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From department of Energy Resoures Engineering
Stanford University

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Louis J. Durlofsky

Stanford University

Collaborators

Jerome Onwunalu

(now at BP)

Jincong He

Jon Saetrom (NTNU)

2

Reservoir

Data

Set Well

Controls

Update

Model

Field

Development

Optimization

Optimize

Well Settings

3

Outline

Field development (well placement) optimization

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm

Well pattern optimization

Production optimization

Trajectory piecewise linearization (TPWL) for

surrogate modeling

Conclusions

Field Development Optimization

Concatenation of well variables; (, ) are spatial locations:

x = {1 ,1 , 2 , 2 ,K, N , N }

well 1

well 2

well N

2N optimization variables

Representation can be generalized to handle deviated,

horizontal, or multilateral wells:

x = {( h , h , h )1 , ( t ,t , t )1 ,K}

6

Developed originally by Kennedy & Eberhardt (1995)

Models social behavior in animals and entails a cooperative

search strategy (population-based like Genetic Algorithm)

Successfully applied for subsurface flow optimization

(groundwater remediation) by Mattot et al. (2006)

http://inlinethumb61

.webshots.com

Particle velocity has 3 contributions:

(2D Search Space)

10

Population and selection:

}

Crossover:

Mutation:

11

In our tests, PSO generally outperformed GA

2 dual-lateral producers

Average PSO NPV (from 5 runs) 19% higher than GA

4 deviated producers

Average PSO NPV (from 5 runs) 7% higher than GA

12

Find well location and type (20 wells) to maximize net

present value (NPV)

2D model, 100 x 100 blocks, oil-water simulation

Swarm (population): 50; iterations (generations): 100

Perform 4 runs for each algorithm

60 optimization variables

x = {1 ,1 , i1 , 2 , 2 , i2 ,K, N , N , iN }

13

- - PSO

GA

14

15

Concatenation of well variables:

x = {1 ,1 , 2 , 2 ,K, N , N }

well 1

well 2

well N

count high computational expense

Well count N must be specified (this should also be an

optimization variable)

May be difficult to enforce distance constraints

16

(Well Pattern Description)

17

18

a

b

(,

( )

Basic parameters: (, , a, b)

19

20

Shearing

21

22

Scale

Rotate

Shear

T

Wout

= MWinT

cos

M rotate =

sin

sin

cos

23

Other Patterns

Switch from

inverted to

regular pattern

24

25

Solution Representation in

Well Pattern Description (WPD)

Number of wells determined as part of optimization

Distance constraints easily satisfied

Can be used with a variety of optimization algorithms

Optimized solution is always a repeated pattern

26

but much smaller search space, and N is specified

27

2D model, 100 x 100 grid blocks

Oil-water system, 10 years of production

Injector BHP: 6000 psi, Producer BHP: 1000 psi

Maximize NPV; run optimization multiple times

permeability

field

28

(one pattern operator)

29

injector

30

(5 runs, 4 operators, 8000 total simulations)

WWP (average)

WPD (best)

Concatenation (average,

# of wells specified)

Number of simulations

31

injector

Concatenation

WPD+WWP

32

2D model, 80 x 132 grid blocks

Oil-water-gas system, 5 years of production

Injector BHP: 2900 psi, Producer BHP: 1200 psi

Use 40 PSO particles, perform 5 runs using 3DSL

log permeability

field

33

34

WPD (pattern)

WPD+WWP performance

35

injector

36

37

Seek to minimize:

u controls, Qj cumulative production/injection

ro , cw oil revenue, water costs

subject to bound & linear/nonlinear constraints

Penalty function method:

h constraint violation,

penalty parameter

38

S j

t

( j kp ) + q j = 0

j (Sj ) - phase mobility, k - permeability tensor, qj - source

O(105-106) grid blocks

) ( ) (

Newtons method:

J = g , J = g x

39

Basic idea

Use states and Jacobians generated and saved during

training run(s) to represent new solutions

Approach

Record states and Jacobian matrices (xi, gi/xi)

Represent new solutions (xn+1) as expansions around

saved states (xi+1)

References: Rewienski & White (2003), Vasilyev et al. (2003),

Qu & Chapman (2006), Cardoso & Durlofsky (2010), He et al. (2010)

40

x2

i=3

i=1

2D state space

i=4

i=2

i=5

i=6

u0

i =7

i=8

u1

x1

Represent solutions for u1 using xi and gi/xi

41

Discretized flow equations:

g n+1 = A n+1 + F n+1 + Q n+1 = 0

g i +1

g i +1 n

g i +1 n +1

i

i +1 u u i +1

g n +1 g i +1 + i +1 x n+1 x i +1 +

x

x

+

i

x

x

u

u: controls (BHPs)

42

Linearized representation:

J

i +1

(x

n +1

i +1

A i +1 n

Q i +1 n +1

i

=

x x + i +1 u u i +1

i

u

x

TPWL representation (reduced space, multiply by T ):

( )

z n +1 = z i +1 J ir+1

A i +1 n i Q i +1 n +1

z z + i +1 u u i +1

i

x r

u r

J ir+1 = T J i +1

(ll l)

l ~ O(102 103)

43

60

60

30 = 108,000 cells (216,000 unknowns)

w = 60 lb/ft3, o = 45 lb/ft3

High resolution for all 72 well blocks

l = 304 (basis optimization applied); 448 unknowns

44

=0

=1

Training

input

Target

input

Test runs:

u = (1 )uTraining + uTarget

45

P1

P2

P3

P4

46

P1

P2

Run Time

P3

GPRS/CPR

~1 hr

TPWL

~2 sec

P4

47

Apply TPWL for direct search methods

Perform an initial training simulation

Retrain TPWL after specified number of iterations,

distance from last training, etc.

Generalized Pattern Search

(GPS)

Retrain

Training

48

Optimization set up

Optimize NPV using generalized pattern search (GPS)

Oil: $80/bbl, prod. water: $-36/bbl, inj. water: $-18/bbl

30x40x4 = 4800 grid blocks

4 producers and 2 injectors

Simulation time: 1800 days (200 day intervals)

9 control variables for each producer (36 in total)

(BHP)min = 1,000 psia; (BHP)max = 3,000 psia

49

50

Method

NPV (initial)

$106

NPV (final)

$106

# of full

simulations

Full-order GPS

49.9

170.1

2500

TPWL-guided

GPS

49.9

169.0

15

51

52

Optimization set up

Oil: $80/bbl, prod. water: $-10/bbl, inj. water: $-5/bbl

GPS with incremental penalty

20,400 grid blocks, 4 producers and 2 injectors

Simulation time: 1800 days (200 day intervals)

Prod: (BHP)min = 1,000 psia; (BHP)max = 3,000 psia

Inj: (BHP)min = 5,500 psia; (BHP)max = 7,500 psia

Nonlinear constraints: water fractions < 50%

53

34%

Optimization Results

54

Method

TPWL-guided

GPS

# of full

NPV (initial) NPV (final)

$106

simulations

$106

729

975

~12

55

Applied particle swarm optimization (PSO) for determining

placement of new wells

Devised new treatments for optimizing multiwell (field)

development problems

Demonstrated use of TPWL (trajectory piecewise

linearization) procedure for fast reservoir simulation

Incorporated TPWL into generalized pattern search

optimization of oil production

Future work: meta-optimization techniques for use with

PSO; enhance TPWL and clarify criteria for retraining;

combine field development & production optimization

56

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