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FIG.

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Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


Notes for the Table of Physical Constants
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
m.
n.
A.

B.
C.
D.

E.
F.
G.
H.
I.

Values in parentheses are estimated values.


The temperature is above the critical point.
At saturation pressure (triple point).
Sublimation point.
The + sign and number following specify the number of cm3 of
TEL added per gallon to achieve the ASTM octane number of
100, which corresponds to that of Isooctane (2,2,4Trimethylpentane).
These compounds form a glass.
Average value from octane numbers of more than one sample.
Saturation pressure and 60F.
Index of refraction of the gas.
Densities of the liquid at the normal boiling point.
Heat of sublimation.
Equation 2 of the reference was refitted to give:
a = 0.7872957; b = 0.1294083; c = 0.03439519.
Normal hydrogen (25% para, 75% ortho).

p.

Molar mass (molecular weight) is based upon the following


atomic weights: C = 12.011; H = 1.00794; O = 15.9994; N =
14.0067; S = 32.066; Cl = 35.4527. The values were rounded
off after calculating the molar mass using all significant figures
in the atomic weights.
Boiling point: the temperature at equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases at 14.696 psia.
Freezing point: the temperature at equilibrium between the crystalline phase and the air saturated liquid at 14.696 psia.
The refractive index reported refers to the liquid or gas and is
measured for light of wavelength corresponding to the sodium
D-line (589.26 nm).

q.

Gas at 60F and the liquid at the normal boiling point.

r.

Fixed points on the 1968 International Practical Temperature


Scale (IPTS-68).

s.

Fixed points on the 1990 International Temperature Scale


(ITS-90).

t.

Densities at the normal boiling point are: Ethane, 4.540 [29];


Propane, 4.484 [28]; Propene, 5.083 [5]; Hydrogen Chloride,
9.948 [43]; Hydrogen Sulfide, 7.919 [25]; Ammonia, 5.688 [43];
Sulfur Dioxide, 12.20 [43].

u.

Technically, water has a heating value in two cases: net (1060.


Btu/lb) when water is liquid in the reactants, and gross
(+50.313 Btu/ft3) when water is gas in the reactants. The value
is the ideal heat of vaporization (enthalpy of the ideal gas less
the enthalpy of the saturated liquid at the vapor pressure).
This is a matter of definition; water does not burn.

v.

Extreme values of those reported by reference 19.

J.

The liquid value is not rigorously CP, but rather it is the heat capacity along the saturation line CS defined by: CS = CP T
(V/T)P(P/T)S. For liquids far from the critical point, CS CP.

K.

The heating value is the negative of the enthalpy of combustion


at 60F and 14.696 psia in an ideal reaction (one where all
gasses are ideal gasses). For an arbitrary organic compound,
the combustion reaction is:
CnHmOhSjNk (s,l,or,g) + (n + m/4 h/2 + j ) O2(g)
n CO2(g) + m/2 H2O (g or l) + k/2 N2(g) + j SO2(g),
where s, l and g denote respectively solid, liquid and ideal gas.
For gross heating values, the water formed is liquid; for net
heating values, the water formed is ideal gas. Values reported
are on a dry basis. To account for water in the heating value,
see GPA 2172. The Btu/lb or gal. liquid column assumes a reaction with the fuel in the liquid state, while the Btu/ft3 ideal
gas column assumes the gas in the ideal gas state. Therefore,
the values are not consistent if used in the same calculation,
e.g. a gas plant balance.

L.

The heat of vaporization is the enthalpy of the saturated vapor


at the boiling point at 14.696 psia minus the enthalpy of the
saturated liquid at the same conditions.

The relative density (specific gravity): (liquid, 60F)/(water,


60F). The density of water at 60F is 8.3372 lb/gal.
The temperature coefficient of density is related to the expansion coefficient by: (/T)P/ = (V/T)P/V, in units of 1/T.
Pitzer acentric factor: = log10(P/Pc) 1, P at T = 0.7 Tc
Compressibility factor of the real gas, Z = PV/RT, is calculated
using the second virial coefficient.
The density of an ideal gas relative to air is calculated by dividing the molar mass of the of the gas by 28.9625, the calculated average molar mass of air. See ref. 34 for the average
composition of dry air. The specific volume of an ideal gas is
calculated from the ideal gas equation. The volume ratio is:
V(ideal gas)/V(liquid in vacuum).

An extrapolated value.

M. Air required for the combustion of ideal gas for compounds of


formula CnHmOhSjNk is:
V(air)/V(gas) = (n + m/4 ( h/2 + j)/0.20946.

COMMENTS
energy: British thermal unit (I.T.)
Btu = 251.9958 cal (I.T.) = 1055.056 J
Gas constant, R:
1.985887 Btu (I.T.)/(R lb mol)
10.73164 ft3 psia/(R lb mol)
8.314510 J/(K(mol)
Conversion factors:
1 ft3 = 7.480520 gal.
1 lbm/ft3 = 0.1336806 lbm/gal = 16.018462 kg/m3
1 psia = 0.06804596 atm = 6.894757 kPa
1 atm = 14.69595 psia = 760 Torr = 101.3250 kPa
1 Btu (I.T.) = 252.1644 calth

Units: reported values are based upon the following units with
their equivalent corresponding SI units:
mass: Pound (avdp), lbm = 0.45359237 kg
length: foot, ft = 0.3048 m
temperature: degree Fahrenheit
t/F) = 32 = [1.8(t/C)].
The Celsius scale is defined by the International Temperature
of 1990 (ITS-90), where 0C = 273.15 K.
Other derived units are:
volume: cubic foot, ft3 = 0.02831685 m3
gallon = 231 in3 = 0.0037854512 m3
pressure: pound per square inch absolute
psia = 6894.757 kPa

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FIG. 23-2 (Contd)


References for the Table of Physical Constants
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