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mitropoliti anania jafariZe

enobriv-kulturuli situacia saqarTveloSi: imperiuli


sqemebi da maTgan Tavis daRwevis gzebi
ufalma RmerTma ineba, kacobrioba aeSenebina erebisa da saxelmwifoebis saxiT.
istoriulad civilizebuli dedamiwa mudam saxelmwifoebad iyo dayofili,
saxelmwifoebs erebi qmnidnen da, rogorc iTqva, kacobriobis mTeli istoria erebisa
da saxelmwifoebis istoriaa, romelsac maTi urTierTobani qmnis. aqedanac Cans, rom
erebi da saxelmwifoebi RvTis nebiTaa Seqmnili.
qarTveli eris upirvelesi misia amJamad postsabWoTa viTarebaSi aris,
ganamtkicos Tavisi saxelmwifo. am mimarTulebiT, pirvel rigSi, Tanamedrove
msoflios saxelmwifoTa gamocdilebis msgavsad, saWiroa drois ori umTavresi
moTxovnilebis Sesruleba:
1. sabWoTa imperiis mier Tavsmoxveuli ideologiuri sqemebisgan gaTavisufleba
da qarTveli xalxis erTiani enobriv-kulturuli erTianobis aRorZineba;
2. saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis integracia erTian
saxelmwifoSi.
Tanamedrove erebis Camoyalibebis procesi iwyeba qveynis feodaluri
danawevrebis daZlevis, erTiani centralizebuli, nacionaluri saxelmwifos
CamoyalibebiT, erTiani saerTo Sidaekonomikuri bazris SeqmniTa da SidaeTnikuri
sazRvris moSliT. yovelive es calkeul eTnografiul da eTnikur jgufebs erTian
erad kravs. es gza ukve gaiares evropisa da aziis wamyvanma saxelmwifoebma.
samwuxarod, saqarTvelo jerjerobiT ufro emsgavseba konglomerats konfesiurad,
kulturulad, lingvisturad da, rac mTavaria, eTnikurad erTmaneTisagan
daSorebuli mosaxleobisa.
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva xalxebis integracia ar gulisxmobs imas,
rom vTqvaT, magaliTad, azerbaijanelebi qarTul eTnikur jgufad gadaiqcevian, aramed
imas, rom isini SeinarCuneben Sida eTnikur TavisTavadobas, magram saqarTvelos
Tanamedrove eris nawilad iqcevian qarTuli enis codniT, saqarTvelos sakuTar
saxelmwifod aRiarebiT, misi kulturis matareblobiT, mis srulfasovan
moqalaqeebad gadaqceviT.
ra uSlis xels saqarTvelos xalxebis integracias?
- saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebisa da erTiani kulturis ararseboba.
saqarTvelos nacias unda hqondes kulturuli erTobis gancda.
samwuxarod, rusTa 200-wliani batonobis Sedegad, amJamad qarTulma enam da
qarTulma kulturam saqarTveloSive dakarga erTaSorisi urTierTobis funqcia.
faqtobrivad saqarTveloSi amJamad arsebobs ramdenime tolxarisxovani
kultura. esaa qarTuli, rusuli, somxuri da sxva eTnosebis kulturebi. yvela isini,
rusulis garda, Tavis eTnojgufebSi arsebul Caketil sistemebs warmoadgenen.
mxolod rusuli kultura aerTianebs saqarTveloSi arsebul sxvadasxva kulturebs.
maSasadame, qarTuli kultura ki ar faravs sruliad saqarTvelos, aramed ucxo, sxva
eris kultura. rogorc iTqva, esaa rusuli kultura. Sesabamisad, rusuli ena
saqarTveloSi warmoadgens erTaSorisi urTierTobebis saSualebas. esaa erovnuli
tragedia, romelic amJamad erT-erTi udidesi Semaferxebeli mizezia saqarTvelos
xalxebis integraciisa erTian er-saxelmwifod (samwuxarod, am tragediis gancda
TiTqmis ara aqvs Cvens sazogadoebas).
qarTuli enis gavrcelebas Zvel saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
eniWeboda. saqarTvelod is teritoria miiCneoda, sadac qarTuli eniT adidebdnen
ufals da qarTuli eniT loculobdnen. dRes msoflioSi msgavsi problemebis
gadaWra dakisrebuli aqvs masmedias, masobriv kulturas, televizias, ganaTlebis
sistemebs. sayovelTao ganaTleba - skolebi saqarTveloSi unda iyos qarTulenovani,
amis miRweva albaT jerjerobiT Znelia, magram teleprogramebi saqarTveloSi unda
iyos mxolod da mxolod qarTulenovani. ar SeiZleba saxelmwifo da qveynis
momcveli kerZo telearxebi gadascemdnen rusulenovan da inglisurenovan filmebsa
da programebs. es sxva qveynebSi warmoudgenelia.
saqarTvelos samxreT regionebSi - qvemo qarTlSi, samcxe-javaxeTSi da sxvagan
televizia ZiriTadad rusulenovania, qarTuli ena gaZevebulia rusuli, somxuri da
azerbaijanuli (Turquli) enebiT. Tbilisis meore saxelmwifo arxic ki rusulenovan
da inglisurenovan filmebs aCvenebs arcTu iSviaTad. rogorc iTqva, es sxva qveynebSi
warmoudgenelia. sxva sferoSic TiTqmis aseTi viTarebaa; gaiareT rusTavelis
prospeqtze da Tqven ixilavT gasayidi wignebis uwyvet Taroebs, magram ai saocreba -
esaa ZiriTadad rusulenovani wignebi. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi Tu
kulturuli fenebi amas arc ki ganicdian; imdenadaa gamsWvaluli rusuli kulturiT
saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi sfero, rusuli enisa Tu wignebis batonoba
SeumCnevelic ki rCeba.
regionebSi qarTuli kulturis ganvrcoba da centralizebuli saxelmwifos
aRorZineba Cveni xalxis movaleobad da Rirsebis saqmed unda iqces uflis SemweobiT.
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces tele- da radio diqtorTa
metyvelebas. maTi saubari gasagebi unda iyos ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis.
ara mxolod TurqeTisa da iranis mkvidr qarTvelebs, aramed TviT saqarTvelos
msmenels uWirs tele- da radio diqtorTa uzomod aCqarebuli da aqcentirebuli
metyvelebis aRqma, miT umetes, maTi mosmena uWirT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb im
azerbaijanelebsa Tu somxebs, romelTac saxelmwifo enis aTviseba surT.
globalizaciis sayovelTao procesi safrTxes uqmnis erovnul identobas -
kulturul da cnobier kavSirs istoriul fesvebTan. am procesis Sesaxvedrad TviT
uZlieresi erebic ki emzadebodnen (centralizebuli nacionaluri saxelmwifos
daarsebiT, feodaluri danawevrebis daZleviT, saerTo Sidaekonomikuri bazris
SeqmniT, erTiani kulturuli sivrcis CamoyalibebiT, SidaeTnikuri sazRvrebis
moSliT).
saqarTvelo, viTarca mcirericxovani qveyana, rogorc aRiniSna, ufro metad
unda Seemzados globalizaciis procesis Sesaxvedrad centralizebuli saxelmwifos
gaZlierebiT; Sesabamisad, teritoriul-administraciuli mowyobis mizniT, amJamad
saqarTvelo ar unda daiyos kuTxuri niSniT Seqmnil regionalur mxareebad. aman
SeiZleba samomavlod qveynis mTlianobas safrTxe Seuqmnas. SesaZloa, amgvarma
dayofam xeli Seuwyos separatistuli tendenciebis Canergvasa da ganviTarebas
regionaluri xelisuflebis mxridan; federaluri mowyoba SeiZleba damRupveli
aRmoCndes saqarTvelosaTvis.
ivane javaxiSvils garkveuli aqvs, rom saqarTvelos erTianobas mudam
emuqreboda Temobrioba, kuTxuroba, erTiani saqarTvelos daSla-danawevreba VI-VIII
ss-Si am mizeziT moxda - "Temobriobam Tavisi gaitana da sruliad saqarTvelos mefe
damarcxda"1. feodalizmis droisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli "qarTveli eris wiaRSi
arsebuli (tomobriv-geografiuli) Temobrivi Tavisebureba" aryevda saqarTvelos
mTlianobas Sua saukuneebSi. feodaluri danawevrebis etapi ukve ganvles
globalizaciis momlodine sxva qveynebma (mag., TurqeTma, azerbaijanma, rumineTma da
sxva) da Camoyalibdnen centralizebul saxelmwifoebad.
samwuxarod, dRes saqarTveloSi aqtiurdebian Zalebi, romelTac surT,
qarTveli eri daanawevron enobriv-kulturulad, xolo saqarTvelo - federeciul
Tu konfederaciul erTeulebad. es axali movleba ar aris; jer kidev mefis ruseTi
Seecada qarTvelTa enobriv-eTnikur daSlas; kerZod, imperiis moxeleebis mier XIX
saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi daiwyo Zlieri saxelmwifoebrivi zewola afxazeTSi,
samegrelosa da svaneTSi arsebuli eklesiebidan Tu skolebidan qarTuli enis
gansadevnad. procesSi CarTuli iyo ruseTis imperiis cnobili warCinebuli saero da
sasuliero pirebi.
mas Semdeg, rac wm. dimitri yifianTan, wm. ilia marTalTan, wm. gabriel da wm.
aleqsandre episkoposTan (da sxvebTan) kamaTSi damarcxdnen egzarqosi evsevi,
gavleniani samoqalaqo pirebi: ianovski, zavadski, dek. vostorgovi da sxvebi, ruseTis
imperiis SekveTiT, samecniero wreebs daevalaT SeeswavlaT megruli da svanuri
dialeqtebi da mecnieruli meTodebiT rogorme daemtkicebinaT, rom isini
damoukidebeli "enebia". marTlac, aseTi ramdenime naSromi gamoica kidec.
"enis" statusis "dadgenis" Semdeg daiwyes wmida werilis gadmoReba megrulad
da svanurad. erT-erT umniSvnelovanes amocanad miiCnies saeklesio RvTismsaxurebidan
qarTuli enis gandevna.
1885 wels gamoica brZaneba samrevlo skolebSi qarTuli enis akrZalvis Sesaxeb.
1889 wels Tada aSordiam rusuli alfabetis safuZvelze Seqmna `megruli anbani". am
qmedebebis sapirispirod samegreloSi mowveul iqna ramdenime saeklesio kreba. maT
Soris erT-erTma, 1889 wels axalsenakSi gamarTulma samRvdeloebis yrilobam
caristuli mTavrobis politika samegrelosa da svaneTSi Seafasa rogorc
`mwvaleblobis STanasaxi, yovelgvari gandgomilobis mizezi da saRmrTo werilebis
axirebuli axsna da misi ukuRmarTi Segneba"2.
Sewuxebulma samegrelos Tavad-aznaurebma daxmareba Txoves quTaisis guberniis
Tavad-aznaurTa winamZRols dimitri yifians, romelmac werili miswera
mTavarmarTebel dondukov korsakovs. werilSi naTqvamia:
"mociqulTa droidan qarTuli ena iyo saeklesio da sakulto ena samegreloSi
da iq es ena yvelas esmis, amJamad ki axal kulturas nergaven"..., rac d. yifians
yovlad dauSveblad miCnda. Tu raoden SeZra samegrelos samRvdeloeba qarTuli enis
akrZalvis mcdelobam, iqidan Cans, rom cnobili dayudebuli beri wm. aleqsi SuSania
iZulebuli gaxda Tavisi senaki daetovebina da gzaze dauxvda egzarqos aleqsis 1903
wels misi samegreloSi mogzaurobis dros da moiTxova, mTavrobas Seewyvita
qarTuli enis devna samegreloSi.
1905 wlis 12 ivniss kvlav Sedga samegrelos samRvdeloebis kreba, romelmac
igive moTxovna wauyena mTavrobas.
sabednierod, 1905-17 wlebSi ruseTis revoluciebma imperiis yuradReba moaduna
am sakiTxis mimarT, magram amJamad ukve XXI saukunis dasawyisSi saimperio Zalebs
kvlav gadawyvetili aqvT qarTveli eris daSla-danawevrebis mizniT es saqme
warmoaCinon samecniero sakiTxad da mas amJamad Sesabamisad saTaveSi Cauyenes cnobili
samecniero institutebi Tu mecnierebi. magaliTad, cnobili enaTmecnieri [londonis
universitetis profesori] jorj hiuti, romelic aTeuli wlis manZilze Zalze
aqtiurad ibrZoda saqarTvelos daSla-danawevrebisaTvis (saqarTvelosTvis afxazeTis
Camosacileblad), dRes ukve aqtiurad ibrZvis samegrelos araqarTulobis
damtkicebisaTvis; kerZod, imperiis mier daarsebul "samenovan" gazeT "galSi"
("megrulenovan", rusulenovan, afxazurenovan) samegrelos mosaxleobas mouwodebs:
"SeqmeniT Tqveni mSobliuri megruli saliteraturo ena, kulturulad CamoscildiT
imperialist qarTvelebs, SeqmeniT megrulenovani presa, literatura, televizia,
radio da administraciuli mmarTveloba".
Cven es faqti SegveZlo CagveTvala erTeul gamonaklisad, rom ara ukanasknel
wlebSi arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutisa da ganaTlebis
saministros zogierTi muSakis mier 2007 wels gavrcelebuli e. w. `kiTxvari
qarTvelur enebze molaparakeTaTvis".
Cvens xelT arsebul "kiTxvarSi" warmodgenilia "SesaZlo" mza pasuxebi,
romlebic isea Sedgenili, rom respondenti uTuod unda dafiqrdes aseT sakiTxebze:
1) eklesiaSi locvebi unda iyos Tu ara megrulad da svanurad?
2) masmedia da misi saSualebebi (televizia, radio, presa) unda iyos Tu ara
megrulad da svanurad?
3) raionuli administraciis oficialuri ena unda iyos Tu ara megruli da
svanuri?
4) unda iyos Tu ara mwerloba megrulad da svanurad?
5) ganaTlebis arsebuli sistema unda iyos Tu ara megrul- da svanurenovani?
kiTxvebis mza pasuxebi (romlebic iqvea mocemuli) acocxlebs ianovsk-
vostorgovis Teorias, rom `sxvadasxva erebi arian qarTvelebi, megrelebi da svanebi".
magaliTad, aRniSnuli kiTxvaris (ZiriTadi monacemebis) kiTxva #21 aseTia: _
`daasaxeleT babuis erovneba mamis mxridan". misi mza pasuxebi aseTia: _ `qarTveli,
megreli, lazi, svani". magaliTad, erT-erTi kiTxva (paragrafi - enis gamoyeneba
zogadad, kiTxva #2) aseTia: _ `romelia Seni mSobliuri ena?" misi mza pasuxebia: _
`qarTuli, megruli, lazuri, svanuri". mas mosdevs aseTi provokaciuli kiTxvebi
(paragrafSi - ena da media) _ `gamodis Tu ara Jurnal-gazeTebi Tqvens mSobliur
enebze saqarTveloSi?" (e.i. megrulad da svanurad), _ `saWirod TvliT Tu ara
Tqvens mSobliur enaze gamodiodes presa?" anda _ `gaqvT mSobliur enaze
gamocemuli wignebi saxlSi?" _ `uyurebT telegadacemebs?" (e. i. megrulad da
svanurad), `saWirod migaCniaT Tu ara satelevizio gadacemebi Tqvens mSobliur
enaze?"
kiTxvaris avtorebi saeklesio sferoSic erevian da kidev erTxel acocxleben
vostorgovis survils (es axla hiutis ocnebacaa!) - enobrivad daanawevron eklesia,
Sesabamisad, kiTxvarSi Seitanes aseTi kiTxva: _ `ra enaze loculobT eklesiaSi?"
`iyenebT Tu ara locvisas mSobliur enas?" (paragrafi - piradi garemo, kiTxva
#1,2,3). iqvea miwerili mza pasuxebi: _ `qarTuli, zanuri (megruli, lazuri),
svanuri, rusuli da sxva".
rogorc iTqva, kiTxvari exeba ganaTlebis sistemasac da masSi aseTi kiTxvaa: _
`ra enaze gindaT rom miiRon ganaTleba Senma Svilebma?" (esaa paragrafi - piradi
garemo, kiTxva #14). kiTxvis mza pasuxi aseTia: _ `qarTuli, zanuri (megruli,
lazuri), svanuri, rusuli da sxva".
iqneb am kiTxvaris Semdgenel ganaTlebis saministros muSakebs gaxsenebodaT, ra
enaze werdnen ioane lazi, ioane minCxi, Wyondidelebi, dadianebi, gamsaxurdiebi; vin
CamoTvlis goTuebs Tu qiaCelebs, romelTac mSobliur enaze gamocemuli TavianTi
naSromebiT aavses saqarTvelo.
kiTxvaris avtorebi, rogorc aRiniSna, administraciis enasac exebian da aseT
kiTxvas svamen: _ `yvelaze xSirad romel enaze giwevT saubari administraciasTan,
skolebSi _ maswavleblebTan?" iqneb kiTxvaris avtorebs gaxsenebodaT, rom
samegrelosa da svaneTSi istoriulad administraciis ena iyo qarTuli. samTavro
karis kancelariac qarTulenovani iyo. qvemo iveriis xelmwifed wodebuli leon II
dadiani aRniSnavda kidec amis Sesaxeb ruseTis mefisadmi gagzavnil Tavis werilebSi.
am kiTxvariT zaraldeba zogad qarTvelTa erovnuli suliskveTeba da
sabolood mteri imarjvebs.
es kiTxvari erTi nawilia im didi proeqtisa, romelic jorj hiutis, aseve,
ucxoeli mecnieris i. gipertis koordinatorobiT da qarTvel mecnierTa erTi
nawilis TanamonawileobiT Sedga. mas afinansebs Zalze gavleniani saerTaSoriso
fondi. keTilSobiluri miznebis fondi, etyoba, moatyues, rom megrelebi da svanebi
qarTvelebi ar arian.
aRniSnuli proeqtis dafinanseba aris Zalze didi, erTi cnobiT 300 000
evromde, xolo TviT proeqtSi monawileTa oficialuri gancxadebiT es Tanxa 190 000
evromdea. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom esaa saqarTveloSi separatistuli moZraobis
dafinanseba, romelic miznad isaxavs qarTvelTa kulturuli mTlianobis daSlas.
saqarTvelos eklesiis wmida mamebi da mematianeebi miuTiTebdnen, rom
qarTvelTa kulturul mTlianobas safuZveli Cayrili hqonda jer kidev
qristeSobamde. amas amtkicebs saqarTvelos saxelmwifos pirveli gamaerTianeblis,
farnavazis Sesaxeb arsebuli cnoba, rom man ara mxolod daafuZna qarTuli
mwignobroba, anu Seqmna erTiani qarTuli kulturis safuZveli, aramed am kulturis
enac imTaviTve gansazRvruli iyo: `ara izraxeboda sxva ena Tvinier qarTulisa", mis
saxelmwifoSi, qarTlis samefoSi, romelic aerTianebda dasavleT da aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos, qarTuli ena iyo erTaderTi saerTo-saxalxo, saxelmwifo da kulturis
ena. aseTive enobriv-kulturuli viTareba daxvdaT saqarTveloSi wmida mociqulebsa
da wmida ninos. amitomac miuTiTebda kidec ruis-urbnisis krebis Zegliswera, rom wm.
andriam iqadaga mTel saqarTveloSi, xolo wm. ninom gananaTla `yovelni qarTvelni",
anu qarTveli xalxi maT Jams ukve warmoadgenda erovnul erTobas. Tanamedrove
gamokvlevebic adasturebs mematianeTa mier gamoTqmul aRniSnul Tvalsazriss. iv.
javaxiSvili wers: `yvela qarTul toms, maT Soris megrelebsac da svanebsac saerTo
warmarToba hqonda da am warmarTobas aseve gaaCnda saerTo terminologia, saerTo
qarTuli ena"3.
maSasadame, es imas niSnavs, rom qristianuli sarwmunoebis qadagebamde yvela
qarTul Tems hqonda saerTo warmarTuli sarwmunoeba saerTo qarTuli eniT, amitom
cxadia, rom saqarTveloSi qristianobis pirvelmqadageblebi isargeblebdnen am ukve
arsebuli saerTo eniT da gamoiyenebdnen kidec mas TavianTi saWiroebisaTvis, anu am
saerTo eniT isini zepirad Targmnidnen wm. werils da qadagebdnen. Cans, rom es
saerTo ena yvelas esmoda.
iv. javaxiSvilis sarwmuno azriT, qarTuli kulturis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSi
Tanabrad monawileobda yvela qarTuli Temi: "qarTvel ers Tavisi mravalsaukunovani
saxelmwifoebrivi samwerlobo ena aqvs, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic megrelebsa da
svanebsac TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili". aqedan gamomdinare, amJamad, roca svanebsa
da megrelebs acxadeben umwerlobo da ukulturo erebad, aseTi Tvalsazrisi
warmoadgens istoriul usamarTlobas, radganac maTma winaprebma saukuneTa
siRrmeebSi Seqmnes sakuTari mSobliuri mwerloba, romelsac iyenebdnen kidec
RvTismsaxurebis dros aTaswleulTa manZilze.
yovelive zemoT aRniSnuls, albaT, unda mieqces sagangebo saxelmwifoebrivi
yuradReba da, Sesabamisad, sasurvelia gamoiyos prezidentis fondidan saxsrebi,
romelmac unda uzrunvelyos am mimarTulebiT arsebuli problemebis mogvareba.

METROPOLITAN ANANIA JAPARIDZE

LINGUO-CULTURAL SITUATION IN GEORGIA: IMPERIAL


SCHEMES AND WAYS OF THEIR EVASION

The prime mission of the Georgian people in the post Soviet period is to strengthen its
statehood. Considering the experiences of the modern states of the world we must fulfill the two most
urgent demands to this direction:
1. Abandoning the ideological schemes imposed by the Soviet empire and restoring the lingual-
cultural unity of the Georgian people;
2. Integration of various ethnic groups living in Georgia to the unified state.
Unfortunately, in the present day Georgia we witness the activation of forces eager to separate
the country in the linguo-cultural aspects and the territory of Georgia into federal units. This is not a
new phenomenon. It began in the 19th century and became particular active in the 70-80s when the
Tsarist Russia exerted harsh power influence on the Georgian people starting with attempts of
excluding the Georgian language from the historic churches, particularly, in Abhkazia, Svaneti, and
Megrelia.
By the order of the Russian empire scholars were given special orders to prove by any means
that Megrelian and Svan dialects are independent languages and after "determining" the statuses of the
"languages" the next task was to replace Georgian with Russian. To this same purpose served "the
questionnaire for the Speakers of Kartvelian Languages" spread by the Arn. Chikobava Institute of
Linguistics and of some officials from the Ministry of Education of Georgia in 2007. The authors of
the questionnaire meddle in the spheres of the Georgian Church and once again live up Vostorgov’s
wish to disintegrate the Church and eliminate the cultural unity of the Georgians.
Holy Fathers of the Georgian Church and the ancient annalists emphasize that that the
foundation of the Georgians’ cultural unity had been laid long before the advent of Christianity, the
facts of which are approved by the evidences that King Farnavaz not only established the Georgian
alphabet and literacy to create unified Georgian cultural space but also the foundation of this culture
rested on the Georgian language presenting itself the only common language of the people, of the state
and culture.
The Holy Apostles and the Saint Nino-the Enlightener saw the same language and cultural
situation at their arrival in Georgia. "All the Georgian tribes, and Megrelians and Svans among them,
had the same heathen religion and this religion had the same terminology and the same Georgian
language" (Iv. Javakhishvili ).
All the Georgian tribes participated equally in the creation and development of the Georgian
culture, hence the manipulation for declaring Megrelians and Svans as uncultured people possessing
unwritten languages is a historical unfairness as their ancestors had created their culture and national
literature since the depth of thousands of centuries and have been using them in their everyday life and
for worshiping to pagan deities or serving to the Christian faith.