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sConservation of Linear Momentum

Dustin Buenaventura, Kim Lambert Cabaobao, Elben Joseph Camama, Mariya Dennise
Concepcion, John Paoleo Dona, Sharele Ebrada, Christian Albert Factoran
Group 2
Friday / 7-10 P.M. / OZ 309
Physics Department, Adamson University, Ermita, Manila

Abstract
This experiment tends to study the primary of conservation of linear momentum on one
dimension. Formulating a formula for

1. Introduction
2.
Linear
momentum
is
defined as the product of the mass and
the velocity. It is a vector quantity and
its direction is exactly the same as that
of
the
velocity.
Unlike
energy,
momentum is not transformed from one
form into another: momentum remains
momentum and is conserved in all
processes. For any system of physical
objects, the linear momentum is
conserved provided that no outside
forces act upon that system. This
requirement that the system be isolated
is reminiscent of our requirement for
mechanical energy conservation. When
we
design
an
experiment
to
demonstrate
the
conservation
of
momentum, we attempt to insure that
the collisions are completely elastic or
completely inelastic, and that no
external forces act on our well defined
colliding system. The conservation of
momentum law states that, in the
absence of external forces, the total
momentum of a system does not
change.
3.
The basic idea is to come
up with one or more equations that
allow us to predict the final velocities in
a system of colliding objects, based on
our knowledge of the initial masses and
velocities of the collision partners. The
measurements will allow us to extract
the velocities of our collision partners
before and after they collide with each
other. The measured initial velocities can
be used to calculate predicted final
velocities.
These
predicted
final
velocities can then be compared to the
final velocities you actually observe in
order to test the conservation of
momentum law.

4. Theory
5.
Momentum: The linear
momentum of a particle or an object
that can be modeled as a particle of
mass m moving with a velocity v is
defined to be the product of the mass
and velocity:
6.

p=mv

7.
Linear momentum is a
vector quantity because it equals the
product of a scalar quantity m and a
vector quantity v. Its direction
8. is along v, it has dimensions ML/T, and
its SI unit is kg E m/s. Using Newton fs
second law of motion, we can relate the
linear momentum of a particle to the
resultant force acting on the particle. We
start with the Newtonfs second law and
substitute the definition of acceleration:
9.

f =ma

10.
This shows that the time
rate of change of the linear momentum
of a particle is equal to the net force
acting on the particle. The impulse of
the force F acting on a particle equals
the change in the momentum of the
particle. From the Newtonfs second
Law,
11. Impulse is defined as:
12.

I=f t

13. `
When we say that an impulse is
given to a particle, we mean that
momentum is transferred from an
external agent to that particle.
14.
15.
Conservation
of
Momentum: For a system consisting of
multiple masses, the total momentum of
the system is given by;
16.

m1 v 1+ m2 v 2=m1 v '1 +m2 v 2 '


(1)

17. where M is the total mass of the


system and v is the speed of the
center of mass. The total momentum of
a system of n particles is equal to the
multiplication of the total mass of the
system and the speed of the center of
mass. So long as the net force on the
entire system is zero, the total
momentum of the system remains
constant (conserved). This is called the
conservation of linear momentum.
Although the momentums of the each
particle in the system changes, total
momentum remains constant.

v=

18.

19. t=

difference=
20.

x
t

2H
g

the time in which by the computed time


the group can get the velocity of each
ball. After computing for the velocity,
the group finally can get the initial and
final momentum with the help of the
computed and the formula for the
momentum.
31.
32.
Results and Discussion
33.
This
part
of
the
dissertation shows and discusses the
result of the experimentation. The result
is shown in the table below
34.
Table 1: First Pair of Ball

(2)

35. Mass Ball 1 (gm)


37. Mass Ball 2 (gm)
39. Time (s)
41. Height (cm)

(3)

p 1( p1 ' + p'2 )
p1+ ( p1 ' + p'2 )
2

36. 3.5
38. 8.4
40. 0.259
42. 32.9

43.

100
(4)

21.
Collisions: If two bodies
collide with each other, they apply a big
force to each other in a very short time
interval.
22.
23.
Methodology
24.
25. The group used the following
materials: metal stand with clamp, 4metal balls with different sizes, meter
stick, ramp, carbon paper, scotch tape
and a bond paper.
26.
27.
28.
Set up:

46. Tot
al
initi
al
mo
me
ntu
m
52. Ball
1

47. Total final


48. momentum

53. Bal
l1

54. Ball
2

55.

p1+ p 2 '
56.
g

61.

63. 65. 67.

v1

69. 71. 73.

75.

77. 78.

p1 x 1 ' v 1 ' p1 ' x 2 ' v 2 ' p2 '

62.

64. 66. 68.

70. 72. 74.

76.

cm

cm

cm

81.
13

83. 85. 87.


4
8.4 32
86.
82.
84.
88.
102. 104.106. 108.
12
4
7.8 30
107.
103. 105.
109.

cm

cm

89. 91. 93.


1
12 48

95.
4

90. 92. 94. 96.


110. 112. 114. 116.
1
11 44
3

97. 98.
8
13

118. 119.
8
8.

111. 113. 115. 117.

120.
121.
29.
30.
The group was assigned to
determine the total and final initial
momentum of four different ball sizes.
Using the computed mass and the
measured height the group able to get

49.
%
50.
Di

Table2: Second Pair of Balls

122.

Mass Ball1 (gm)

124.

Mass Ball2 (gm)

125.64.5

Time(s)

127.0.259

126.

128.Height(cm)

130.

123.24.7

129.32.9

3.

1.

4.

5.

16.

131.
132.
T
he
data
you
6. found in the first
D two tables was
used to calculate
Ball 1
9. Ball 1
10. Ball 2
11. 13.
the first two balls
p1+ p 2 'in which the
group used the
12.
smaller ball as
g
the first mass
17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. 31. 33. 34. while the other
bigger ball was
v1
p1 x 1 ' v 1 ' p1 ' x 2 ' v 2 ' p2 '
used
as
the
18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32.
second ball.

2.
T

8.

15.

x1

Total
initial
moment
um

Total final momentum

35. 36. 37.

39. 41. 43.

45. 47. 49.

51.

53. 54.

38.

40.

42.

44.

46.

48.

50.

52.

55. 56. 58.


2

60. 62. 64.

66. 68. 70.

72.

74. 75.

57.

59.

61.

63.

65.

67.

69.

71.

73.