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Rumul-Symposium 17-19th September 2014

Jrgen Klinsmann

Jens Weiflog

Silvia Neid

Mats Wilander

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_1.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Henry Maske

Michelle Obama

Next time we might get into business


I want that chair and expresso machine included in the offer!

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_2.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Competences at Fraunhofer IWS, Dresden


Laser material processing

Surface and coating technology

Ablation and cutting

Surface Technology

PVD- and Nanotechnology

Joining

Thermal coating and additive


manufacturing

Chemical surface and reaction


technology

Material, component and process characterization

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_3.ppt

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martina Zimmermann

Professur fr Werkstoffprfung und


-charakterisierung
Institut fr Werkstoffwissenschaft
TU Dresden
Fraunhofer Institut fr
Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Dresden

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_4.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Material Characterization at Fraunhofer IWS, Dresden


Microstructure
on demand

Mechanical behavior Characterization


under application
of macro to nano Failure analysis
relevant loads
layers

2 nm

1m

e.g. laser hardening

e.g. windscreen
wipers

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_5.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

e.g. x-ray mirrors

z. B. Schaufelabriss
an Turbolader

Material Characterization at Fraunhofer IWS, Dresden

mechanical
properties

(micro)
structure

Process &
design
optimization

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_6.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Challenges in the experimental characterization


of the fatigue behavior in the VHCF regime
and its significance for the identification of failure-relevant defects

twin boundary

regular grain boundary

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_7.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Me, when I started working in


the field of VHCF!

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_8.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Outline

Introduction

Damage Mechanisms in VHCF


Challenges for Testing Strategies
Conclusion

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_9.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Relevant fatigue property = classical durability?

Fatigue Properties

Geometry

Material

S-N-curve
(directives, component tests)
lg sA

Load collective

lg n

lg N

Damage accumulation
(& numerical integration)

Fatigue Life

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_10.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Processing
Fatigue crack growth
lg da/dN

Loading conditions

lg DK

Siemens

Fatigue strength up to N = 107 no longer sufficient?

ICE-wheels:
daily performance 1425 km
=
0,5x106
=

daily about N =

Steam turbine:
rotations: 3000/min or
1500/min
Product life ~ 25.000 h

total life N = 7x108

N = 4,5x109 resp.
N = 2,25x109

aus Internetseiten des LBF, Darmstadt und Bhmer et.


al.: Dynamik u. Festigkeit von gummi-gefederten
Radreifen

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_11.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

WE-powertrain:
Slow rotation: 18-50/min
Transformator: 1500/min
= daily N=2,1x106 (under fullloading conditions)

Damage Mechanisms: Basic Assumption


Damage Mechanisms in the VHCF-Range
Material Type I

Material Type II

pure, annealed and ductile with no


(extrinsic) interior defects

with inclusions, dispersoids, pores


etc.

Mughrabi (2002, 2004, 2006):

Damage mechanism dominated by:


roughening of the surface through
irreversibility of heterogeneous plastic
deformation

size, position and distribution of the


inclusion, hardness (acc. to Murakami)

AISI 304, N > 107

Specimen
surface

Inclusion
Facet

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_12.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Damage Mechanisms and S-N-curves

M. Zimmermann: Int. Mater. Review, 2012

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_13.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Damage Mechanisms and S-N-curves

Fatigue crack initiation and crack growth


in 1.4301 at non-metallic inclusion, failure
at N = 1,49 x 108

Influence of microscopic notches becomes the fatigue life dominating parameter

Change in damage mechanism is possible

Crack initiation changes from surface to subsurface region

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_14.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Microstructural Inhomogeneity

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_15.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Damage evolution in the VHCF regime


pure nickel

formation of dislocation cell structure at


Ds/294MPa and N=1.2x1010.

isolated dipole bundles


in the VHCF regime

microcracks at Ds/289.5MPa and N=6x108

surface roughening at
N > 1010 cycles at 150 MPa

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_16.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Stoecker et al., Int. J. Fatigue, 2011

Stanzl-Tschegg, Schoenbauer, Int. J. Fatigue, 2010

pure copper

Damage evolution in the VHCF regime

Miao et al., Acta Mater., 2009

Nickel-base superalloys

J. Miao et al. (2009)

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_17.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Damage evolution in the VHCF regime


Nickel-base superalloys Nimonic 80A
Hochgesezte
pre-fatigued Proben

500

failure
Brche

stress amplitude, MPa

480

/2 = 454 MPa; Nf=2,01106

run-out
Durchlufer

460
440
420

380
360
0
10
1'000
number of cycles to failure, 106

Beanspruchungsrichtung

400
twin boundary

/2 = 410 MPa; Nf=2,09107

regular grain boundary

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_18.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Damage evolution in the VHCF regime


Aluminium alloy EN AW-6082

void formation at the crack initiation site in the vicinity of


primary MgSi-particles (due to size identified as primary
particles resulting from the initial casting process)
Cremer et al., submitted to Int. J. Fatigue, 2012
Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_19.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Challenge in the characterization of damage evolution


Nickel-base superalloys Nimonic 80A

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_20.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Challenge in the characterization of damage evolution


Metastable austenitic steel
in the fully austenitic condition

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_21.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Challenge in the characterization of damage evolution


Metastable austenitic steel
in the fully austenitic condition

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_22.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Challenges for test procedure

unwanted heating

misalignment

true strain distribution

representative
microstructure &
sample volume

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_23.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

crack initiation at
surface flaws

Mayer et al.,Int. J. Fatigue, 2009

residual stresses

Challenges for test procedure


Standardization of test procedure for the VHCF regime?
What should be the new finite number of cycles to failure?
Defined testing conditions (temperature, air humidity etc.)
Sample preparation?
Tested volume fraction?
Defined reference testing for frequency influence?
Statistical evaluation of the fatigue results (how to deal with run-outs)?
Consideration of residual stresses?
How to define the true loading condition on a microstructural basis?

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_24.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Reliable Life Prediction


Characterization of
Inhomogeneity

Probability of
Occurance

Capability of Crack
Propagation

type and size

distribution

crack growth threshold

position

damage relevance

for da/dN < 10-10

anisotropy

influence of
- temperature
- strain rate
- air humidity

strength mismatch

Microstructural
Notch Factor
Kf,micro

?
Life Prediction Curve including
Microstructural Notch Effect
+
Threshold for Crack Growth

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_25.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Microstructural Crack
Growth Threshold
DKVHCF- Thres

Probabilistic Modelling & Reliable Life Prediction


Size distribution
of inclusions
Position of inclusion

Position of inclusions

Stress distribution

Statistical Model

Monte Carlo Simulation

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_26.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Distribution of inclusion
in the fatigue sample and
in the real component

Early Crack Detection by indirect methods


Detection of crack initiation (also from sample interior)

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_27.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Early Crack Detection by indirect methods


2%
21C

95%
26 C

97%
41C

99%
85C

100%
98C

0.5 mm

1 mm

N = 2106

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_28.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

N = 3107

Inhomogeneity through Processing


Coating
Primal forming
e.g. casting

Forming
e.g. beding

Cutting
e.g. punching

Joining
e.g. welding

Modifying
inherent
properties

Even higher complexity in damage evolution to be expected!


Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_29.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Welded Structures

s
R

Weld geometry

SN

WEZ

Welding defects

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_30.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

GW

microstructure

Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Welded Structures

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_31.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Welded Structures

VHCF strength is dominated by weld defects


Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_32.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Summary

Me (Us?) and the current state of the art in VHCF research!

Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_33.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann

Many thanks
to the organizers of this colloquium for the invitation to give this lecture!
to the audience for their interest in my talk!
to my very ambitious and hard working PhD students Christian
Stcker, Carsten Mller-Bollenhagen, Martin Cremer, Andrei
Grigorescu, Philipp Hilgendorff, Anton Kolyshkin!
to the german research foundation and the RWTV Stiftung for
financial support

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martina Zimmermann


Tel. 0172 1645855
E-Mail: martina.zimmermann@tu-dresden.de
martina.zimmermann@iws.fraunhofer.de
Fraunhofer IWS
BRT: WP2013_34.ppt

Lehrstuhl fr Werkstoffprfung und -charakterisierung


Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Zimmermann