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[9.

3] Assume a pressurized water reactor has the parameters specified in the example at
the end of Chapter 8.3. Assume the core has a thermal resistance or R f = 0.50 oC/MW(t),
5
. If the reactor fuel and moderator temperature coefficients are f 3.2 10 o C1 and

m 1.4 105 o C1
a. Determine the isothermal temperature coefficient.
b. Determine the power coefficient.
Part a: From Eq. (9.29) the isothermal temperature coefficient is just
T f m 3.2 105 1.4 10
5 4.6
10
5 / o C
Part b: Following Eq. (9.33) the power coefficient is
P R f f (2Wc p ) 1 ( f c )
Using data from Chapter 8 example
Wc p 27.2 103 kg/s6.4 10
3 J/kg 174 10
6 J/s 174MW

Thus

P 0.50(3.2 105 ) (2 174)


1 ( 3.2
10
5 1.4
105 )
(1.6 0.013) 105 1.61 10
5 / MW
Thus the fuel provides much more of the power coefficient than does the coolant.

[9.4] At full power 1000 MW(t) sodium-cooled fast reactor has coolant inlet and outlet
temperatures of 350 and 500 oC, and an average fuel temperature of 1,150 oC. The fuel
5 0
5 0
and coolant temperature coefficients are f 1.8 10 / C and c 0.45 10 / C .
a. Estimate the core thermal resistance and the mass flow rate, taking for sodium c p
= 1,250 J/kg/ 0 C .
b. Estimate the temperature and power defects, assuming a cold temperature of
180 0 C .
Part a: Take the average coolant temperature from Eq. (8.39) as
Tc 1 2 (Ti To ) 1 2 (350 500) 425 0 C
From Eq. (8.32) the thermal resistance is
T Tc 1150 425
Rf f

0.725 o C/MW
P
1000c
Form Eq. (8.37) the mass flow rate is
P
1000 106
W

5,333 kg/s
c p (To Ti ) 1250(500 350)
Part b: With constant temperature coefficients, for the temperature defect Eq. (9.34)
simplifies to
DT T (Ti Tr ) ( f c )(Ti Tr )
(1.8 105 0.45 10
5 )(350
180) 9.45

10
6
For the power defect Eqs. (9.33) and (9.35) simplify to
DP R f f (2Wc p ) 1 ( f c ) P
0.725(1.8 105 ) (2
5,333 1250
106 ) 1 ( 1.8
105 0.45
10 5 )
1.31 105 0.101 10
5 1000 1.4
10
2

[9.5] A 3000 MW(t) pressurized water reactor has the following specifications:; core
thermal resistance 0.45 oC/MW(t), coolant flow, 68x106 kg/hr; coolant specific heat
6.4x103 J/kg oC . The fuel temperature coefficient is
1 k
7.2 104

( o C) 1
k T f
273 T f
and the coolant temperature coefficient by
1 k
30 1.5Tc 0.010Tc2 106 ( o C) 1
k Tc
a. Over what temperature range is the core overmoderated?
b. What is the value of the temperature defect? Assume room temperature of 35 oC
and an operating coolant inlet temperature of 290 oC.
c. What is the value of the power defect?
Part a: As we learned in chapter 4 a liquid cooled and moderated reactors temperature
coefficient is positive if it is overmoderated. This is based on the isothermal temperature
coefficient. Thus for this problem
7.2 104
T f m
30 1.5T 0.010T 2 106
273 T
Determining the temperature at which this coefficient vanishes analytically, involves
solving a quadric equation. Instead we simply plot the coefficient.
Part b. We apply Eq. (9.34) to T
290
290

720
DT
dT 30 1.5T 0.010T 2 dT 106
273 T
35
35

taking x 273 T and hence dT 2 xdx in the first integral then gives
563
290

DT 720 2 dx 30 1.5T 0.010T 2 dT 10


6

35
308
290

1.5 2 0.010 3
23.7

DT 720 2 x 17.5 30T T


T 10
6
2
3

35

6
DT 89.28 7650 62156 81215 10 11.5 10
3

Part c. The power defect is determined by substituting the temperature dependent


coefficients into Eq. (9.35)
Tf ( P )

DP

Ti

f dT f

Tc ( P )

c dTc

Ti

Tc ( P )
T f ( P ) 720
DP
dT f
273 T f
Ti
Ti

2
30 1.5Tc 0.010Tc dT c 106

where Ti Ti = 290 oC, R f = 0.45 oC/MW(t), W= 68x106 kg/hr x3600-1 hr/s =


c
18.9x103kg/s p = 6.4x103 J/kg oC . Thus
1
Tc
P Ti
2Wc p

1
3000 290 302.5 o C
3
6
2 18.8 10
6.4
10 10
3

T f R f P Tc 0.45 3000 302.5 1, 652.5 o C


Thus
302.5
1652

720
2
DP
dT f 30 1.5Tc 0.010Tc dT c 106
290
290 273 T f

Evaluating the integrals:


302.5

1.5 2 0.010 3
43.9

DP 720 2 x 23.7 30T T


T 10
6
2
3

290

DP 29, 088 377 5,555 10,972 10 6 34.1 10


3

[9.7] For the reactor specified in problem [9.4] the power is maintained at 1,000 MW(t)
while the following quasi-static changes are made
a. the inlet temperature is slowly decreased by 10 0C
b. The flow rate is slowly increased by 10%.
For each of these cases determine by how much the reactivity must be increased or
decreased to keep the reactor running at constant power.
For the simple model of problem [9.4] the reactivity is found in Eq. (9.36) , with the
absolute value signs removed to allow positive as well as negative temperature
coefficients . Since the reactor must be maintained in a critical state for the power to be
constant. We have (t ) 0 , and hence
i (t ) f T f (t ) T f (0) c Tc (t ) Tc (0) 0

where i (t ) is the control activity, which must be added or subtracted to keep the reactor
at constant power Under quasi static conditions the fuel and moderator temperatures are
determined by Eqs. (9.45) and (9.46), which we modify to allow slow changes in the flow
rate and inlet temperature :
1
Tc (t )
P Ti (t ) .
2W (t )c p

1
T f (t ) R f
P Ti (t ) .

2
W
(
t
)
c
p

Hence

1
1
P Ti (t) Tc (0)

2W(t)cp 2W(0)cp

T (t) T (0)
c

c
and likewise

1
1
P Ti (t) Tc (0)

2W(t)c
2W(0)c

p
p
The reactivity equation then becomes
W (0)

P
i (t ) f c
1
Ti (t ) Tc (0)
W (t ) 2W (0)c p

T (t) T (0)
f

Before proceeding we must calculate the flow rate: Form Eq. (8.37) the mass flow rate is
P
1000 106
W(0)

5,333 kg/s
cp To (0) Ti (0) 1250(500 350)
Plugging in the parameters from problem [9.4] into the reactivity equation:
W (0)

i (t ) 1.35 105
1 225 Ti (t ) Ti (0)
W (t )

Part a. Ti (t ) Ti (0) = - 5.0

i (t ) 1.35 105 Ti (t ) Ti (0) 6.75 10


5
If the inlet temperature decreases, the feedback reactivity increases, thus the control
system must subtract reactivity.
Part b: W (0) / W (t ) 1/1.1 0.909
W (0)
i (t ) 1.35 105
1 225 27.6 10
5
W (t )
Increasing the flow rate, decreases fuel and coolant temperature. Thus the feedback
reactivity positive, and the control system must subtract reactivity to maintain criticality.