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University of Malaya KEEE 2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Malaya KEEE 2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Malaya KEEE 2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Malaya KEEE 2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Malaya

KEEE 2142 Introduction to Communication System

Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering e-mail: hrkhari@um.edu.my

2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering e-mail: hrkhari@um.edu.my
2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering e-mail: hrkhari@um.edu.my
2142 Introduction to Communication System Dr.Harikrishnan Department of Electrical Engineering e-mail: hrkhari@um.edu.my

Microwave Radio Communication

Microwave Radio Communication Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from
Microwave Radio Communication Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from

Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more.

Microwave signals has relatively short wavelengths due to their inherently high frequencies.

The vast majority of electronic communications systems established since the mid-1980s have been digital in nature and thus carry voice, video and data information in digital form.

Terrestrial (earth-based) microwave radio relay system using (FM) or digitally modulated carriers (PSK or QAM) still provide approximately 35 % o the total in ormation carrying circuit mileage.

f

f

There are many different types of microwave systems operating over distances that vary from

15

miles to 4000 miles in length.

Intrastate microwave system categorized as short haul because they carry information for relatively short distances.

Long haul microwave system are those used to carry information for relatively long distances

In a typical microwave radio link, information originates and terminates at the terminal stations, where repeaters are used to relay the information to the next downlink microwave station.

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 1 shows a microwave radio link that are interconnected by three
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 1 shows a microwave radio link that are interconnected by three

Figure 1 shows a microwave radio link that are interconnected by three repeater stations.

radio link that are interconnected by three repeater stations. Figure 1 University of Malaya KEEE 2142

Figure 1

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) As the described in Figure 1 the geographic location of the stations
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) As the described in Figure 1 the geographic location of the stations

As the described in Figure 1 the geographic location of the stations must be carefully selected such that natural and man-made barriers do not interfere with propagation between stations.

Advantages

Disadvantages

• Radio systems do not require a right of way acquisition

• It is more difficult to analyze and design circuits at microwave frequencies

• Because of their high operating frequencies, microwave radio systems can carry large quantities of information.

• Measuring techniques are more difficult to perfect and implement at microwave frequencies.

• High frequencies mean short wavelengths, which require relatively small antennas.

• It is difficult to implement conventional circuit components (resistors, capacitors, inductors and so on) at microwave frequencies.

• Distances between switching centers are less

• Transient time is more critical at microwave frequencies

• Minimal crosstalk exists between voice channels

• It is often necessary to use specialized components for microwave frequencies.

• Each station requires the purchase or lease of only a small area of land.

• Microwave frequencies propagate in a straight line, which limits their use to line of sight applications

A vast majority of existing microwave radio systems are frequency modulation, which of course analog. Recently however systems have been developed that use either PSK or QAM modulation

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Satellite communication systems are similar to terrestrial microwave radio
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Satellite communication systems are similar to terrestrial microwave radio
Satellite communication systems are similar to terrestrial microwave radio systems. The primary difference is one
Satellite communication systems are similar to terrestrial microwave radio systems. The primary
difference is one propagates within the Earth’s atmosphere and the other outside.
Frequency modulation (FM) is used in microwave radio systems rather than amplitude
modulation (AM) because AM signals are more sensitive to amplitude nonlinearities.
Transmitter

Receiver

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) The permissible distance between an FM microwave transmitter and its associated
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) The permissible distance between an FM microwave transmitter and its associated

The permissible distance between an FM microwave transmitter and its associated microwave receiver depends on several system variables, such as transmitter output power, receiver noise threshold, terrain, atmospheric conditions, system capacity and performance expectations.

A single hop microwave system, is inadequate for most practical system applications, where with systems that are longer than 40 miles or when geographical obstructions, such as mountain, block the transmission path, repeaters are needed.

such as mountain, block the transmission path, repeaters are needed. Repeater University of Malaya KEEE 2142

Repeater

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) A microwave repeater is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) A microwave repeater is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to

A microwave repeater is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to back or in tandem with the system. The location of intermediate repeater sites is greatly influenced by the nature of the terrain between and surrounding sites.

The exact distance is determined primarily by line of site path clearance and received signal

strength. For frequencies above 10 GHz, local rainfall patterns could also have a large bearing

on

path length.

Over time radio path losses vary with atmospheric conditions that can vary significantly, causing

corresponding reduction in the received signal strength of 20, 30, or 40 or more dB. This reduction in signal strength is referred to as radio fade.

a

Diversity suggests that there is more than one transmission path or method of transmission available between a transmitter and receiver. In microwave systems, the purpose of using diversity is to increase the reliability of the system by increasing its availability.

When there is more than one transmission path or method of transmission available, the system can select the path or method that produces the highest quality received signal. Generally the highest quality is determined by evaluating the carrier to noise (C/N) ratio at the receiver input.

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Frequency diversity microwave system Free space path loss is often defined as
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Frequency diversity microwave system Free space path loss is often defined as
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Frequency diversity microwave system Free space path loss is often defined as

Frequency diversity microwave system

Free space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects.

Free space path loss assumes ideal atmospheric conditions, so no electromagnetic energy is actually lost or dissipated.

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) The mathematical expression for free space path loss is : L P
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) The mathematical expression for free space path loss is : L P

The mathematical expression for free space path loss is :

L

P

D

 

4

=  

2

where

L

P

=

Free space path loss (unitless)

 

D

=

Distance (kilometers)

 

f

=

Frequency (hertz)

   

=

Wavelength (meters)

When the frequency is given in MHz :

L P = 32.4 + 20log f + 20log D ( MHz ) ( km
L
P =
32.4 + 20log f
+ 20log D
(
MHz
)
(
km
)

When the frequency is given in GHz :

L P = 96.6 + 20log f + 20log D ( GHz ) ( km
L
P = 96.6 + 20log f
+ 20log D
(
GHz
)
(
km
)

(1)

(2)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) In its simplest form, system gain (G S ) is the difference
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) In its simplest form, system gain (G S ) is the difference

In its simplest form, system gain (G S ) is the difference between the nominal output power of a transmitter (P t ) and the minimum input power to a receiver (C min ) necessary to achieve satisfactory performance.

System gain must be greater than or equal to the sum of all gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from a transmitter to a receiver.

In essence system gain represents the net loss of a radio system, which is used to predict the reliability of a system for a given set of system parameters.

Ironically, system gain I actually a loss, as the losses a signal experiences as it propagates from a transmitter to a receiver are much higher than the gains.

Therefore, the net system gain always equates to a negative dB value (loss). Because the system gain is defined as a net loss, individual losses are represented with positive dB values, while individual gains are represented with negative dB values.

Mathematically system gain in its simplest form:

G

S

= P

t

C

min

(3)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where G S = System gain (dB)   P t = Transmitter
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where G S = System gain (dB)   P t = Transmitter

where

G

S

=

System gain (dB)

 

P

t

=

Transmitter output power (dBm or dBW)

 

C

min

=

Minimum receiver input power necessary to achieve a given reliability and quality objective

input power necessary to achieve a given reliability and quality objective University of Malaya KEEE 2142

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where A t   = Transmit antenna gain relative to an isotropic
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where A t   = Transmit antenna gain relative to an isotropic

where

A

t

 

=

Transmit antenna gain relative to an isotropic radiator (dB)

 

A

r

 

=

Receive antenna gain relative to an isotropic radiator (dB)

 

L

P

=

Free space path loss incurred as a signal propagates from the transmit antenna to the receive antenna through Earth’s atmosphere (dB)

 

L

f

=

Transmission line loss between the distribution network (dB)

 

L

b

=

Total coupling or branching loss in the channel combining network between the output of a transmitter and the transmission line (dB)

 

FM

=

Fade margin for a given reliability objective (dB)

A more useful expression for system gain is :

G = P C ≥ FM ( dB + ) L + L + L
G
= P
C
≥ FM
(
dB +
)
L
+
L
+
L
A
A
S
(
dB
)
t
min
P
(
dB
)
f
(
dB
)
b dB
(
)
t
(
dB
)
r
(
dB
)

(4)

Fade margin is sometimes called link margin is a fudge factor that considers the nonideal and less predictable characteristic such as multipath propagation and terrain sensitivity.

Carrier to noise (C/N) ratio is probably the most important parameter considered when evaluating the performance of a microwave communications system.

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) From: N = kTB kTB kT N = 10log = 10log +
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) From: N = kTB kTB kT N = 10log = 10log +
From: N = kTB kTB kT N = 10log = 10log + 10log B (dBm)
From:
N = kTB
kTB
kT
N
=
10log
=
10log
+
10log B
(dBm)
0.001
0.001
At room temperature of 290 K :
= 174dBm+ 10log B
N (dBm)

Fade Margin (FM)

(5)

Fade margin is essentially a fudge factor included in system gain equation that considers the nonideal and less predictable characteristic of radio wave propagation, such as multipath propagation and terrain sensitivity.

FM = 30log D + 10log(6AB ) 10log(1 R) 70 …(6) multipath terrain reliability effect
FM = 30log D
+
10log(6AB )
10log(1
R)
70 …(6)
multipath
terrain
reliability
effect
sensitivity
objectives

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where FM = Fade margin   D = distance   f =
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) where FM = Fade margin   D = distance   f =

where

FM

=

Fade margin

 

D

=

distance

 

f

=

frequency

 

R

=

Reliability constant

 

A

=

Roughness factor

 

B

=

Terrain area condition

Example 1 Refer to Figure 2. For a system gain of 112 dB, a total noise figure of 6.5 dB, an input noise power of -104 dBm and a minimum (S/N) out of the FM demodulator of 32 dB, determine the minimum carrier power and the minimum transmit power. Given that the minimum C/N at the input to the FM receiver is 15 dB.

Example 2 For the system shown in Figure 3, determine G s , C min /N, C min , N and P t , given that L b = 4 dB, L f = 4.875 dB and A t = A r = 37.8 dB. Given that the minimum C/N at the input to the FM receiver is 23 dB. The terrain of propagation is a mountainous and dry environment, with A = 0.25 and B = 0.125.

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d)

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 2 Figure 3 University of Malaya KEEE 2142 HRK 14/15
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 2 Figure 3 University of Malaya KEEE 2142 HRK 14/15
Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 2 Figure 3 University of Malaya KEEE 2142 HRK 14/15

Figure 2

Microwave Radio Communication (cont’d) Figure 2 Figure 3 University of Malaya KEEE 2142 HRK 14/15

Figure 3