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Chapter 14 – Cloze Activity – Sections 4 & 5 – Pgs.

224 - 226
(red book) score possible 28

Section 4 – “Effects of Conquest” -- Pages 224 – 226

The conquests and the wealth that came with them changed Rome’s_______ and
_________. Among the changes was the replacement of small farms by large estates
called _______________. Small farms had grown _______ for food, but large farms
produced crops, __________ and __________. The Romans began to __________
wheat from such conquered areas as _______ and ________. The main reason for
this change in agriculture was _____________. During the second __________ war
the Romans had burned their crops so Hannibal could not feed his troops and now the
land was destroyed.
Only __________ and rich business people had money to fix up the farms and restore
the land. They bought the small farms and combined them to make latifundias.

Another change in agriculture was in who ________ the land. When Rome first
began expanding, they did not __________ the people they conquered. By 146 B.C.
the Romans were impressed by the ________ of Greece, Syria, and ________. Since
those areas had widespread slavery, the Romans sent thousands of _________ to
Rome as enslaved people. Most lived and worked on ____________ causing

Almost all of the farmers moved to the ______. They crowded into wooden
___________ buildings six or more stories high. The _________ that brought water
to the city were not connected to these buildings. Neither were the ___________ that
carried away the waste. Such diseases as ___________ were common.
About the only way that farmers could earn money in the city was by selling their
__________ to politicians.

When Romans began to demand taxes, as well as enslaved people, from the areas
they conquered, tax contracts were sold. _________ paid Rome ahead of
time for the contracts. Then they collected the taxes from the conquered
people. The amount of the taxes collected was not supposed to be more than
________ percent.

By 135 B.C., Rome was in trouble. The farmers had lost their __________ and were
becoming poorer. Government officials were too busy getting rich to worry about the
Republics poor. Rome was no longer _____________ stable.

Chapter 14 Section 5 – Pages 227 – 230

Many popular leaders tried to improve conditions in Rome. Some were reformers,
while others were (1)__.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was the first (2)__. He wanted to limit the amount
of land a person could own, and he wanted to divide up (3)__ and give them to the
poor. The Senate staged a (4)__ and he and hundreds of his followers were killed.
Tiberius’s brother, Gaius, a tribune, had the government take over the sale of (5)__
and sell it back to the poor below (6) __. The (7)_______ had him killed, too.

After the reformers came(8)__. General Gaius Marius thought he could end
Rome’s troubles by setting up a professional (9)__. He opened the army to
everyone and offered them (10)__, land, pensions, and booty. This helped
unemployment but hurt (11)____ because the soldiers gave loyalty to the (12)__
instead of Rome.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla led his soldiers, for the first time in Roman history, against
the capital and (13)__ broke out. Sulla made himself (14)__, or absolute ruler, of
Rome. When Sulla retired , power passed to a (15.)__, or a group of three
persons. The first triumvirate was composed of Marcus Lucinius Crassus, Gnaeus
Pompeius (Pompey), and (16)__. After Crassus’s death, Pompey and Caesar
fought for power. Caesar finally gained power after Pompey was (17)__. In 58
B.C. Caesar was made
(18) ___ of Rome. Caesar did a great deal for Rome and its people. Still some
Romans feared he would make himself (19)__. About (20)__ men, most of them
Senators, killed him on the Ides of March (March 15th) as he entered the Senate.
Caesar was (21)__ to death.

Power passed to another (22)__ made up of Marcus Antonius (Mark

Antony), (23)__, and Marcus Aemilius. All three shared control of the
Italian homeland. The triumvirate worked for a while, but (24)__ broke
out, and when it ended in 31 B.C., Octavian had won. Within four
years, he became the (25)__ of the Roman Empire.