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A Text Book on

For Degree Courses of All Branches of Engineering


For Universities, Engineering Colleges, Technical Universities,
Technical Institutions, IITs and NITs of the Country

Useful For gate, psus & UPSC EXAMINATION

by

Dr. U.C. Jindal


M.Tech, Ph.D.
Former Professor & Head of the Department
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi

MADE EASY

MADE EASY Publications


Corporate Office: 44-A/1, Kalu Sarai, New Delhi-110 016 | Website: www.madeeasypublications.org
Contact: 011-45124612, 9958995830, 8860378007

MADE EASY

MADE EASY Publications


Corporate Office: 44-A/1, Kalu Sarai, New Delhi-110016
Website: www.madeeasypublications.org | Phone: 011-45124612, 09958995830
E-mail: infomep@madeeasy.in

Engineering Mechanics : Dr. U.C. Jindal


Copyright 2013, by MADE EASY Publications.
All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced
into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photo-copying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the above
mentioned publisher of thisbook.

First Edition: 2013


ISBN: 978-93-81069-12-7

Published by: MADE EASY Publications, New Delhi-110016

Dedicated to
My Students

PREFACE
At the outset I must thank Mr. B. Singh (Chairman and Managing Director of MADE EASY
Group) who has very kindly given me an opportunity to serve the student community
through the publication of this book on Engineering Mechanics.
The present book has been designed as a self study book taking into account the severe
shortage of technical teachers in engineering colleges and technical institutions.
The text in the book is well explained through examples supplemented by self
explanatory illustrations, exercises supplemented by hints, key points to remember,
thought provoking multiple choice questions, special problems so that a student can
learn this basic subject in the shortest possible time.
The book covers all the syllabi in Engineering Mechanics of all the universities, IITs,
NITs, deemed universities. Students appearing in competitive examinations of UPSC,
GATE, PSUs will find the book as an asset to them. The book also serves the purpose
of AMIE students.
The book will greatly help the students who could not grasp the subject in the class
room.
Any suggestion for the improvement in the text of the book will be thankfully
acknowledged.

March, 2013

Dr. U. C. Jindal
Author

CONTENTS
1.

Vector Quantities in Mechanics......................................................... 1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Introduction................................................................................................................... 1
Position Vector.............................................................................................................. 1
Displacement Vector..................................................................................................... 2
Force Vector.................................................................................................................. 3
Moment of a Force about a Point.................................................................................. 4
Varignons Theorem...................................................................................................... 6
Moment of a Force about an Axis................................................................................. 7
Couple and its Moment................................................................................................. 9
Component of a Couple about a Line......................................................................... 11
Problems...................................................................................................................... 13
Key points to Remember............................................................................................. 16
Practice Problems........................................................................................................ 17
Special Problems......................................................................................................... 19
Multiple Choice Questions.......................................................................................... 20

2. Equivalent Coplanar Force Systems............................................ 22


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

Introduction................................................................................................................. 22
Resultant of a Force by an Equivalent Couple and a Force at any Other Point.......... 24
Resultant of a Coplanar Force System........................................................................ 25
Resultant of a Parallel Forces Systems....................................................................... 26
System of Distributed Forces...................................................................................... 28
Problems...................................................................................................................... 30
Key Points to Remember............................................................................................ 32
Practice Problems........................................................................................................ 33
Special Problems......................................................................................................... 34
Multiple Choice Questions.......................................................................................... 35

3. Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies................................................................ 38


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

Introduction................................................................................................................. 38
Support Reactions....................................................................................................... 38
Free body Diagrams.................................................................................................... 40
Conditions of Equilibrium.......................................................................................... 42
System of Concurrent Coplanar Forces...................................................................... 44
Coplanar Force Systems.............................................................................................. 45
Equilibrium of a Two Force Body............................................................................... 47
Equilibrium of a Three Force Body............................................................................ 48

viii
3.9
3.10
3.11

Lamis Theorem.......................................................................................................... 50
Two Parallel Forces..................................................................................................... 51
Several Parallel Forces in a Plane............................................................................... 53
Problems...................................................................................................................... 54
Key Points to Remember............................................................................................ 60
Practice Problems........................................................................................................ 61
Special Problems......................................................................................................... 63
Multiple Choice Questions.......................................................................................... 64

4. Plane Trusses.......................................................................................... 67
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

Introduction................................................................................................................. 67
Types of Plane Trusses................................................................................................ 67
Determination of Support Reactions........................................................................... 68
Determination of Forces in Members of the Truss..................................................... 70
Method of Joints.......................................................................................................... 71
Graphical Method....................................................................................................... 72
Method of Sections..................................................................................................... 75
Wind Loads on a Truss................................................................................................ 78
Practice Problems........................................................................................................ 85
Special Problems......................................................................................................... 87
Multiple Choice Questions.......................................................................................... 88

5. Centroid and Center of Gravity...................................................... 96


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8

Introduction................................................................................................................. 96
Location of Centroid................................................................................................... 96
Centroid of Simple Sections....................................................................................... 99
Centroid of Area Covered under a Curve.................................................................. 103
Centroid of Composite Section................................................................................. 107
Centre of Gravity of 3 Dimensional Bodies.............................................................. 109
Centre of Gravity of Composite Bodies.................................................................... 111
Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus.................................................................................. 112
Problems.................................................................................................................... 113
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 117
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 118
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 119
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 121

6. Beams......................................................................................................... 124
6.1
6.2
6.3

Introduction............................................................................................................... 124
Shear Force in a Beam Section................................................................................. 124
Bending Moment on a Beam Section....................................................................... 126

ix
6.4
6.5
6.6

Uniformly distributed Load on a Beam.................................................................... 128


Variable Load on Beam............................................................................................. 130
Turning Moment Applied on a Beam........................................................................ 131
Problems.................................................................................................................... 132
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 134
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 134
Multiple choice questions......................................................................................... 135

7. Spatial Forces....................................................................................... 138


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

8.

Introduction............................................................................................................... 138
Rectangular Components of a Force in Space.......................................................... 138
A Force Passing Through Two Points....................................................................... 140
Resultant of Forces in Space..................................................................................... 141
General Case of Three Dimensional Forces.............................................................. 143
Problems.................................................................................................................... 144
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 145
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 146
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 147
Multiple choice Questions........................................................................................ 148

Friction..................................................................................................... 150

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12

Introduction............................................................................................................... 150
Laws of Dry Friction or Coulombs Friction............................................................ 151
Angle of Friction....................................................................................................... 152
Block on a Horizontal Plane..................................................................................... 154
Two Mating Blocks................................................................................................... 155
Cylinder Resting on a Floor and Against a Vertical Wall.......................................... 156
Angle of Repose........................................................................................................ 158
A Force Applied on a Body Lying on an Inclined Plane........................................... 158
Bodies on Inclined Plane Connected Through a Link.............................................. 160
Ladder....................................................................................................................... 162
Wedge........................................................................................................................ 164
Friction in Wheels..................................................................................................... 165
Problems.................................................................................................................... 168
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 171
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 171
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 173
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 173

9. Application of Friction in Machines............................................. 178


9.1

Introduction............................................................................................................... 178

x
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

Screw Threads........................................................................................................... 178


Flat Belt Drive........................................................................................................... 182
Types of Flat Belt Drives.......................................................................................... 186
V-Belt and Rope Drive.............................................................................................. 187
Rolling Resistance..................................................................................................... 188
Problems.................................................................................................................... 190
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 193
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 194
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 195
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 195

10. Second Moment of Area (Moment of Inertia)........................... 197


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9

11.

Introduction............................................................................................................... 197
Rectangular Section.................................................................................................. 197
Triangular Section..................................................................................................... 198
Circular Section......................................................................................................... 199
Polar Moment of Inertia............................................................................................ 200
Parallel Axes Theorem.............................................................................................. 202
Moment of Inertia of a Section Enclosed by a Curve............................................... 204
Principal Axes and Product of Inertia....................................................................... 206
Parallel Axes Theorem for Product of Inertia........................................................... 208
Problems.................................................................................................................... 210
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 211
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 212
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 213
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 213

Virtual Work.......................................................................................... 216

11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.5

Introduction............................................................................................................... 216
Virtual Work.............................................................................................................. 216
Work Done by a Couple............................................................................................ 217
Principle of Virtual Work Applied to Beams............................................................. 218
Potential Energy and Stability................................................................................... 221
Multiple Degrees of Freedom................................................................................... 225
Problems.................................................................................................................... 227
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 228
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 229
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 230
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 231

xi
12. Rectilinear Motion.............................................................................. 235
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6

Introduction............................................................................................................... 235
Rectilinear Motion with Constant Acceleration........................................................ 236
Motion Under Gravity............................................................................................... 237
Acceleration as a Function of Time.......................................................................... 239
Acceleration as a Function of Velocity..................................................................... 241
Acceleration as a Function of Displacement............................................................. 242
Problems.................................................................................................................... 244
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 247
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 248
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 248
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 249

13. Curvilinear Motion.............................................................................. 252


13.3
13.4
13.5
13.1
13.2

Hodograph................................................................................................................. 253
Rectangular Co-ordinates.......................................................................................... 254
Tangential and Normal Co-ordinates........................................................................ 256
Introduction............................................................................................................... 252
Plane Curvilinear Motion.......................................................................................... 252
Problems.................................................................................................................... 259
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 263
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 264
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 265
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 266

14. Projectiles............................................................................................. 269


14.1
14.2
14.2
14.3
14.4

Introduction............................................................................................................... 269
Flight of a Projectile.................................................................................................. 269
Trajectory of a Projectile........................................................................................... 271
Motion of a Body Thrown Horizontally................................................................... 273
Range of a Projectile along an Inclined Plane.......................................................... 274
Problems.................................................................................................................... 277
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 280
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 281
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 281
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 282

15. Relative Velocity................................................................................. 284


15.1
15.2

Introduction............................................................................................................... 284
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation............................................................... 284

xii
15.3

16.

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion...................................................... 287


Problems.................................................................................................................... 289
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 294
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 295
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 296
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 297

Motion of Rotation.............................................................................. 301

16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4

Introduction............................................................................................................... 301
Rotation about a Fixed Axis...................................................................................... 302
Various Types of Motion of Rotation........................................................................ 304
Instantaneous Centre of Rotation.............................................................................. 308
Problems.................................................................................................................... 311
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 313
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 314
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 315
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 316

17. Kinetics of a Particle......................................................................... 318


17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8

Introduction............................................................................................................... 318
Newtons Second Law of Motion............................................................................. 318
Types of Problems..................................................................................................... 319
Motion of Two Bodies in Contact............................................................................. 322
Tangential and Normal Forces in Curvilinear Motion.............................................. 327
Constrained Motion................................................................................................... 328
Motion of a Bicycle Rider Along a Circular Track.................................................. 329
Motion of a Vehicle on a Level Circular Road......................................................... 330
Problems.................................................................................................................... 332
Key points to Remember........................................................................................... 336
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 336
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 337
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 338

18. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies in Translation.................................... 341


18.1
18.2

Introduction............................................................................................................... 341
D Alemberts Principle............................................................................................. 342
Problems.................................................................................................................... 347
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 350
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 351
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 351
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 352

xiii
19.

20.

Motion of Connected Bodies........................................................... 355

19.1

Introduction............................................................................................................... 355
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 361
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 361
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 362

Mass Moment of Inertia..................................................................... 364

20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4

Introduction............................................................................................................... 364
Moment of Inertia with Respect to a Co-ordinate Axis............................................ 365
Parallel-Axes Theorem.............................................................................................. 367
Moment of Inertia of Thin Plates.............................................................................. 370
Problems.................................................................................................................... 371
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 374
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 374
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 376

21. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies in Plane Motion.................................. 378


21.1

Introduction............................................................................................................... 378
Problems.................................................................................................................... 383
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 388
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 388
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 390

22. Rotation about Fixed Axis................................................................. 394


22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4

23.

Introduction............................................................................................................... 394
Rotation about Centroidal Axis................................................................................. 396
Inertia Force Method................................................................................................. 397
Centre of Percussion................................................................................................. 399
Problems.................................................................................................................... 401
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 404
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 404
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 406
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 407

Work and Energy.................................................................................. 410

23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5

Introduction............................................................................................................... 410
Work done by a Force during Sliding Motion.......................................................... 414
Work done by a Moment during Motion of Rotation............................................... 415
Change of Potential Energy in a Spring.................................................................... 417
Rolling Motion under Gravity................................................................................... 418
Problems.................................................................................................................... 419

xiv

Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 424


Special Problems....................................................................................................... 425
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 426

24. Impulse and Momentum...................................................................... 430


24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4

Introduction............................................................................................................... 430
Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum Principle................................................ 432
Pulse of Water Jet on a Vane..................................................................................... 433
Pile and Pile Hammer............................................................................................... 436
Problems.................................................................................................................... 437
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 444
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 444
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 445
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 446

25. Impact: Collision of Elastic Bodies.............................................. 448


25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5

Introduction............................................................................................................... 448
Coefficient of Restitution.......................................................................................... 449
Oblique Central Impact............................................................................................. 451
Impact of a Body on another Stationery Body.......................................................... 452
Loss of Kinetic Energy during Collision.................................................................. 453
Problems.................................................................................................................... 455
Key Points to Remember.......................................................................................... 462
Practice Problems...................................................................................................... 462
Special Problems....................................................................................................... 463
Multiple Choice Questions........................................................................................ 464

Index .......................................................................................................... 468