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Standard screwdriver: destornillador estndar

Phillips screwdriver: destornillador estrella


Ball-peen hammer: martillo de bola
Claw hammer: martillo de unas
Open end wrench: llave de boca
Box end wrench: llave de cubo
Adjustable open end wrench: ajustador de llave de
boca
Straight hand snips: Tijeras de mano rectas
Hacksaw: sierra para metales
Chisel: cincel
File: lima
Punch: punson
Electric drill / hand drill: taladro de mano
Wood handsaw: sierra
Pliers: alicates
Soldering iron: cautin
Soldering gun: soldador
Socket wrench: llave de tubo
ELECTRIC CURRENT
IT IS THE MOVEMENT FROM THE NEGATIVELY CHARGED
OBJECT TO POSITIVELY CHARGED OBJECT
CONDUCTORS
SILVER: PLATA
GOLD: ORO

COPPER: COBRE
ALUMINIUM: ALUMINIO
INSULATORS
PLASTIC COVERING
WOOL LANA
WOOD MADERA
RUBBER
GLASS
CERANIC
PLASTIC

OHM: ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE


VOLTAGE: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL TENSION
AMPERE IS A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRIC
CHARGE PASSING A POINT IN AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT PER
UNIT TIME
MULTIMETER
AMMETE
VOLTMETER
OHMMETER
PARTS OF ANALOG METER:
SCALE AND POINTER
SCALE AND POINTER
Electric Cell
it is a small container used to produce electricity

Elements
Zinc plate.

(It is a metal)

Carbon plate.

(It isnt a metal)

Electrolyte

(it is a liquid)

Chemical Action
Electrolyte dissolves the zinc plate and it loses protons, so
it is the negatively charged object
Protons combinated with electrolyte move to the carbon
plate, carbon plate loses electrons and it will be the
positively charged object.
When the Zinc plate is completly dissolved, the cell can no
longer produce electricity; it is called Dead cell
Batteries
Two or more cells connected together make a battery.
Batteries that have a liquid electrolyte are
Wet-cell batteries
Batteries that store electricity are Storage Batteries
Cell that can be RECHARGED are called SECONDARY cells
Terminals
every battery has two terminals, one positive and one
negative.

Magnets

A magnet is an object that attracts iron and steel


There are two types of Magnets
Natural Magnets.
Artificial Magnets
Artificial Magnets:
Permanent and Temporary Magnets
Permanent Magnet:
It will stay magnetized for a long time.
It is made of hard steel.
It is difficult to magnetize.

Temporary Magnets:
It will stay magnetized for a short time.
It is made of soft iron.
It is easy to magnetize
Magnetic Compass
The needle of a compass is a magnet; one end points
north.

The two ends of the magnet are THE NORTH POLE and
THE SOUTH POLE.
Poles Attraction
Unlike poles attract each other.

Like poles repel each other.


Magnetic field
The area around the magnet in which magnetism can be
detected is called Magnetic Field.
All magnets have a Magnetic Field
There are lines that come from the North Pole to the South
Pole, these lines are called Magnetic lines of force.
Magnetic lines of force make the magnetic field.
The total number of magnetic lines of force around a
magnet is the Magnetic Flux.
Magnets shapes
Magnets have different shapes:
Straight bar magnet. - It is straight and made of a bar of
iron or steel.
Horseshoe magnet. - It is shaped like a horseshoe or letter
U.
Ring magnet. - It is shaped like a ring.
Electromagnetism
It is the magnetism produced by an electric current
The Simple Generator
The movement of electrons in a conductor, caused by
moving the conductor through a magnetic field is called
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.
When the conductor is moved through the magnetic field,
the electrons in the conductor move
Parts of a generator:

Armature: it is the part that turns in the magnetic field.


Magnets: called stator.
The armature is turned mechanically, when it is turned,
electrical energy is produced.
Generator produces energy by changing mechanical energy
into electrical energy
Three means for Producing Electricity:
Friction. Produces static electricity.
Cells and Batteries. Produce electricity by chemical action.
Generators. Produce Electricity by changing mechanical
energy into electrical energy
Types of Current
Current that flows in only one direction is called DIRECT
CURRENT (D.C)
Batteries only produce direct current.
Current that change its direction is ALTERNATIVE
CURRENT ( A.C)