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Hello and welcome back.

In the previous lecture Hubel and Wiesel


entertained us with their Star Wars Jedi
Knight lightsaber-like experiment and
introduced us to the concept of receptive
fields.
We learned about a descriptor model of
receptive fields, and in particular, we
looked at two different kinds of receptor
fields, center-surround receptor fields
and oriented receptive fields.
So here are some examples of these
oriented receptive fields.
And, the question that we asked was, how
are these oriented receptive fields
constructed from the center-surround type
receptive fields?
In other words, what we wanted was a
mechanistic model of how receptive fields
are constructed using the neural
circuitry of the visual cortex.
So, in order to answer this question, we
need to look at the neuroanatomy of the
visual system.
Here's what happens to the visual
information after it's processed by the
retina.
It flows through the optic nerve to this
nucleus, called the lateral geniculate
nucleus.
And from there, it flows to the primary
visual cortex or V1.
And as we know, in V1, we have receptor
fields which are elongated that look
something like this.
Whereas the lateral geniculate nucleus,
LGN, we have receptive fields that are
basically centered-surround, similar to
what you find in the retina.
And the question that we're asking is how
do we go from the center-surround
receptor fields to these elongated
receptor fields?
And the clue to this conundrum comes from
the anatomy.
So if you look at the anatomy, you'll see
that a number of LGN cells converge to
single V1 cells.
And so, what this means is that a single
V1 cell receives inputs from a large
number of LGN cells.
And so the question then becomes, how do
the inputs which have receptive fields
such as this, give rise to a receptor
field in the output in V1 that looks
something like this?
So I'll give you a couple of moments to
figure out the answer.
So are you ready?
Let's see.

Here is the answer.


It's actually quite obvious when you
think about it.
In order to form a receptive field that
is oriented and looks like this, all you
have to do is arrange the inputs to have
receptive fields that are aligned in this
particular manner.
And, given that, there is a feed forward
connection or a convergence of these
inputs onto one particular V1 cell.
This particular cell is going to behave
as if it has this type of a receptive
field.
In other words, this particular cell in
V1, our primary visual cortex is going to
behave just like the cell that we saw in
the Hubel and Wiesel movie.
It's going to respond to any bar that is
oriented in this particular way and is
bright and has this particular 45 degree
orientation.
So this particular model is a mechanistic
model of how receptive fields in V1, of
this particular kind are constructed.
And this was suggested by Hubel and
Wiesel in the 1960s.
This model is actually quite
controversial, in the sense that, it does
not take into account other inputs that
this V1 cell is receiving.
So if you look at the neuroanatomy, in V1
you'll find that there are a lot of
recurrent connections from one V1 cell to
other V1 cells.
So each V1 cell receives inputs from its
counterparts within V1, in addition to
the feed forward inputs from the LGN.
And the Hubel and Wiesel model does not
take into account these recurrent inputs
to V1.
And it turns out that these frequent
inputs also contribute to the responses
of the V1 cell.
We will look at both feed forward, as
well as recurrent networks a little bit
later in the course when we discuss
network level models.
Okay, great.
Now, let's move on to the last type of
models.
These are called interpretive models.
So we're going to look at an interpretive
model of receptive fields, and the
question that we're asking is, why are
receptive fields in V1 shaped in this
particular way?
In other words, why do they look like
this?
Why do they have this orientation and why

are they selective for bright or dark


bars?
Another way of asking the same question
is, what are the computational advantages
of such receptive fields?
Now, this is the kind of question that
perhaps an engineer or a computer
scientist would ask.
So why do we need to use these types of
receptive fields?
Do they confer any advantages?
So, let's look at one particular
interpretive model of receptive fields.
The interpretive model that we look at is
based on the efficient coding hypothesis,
so what does this hypothesis state.
Well, it states that the goal of the
brain, through evolution for example, is
to represent images as faithfully and as
efficiently as possible using the neurons
that it has.
Now, these neurons have receptive fields
RF1, RF2, and so on.
So here are some receptive fields of
neurons.
And the question we're asking is, are
these the best way, or the most efficient
way, of representing images.
And so, how do we represent images using
these types of receptive fields?
Well, as an example, I can take these
receptive feels are of three and four so
as take these two, and I can just add
them.
So imagine that they are images, so here
is a bright region in the image and a
dark region in the image bright region in
the image and dark in the image so if i
think of these as just two image patches
so these two receptive feels I can add
the two receptive fields.
And what kind of an image can I
reconstruct?
Well, if you add these two together,
you're going to get some linear
combination of these regions.
So, you have that particular shape.
So, it's going to be a really bright
region up here.
Maybe a slightly bright region here and
here and here and here.
Because you're adding the plus is here
with a little bit of the minuses over
there, and you're going to get some dark
regions over here.
And, so, what you have is an image that
looks something like that.
So, given that you are adding these two
receptive fields, you have a image that
you reconstructed that looks something

like, let's say, a plus sign.


Now, if you're given a whole bunch of
these receptive fields, you can literally
combine them in this particular way.
So this is just a summation sign over all
the receptive fields, RF1, RF2 and so on
and each of these are weighted by some
number.
So, these are the neural response, so a
linear combination of them is going to
give you some particular image.
Now, what is the goal here?
The goal is to find out what are the
receptive fields, RF1, 2, and 3, and so
on that minimize the total squared
pixel-wise errors between a given set of
images.
So one of these images, perhaps the brain
is trying to optimize its representation
for natural images.
And so we can look at the squared
pixelwise errors between natural images
and the reconstruction of those natural
images I had.
And we've also add an additional
constraint, so you want them to be
efficient and so we want these responses
for example to be as independent as
possible we don't want all the neurons to
be firing at the same time for example
and so we can add the constraint that.
We want these coefficients or these
responses r sub i to be as independent as
possible.
So given that we have now this
optimization criteria and this particular
idea of minimizing the total square pixel
wise errors.
And also keeping these responses as
independent as possible.
What are the receptive fields that
achieve this objective?
So, here's what we could do.
We could start out with a set of random
receptive fields.
So, we are assuming that we don't know
what the optimal receptive fields are.
And we could run our efficient coding
algorithm, which tries to minimize the
reconstruction error.
The error of the square pixel-wise errors
between the reconstructed images and the
actual images, and we can run it on
natural image patches.
So, why natural image patches?
Well, we can assume that the brain has
evolved to process natural images.
In that case, if the brain is indeed
trying to perform efficient coding, then.
Perhaps it's trying to be efficient on

these types of images, natural images of


plants and trees et cetera.
And so we can take these kinds of images
and run our efficient coding algorithm on
tiny patches.
So here's an example of a tiny patch.
So we can randomly sample from different
locations on these natural images and
then run the efficient coding algorithm.
So what is the efficient coding
algorithm?
Well, there's several different kinds.
So one is called sparse coding and this
was suggested by Olshausen and Field.
Another one is independent component
analysis and this is suggested by Bell
and Sejnowski.
And then another algorithm called
predictive coding.
Was suggested by myself and Dana Ballad
this was back when I was a graduate
student I think I'm giving away my age
now, but that's okay.
And basically, these three types of
efficient coding algorithms give rise to
a set of receptive fields that I have
been optimized as a less.
Reconstruct these particular tiny image
patches within these natural images as
faithfully as possible.
So, let's look at what these receptor
fields that started out as random, but,
then they were tuned by the efficient
coding algorithm, what they look like
after they've converged.
Aha, so here they are.
What you see here is that each of these
is one particular receptor feel that has
been learnt from natural images by the
efficient coding algorithm.
And you'll see that each of them seems to
have remarkably structured that's quite
similar to what we saw before in terms of
these types of receptive feels in V1.
In other words, they are receptive fields
that are oriented, so there's an
orientation here and they have both the
white and dark regions.
So in other words, the plus and the minus
that we saw in the V1 receptive fields,
you see them here also.
And you can see that they're localized to
different locations, so they're very
specific to location, which is another
characteristic of receptive fields.
And they're oriented and they have
different orientations that span the set
of orientations that you might get in
natural images.
And so what is the conclusion that we can

draw?
The conclusion is that the brain maybe
trying to find faithful and efficient
representations of an animals, natural
environment.
So people have applied this principle
also to other kinds of inputs, such as
sounds for example.
And they find that the auditory cortex
representation is also quite explainable
by this type of principle, the principle
of efficient coding.
Okay, great.
So we'll explore a variety of these types
of Descriptive, Mechanistic, and
Interpretive models throughout the
course.
But before we do that, we have to do one
thing and you might guess what that is?
No, it's not homeworks.
It's being introduced to neurobiology.
So a lot of you might not have a
background in neurobiology.
So for those of you have, who have never
taken a neurobiology course before, the
next set of lectures will introduce you
to neurons, synapses, and also brain
regions.
So until then, adios, amigos, and amigas.