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What is exchange?

Exchange is define as a simply switch by virtue of

which we are able to communicate from one point to
Explanation about “Telecommunication System” :
Telecommunication system requires electrical energy
for conversion of speech signals to electrical signals,
exchange switching, and transmission over a medium.
What are the components of communication system?
Source converter media destination
Different components of communication system in detail:
SOURCE: it is a originating point at which
communication system in detail.
For example: when two person talking with each other
from different places, then they are talk with each other
through a system called telephone which we say ‘A
CONVERTER: converter is a component of
communication system that convert voice signal to
electrical signal.
For example :when a person is talking with another person
through a source called telephone than his voice is not
reached to another person. A condition occur at which
voice signal is converted to electrical signal is called
MEDIA: media is a component of communication
system that is applied to convert the voice signal to
electrical signal. for example OFC{optical fiber cable}.
CONVERTER: at this stage reconversion takes
place. it is a component of communication system that
convert electrical signal to voice signal. for example, when
two man talking with each other through telephone than
one man can hear the voice of other man through
DESTINATION: Destination is simply defined
where system terminate. it is the point where we receive
the signal from a source called telephone on the other hand
we say it receiver called destination.
POWER SUPPLY: it should be noted that in exchange
there must be 24 hours power supply.
In telecom system,dc power supply is only used.
-48v to -55v{dc}
it should be noted that there must be 24 hours power
supply or power supply should not be cut off for a minute.
if this situation is ignore than there must be a great
damage in exchange. as a result exchange can destroy.

Parts of exchange
Switch room
MDF{main distribution frame}
FRS{fault record system}
Power plant
E/A room {engine and alternator
OMC{operation and
maintenance center}
Cash counter
Mobile section
FRS{fault record system}
AC plant room
Customer care center
TRA branch{telephone revenue
Supply system of exchange

It is clear that in telecom system only DC power supply

is used because of the following reasons:
1.harmonics of AC may effect the speech signals.
2.Relays used in telecom system are more sensitive to
DC than AC.
3.transistors and IC’s etc,being unidirectional
devices, the use of DC has become necessary.
4.arranging standby source to AC is difficult compare
to DC for which secondary cells can be used as S/B
5.Not hazardous to human life.

-In the exchange it should be noted that uninterrupted

power supply is used. Simply its mean that in the
exchange 24 hours power supply is required that means
the power supply should not be cut off for a minute. for
this we use another source called secondary or standby
source which comes in work when main source destroy.
-For any uninterrupted power supply system two
sources are required. that are main source or
secondary source {or standby source}.
What is main source?
-Main source or normal source is one which supplies
power to the load round .Normal source is the source
which is always in work. For example, in the Engine
and alternator room there are two ht panel, two
transformer or two generator. from them one is called
main source which is always in work.
What is standby source?
Secondary or standby source is one which supplies
power to the load only during the absence of power
from normal source. For example in the E/A Room there
are two ht panel, two transformers or two generator.
each source is two. from them one is called main source
which is always in work or the other is called standby
source which play a role in the system when main
source is destroy.

Sub-station room
Discussion about HT PANEL:
In the HT panel there are present a relay or a circuit
breaker. There are present two HT panel one is called
main HT panel and other is called standby HT panel.
Standby HT panel works in the absence of main source.
It should be noted that PSEB transfer 11K supply to HT

Transfer of 11K 3 phase AC supply to the transformer:

Now 11K 3 phase AC supply transfers to the

transformer where it converted into 420K,3 phase AC
supply. there are also present two transformers which
play a role in the similar manner that is the HT panel.

Control panel:
Now the transformers are connected to the control panel
where all the switches to control the transformer and
generator are located.

GENERATOR: Generator is also connected to

control panel .there are two generators which are
connected to the control panel. From them one is called
main generator or other is called standby generator.

Conversion of AC voltage to DC
Rectifier is used to convert AC voltage to DC voltage.
It is simply defined as to arrive the strength of weak

OMC ROOM {operation and maintenance center}

All type of controlling is done by OMC room, which
consist of a computer as a terminal Interface. OMC
room environment temperature between 20 degree to 24
degree C.

OCB exchange working under Unix operating system,
for communication between human and exchange
through PC using windows NT environment. The
terminals control all the operation through commands.

PC: With the help of PC we check all the status of

exchange hardware. It show the alarm on terminal , if
any critical problem in the exchange .All the facility,
provided to the subscribers through this terminal .The
exchange data can also be analysis by DBMS packages
like FoxPro and visual FoxPro. For official work, on
this pc terminals used the software package MS office
2000{ MS-word,MS-excel,MS-access}.

On the exchange media OFC{optical fiber cable}

PCM can be create, delete or modify and controlled
by this terminals.

From OMC room Now New communication

technology like WLL{wireless local loop}are control
from the pc terminals. The version of WLL is the best
that is CDMA{code division multiple access}.WLL
has many advantages in landline, It is very successful

In the exchange media 4 terminals attached with

exchange .these four terminals are interconnected
through exchange. these four terminals are:

CV stands for visual control

These four terminals are interconnected through

exchange if any terminals has been linked down, we can
up the terminals with the help of other terminals.
Number of terminals attached to the exchange is
depends upon the ‘How many number’ of user can be
communicate with exchange.
PC terminals increase or decrease at any time:
Parts of PC:
5.CPU contains the following parts:
HDD,FDD,CD-ROM, Tape derive etc.

For produced the hard copy, used a DOT MATRIX

24 PIN and 132 columns printers. These printer are
direct attached with PC terminals Individual printer
attached the individual PC Terminals. One laser
printer are used only for print the official Documents.
INTERNET: In OMC ROOM on PC terminals
access the internet using a modem and telephone line.
Modem used for modulation and demodulation of
data. Now ISDN {integrated service digital
network}technology used for high rate transferred of


The power plant is usually referred as’heart’ of
telecom system.
1.signaling 2.switching 3.transmission

----three basic requirements for power

a. reliability of the components
b. free from noise and humidity
c. sensitivity

Source of Power: 1.AC mains 220V single

phase or 440V 3 phase 50 Hz.
2.S/B{standby}-S/B power supply like generator sets.

Types of power plant:

1.low size:5-12amp
3.Large size:100-180amp

Parts of power plant:1.Battery charger

2.Float rectifier
3.Switching cubical
Battery charger +Filter circuit works as float rectifier.
Three way to use Battery:
1.charge discharge system
2.Standby battery system
3.Float battery system
-In OCB Exchange two battery SETA and SETB are
used having the capacity of one set is 2000 amp/h.
One set of battery consist of 24 cells. The Voltage of
one cell is 2.15 to 2.20.

In OCB exchange used a VRLA Battery{value

regulated lead acid}Battery used for maintenance
Battery charge range from 44V to 65V.The maximum
volt in one cell 2.56V

WORKING: Exchange required a load

Hence exchange required-46V to –52V for working.

Measure as Amp-hours.
Factors effecting the capacity of battery:
1.Quantity and Condition of active material.
2.Design of Plates
3.Temperature of electrolyte.
4.Density and specific gravity of electrolyte.
5.The case at which the electrolyte can circulate
around the palter.
6.The rate of discharge: Ampere Hour efficiency:
A/H efficiency= i*t/I*T*100
i=rate of discharge in Ampere
I=rate of charge in ampere
t=time of discharge in hours
T=time of charge in hours
-Specific gravity of electrolyte decrease due to
discharge and vice versa capacity of battery
increase in temp in electrolyte. increase the capacity
of battery but decrease the battery life.
-Initial charge of battery: Requirement of
charge of battery
1.Building work
3.Battery charger
5.Measuring instruments
Specific gravity required 1840
-Battery charge from 44 to 65v
The charge with in 24 hours during filling the
electrolyte in battery.
-Purpose of Initial charge:
1.To soften the plates
2.To convert pbso4 into heating active material.
Maintenance of battery:
1.Avoid overcharging of battery
2.Avoid undercharging of battery
3.Avoid high acid temp
4.Avoid high acid density
5.Proper maintenance.

Factors effecting the battery:

1.High acid temp
2.High acid density
5.Bad maintenance
Routine Test/check of battery
1. Pilot cell reading-daily
2. All cell reading-weekly
3. check of electrolyte-weekly
4. number of plates, Nuts & bolts-half yearly
Life of battery-10 to 15 years
After the life of battery life is 15 years
After the life of battery 75% to 80%capacity
it mean battery are dead.

OCB-283 system

Functional architecture: The alcatel

E10 system is located at the heart of the
telecommunication networks concened. It is
made up of three independent functional
units:” the subscriber access system”
-“connection and control”
-“operation and maintenance”.

TIME BASE{BT}:The BT ensures time

distance for LR and PCM to provide the
synchronization, and also for working out the
exchange clock. Time distribution is tripled.
Time generation can be either autonomous or
slaved to an external rhythm with a view to
synchronize the system with the network.

The SMX is a square connection matrix
matrix with a single time stage T ,duplicated
in full, which enables up to 2048 matrix
links{LR}to be connected. A matrix link LR
is an internal PCM, with 16 bits per
channel{32 channels}.

PCM controller {URM}

The URM provides the interface between
external PCMs and the OCB 283.These PCM
come from either:-A remote subscriber digital
access unit{CSN}or from a remote electronic
satellite concentrator{CSE}.
-Another switching center, on channel-
associated signaling or CCITT NO :7.
-The digital recorded announcement
equipment auxiliary equipment
The ETA Supports:
-the tone generator
-The frequency receiving and
-conference circuits{CCF},
-The exchange clock
CCS7 protocol handler{PUPE}and
CCS7 controller{PC}:CCITT no.7 protocol
For connecting of 64 K bits signaling channels, semi-
permanent connections are established via the
connection matrix, to the PUPE which processes
the CCITT NO.7 protocol.

responsible for the establishment and breaking off
of communications-The call handler takes the
decisions necessary for processing of
communications in terms of the signalling received
,after consolations of the subscriber and analysis
database manager {TR}if necessary. The call
handler processing new calls and hanging-up
operations, releases equipment, commands
switching on and switching off etc. In addition, the
call handler is responsible for different
management tasks{control of tests of circuit, study
Subscriber and analysis database manager

{TR}{TRANSLATOR}.The TR functions
carries out management of the analysis, subscribers
and circuit group database.
The TR supplies the call handler ,on request from it,
with subscribers circuits characteristics necessary
for establishing and breaking off communications,
The TR also ensures match between the dialing
received and the addresses of the circuit groups or
subscribers{Pre-analyses, translations functions.
:The TX function carries out charging for
TX is responsible for:
-calculating the amount to be charged for each
-keeping the charge account of each subscriber served
by the switching center,
-supplying the necessary information for drawing up
detailed billing, online to the OM.
IN addition, TX carries out tasks of observation of
circuits and subscribers observations.
The GX function is responsible for processing and for
defence of connections on receipt of:
-request for connection or disconnection coming from
call handler{MR}or message distributor
-connection faults signaled by the matrix switch
controller function{COM}.
The MQ function is responsible for distribution and
formatting of certain internal messages.but, above
all ,it carries out.
-supervision of semi-permanent connections{“data
-transmission of messages between the
communication multiplexes{“gateway” function}
One to five communication multiplexes are used to
transmit message from one station two another.
FUNCTION{OM}:The functions of the
operation and maintenance subsystem are carried
out by the operation and maintenance
The operating authority accesses all hardware and
software equipment of the Alactel 1000 E10 system
via computer terminals belonging to the operation
and maintenance subsystem. Consoles, Magnetic
media, intelligent terminal. these functions can be
grouped into 2 categories:-
-operation of the telephone application
-Operation and maintenance of the system
In addition ,the operation and maintenance subsystem
carries out:
-loading of software’s and data for connection and
command and for the subscriber digital access units,-
temporary backup of detailed billing information,
-centralization of alarm data coming from connection
and control station ,via alarm rings,
-Finally the operation and maintenance subsystem
permits two way communication with operation and
maintenance networks, at regional or national
SMC: Main control station
SMA: auxiliary equipment control station.
SMT: Trunk control station
SMX: matrix control system
SMM: maintenance station
STS: Synchronisation and time base station.

TRANSMISSION: media of transmission:

1. MARR: multi-access radio relay
2. Digital MUX{multiplexing}
3. Digital UHF{ultra higher frequency}
4. Digital M/W{microwave}
5. Digital coaxial
6. OFC
7. Satellite transmission


In the circuit 2 channels and 15 subscriber.
2. 4/30 system
In this system 4 channels and 30 subscriber extend

up to –36.
3. 8/60 8 channels and 60 subscriber extend up to 72.

MDF: {main distribution frame}:MDF combine

the switching equipment and external plant.
All the line with in the exchange in are strike in
numerical order .Two conductor Jumper wire is used in
MDF{white and red}

Facilities provided by MDF:

1.permanently terminate of external point
2.Cross conducting External circuit to the
3.A mean path interconnection. Point for fault
:MDF one side is exchange side and other is line side.

2.Testing point
3.Protection from over voltage and current.
-For the protection of exchange two types fuses are
1. DAF: Delay action fuse for protection

against higher current.

2. GDT: Gas discharge tube for protection

against voltage surge {lightening etc}

GDT-when voltage is increased then it convert

into ions in GDT tube .it works as an insulator.
Capacity of current-200mA when current more
than 350mA than it will operate as insulator.

MDF Tool :
1.Wrapping Gun
2.Vacuum cleaner
3.Drill machine

OCB Exchange tag Block

1. Line side-100 pair tag block{10*10}
2. Xge side-128 pair tag block {10*8}
The corDECT system has six major sub –
systems. These are:
DECT Interface Unit{DIU}: Performs system
control and interfaces to telecom network.

Compact Base Station{CBS}:

Provides wireless access in the area on twelve
simultaneous channels.

A wireless fixed terminal, connected to any standard
telephone, modem or fax machine.

A portable telephone providing voice service to a

Base Station Distributor{BSD}:

Connects four remotely located CBS to the DIU using
an EI link.

Network Management System {NMS}:

Manages multiple DIUs and there associated CBS and
Wall sets each corDECT System comprises of one DIU,
20 compact base stations, and up to 1000 handsets or
wallsets, typically between 30-70 per CBS.A wallset
can be used up to 5km from a base station with a line-
of-sight-link, while a handset can be typically used
within 50-300 m from a base station depending on the
obstructions between the base station and itself. Each
base station is connected to the DIU using three pairs of
0.4 mm twisted pair cable. Alternatively, a base station
may be connected to a Base Station Distributor, which
itself is connected to a DIU on an EI optical fiber or
radio link. To service subscribers in sparely populated
areas, it is possible for a wallset to be programmed in a
special mode which would allow it to be used up to 10
kms from a base station with a line-of-sight-link. The
manner in which the corDECT subsystems are

DECT Interface Unit:

The DIU is a DECT exchange for wireless subscribers
and provides an interface to Public Switched Telephone
Network{PSTN}.functions such as call processing,
CBS powering, and PCM/ADPCM transcoding are
handled by the DIU. System operation and
maintenance{O&M},and remote fault monitoring can
be performed from theDIU or alternatively from a
remote location using the Network Management

Common Base Station:

The CBS is a small, unobtrusive, pole mounted or wall-
mounted unit. Each CBS serves one cell, providing up
to 12 simultaneous speech channels. The cell radius
depends on the propagation environment and antenna
gain of the handset/wallset. Typically,it ranges from
0.1-5 kms.

The handset is a small, light weight portable unit
operated from re-chargeable batteries. It allows the user
to make calls from within the coverage area of the CBS
connected to one DIU. The handset has intelligence to
handover from one CBS to another. The same HS can
be used with different DIUs{say at home & office}by
appropriate re-registration when moving from one
location to another
The wallset is a small wall-mounted unit with an
external antenna and powered from a/c mains. An
internal battery provides backup in case of power
failure. The external antenna provides gain and extends
the range of a CBS in areas where CBS density is low.
The wallset provides a standard RJ-11 telephone socket
so that any telephone, fax machine, modem or even a
payphone can be connected to it.

Base Station Distributor:

The Base Station Distributor is an optional unit used
when a cluster of CBS are to be located some distance
away from the DIU. The BSD is connected to the DIU
on EI lines and each E1 carries signals for four CBS.

Network Management System:

The corDECT system provides a Network Management
System{NMS}which could be used to manage up to 30
DIUs and their subscribers.

Relay Base Station:

In order to extend coverage to 25kms.a relay base
station is required.


Introduction to WLL:
A Local Telephone System without wire line connected
to fixed radio communication system is known as
Wireless Local Loop.

What is Wireless Local Loop{WLL}?

• WLL is sometimes called fixed cellular.
• WLL system can be treated as a wire line loop
system without wire line connected.
• WLL is normally used for rural or unpopulated
• WLL can be quick solution fir developing
telephone infrastructure.

Why use WLL?

• Eliminates many problems and reduce cost

inherent to wireline loop system in certain areas.
• Decreases the time to deploy a network.
• Mobility and flexibility.

Advantages of WLL

• Ease of installation and deployment and lower

• Ease of operation, administration and
maintenance and lower cost.

Advantages over Mobile

• Bigger coverage area
• Improved signal and reduced interference
{fixed to fixed link}
• Higher capacity

Fixed to fixed propagation

• WLL propagation {fixed to fix} using free
space loss formulas based on 29db/sec.
• Mobile radio propagation {fixed to
mobile} based on 40db/sec.

• C/I=10 dB under a non-fading fixed to fixed condition.
• C/I=18 dB under a mobile radio condition.

Frequency reuse distance is reduced


• Fixed-to-fixed link {using directional antennas in
both ends}.
• Mobile-to-fixed link {using directional antenna
on the end}.


• For C/I=10 dB, the frequency reuse distance

D equals 2.78 times the cell radius R.
• For C/I=18 dB, the frequency reuse distance D
equals 4.6 times the cell radius R.

 AN: Access Network

 ALM: Antenna Line Data Module
 AT: Acceptance Testing
 ATM: Automatic teller machine
 BS: Base Station
 BSC: Base Station Controller
 BTS: Base Transceiver
 BRA: Basic Rate Access
 BCC: Bearer Channel Connection
 CLIP: Calling line Identification
 CER: Call Event Record
 C-Channels: Communication
Channels {16th time slot E1 link]
 CMR: Call Manager
 CRT: Cathode Ray Tube
 CDMA: Code Division Multiple
 CCM: Coin Collection Module
 DLE: Data Link Entity
 DSS: Digital Switching System
 DTU: Digital Terminal Unit
 DP: Distribution Port
 DDF: Digital Distribution Frame
 DIU: Dect Interface Unit
 E1: 2.048 Mbps PCM Link
 EQN: Equipment number
 ETSI: Euopian Telecommunications
Standards Institite
 FITL: Fibre In The Loop
 FRS: Fault Record System
 FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple
 FRFC:Float Rectifier Float Control
 GPC:Global Path Control
 GRRA:Global Routing and
Resource Allocation
 GSM:Geographic Service Mobile
 HDT:Host digital Terminal
 HTML:Hyper Text Mark up
 ISDN: Integrated Service Digital
 ITC: Indian Telephone Card
 IMSI: International Mobile
Subscriber Identity
 LE: Local Exchange
 LCC: Line Connected Card
 LJU: Line Jointer Unit
 LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
 MDF :Main Distribution Frame
 MMS: Multimedia Message Service
 MAX: Main Automatic Exchange: A
Generic Term Used for C-DOT Family of
Switching Systems
 MAX-L :Main Automatic Exchange-
 MAX-XL: Main Automatic
Exchange-Extra Large
 MMI: Man Machine Interface
 ONU: Optical Network Unit
 OTP: Originating Terminal Process
 OMC: Operation & Maintenance
 OCB: Operation Control Bherison
 PCM: Pulse Code Modulation
 PSTN: Public Switched Telephone
 PHC: Protocol Handler Card
 POTS: Plain Old Telephone System
 PDA :Personal Digital Assistant
 PRA: Primary Rate Access
 SMS: Short Message Service
 SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
 SMPS: Switch Mode Power Supply
 SBM: Single Base Module
 SCP: Status Control Process
 SMH: Signalling Message Handler
 SU: #7 Signalling Unit
 TTP: Terminating Terminal Point
 TDMA: Time Division Multiple
 UPS: Uninterrupted Power Supply
 V5.X:Standard Interface Specified by
ETSI between LE and AN
 VU:V5 Unit
 VRLA: Value Regulated Lead Acid
 WLL: Wireless in local loop


CARDS,ITC{VCC}:ITC service is also known as
“prepaid card calling service”. This is a hard paper
card containing a secret card number printed on it.
Unlike a magnetic card, it is not used physically in
connecting a call. This service allows a user to make
a call from any telephone any destination by using
this card number and charges are debited his ITC
without any charging on the telephone number used
for making such a call by Card holder.


a. Rs.102/-for making local calls
b. Rs.216/-foe making local and STD calls
c. Rs.524/-for making local, NSD&ISD



STD CALLS: This facility is available in all
electronic exchange except C-DOT-128 and NEAX
exchange. By using this facility the subscriber can
lock/unlock ISD/NSD/RSD calls, so as to avoid
misuse. This procedure in different exchanges is as
given on page no. XLVIII.

3.Wake up/Reminder Call facility
4.Hot Line
5 . Abbreviated Dialing
6 .Call Transfer
CLI{calling line identification}
8.Computerized Automatic

Switching Room
Switch Room Consists of Different
 SMM RACK: Multi System Multi station
 SMC RACK: Main Control Station

 SMX RACK: Switching Matrix

 SMA RACK: Auxiliary Multi Station

 CSN RACK: Subscriber Rack

network concentrated }
 SMT RACK: Trunk Multiple Station
SMM Rack is the head of exchange .All type of
programming is control through this rack. This rack
may be divided into two parts: SMMAA. &
SMMA B.SMM b. Rack consists of the following
 GX
 MR
 TR
 MQ
 PC
SMC Rack : in this rack all the facility of the
subscriber are store in this rack like Lock facility ,
out going calls and incoming calls, CLIP ,
STD/ISD etc.
SMX :- All the call made through this rack. SMX
give the route for destination.

SMA : In this rack all the secondary function

performed .
CSN : All the subscriber’s Numbers are
terminate in this rack . CSN rack connect the
exchange side and subscriber’s .

SMT :- In the Rack all the PCM are terminate
in this rack. SMT RACK connect with TAX
exchange through OFC.

Sign of Co-ord (T&P) Sign. Of officer in charge Training

SLIET Of organization.


1. About Exchange
2. Detail about components of
communication system
3. Parts of exchange
4. Connection in the E/A room
5. OMC room
6. PC
7. Internet
8. Battery and Power Plant
9. Types Of Power Plant
10. Parts of power plant
11. OCB-283 system
12. Transmission
13. MDF
15. WLL
16. Abbreviations
17. Other information
18. Switch room