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P.S.R.

ENGINEERING COLLEGE
SIVAKASI- 626 140
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG

CLOUD
COMPUTING

B.MAHALINGAM
FINAL EEE

B.VIGNESHWARAN
FINAL EEE

bmahalingam89@gmail.com
bvigneshwar89@gmail.com
MOB NO: 9944205513

MOB NO: 9894414572

for

ABSTRACT:
Cloud computing can be loosely defined as
using scalable computing resources provided as a

storage,

systems,

computing
and

resources,

databases)are

messaging
essentially

commoditized.

service from outside our environment on a pay-per- INTRODUCTION:


This keynote paper:
use basis. we use only what we need, and pay for

presents

21 st

only what we use. we can access any of the century vision of computing; identifies various
resources that live in the "cloud" at any time, and computing paradigms promising to deliver the
vision of computing utilities; defines Cloud
from anywhere across the Internet.
Cloud computing is a paradigm shift computing and provides the architecture for
in

how

we

architect

and

deliver

scalable creating

market-oriented

Clouds

by

applications. In the past, successful companies technologies such as VMs; provides thoughts
spent precious time and resources building an on market-based resource management strategies
infrastructure that in turn provided them a that encompass

both

customer-driven

service

competitive advantage. It was frequently a case of management and computational risk


management to sustain SLA-oriented
"You build it first and they will come." In most
cases, this approach:

resource allocation; presents some representative


Cloud platforms especially those developed in

Left large tracts of unused computing industries along with our current work towards
capacity that took up space in big
realising market-oriented resource allocation of

data centers.
Clouds by leveraging the 3rd generation

Required someone to babysit the servers.


Aneka enterprise
Grid
technology;

Had associated energy costs.


reveals our early thoughts on interconnecting

The unused computing power wasted Clouds for dynamically creating an atmospheric
away, with no way to push it out to other companies computing environment along with pointers to
or users who might be willing to pay for additional future community research; and concludes with
compute cycles. With cloud computing, excess the need for convergence of competing IT
computing capacity can be put to use and be paradigms for delivering our 21st century vision.
profitably sold to consumers. This transformation
of computing and IT infrastructure into a utility,
which is available to all, somewhat levels the CLOUD COMPUTING:
Cloud computing is a style of computing in
playing field. It forces competition based on ideas
which dynamically scalable and often virtualized
rather than computing resources.
resources are provided as a service over the
Resources that our applications and IT
systems constantly need (to meet growing demands

Internet.

THE GOAL
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Efficiency
Control
choice

Cloud

computing

customers

do

not

generally own the physical infrastructure serving as


host to the software platform in question. Instead,

Users need not have knowledge of, they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage
expertise in, or control over the technology from

third-party provider. They consume

infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.

resources as a service and pay only for resources

CONCEPT:

that they use.

The

concept

generally

incorporates

combinations of the following:


Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
Platform as a service (PaaS)
Software as a service (SaaS)

Static Dynamic = Quick & Easy


Scalability
Cost Prohibitive Cost Effective = Cost
Efficiencies
Predictable Unpredictable= Innovations
Stagnant Growth = Evolution
Traditional Hosting Cloud Hosting =

FUTURE!
Many cloud-computing offerings employ the
utility computing model, which is analogous to
how traditional utility services (such as electricity)
are consumed, while others bill on a subscription
basis.

Sharing

"perishable

and

intangible"

computing power among multiple tenants can


improve utilization rates, as servers are not
unnecessarily left idle , side effect of this approach

.
Cloud computing services often provide
common business applications online that are
accessed from a web browser, while the software
and data are stored on the servers.
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for
the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted
in computer network diagrams and is an abstraction
for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

is that overall computer usage rises dramatically,


as customers do not have to engineer for peak load
limits.

Additionally,

"increased

high-speed

bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same


response times from centralized infrastructure at
other sites.

COMPANIES THAT PREFER CLOUD

CHARACTERISING CLOUD
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VMware, Sun Microsystems, Rack space US, AT&T, just before the consumer-oriented Internet
IBM, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo are became popular. By the turn of the 21st century, the
some of the major cloud computing service term "cloud computing" began to appear more
providers. Cloud services are also being adopted by widely, although most of the focus at that time was
individual users through large enterprises including limited to SaaS.
In the early 2000s, Microsoft extended the
VMware, General Electric, and Procter & Gamble.
concept of SaaS through the development of web
As of 2009, new players, such as Bunt Cloud
services.
Computing, are gaining attention in the industry.
IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the
Flexibility; rapid scalability and de-scalability
Data replication; geo-diversity
Autonomic Computing Manifesto, which described
Easier cross-institution collaboration
advanced automation techniques such as self Any {time, place, device} access via web
monitoring, self-healing, self-configuring, and selfbrowser
Alternative if dept or central IT non- optimizing in the management of complex IT
systems.
responsive
This is where our students/fac/staff will be!
Priorities: no need to focus on commodity IT
Future of computing, esp. science

GROWTH OF CLOUD
The Cloud is a term that borrows from
telephony. Up to the 1990s, data circuits (including
those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired
between

destinations.

Subsequently,

long-haul

telephone companies began offering Virtual Private


Network (VPN) service for data communications.
The term "telecom cloud" was used to describe this
type of networking, and cloud computing is

Amazon played a key role in the


development of cloud computing by modernizing

their data centers after the dot-com bubble and,


conceptually somewhat similar.
Cloud computing relies heavily on virtual having found that the new cloud architecture.
machines (VMs), which are spawned on demand to CLOUD IN IBM
In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of
meet user needs. The term cloud had already
universities embarked on a large scale cloud
come into commercial use in the early 1990s to
computing research project, around the time the
refer to large Asynchronous Transfer Mode
term started, it was a hot topic. By mid-2008, cloud
(ATM) networks. Ill-fated startup General Magic
computing was very popular.
launched a short-lived cloud computing products in
In August 2008, Gartner Research observed
1995

in

partnership

with

several that "organizations are switching from company-

telecommunications company partners such as owned hardware and software assets to per-use
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service-based models" and that the "projected shift

Risk mitigation

to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth

Corporations or end-users wishing to avoid

in IT products in some areas and in significant

not being able to access their data or even

reductions in other areas.

losing it are typically advised to research

CHALLENGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING

vendors' policies on data security before using

Need for New, Highly Efficient


and Flexible Computing Infrastructure
Must be highly performant
Must be highly scalable
Need new more course grained

units of management and actions


Needs to be elastic

Cloud computing does not allow users to


physically possess the storage of their data it does
leave it to the provider.

creativity. The Times argues that cloud computing


is a regression to that time.
It has been a challenge that cloud
computing is "simply a trap aimed at forcing
more people to buy into locked, proprietary
systems that would cost them more.

OF

STANDARDISATION

CREATES
Complexity and switching costs
Each compute cloud vendor has different
Application model
Proprietary, vertically integrated stacks
limiting

consulting firm, Gartner, lists several security


issues that one should discuss with cloudcomputing vendors

Privileged

user

accessthat

has

specialized access to data and about the hiring


and management of such administrators?

Regulatory complianceis the vendor


willing to undergo external audits and/or
security certifications?

Overall it limited both freedom and

LACK

their services. One technology analyst and

Data locationdoes the provider allow


for any control over the location of data?
Data segregationis encryption available
at all stages, and were these encryption schemes
designed and tested by experienced professionals?
Recoverywhat happens to data in the
case of a disaster, and does the vendor offer
complete restoration, and, if so, how long does that
process take?

Investigative

SupportDoes

the

vendor have the ability to investigate any


inappropriate or illegal activity?

Long-term viabilitywhat happens to


data if the company goes out of business, and is

Choice, increasing switching costs

Multi-tenancy

data returned and in what format?


Data availabilityCan the vendor can

Need to find the balance between

move your data onto a different environment should

the security of dedicated

Infrastructure with economics of

the existing environment become compromised or

shared infrastructure.

STANDARDS OF CLOUD

unavailable?

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We no longer need interoperability of services


and

messages

(SOAP)

but

interoperability of clouds
Maybe each cloud so

Agility improves with users


able to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision

rather

technological infrastructure resources. The


big

that

cost of overall computing is unchanged.

interoperability between clouds not so critical


Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced
Interoperability certainly for application

specific

data

and

perhaps

also

for

and capital expenditure is converted to

job

operational expenditure. .
Device and location independence enable

specifications
WFS, GML for Geo-data; IVOA standards;

users to access systems. Internet, users can connect

from anywhere.
DST LHC experiment formats
Reliability improves through the use of
o
JSDL, BES etc.
multiple redundant sites, which makes cloud
Each Cloud will be proprietary but they
computing suitable for business continuity and
might want raw infrastructure standards so
disaster recovery.
they can easily swap in and out different
. Performance is monitored, and consistent
vendors disk drives
and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed
Clouds are very loosely coupled; services
using web services as the system interface.
loosely coupled
Cloud computing has virtualized compute

Key Industry Trends


d

Business cycle times shortening

power and storage delivered via platform-agnostic

and driving needs for highly elastic

infrastructures of abstracted hardware and software

infrastructure. Traditional Hosting Service

accessed over the Internet. These shared, on-

Providers and Compute Clouds becoming more

demand IT resources, are created and disposed of

similar.

efficiently, are dynamically scalable through a

variety of programmatic interfaces and are billed


Intelligence moving from hardware into variably based on measurable usage.
Security typically improves due to
software
Cheap server revolution!! Across cloud centralization of data, increased security-focused

silos
Across desk/mobile platforms
Across institutions
With enterprise IAM
With stds-based thick clients
Poster-child: Calendaring
Beware the famous

Microsoft Myopia...
The cloud is different

resources, etc.

CLOUD COMPUTING LAYERS


Six layers components of cloud computing

Application

A cloud application leverages the Cloud in

software architecture, often eliminating the need


to install and run the application on the

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customer's own computer, thus alleviating the


burden

of

software

maintenance,

operation, and support. For example:

Peer-to-peer / volunteer

Cloud architecture extends to the client,

ongoing

where web browsers and/or software applications


computing access

cloud

applications.

Cloud

storage

architecture is loosely coupled, where metadata


(Bittorrent, BOINC Projects, Skype)
Web application (Facebook)
operations are centralized. Clouds are Virtual
Software as a service (Google Apps, SAP
Clusters (Virtual Grids) of possibly Virtual
and Sales force)
Software plus services (Microsoft Online Machines

3 Main Personalities

Services)
Application/Information
Client
Sometimes referred to as SoftwareA cloud client consists of computer hardware
as-a-Service, a wide ranging services delivered via
and/or computer software which relies on
varied business models normally available as public
cloud computing for application delivery.
offering.

Development

CLOUDAS ARCHITECTURE
Cloud

architecture,

the

systems

architecture of the software systems involved


in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises
hardware and software.

Virtualization is the

Datacenter/Cloud
The key to making all of this happen
in an evolutionary way VDC-OS

Existing and multiple future app models


Security, Compliance
SLA management model
Industry standard building blocks
Scale and availability through software
Operating Systems thinning down thus

enabling better transportability.


More diversity in Operating System use
Applications becoming disaggregated,
distributed set of services
Growing proliferation of consumer Web 2.0
consumer apps on cloud platforms.
Fault tolerance built into the application or
virtual hardware layer

Sometimes referred to as Platformas-a-Service, application development platforms


enable application authoring and runtime
environment.

Infrastructure
Sometimes referred to as elastic
compute clouds or Infrastructure-as-a-Service,
virtual.

AVAILABLE CLOUD
1. Public cloud
Public cloud or external cloud
describes cloud computing in the traditional
mainstream sense, whereby resources are
dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained,
self-service basis over the Internet, via web
applications/web services, from an off-site
third-party provider who shares resources
and

bills

on

fine-grained

utility

computing basis.

2. Hybrid cloud

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A hybrid cloud environment consisting


of multiple internal and/or external providers
will be typical for most enterprises".

3. Private cloud
Private cloud and internal cloud are
neologisms that some vendors have recently
used to describe offerings that emulate cloud
computing

on

private

networks.

These

(typically virtualization automation) products


claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud
computing without the pitfalls", capitalizing on
data

security,

corporate

governance,

and

reliability concerns.
Private cloud have been criticized on
the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and
manage them" and as such do not benefit from
lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on
management,

essentially

"[lacking]

the

economic model that makes cloud computing


such an intriguing concept".

CLOUD EXTENDERS
Provider
A cloud computing provider or cloud
computing service provider owns and operates
live cloud computing systems to deliver service
to third parties. Usually this requires significant

The barrier to entry is also


significantly

higher

with

capital

expenditure

required and billing and management creates some


overhead even by small organizations, and server
consolidation and virtualization. Amazon.com was
the first such provider; modernizing its data
centers this allowed small, fast-moving groups to
add new features faster and easier.

User
A user is a consumer of cloud computing.

resources and expertise in building and The privacy of users in cloudcomputing has
managing next-generation data centers.

become of increasing concern. The rights of users


are also an issue, which is being addressed via a
community effort to create a bill of rights. The
Franklin Street statement was drafted with an eye
towards protecting users' freedoms.

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cloud, from the findings discussed


within

this

paper,

network

or

computing downtime is the most

Vendor
Some vendors sell or give products and
services that facilitate the delivery, adoption
and use of cloud computing. For example:

detrimental effect to have on the


end

user.

If

you

have

no

connectivity to the Internet or from


the

Internet

to

the

datacenter

Computer hardware (Dell, HP, IBM, and

where the cloud is hosted, you

Sun Microsystems)
Storage (Hitachi Data Systems, NetApp,

cannot access what you need to

Sun

Microsystems,

Amazon S3)
Infrastructure

EMC,

IBM,

(Cisco Systems,

and

and the entire cloud concept is


therefore made redundant.

Juniper

Networks, and Brocade Communications)


Computer software (3tera, Eucalyptus, g- REFERENCE:
Eclipse, and Hadoop)
Operating systems (Solaris, AIX, Linux
including Red Hat[80], and Ubuntu[81])
Platform virtualization (Citrix, IBM, Linux
KVM, Microsoft, Sun xVM, VMware, and
Xen)

1. Danielson, Krissi (2008-03-26).


"Distinguishing Cloud Computing from
Utility Computing". Ebizq.net.
http://www.ebizq.net/blogs/saasweek/2
008/03/distinguishing_cloud_computin
g/. Retrieved 2010-08-22.

CONCLUSION
Hence cloud computing is useful
technology in IT industry,

it also

have some disadvantages. Natural


or

physical

disaster

to

the

datacenter which houses the cloud


in hardware form would be the

2. "Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will


Be As Influential As E-business".
Gartner.com.
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?
id=707508. Retrieved 2010-08-22.

main matter of concern to the


company or those involved in the
running of the datacenter (IsecT,
2004).

On

regardless
volume

the
of

and

other

hand,

company

size

or

magnitude

of

the
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