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# NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION

Activity #10
I.

Objectives:
To study newtons second law of motion and its application.

II.

Abstract:
The laws of mechanics are embodied in the general principles of law of motion d
stated and formulated by Isaac Newton.
Newton's second law of motion pertains to the behaviour of objects for which all
existing forces are not balanced. The second law states that the acceleration of an
object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the
mass of the object. The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force
acting upon the object, and inversely upon the mass of the object. As the force acting
upon an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is increased. As the mass of
an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is decreased.
Consider two masses connected by a light flexible cord passing over a light
frictionless pulley. Since the masses are equal, the system is in equilibrium, that is, it
will remain at rest or if given a slight impulse, will move with a uniform speed
without acceleration. If a small body is added, the system will move with an
acceleration a

III.

Schematic Diagram

## Figure I Balance Beam

Figure II Strings

Figure VI Pulley

## Figure VIII Actual Set Up

IV.

Data Table
Data Results
(s)

Trial 1
0.65

Trial 2
0.61

Trial 3
0.67

M1

(g)

250

250

250

M2

(g)

100

100

100

85
402.37
420
4.4 %

85
456.87
420
8.1 %

85
378.7
420
10.1 %

Average time, t

Distance, s
(cm)
Value of a from eq. 1(cm/s2)
Value of a from eq. 2
PERCENT DIFFERENCE
V.

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Trial 1:

Trial 2:

Trial 3:

S= at2

S= at2

S= at2

85cm= a(0.65s)2

85cm= a(0.61s)2

85cm= a(0.67s)2

a= 402.37 cm/s2

a= 456.87 cm/s2

a= 387.7 cm/s2

402.37420
100
402.37

456.87420
100
456.87

378.7420
100
387.7
%E = 4.4%

%E = 8.1 %

## Theoretical: For Trial 1, 2 and 3:

Equation 2:
(m1 + m2)g/ m1+m2 = (250g-100g)(980cm/s2) 250g+100g
= 480cm/s2

%E = 10.1%

VI.

Conclusion
From the data that was taken during this investigation we can see that this
graph shows accelerations that change constantly at the same rate. Throughout this
experiment the hanging mass (force) is increased which reduces the amount of air
resistance it faces, thus making the acceleration faster, but still constant with the other
accelerations. We learned that our prediction at the start of this experiment was
proven to be correct. We hypothesized that as the mass on the hanger increases, the
air resistance, will decrease, thus the acceleration of the object towards the center of
the earth would be increased. The relationship between the acceleration and mass is
proportional. It shows that the acceleration is directly proportional to the mass. This
experiment proved our point, but many possible errors were overlooked.

VII.

Question/Analysis

1. A 325-g weight is acted upon by a constant force which changes its speed from 1.20 m/s
to 0.4 m/s in1.20 s. Find the accelerating force.

2. A mass of 800 g rests on a smooth horizontal plane. It is tied to a string which passes over
a frictionless pulley at the end of the plane. At the free and of the plane. At the free end of
the string a, mass of 250-g is hung. How far will the smaller mass move in 3 sec. starting
from rest? What is the tension in the string?

## 3. A man of mass m is standing on a scale in an elevator. If the elevator, originally going

down at uniform speed, slows down, what would become of the reading on the scale?

4. In the experiment, if friction were present between the shaft and pulley, will the system
have a greater or lesser acceleration then when it has no friction?

VIII. Recommendation

Throughout the experiment we have not considered the force of friction. Even though
this experiment has not included friction, it was present in between the carts wheels and
along the surface of the track. Even though it is treated as frictionless, friction is always
present everywhere, even if it is regarded as not present. Another force that we excluded was
air resistance. During the experiment the window in the classroom was open and wind was
blowing, changing the air resistance in the room. Even though the change in air resistance
might be minor, it is still another source of error that can lead to miscalculation. The last
source of error we overlooked is that the car was not always placed in the exact same place
on the track. Since it was not placed on the same spot every time, the friction and air
resistance was not always exactly the same but still close enough to prove Newtons Second
Law.
Throughout the experiment, we proved our hypothesis right, and we scouted, and
avoided all the avoidable sources of error to the best of our abilities.

IX.

References