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Quantities in Physics may be divided

into 2 types:

Scalar Quantities

Vector Quantities

has magnitude and unit


e.g. length/distance, speed,
time, mass, energy,
temperature, electric charge,
voltage

has magnitude, unit, and


direction
e.g. displacement, velocity,
acceleration, force,
momentum, impulse,
temperature change, electric
current

We must remember that a vector and a scalar cannot be added


together nor can a scalar be subtracted from a vector (and vice
versa).
On the other hand, a vector and a scalar can be multiplied
together; the resulting product has the same direction as the
vector. Dont forget to combine their units!

Coordinate systems determine how


vectors are described.
90
+y N

Compass Directions

F2

F3
180 W
-x

F1 = F1, due E
45

70

F1

E 0
+x

-y S
270

Cartesian Coordinates
F1 = F1, towards +x

F2 = F2, 70 N of E
= F2, E70N
= F2, 20 E of N
F3 = F3, due NW

Polar Coordinates
F1 = F1 0

F2 = F2, 70 above +x
= F2, 20 to the right of +y

F2 = F2 70

F3 = F3, 45 above x
= F3, 45 to the left of +y

F3 = F3 135
= F3 225

The Graphical Methods for Vector


Addition are:

Parallelogram Method

Polygon Method

used for adding 2 vectors together


The 2 vectors are drawn tail-totail; a parallelogram is then drawn
from these 2 vectors.
The Resultant Vector is then
drawn from the tails of the 2
vectors to the opposite corner of
the parallelogram.

used for adding any number of


vectors
One at a time, the vectors are
drawn and connected tip-to-tail.
The Resultant Vector is then
drawn from the tail of the first
vector to the tip of the last vector.

E
B

C
A

A
C=A+B

E=A+B+C+D

Example
Example 11
Determine the resultant displacement:
D1 = 5m, 35 S of W

Using a ruler and a protractor, the


length and angle of direction of the
resultant displacement is determined.
LDr = 8.7cm DR = 8.7m
= 87.5, S of W
The resultant displacement is then,

D2 = 7m, 30 to the right of y

DR = 8.7m, 87.5 S of W

Scale: 1m = 1cm
The order in which vectors are added
does not matter; we will arrive at the
same answer no matter the order used.

DR = D1 + D2 = ?
35

60

A+B=B+A

D1

DR
D2

Do not forget to declare


what scale you are using
whenever you use the
Graphical Method.

Scale: 0.25N = 1cm


F1 = 2N due E

Example
Example 22
A wooden block rests on a
frictionless table surface. Four
strings are attached to the block. The
first string is pulled with a force of
2N due East; the second string is
pulled with a force of 1.25N, 25
South of East; the third string is
pulled with a force of 1N due
Northwest; and finally the fourth
string is pulled with a force of 1.25N
due South. In what direction will the
wooden block move?
Since the table surface is frictionless,
the wooden block will move in the
direction of the resultant force.

F2 = 1.25N, 25 S of E
F3 = 1N due NW
F4 = 1.25N due S
25

F3
45

F1
FR

F2
F4

LFr = 10.1cm FR = 2.525N


= 22.5, S of E
FR = 2.525N, 22.5 S of E
The wooden block will move
towards 22.5 S of E.

D1
45

Example
Example 33
Five adventurers leave camp go for a
week long hike in the forest. On the
first day, they travel 5km due N. On
the second day, they travel 10km due
SE. They find themselves 2km due S
of their campsite at the end of the
third day. How far did they travel on
the third day?
Scale: 1km = 1cm
D1 = 5km due N
D2 = 10km due SE
D3 = ?
DR = 2km due S

DR
D3

D2

LD3 = 7cm D3 = 7km


= 0, due W
D3 = 7km due W
The adventurers travel around
7km on the third day.

The Analytical Methods of Vector


Addition are:

Triangle Method

Component Method

used for adding 2-3 vectors


The vectors are drawn just like in
Polygon Method.
The triangle thus drawn is
analyzed, getting as much data as
possible.
Cosine Law and Sine Law are
then used to calculate the
unknown variables.

used for adding any number of


vectors
Each vector is divided into its xand y-components using sine and
cosine functions.
Components heading in +x or +y
direction are considered positive.
Components heading in x or y
direction are considered negative.
x-components are added together;
y-components are added together.
The tangent function and
Pythagorean Theorem are used to
get the magnitude and angle of
direction of the Resultant Vector.

sin A sin B sin C


=
=
a
b
c
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

A
c
a = b + c 2bc cos A
B
2
2
2
2

b
C

b = a + c 2ac cos B

Example
Example 44
You are to program a robotic arm on
an assembly line to move in the xy
plane; its first displacement is A and
its second displacement is B with a
magnitude of 6.40cm and direction
63.0 from +x going to y. The
resultant displacement C = A + B has
a magnitude of 6.40cm but with a
direction of 22.0 from +x going to
+y. Find the displacement A.
Scale: 1cm = 1cm
A=?

63
Analyzing the triangle,

+ + = 180
= 180
A
B
= 180 22 63

= 95

C
= 180 95
22
= 85
Using Cosine Law,
A2 = B2 + C2 2BCcos
= 40.96cm2(2 2cos85)
A = 8.64755cm
Using Sine Law,
sin/A = sin/B sin = Bsin/A
sin = (6.4cm)sin85/8.64755cm
= 47.50003
A = + 22 = 47.50003 + 22
= 69.50003

B = 6.40cm, 63.0 below +x


C = 6.40cm, 22.0 above +x

A = 8.648cm, 69.500 above +x

63

Example
Example 55
An explorer in Africa leaves his hut
and travels 40 steps Northeast, 80
steps 60 North of West, then 50
steps due South. Assuming his steps
all have equal length, save him from
getting lost in the jungle and
calculate the displacement he needs
to get back to his hut.
D1 = 40 steps due NE
D2 = 80 steps, 60 N of W
D3 = 50 steps due S
D4 = ?
DR = 0

x-comp.

y-comp.

D1

40cos45

40sin45

D2

80cos60

80sin60

D3

50

D4

DR

0 = 40cos45 80cos60 + 0 + x
x = 40cos45 + 80cos60 = 11.71573
0 = 40sin45 + 80sin60 50 + y
y = 40sin45 80sin60 + 50
= 47.56630
D4 = (x2 + y2)1/2 = 48.98787 steps
tan = |y|/|x| = 47.56630 / 11.71573
= 76.16323
D4 = 48.988 steps, 76.163 S of E

Example 6
Consider the vectors in Example 2.
Determine the resultant analytically.
F1 = 2N due E
F2 = 1.25N, 25 S of E
F3 = 1N due NW
F4 = 1.25N due S
FR = ?
x = 2N + 1.25Ncos25 1Ncos45 + 0
= 2.42578N
y = 0 1.25Nsin25 + 1Nsin45
1.25N
= 1.07117N

x-comp.

y-comp.

F1

2N

F2

1.25Ncos25

1.25Nsin25

F3

1Ncos45

1Nsin45

F4

1.25N

FR

FR = (x2 + y2)1/2 = 2.65176N


tan = |y|/|x| = 1.07117N / 2.42578N
= 23.82518
FR = 2.652N, 23.825 S of E
Drawing vectors to scale
is not that important in
Component Method.
Just draw longer arrows
for bigger vectors and
take note of the angles.

Vector Subtraction is Vector Addition


with negative of a vector applied.

Negative of a Vector
The negative of a vector is a
vector multiplied by 1.
The magnitude is unaffected
because it is multiplied by 1;
likewise it is unaffected by the
negative sign because magnitude
is always positive.
The direction is the one affected;
the negative sign reverses the
direction of the vector.
A

Example 7
Get the negative of the ff. vectors:
a. A = 5m, 15 above +x
b. B = 75kph, 36 W of N
c. C = 12N 340
a. D = A = 5m, 15 below x
b. E = B = 75kph, 36 E of S
c. F = C = 12N 160

In getting the negative of a vector, it


helps to first draw the vector itself
before drawing its antiparallel vector.
If you know how the add vectors, you
also know how to subtract vectors.

B = A

A B = A + (B)

Unit Vectors present another way of


expressing vectors.

Unitless Vectors

Expressing Vectors

Unit vectors are unitless vectors


Expressing a vector using unit
with a magnitude of 1.
vectors is just like dividing the vector
into its components.
Direction is the only information
k
that a unit vector contains.
F = Fx^i + Fy^j + Fz^
Fx = x-component of F
In terms of the Cartesian
coordinate system, there are 3 unit
Fy = y-component of F
vectors:
Fz = z-component of F
^i = unit vector towards +x
F = (Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2)1/2 = magnitude
^j = unit vector towards +y
of F
^k = unit vector towards +z
If you know how to use the
z
Component Method, you also
^
know how to add vectors
k
^i
using unit vectors. Just add
x
all x-components together, all
y-components together, and all
^j
y
z-components together.

There are 3 types of Vector


Multiplication to consider:

Scalar and Vector


A scalar and a vector can be
multiplied together.
As a result, the magnitude of the
vector is either increased or
decreased but the direction remains
the same; the direction is affected
only if the scalar is negative (in
which case, the direction is
reversed).
Units are combined in the
multiplication.
m = 5kg
a = 3.5m/s2 towards y
F = ma = (5kg)(3.5m/s2 towards y)
= 17.5kgm/s2 towards y

Scalar Product
also called Dot Product
2 vectors are multiplied and the
result is a scalar quantity:
C = AB = ABcos
= angle between A & B
A

In terms of unit vectors:


C = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz
Ax,Bx = x-components
Ay,By = y-components
Az,Bz = z-components
Units are combined in the
multiplication.

Vector Product
also called Cross Product
2 vectors are multiplied and the
result is a vector quantity:
C = AB = ABsin
= angle traversed as you go from
A to B
For the direction, the Right-Hand
Rule is used. This results in:
CA
C
CB

&

In terms of unit vectors:


C = (AyBz AzBy)i^ + (AxBz
^
^
AzBx)j + (AxBy AyBx)k
Units are combined in
multiplication.
For Vector Product of unit vectors, it
helps if you write down the ^i ^j ^
k
components in matrix form: A A A
x

Remember that the MDAS Bx By Bz


Rule also applies to vectors even
though we dont have Vector Division.
Some things to remember regarding
multiplication of unit vectors:
^^
^ = 0 ^^
ii = 1 ^^
ij = 0 ^ik
jj = 1
^=0 ^
^= 1
^jk
kk
^ii^ = 0 ^ij^= ^
k
^ik^ = j^ ^ji^ = k^
^jj^ = 0 ^jk^ = ^i ^
ki^ = ^j
^
^ ^ ^ ^
kj = i kk = 0