject. However, always and
never dont usually come before the subject.
Study

Edit

We never speak Spanish in class.


Wrong: Never we speak Spanish in class.
You are always right.
Wrong: Always you are right.

1. Never he walks to work.


2. You always tell the truth.
3. Always I have coffee with breakfast.
4. Never she has gone to the zoo.
5. She is never on time.

Rule 11. Put an adjective before, not after, a noun.


Study

Edit

She has a very interesting job.


This is a very difficult lesson.
Wrong: This is a lesson very difficult.

1. I saw a very long movie.


2. The U.S. is a country very powerful.
3. You did a job very excellent.

Rule 12. Enough follows an adjective or adverb.


Study

Edit

I am old enough to make my own decisions.


He speaks English well enough to take a
composition course.

1. The little girl is enough smart to read the


book.
2. He drives well enough now to get his drivers
license.

Rule 13. In comparing nouns (rain, problems, books), put more before the noun.
Study

Edit

Seattle has more rain than San Diego.


I have more problems than you.
Wrong: I have problems more than you.

1. He has money more than I do.


2. I have more time than you do.
3. You have work more than I do.

Rule 14. In comparing verbs (read, cook), put the comparative adverb after the
verb phrase.
Study

Edit

I read English faster than you do.


You cook better than your wife.
Wrong: You better cook than your wife.

1. I more quickly finished the homework than


you did.
2. She writes English more beautifully than we
do.

Part 7: Sentence Structure and Word Order

R-35

Rule 15. If two nouns come together, put the specific noun before the general noun.
Study

Edit

She has a winter coat.


I need a coat hanger.

1. Can I borrow your hair dryer?


2. This wig is made of hair human.

EXERCISE 7

EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with word order and correct them. If the
subject or verb is missing, add it. Take out any extra words. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.
We did at night the homework.

It i
Is necessary to have a good dictionary.
^
On Monday and Wednesday, the teacher is usually in her office. C
1. Came in late the student and took a seat in the back.
2. She always has problems with spelling.
3. Because she has a full-time job, she has a lot of responsibilities.
4. Is very important to know your rights.
5. I have always wanted to visit Paris.
6. Began registration on August 18.
7. I dont like very much my biology class.
8. I found on the desk a dictionary.
9. Whenever I have a problem, I talk to my father.
10. She doesnt know nothing about your problem.
11. Theres in my class a Japanese woman.
12. She cant always come to class on time.
13. He usually eats cereal for breakfast.
14. Never he eats eggs for breakfast.
15. He usually is sleepy in the afternoon.
16. San Francisco a very beautiful city.
17. Are a lot of closets in my new apartment.
18. Shes almost finished with her composition. Just she has to write a
title.
19. She opened carefully the package.
20. Once in a while, Mary eats ice cream.
R-36 Review Lesson

21. I dont speak Spanish. Only I speak English and Italian.


22. I didnt understand nothing the teacher said.
23. After arrived the teacher, the lesson began.
24. After my brother found a job, bought a car.
25. He doesnt want to eat for dinner chicken.
26. Came to the U.S. my father last year.
27. I dont have no time for you today.
28. She left angrily the room.
29. At nine oclock starts the second part of the movie.
30. Is very good the story you wrote.
31. He will probably go to Mexico for vacation.
32. I will be probably absent next week.
33. Is he enough old to drive?
34. She has a wonderful family.
35. He earns money more than his wife.
36. My parents they live in Montreal.
37. I run faster than you do.
38. Do you have a license fishing?
39. I always listen to the news on the radio.
40. I cant quickly run.
41. Theres a good movie on TV at 6:00.
42. Always we study before a test.

PART 8: QUESTION FORMATION

A. Study Charts
Be
Wh- Word

Where
Why

Be

Subject

Be

Complement

is

Is
is
isnt

She
she
she?
she
Who

in California.
in Los Angeles?

is

in Los Angeles?
in Los Angeles?
Part 8: Question Formation

R-37

Simple Present Tense


Wh- Word

When
Why

Do/Does
Does
does
doesnt

Subject

Verb

Complement

She
she
she
she
Who
How many people

watches
watch
watch
watch
watches
watch

TV.
TV at night?
TV?
TV at night?
TV at night?
TV at night?

Simple Past Tense


Wh- Word

When
Why

Did

Subject

Verb

Complement

Did
did
didnt

He
he
he
he
Who

bought
buy
buy
buy
bought

a TV.
a DVD?
a TV?
a DVD?
a DVD?

Modal
Wh- Word

When
Why

Modal

Subject

Modal

Main Verb

Complement

can

Can
can
cant

She
she
she
she
Who

can

play
play
play
play
play

the piano.
the guitar?
the piano?
the guitar?
the guitar?

Aux. verb

Subject

Aux. verb

Main verb

Complement

are

Are
are
arent

They
they
they
they
Who

eating
eating
eating?
eating
eating

lunch.
rice?

Continuous Tense
Wh- Word

What
Why

R-38 Review Lesson

is

rice?
rice?

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. To ask about cost, spelling, and meaning, use normal question word
order: Wh- word + do/does/did + subject + verb + complement.
Study

Edit

How much did your book cost?


Wrong: How much cost your book?
What does DVD mean?
Wrong: What means DVD?
How do you spell your name?
Wrong: How spell your name?
How do you say teacher in your language?
Wrong: How say teacher in your
language?

do you
How spell Minnesota?
^
What does friendship mean?
How much cost your trip to the U.S.?
How do you spell the name of your country?
How say hello in your language?

Rule 2. Dont use do/does/did with questions about the subject.


Study

Edit

Who came to the party?


How many people came to the party?
Which people came to the party?
What kind of people came to the party?
Wrong: Who did come to the party?

How many students brought a dictionary today?


Who did come late to the meeting?
Who has my keys?
Which student does have my book?

EXERCISE 8

Find the mistakes with question formation and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

didnt you
EXAMPLES Why you didnt call me last night?
Who called you last night?

1. What means invent?


2. Who lives in the White House?
3. How do you spell your name?
4. Where I can buy a good computer?

Part 8: Question Formation

R-39

5. How many languages speaks your father?


6. Does the vice president lives in the White House?
7. What should I take to the party?
8. How much costs a new car?
9. How say car in your language?
10. When were you buy your books?
11. What kind of car your brother bought?
12. How much money do you have?
13. Where does live your teacher?
14. What time you go to bed every night?
15. Do you ever drink coffee at night?
16. Why dont you buy a new computer?
17. How many states the U.S. has?
18. How many students in the class speak Spanish?

R-40 Review Lesson