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nomadi barTaia

iranul-qarTuli religiuri urTierTobebidan


(I-VI saukuneebi): dasturi

cnobilia, rom saqarTveloSi qristianobamde gavrcelebuli


iyo zoroastruli religia. rogorc ivane javaxiSvili wers:
mravali Cveulebaa SemorCenili CvenSi, `romelic
cecxlTayvanismcemlobis naSTad unda CaiTvalos~ (javaxiSvili
1979; 324).
iranul-qarTuli religiuri urTierTobebis kuTxiT Cveni
yuradReba miipyro terminma dasturi.
qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi dasturi ori
mniSvnelobiT aris ganmartebuli: dasturi _ I. Tanxmoba,
daTanxmeba... II. kuTx. (mT.) Zv. eTn. xatis msaxuri, romelsac ludis
xarSva evaleboda salocavSi; igi dekanozs emsaxureboda agreTve
saklavebis dakvlasa da xorcis ganawilebaSi. dasturs irCevdnen
gansazRvruli vadiT (erTi zogan ori wliT). rac es salocavi
daarsda, mas Semdeg mis msaxurad xevisbrebi da dasturebi iyvnen
(vaJa) (q e g l-i 1950-1964).
Cven gvainteresebs dasturis meore semantikuri datvirTva _
xatis msaxuri.
danarCen qarTul leqsikonebSi dasturis Sinaarsi asea
gadanawilebuli:
dasturi – WeSmariti, namdvili; ndobiT aRWurvili piri;
`miTxar dasturi Tu rai gWirs~ m. cx. 52V; `uwyia, viTarmed xeli
ese dasturi ars da marTali?~ lim. 79,12; brZana warvlinebad
dasturi Tvisi, romelman WeSmaritad gamoiwulilos misTvis~ Sin.
11, 126r (abulaZe 1973).
dasturi _ dajerebuli (orbeliani 1991).
dasturi _ `ludis mxarSavi, xatis mzareuli. irCeven erTi
wliT, zogan oriT; xatis momsaxure, romelic rigiT dgeba yovel
wels, soflisaTvis luds xarSavs xatSi~ /a. SaniZe/. sofeli an Temi
rigrigobiT irCevs or-or kacs xatis msaxurad, xevisbris
xelqveiTebad erTi wlis vadiT. maT unda daamuSaon xatis miwebi,
pureulisagan /qerisagan/ ki dReobebisaTvis aduRon ludi da sxva~
(xornauli 2000).
dasturs sxva datvirTvac gaaCnia _ `garda ludis mxarSavisa,
igi aris `kaci,~ romelic xatSi kurats an cxvars klavs (l. kaiS.)~
(Rlonti 1984).
maS ase, qarTul enaSi dasturi aris ori ZiriTadi
mniSvnelobiT _ 1. Tanxmoba... 2. xatis msaxuri...
rogorc aRvniSneT, Cveni yuradReba miipyro am sityvis meore
mniSvnelobam – xatis msaxuri. rogor SeiZina man es semantikuri
datvirTva?
leqsikuri erTeuli dasturi identuri fonetikuri saxiT –
‫( دﺳﺘﻮر‬dastur) aris axal sparsul enaSi, sadac misi mniSvnelobebia:
I. 1) instruqcia, miTiTeba; 2) wesi; wesrigi; 3) Tanxmoba; daSveba; II.
1) ministri, veziri, mrCeveli: 2) mTavari qurumi zoroastrul
religiaSi (rubinCiki, 1983); zoroastrTa meTauri (dehxoda 1372).
rogorc vxedavT, qarTul da sparsul leqsikonebSi mocemuli
am sityvis meore ganmarteba erTmaneTs emTxveva im gansxvavebiT, rom
dasturi erTgan qarTuli warmarTuli religiis msaxuria, meoregan
_ iranuli zoroastrulisa.
‫( دﺳﺘﻮر‬dastur)-is avesturi formaa –Ddastva, falauri – Ddastovar
// dastobar. misi mniSvnelobebia: ganmsjeli, Suakaci; pirveli veziri.
dasturTa dasturi ki msgavsia mobedTa mobedisa, romelic
umaRlesi safexuria zoroastrul religiaSi (`iasna~, 1337).
aSkaraa, rom qarTuli dasturi da axali sparsuli ‫دﺳﺘﻮر‬
(dastur)-i erTi da igive leqsikuri erTeulebia.
rodis unda Semosuliyo es termini qarTul enobriv
sivrceSi?
aRniSnuli termini Semovidoda CvenSi ara axali sparsulis,
aramed saSualo sparsulis (III-VIII ss.) gziT, radgan zoroastruli
terminebi iranelTa gamahmadianebamde _ meSvide saukunemde unda
Semosuliyo CvenSi da ara IX-X saukuneebis mere, saidanac iRebs
saTaves axali sparsuli ena.
gamodis, rom dastur-i am formiT saSualo sparsulSic
arsebula.
mzia andronikaSvilic uSvebs imas, rom dasturi, romlis
amosavalia saS. sparsuli dastovar `gamoTqmaSi SesaZloa yofiliyo
dastur~-ic, rogorc es maniqevelur falaurSia~-o (andronikaSvili
1966; 310).
cnobilia, rom sasanidebma (III_VIIss.) aqemenidebis (Zv.w.V_IIIss.)
memkvidreebad gamoacxades Tavi, Seqmnes didi imperia, daubrunes
irans saxelmwifoebrioba, aRadgines Zveli iranuli tradiciebi,
rasac zoroastruli religiis aRorZineba da axali ZaliT
gavrceleba mohyva.
ramdenadac saqarTvelos am dros mWidro urTierToba hqonda
sasanur iranTan, termini dasturic, saSualo sparsuli formiT,
swored zoroastrizmis aRorZinebis axal talRas unda
Semohyoloda qarTulSi.
am mosazrebas amyarebs is faqtic, rom dasturi am formiT
iCens Tavs meeqvse saukunis dasasrulisa da meSvide saukunis
dasawyisis moRvawis ioane mosxis `limonarSi~.
gamomdinare aqedan, dasturi, `romelic meSvide saukunidan
gvxvdeba qarTul ZeglebSi, saeWvo ar aris, manamdec yofiliyo da
aranairad ar SeiZleba, igi klasikuri sparsulidan Semosuliyo
qarTulSi” (WuluxaZe 2009).
Tumca jerjerobiT mecnierTa Soris sadavoa `limonaris~
warmoSobis zusti TariRi. magaliTad, Tu Salva nucubiZis azriT
igi meeqvse-meSvide saukuneebs ekuTvnis, mis gamomcemels ilia
abulaZes miaCnia, rom `limonari~ VIII-IX ss-is mere aris
warmoSobili. mkvlevars amis safuZvels aZlevs masSi arabul-
sparsuli leqsikis arsebobis faqti da acxadebs, rom `VIII-IX ss-ze
adre arabizmebi CvenSi saerTod SeuZlebelia, ise rogorc raime
niSanwyali axali sparsulisac, romelic imave arabobis axlo
aRmosavleTSi gamoCenis Semdeg aris warmoqmnili (VIII-IX ss-dan)~
(mosxi 1960).
am SemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia erTi garemoeba: rodesac
ilia abulaZe msjelobs `limonarSi~ arsebul axal sparsul
sityvebze, sul sami leqsikuri erTeuli mohyavs sabuTad: dasturi,
mizdi da xorbali, romelTagan erTis _ mizdis saSualo sparsuli
leqsikuri erTeuloba sakamaTo ar aris. am leqsemis avesturi
formaa _ mižd// mižda, falauri (saSualo sparsuli) _ mizd da axali
sparsuli _ mozd (‫( )ﻣﺰد‬faSangi 1377). Tu mizd-ze dayrdnobiT
gamovitanT daskvnas, maSin `limonari~ unda Seqmniliyo IX
saukuneme, swored saSualo sparsulis epoqaSi.
garda amisa, naklebad savaraudoa, rom es termini iranelTa
mier zoroastruli religiis uaryofisa da gamahmadiaenebis ori Tu
meti saukunis Semdeg axali sparsulidan (IX s-is mere) Semosuliyo
qarTul enaSi.
is, rom saSualo sparsulSi es termini dastur-is formiT ar
gvxdeba, ar unda niSnavdes imas, rom igi am saxiT maSin ar
arsebuliyo. dRemde xom sruli saxiT ar aris SemorCenili drosa
da sivrceSi sakmaod ganfenili saSualo sparsulis leqsika Tavisi
dialeqturi mravalferovnebebiT.
iqneb, sulac, qarTul enas Semoenaxos saSualo sparsuli
dastovar // dastobar-is paraluri forma _ ‫( دﺳﺘﻮر‬dastur).
qarTul enobriv sivrceSi termin dasturis arseboba albaT
im iranul-qarTul religiur urTierTobebze metyvelebs, romelic,
etyoba, garkveul xans mimdinareobda saqarTveloSi qristianobis
gamocxadebis (IVs.) Semdegac sasanur iranTan mWidro
urTierTobebis dros.
amgvarad, dastur-i qarTulSi unda Semosuliyo saSualo
sparsulidan ara ugvianes IX saukunisa.
litertatura:

1. abulaZe 1973 _ ilia abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni,


Tbilisi, 1973.
2. andronikaSvili 1966 _ mzia andronikaSvili, narkvevebi iranul-
qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobebidan, I, Tbilisi, 1966.
3. dehxoda 1372 _ 1372 ،‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫ ﻟﻐﺖ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬،‫ﻋﻠﯽ اﮐﺒﺮ دهﺨﺪا‬
4. `iasna~ 1337 _ ،‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻬﺮام ﻓﺮهﻮﺷﯽ‬،‫ ﮔﺰارش ﭘﻮر داود‬،‫ ﺑﺨﺶ دوم‬،‫ﻳﺎﺳﻨﺎ‬
5. mosxi 1960 _ ioane mosxi, `limonari~, teqsti gamokvleviTa da
leqsikoniT gamosca ilia abulaZem, Tbilisi, 1960.
6. orbeliani 1991 _ sulxan-saba orbeliani, `leqsikoni qarTuli,~
Tbilisi, 1991.
7. rubinCiki 1983 _ Персидско-русский словарь, под редакцией Ю. Рубинчика,
Москва, 1983.
8. faSangi 1377 _ ‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫ رﻳﺸﻪ ﻳﺎﺑﯽ واژﮔﺎن ﭘﺎرﺳﯽ‬،‫ﻓﺮهﻨﮓ ﻓﺎﺷﻨﮓ‬
9. q e g l-i 1950-1964 _ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni,
Tbilisi, 1950-1964.
10. Rlonti 1984 _ qarTul kilo-TqmaTa leqsikoni, Semdgeneli a.
Rlonti, Tbilisi, 1984.
11. WuluxaZe, 2009 _ ‫ رﺑﺸﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻪ وام واژﻩ هﺎﯼ اﻳﺮاﻧﯽ در ﺣﻤﺎﺳﻪ "ﭘﻠﻨﮕﻴﻨﻪ‬،‫اﻟﮑﺴﻨﺪر ﭼﻮﻟﻮﺧﺎدزﻩ‬
2009 ،‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫ﭘﻮش" اﺛﺮ ﺷﻮﺗﺎ روﺳﺘﺎوﻟﯽ‬
12. xornauli 2000 _ gigi xornauli, fSavuri leqsikoni, Tbilisi,
2000.
13. javaxiSvili 1979 _ ivane javaxiSvili, t. I, Tbilisi, 1979.

NOMADI BARTAIA

FROM IRANIAN AND GEORGIAN RELIGIOUS RELATIONSHIPS


(I-VI CC.): DASTURI

From Iranian and Georgian religious relationships the term dasturi drew my attention. The
word has two meaning in the Georgian language: 1. consent, assent..2. a servant of icon.
In the new Persian language there is also a lexeme (‫( ) دﺳﺘﻮر‬dastur), that has also two basic
meanings: 1. a) indication; b) rule; c) permission…2) chief priest of Zoroastrians.
It is obvious that the term implies one and the same lexeme.
As is also known during the Sassanidae (dynasty that ruled about A.D. 226 - 641) Georgia had
close relationships to Persia that allowed broad scope to the spread of Iranian traditions and
particularly, the revival and footing of Zoroastrianism. Supposedly, this term entered the Georgian
language space through these waves.
In Old Persian this term has a form dastva and in Middle Persian (3d -7 cc) – dastovar and
th

dastobar.
It is probable that the Middle Persian had also its parallel form ( ‫ ) دﺳﺘﻮر‬dastur. My conjecture
rests on the fact that dasturi that seems to have been borrowed from Persian is recorded in the
Georgian texts long before the framing of the New Persian language (before the 9 c.) e.g. in
th

‘Limonari’ written by Ioane Moskhi in about 6 -7 cc.


th th