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natural resource solutions: SRK Consulting (UK) Ltd.

Multi Disciplinary Services

Objective opinions and solutions require an understanding of the underlying components, together with the experience
and judgement to allocate relevant priority to these issues. SRKs experienced personnel and practical approach give
you achievable options, opinions and solutions together with an understanding of the associated risks.
If you are planning a new mine, or investment, or seeking to optimise performance of an existing mine, you have the
opportunity to employ a team of specialists from a single company for fully integrated feasibility studies, due diligence
assessments, business and operation review, economic evaluations and risk assessments. SRK specialises in
coordinating and integrating the input from discipline specialists to provide a thorough understanding of technical
business issues within an appropriate business context. We will work with you to provide sustainable solutions to your
issues.
Our comprehensive reports help you make informed business decisions.

1. Feasibility Studies

Approach
SRK can provide a complete range of disciplines required to produce a feasibility study for a mining project. Prior to
undertaking the feasibility study, scoping and pre-feasibility studies will have defined the project scope and direction;
SRK would typically then assist with the field work, testing and laboratory programs required to gather the base data.
SRK has a pool of experienced staff available to work in the field gathering data for technical studies.

The feasibility study itself would be tackled by a group of in-house consultants from the UK office, managed by an
experienced professional engineer. Where necessary, specialist sub consultants would be brought in to provide input on
key parts of the study. Quality is maintained through regular in-house reviews by the project director. Client liaison is of
paramount importance and regular progress reports and meetings are considered to be integral parts of the study.
In Russia and CIS it is sometimes necessary to produce separate feasibility studies to satisfy both local and
international requirements. In this case, SRK typically works alongside local Design Institutes to share information with
joint fieldwork, laboratory and technical design programs. The result is a feasibility study from SRK suitable for
international financing and a local 'Projekt' style of feasiblity study for local permitting. This approach provides access to
capital markets outside of Russia and CIS and reduces the duplication of technical work.
Services
SRK can provide the following services:

Coverage of the full range of field activities required to prepare a Feasibility Study including supervision of
drilling, geological and geotechnical core logging, site investigation work, hydrogeological testing and environmental
sampling programs
Design and supervision of laboratory test work programs for determining process plant recovery and design
parameters
Project management of the study process by highly experienced staff
Technical design work on all the disciplines required for a feasibility study in accordance with internationally
accepted norms for bankable level studies
Detailed financial modelling and analysis
Preparation of an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) in accordance with IFC Performance
Standards and World Bank Guidelines
Risk assessment and implementation planning

Experience
SRKs recent projects include:

Sindesar Khurd Mine, India. SRK carried out feasibility studies to expand this underground lead/ zinc mine
from 300 ktpa to 2 Mtpa.
Voskhod Chrome Project, Kazakhstan. SRK completed a bankable level Feasibility Study on this project for
an underground chromite mine with associated process plant and infrastructure. The Voskhod Mine was the first
mine in Kazakhstan to be accessed solely through a decline with no shaft access planned.
Malanjkhand Copper Mine, India. SRK completed a Feasibility Study for the expansion of this open pit mine
which included a detailed operational review of the current mining activities.
Khetri Copper Complex. India. SRK carried out feasibility studies for the expansion of the existing Khetri and
Kolihan mines belonging to Hindustan Copper. In addition, SRK designed the layout of the proposed Banwas Mine.
Aguas Teidas, Spain. SRK undertook a bankable level Feasibility Study on this project for an underground
base metal mine with associated process plant and infrastructure. The project utilised paste backfill to maximise
orebody recovery and reduce the tailings footprint on surface.

2. Due Diligence

SRK Consulting (UK) is part of the international SRK Group which is wholly owned by SRK employees, ensuring its
independence by holding no equity in any project.
This enables SRK to provide you with multi-disciplinary, conflict-free and objective recommendations on crucial
judgement issues.
Markets and Product Lines
Our due diligence services to the natural resources mining sector provides a suite of bespoke product lines focused on
the requirements of companies (both private and public), individuals and the structured debt and equity capital markets.
Supporting the increasing trend for enhanced scrutiny and risk management, SRKs principal product lines include
technical reports published for use in the:

Debt Capital Markets: As the appointed Independent Engineer on behalf of the lead financial institution,
representing the syndicate and the sponsor, SRK provides the following Project Finance related services:

- Pre-financing technical due diligence and Independent Engineers Reports


- Environmental (biophysical and social) compliance assessments including Equator Principals, IFC
Performance
Standards and World Bank Guidelines
- Term sheet development including assistance in defining conditions precedent and conditions subsequent
and Ore
Reserve tail ratios and other technical-economic performance criteria
- Technical input to applications for Credit Committee approval
- Pre and post-financial close monitoring through construction completion, commissioning, and production
ramp-up to
name-plate capacity
- Technical certification for mechanical completion, production completion and cost completion
- Quarterly assessment services throughout the period of the loan facility

Equity Capital Markets: As the appointed Independent Competent Person on behalf of financial institutions
and sponsors, to assist in the generation of regulatory documentation required by various international stock
exchanges, SRK provides the following services:
- Competent Persons Reports for inclusion in Prospectuses, Offering Memoranda, Offering Circulars and

Private
Placement Memoranda
- Technical Advisory in support of privatisation programmes, disposals and acquisitions including Information
Memoranda
and technical data room structuring and management
- Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve compliance opinions for inclusion in press releases and annual reports
- Mineral Asset Valuations for the entire suite of project development stages from exploration through feasibility
study to
operations
Approach
Our structured due diligence approach is directed towards ensuring appropriate investigations for the decisions at hand

which provides for a multi-disciplinary team and approach to assess mineral assets at all stages of development. With
over 100 technical staff located in the UK with direct experience for servicing the financial markets, our geographic
reach is further enhanced by access to the wider SRK Groups consultant network located in 43 offices on 6 continents,
who recognise and appreciate that the globally integrated market economy requires discretion and confidentiality.
Specialist input is also provided via our international associate network, who broaden our experience and global reach.
We also undertake limited scope mandates where only specific disciplines are required to be covered by SRK or where
we provide sub-contracted services to third parties.

Our technical teams provide for discipline focused assessments to address the key areas of:

Geology
Mineral resources and ore reserves
Mining engineering
Geotechnical engineering
Hydrogeology/hydrology
Mineral/metallurgical processing
Tailings/slimes deposition
Refining and smelting
Infrastructure and capital projects
Human resources
Occupational health and safety
Opearting and capital expenditures
Engineering, procurement and construction management
Environment (social and bio-physical)
Mineral economics

Experience
Our recognition in the debt and equity capital market as a name brand independent consultant with experience is
exemplified by mandates covering a wide geographic spread and representing the majority of spot traded and contract
commodities. These mandates include:

An extensive portfolio of Independent Engineers Reports prepared on behalf of syndicated project finance
facilities in the debt capital markets specifically in respect of the European, Southern African, North American,
Australasian and Asian financial centres
Numerous technical reports published in support of: initial public offerings and secondary listings on the
majority of international stock exchanges; as well as private placement memoranda and offering circulars for
accredited investors and qualified institutional buyers
Technical advisory services to facilitate privatisation programmes on behalf of national and local governments
as well as international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation

We also have an established working relationship with:

Private and public natural resource, commodity trading, downstream processing and vertically integrated
companies operating in the mining and metals sectors
Premier financial institutions, reporting accountants and legal advisors in the majority of international financial
centres
National and international development financial institutions and export credit agencies
A due diligence process which encompasses the full range of mandates from initial high level desk-top reviews
based on public domain information to on-site inspection, validation/verification of technical and contractual
documentation normally associated with Feasibility Studies completed to bankable standards
A thorough appreciation of reliance on technical information with respect to the financial decision making
process for either debt or equity financing

3. Business Improvement Services

Mining operations must continually seek to improve the unit cost of operations to remain competitive in world markets.
This challenge, often coupled with the need to replenish mineable reserves, requires regular evaluation of new
technology and mining methods.
SRK has the multidisciplinary capability to carry our business and technical evaluations and to assist with the
implementation of the findings.
Services
Our expertise includes:

Business Vision and Strategy alignment


Strategic Planning
- Identification of new reserves
- Optimisation of existing reserves
- Mine re-design for reserve optimisation
- Minimisation of future environmental cost via present day integrated action
Mine economics and mine cost modelling
Estimation of capital and operating costs
Organisation Structure review
Management Operating Process and Systems review
Mine Planning, Layout and Scheduling review
Business and Technical Process reviews
Skills and capabilities studies
Change Management

Approach
SRK would discuss and agree the detailed terms of reference for the assistance required on a case by case basis. A
work programme would be developed based upon the identified key objectives and timing of the deliverables.
A typical scope could include:

Phase 1 Diagnosis of key strategic or operational issues


Phase 2 Analysis & Modelling -more detailed studies would be undertaken, analysed and new approaches
modelled.
Phase 3 Implementation the identified solutions would be implemented in conjunction with key staff
Phase 4 Perpetuation Ongoing coaching and mentoring support would be provided to assist key staff in
embedding the change in the organisation

Experience
SRK employs leading scientific, engineering, and business consultants. Its integrated services and global base has
made the company a world leading practice in due diligence, feasibility studies and confidential reviews. It is a leading
one stop consultancy offering specialist business and technical services to mining and exploration companies.
SRK numbers over 1500 clients amongst them most of the worlds major and medium sized metal and industrial mineral
mining houses, exploration companies, banks, petroleum exploration companies, agribusiness companies, construction
firms and government departments.

4. Coal Services

SRK has extensive consulting experience within the global coal industry, in both established producing countries and
emerging markets. SRKs experience covers both underground and opencast coal mining, for both hard coal and brown
coal/lignite. SRK has delivered a wide range of projects, from grassroots exploration, through project development,
prefeasibility and feasibility studies, to implementation and operational support. SRKs global reach has delivered world
class advice and support in all of the top ten coal producing countries of the world, notably Russia, Colombia, India,
Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China and South Africa. SRK also has many years of experience in and still actively consults to
the UK coal business. SRKs key areas of expertise in the coal sector are:

project valuation;
technical auditing and due diligence;
exploration targeting and exploration programme planning;
regional and structural geological interpretation;
geological modelling using various software packages and geostatistical studies;
coal resource definition and classification;
mining method selection and options studies for opencast versus underground;
opencast and underground mine design, planning and scheduling;
assessment of Coal Reserves to international standards and relating to the technical and economic
assessment of the life of mine plan;
equipment selection, optimisation studies and audits;
coal processing technologies and product market assessments;
infrastructure and logistics planning;
environmental and social impact assessments;
health and safety assessment;
geotechnical assessments of open pits and underground stability, including Geotechnical Assessments in the
UK for the Quarries Regulations 1999;
hydrogeology and hydrology, including acid mine water remediation;
tailings assessments; and
operational assistance and productivity analysis.

SRKs coal due diligence team has a world class portfolio of projects relating to audits for acquistions, sales,
investments and listings on the main stock exchanges, having carried out Mineral Experts Reports, NI 43-101 reports
with resource and reserve reporting under international codes such as JORC and SAMREC.
As a global consultant to the coal industry SRK has a large group of internationally recognised and experienced coal
experts that are located around the globe. This network is supported by local assistance from the numerous SRK offices
and from the wider SRK group expertise in all fields. We have the ability to mobilise a number of multidiscipline teams
on a single project and to provide experts who have worked at all levels of operating coal companies for many years
prior to working as consultants.

5. Exploration

SRKs exploration capabilities are handled by a specialist team within SRK Exploration Services Ltd. SRKES provides a
wide range of exploration services and consultancy, covering the design and management of exploration programmes
ranging from early grass-roots phases to feasibility studies.
SRKES provides skilled and experienced teams of professional geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who are
able to work effectively in any given environment around the world, on a wide range of commodities and deposit styles.
Our team is well-versed in the requirements of international reporting codes, so our exploration programmes will meet
required specifications from start to finish, minimising costly delays and re-sampling when it comes to producing
resource statements.
SRKES exploration programmes always follow a phased, results-driven approach with target ranking and risk
assessment taking place at every stage. This provides regular milestones and key decision points, such that the
programme has the greatest chance of identifying new mineral deposits, and remaining in budget.
SRK ES services include:
Exploration Target Generation
SRKES can provide specialist services for the generation and prioritisation of new exploration targets for all
commodities in a wide variety of geological environments.

Extensive desk studies to compile and analyse all available data;


tectonic and metallogenic analysis to provide an indication of prospectivity at all scales;
reconnaissance field work and mapping to provide vital data from the field; and
acquisition, processing and interpretation of geophysical and remote sensing data to identify potential targets.

Exploration GIS
Good data management is essential for the success of an exploration project. Important decisions need to be based on
well-managed and effectively used data. When data is not well-manged or used effectively, it may lead to poorlyinformed decisions, creating mistakes further down the line in resource estimations, possibly requiring expensive reacquisition of samples.
All SRK ES staff are well trained in the creation, use and management of exploration databases in which sample
locations, assay results, geological maps and geophysical data can all be included. This enables the storage,
integration, visualisation and modelling of a clients valuable data, and makes it quickly and easily accessible.
Exploration Management
The careful design and management of an exploration project is critical in ensuring that funding is both forthcoming and
spent on effective exploration activities. Our experienced team is able to review a projects status, the clients objectives
and to provide advice and services for ongoing and future project development. This can be via direct project
management using fulltime expatriate SRK ES project and field geologists, or through periodical reviews based from our
UK office with regular field visits.
Independent Assessments, Valuations and Competent Persons Reporting
Every exploration and mining company will need to take stock of its exploration programmes at some stage. The need
for objectivity and impartiality means that it may be preferable for this process to be conducted by an independent third
party. SRK ES has extensive experience in reviewing, auditing and evaluating exploration programmes at all stages of
development. Much of this work is conducted to produce documents for worldwide stock exchanges (AIM, TSX, JSE),

banks and private investors, due diligence studies and project audits, as well as for internal reviews. SRK ES has a
solid core of experienced exploration managers and has the in-house capability to provide experienced geologists to
review and audit exploration projects for all types of commodities. The company's corporate ownership policy ensures
that we remain totally independent and all of our key personnel are members in good standing of appropriate
professional institutions.

6. Mining Geology & Resource Estimation

SRK has considerable experience in managing exploration programmes, interpreting the structural setting of ore
deposits and in drilling, sampling and assaying techniques. This enables us to help our clients find, delineate and
estimate the size and quality of their mineral deposits effectively. Our team of resource geologists has a wealth of
experience in the majority of commodities and mineral occurrences.
Data quality and sampling density are the cornerstones of this work and we provide specific services in this area. In
addition, we use state of the art software to produce 3D models of the geometry of the mineralisation, as well as
statistical and geostatistical methods to determine and model the distribution of the commodity of interest within these.
This enables us to then report Mineral Resource Estimates in line with international reporting codes, and also provides a
good basis for mine planning and subsequent project evaluation exercises.
Our overall approach is to tailor our input to our clients particular needs, whilst maintaining an independent role for
reporting of resources and reserves in the public domain.

7. Structural Geology

Many ore deposits are formed within tectonically active areas, such as ancient basins and orogenic belts. It is no
wonder then that the vast majority of mineral deposits are affected or controlled, to a greater or lesser extent, by
geological structures.
From the perspective of mineral exploration and mining, the potential influence of both large- and small-scale structures
on projects cannot be understated, with structures impacting most technical issues, including: grade control, resource

estimation, targeting, rock mass engineering and hydrogeology.


Approach
Regardless of the structural issue, SRKs initial approach is unwavering: understand the problem, understand the
economic implications, and focus on the fundamental issues.
Depending upon the nature of the commission, the study may combine: a brief review of salient data and reports,
definition of key issues, focussed data collection (outcrop and drillcore), 3D geometrical and kinematic analysis using
state-of-the-art software, and the integration of findings, resulting in a robust structural model.
Experience
SRKs structural geologists have a broad experience of the contrasting technical issues where structural geology
impinges during the various stages of exploration and production.
Using their experience coupled with their understanding of geological processes, SRKs structural experts have recently
assisted in the identification of ore deposit controls for near-mine and regional exploration targeting; the
characterisation and analysis of fractures to help mitigate mine stability and water in-flow problems in underground
environments; 3D modelling of structurally complex deposits to assist with resource wireframing; and the definition of
structural geometries in geotechnical studies of large open pit operations.
Services

Determination of structural controls on mineralisation for use in near-mine and regional exploration
programmes.
3D geometrical modelling of complex ore bodies for mineral estimation
Integration and interpretation of geological, geochemical and geophysical data
Characterisation of fracture systems for geotechnical and hydrogeological studies
On-site training in structural geology, tailored to the client's project site
Practical advice on the acquisition of pertinent structural data

8. Mineralogy & Petrology

Evaluation of the mineralogy and petrology of ore minerals and associated gangue is an essential key to understanding
the genesis and mineral associations of ore deposits. These studies are fundamental in the assessment of the potential
methods for mineral processing and the differentiation of ore types to be considered in mine planning, mill campaigning
and stockpiling/ blending strategy.
Services
SRK offers a wide range of specialised services which include but are not restricted to:

Ore mineralogy to assist in the design or review of ore processing methods


Supervising and undertaking sampling from underground mines, surface mine workings, drill core or
superficial outcrops

Orientation studies for collection of alluvial and heavy mineral concentrates


Surveys for indicator minerals for diamond deposits
Forensic mineralogy for precious metals
Trace element finger printing by LAICPMS
Diagnostic mineralogy and petrology for deposit genetic models

Approach
SRK, through a strong association with Cardiff University, has access to excellent analytical facilities such as optical and
electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and, for ultra trace element analysis, laser ablation inductivity
coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP-MS). The latter technique is useful in quantifying precious metals in different
mineral hosts and has been used to gain a unique insight into refractory precious metal ores.
Experience
SRK has developed in-house expertise in ore mineralogy and petrology which continues to grow through the execution
and supervision of mineralogical studies integral to mining and ore processing studies. These studies are global in
nature and cover a wide range of commodity types and geological environments.
SRK undertakes ore mineralogy and petrology studies in conjunction with specialists at Cardiff University, Mackay
School of Mines, Nevada, the University of Cape Town and the University of British Columbia depending on the location
of the deposit and the commodity.

9. Data Management

Effective, efficient and secure electronic storage of technical data is a fundamental aspect of good quality exploration,
Mineral Resource estimation and mine planning. SRK provides services and solutions to capture, validate, analyse and
manage your technical data helping communicate the results with precision and clarity.
Services

Digitisation of historical paper-based plans capturing 3D vector formats


Digital capture of historical paper-based sample information such as borehole logs
Independent advice for third-party data storage solutions
Validation of captured data to confirm transcription and digitising accuracy
Managing of data relating to on-going exploration and mining sample collection

Approach
When capturing and validating electronic data, SRK takes into account the required formats for mining software or
AutoCAD/GIS packages. Validation of the project data is performed by utilising multiple data entry to check for
transcription errors or by undertaking spot checks. This, together with regular auditing of captured data, ensures a
robust dataset is maintained throughout the project.
SRK has the expertise to efficiently manage a client's data through the construction of a tailor-made database. Our
technical experts are capable of providing well-informed advice on security and back-up of data, formats for importing
and exporting, and recommendations of third-party providers for web-hosting, data uploading, downloading and
communication of results.

Our data management-services may be applied in remote field locations or in the head office or mine site environment.
Experience
SRK's consultants have undertaken numerous projects where historical work has been brought into an electronic
format, integrated with ongoing work and incorporated into modern methods of project appraisal. We have extensive
experience of digitising paper-based technical data, in particular for projects located in the Former Soviet Union and
India. SRK is also experienced in providing independent confirmatory drilling programmes and capturing, validating and
managing the associated data.

10.

Sampling & Analysis

The collection of reliable samples from a mineral prospect or mine is an essential basis for the production of an accurate
resource estimate. The strategy to be adopted must thus be carefully designed so that at each stage of the process, the
chance of taking biased, unrepresentative or contaminated samples is minimised.
Approach
SRK has the capability to assess a client's existing sampling programmes in order to determine whether the strategy
employed by the client is meeting set aims and objectives. SRK considers key factors in executing these evaluations,
such as, whether the correct sample volume is being taken, whether a change could be introduced which would have
significant impact and be cost effective and whether the drillhole or sample layout will provide the level of confidence
sought for the subsequent resource estimate.
Expertise
SRK has the expertise to design, manage and audit sample collection and preparation procedures on behalf of clients in
both the mineral exploration and mining industries. This expertise has been developed over 25 years during the
supervision and auditing of drilling programmes undertaken as part of exploration projects and mine feasibility studies
and also during the performance monitoring of operating mines. In addition, sampling programmes have been designed
for base line environmental geochemical studies and for the assessment of contaminated mine sites.
SRK technical staff have the necessary statistical/geostatistical expertise and computer software to undertake in depth
studies of the assay information obtained from sampling campaigns and to produce detailed conclusions and
recommendations.
Services
Sampling and sample preparation protocols should be designed to produce the highest possible data quality given the
nature of the target mineralisation and the ground conditions. Issues addressed in such protocols include the following:

Optimum sample length, volume or weight and compositing strategy in relation to the physical characteristics
of the mineralisation

Optimum sampling methodology and collection procedure to minimise contamination, avoid loss of fines in the
case of rotary percussion drilling, and to produce representative unbiased samples

The establishment of on-site supervision and checking procedures for drilling and sampling programmes.

Monitoring of sample recovery

Sample homogenisation and splitting procedures

Duplicate sampling at each stage in the reduction and splitting process to determine the magnitude of errors at
each stage

Quality control procedures to monitor sample preparation and analysis at the mine or commercial laboratory

Replicate sampling and analysis to determine precision of sample grades


Comparative studies between assay laboratories and determination of accuracy
Compatibility of assay databases produced by different sampling campaigns.

11.

Sampling & QAQC

Appropriate Sampling and Quality Assurance /Quality Control (QA/QC) is essential in all aspects of the mineral deposit
evaluation process to ensure the best possible confidence in resultant mineral resource and reserve estimates are
achieved; the quality of an estimate is dependent on the quality of the data used.
Approach
SRK have experienced personnel who can audit, review and advise on quality control procedures, in addition to
performing data reviews during all project phases.
When reviewing QA/QC data, SRK typically considers two defined areas: review of the QA/QC procedures in place, and
review of the QA/QC database.
SRK's experienced consultants review existing sampling protocols and advise on the appropriate sampling strategy
taking into account both theoretical and practical implications of sampling techniques.
Using a combination of analytical techniques and drawing upon their broad experience of best practice, SRK 's experts
are capable of drawing pertinent conclusions and making recommendations to clients to ensure compliance with
international reporting codes.
SRK understands the importance of a managed QA/QC programme for all projects, ensuring data quality which forms
the basis for all resource estimates.
Experience
SRK's resource consultants have extensive experience in reviewing QA/QC data from all project stages, and have
experience setting site and regional sampling protocols and associated QA/QC programmes. SRK has undertaken a
number of projects managing electronic data capture, validation and management of QA/QC databases to ensure
compliance with international reporting codes.
Services

Independent reviewing and practical advice on sampling protocols to ensure compliance with international
reporting codes
Recommendations on QA/QC procedures from sampling through to assay and data management
Independent review of QA/QC procedures and databases to ensure compliance with international reporting
codes
Chain of custody and, verification drilling programmes
Review of sample preparation and laboratory facilities

12.

Geological Modelling

Understanding the geological controls on grade distribution throughout a mineral deposit is key to the development of a
robust assessment of mining potential. A 2D or 3D computerised model of geology and grade is fundamental to modern
Mineral Resource estimation. Attention to geological interpretation and domaining yields the most robust estimate from
a given sample set.
Services

Wireframe modelling of any mineral deposit type utilising state of the art software packages
Modelling of deposits at various stages: from drill targeting models for grass-roots exploration through to
detailed models for feasibility studies
3D trend analysis using Leapfrog software, a semi-automated modelling package, utilising geological or quality
constraints
Re-modelling/domaining based upon additional detailed sample or geological/structural information or to
overcome grade estimation problems
2D regularisation of data to enhance visible interpretation of patterns/trends

Approach
The geological interpretation process starts with first hand site inspection, meetings and discussions with site geologists
and review of reports and previous models and estimates. This may involve some re-logging of core and sketching out
ideas to ensure the most has been made of available information and thinking on site.
SRK utilises a wide variety of computerised modelling methodologies, selected to suit the deposit geometry,
mineralisation controls, technical characteristics and downstream mine planning requirements.
SRK will compile geological and structural maps, detailed sample logs, laboratory assay data, mineralogical analyses,
geophysics, mine working surveys etc. Once the data is imported and validated, SRK carefully considers the setting,
genesis, distribution, remobilisation and man made influences on mineralisation, as well as the patterns of alteration,
mineralogy, weathering and other physical attributes important for project evaluation to determine the most appropriate
modelling and domaining criteria.
Experience
SRK has extensive international experience in computerised geological modelling and domaining of most deposit types
and commodities. Our consultants understand the importance of geological controls during modelling, and the
significance it has in subsequent statistical and geostatistical studies and robust tonnage and quality/grade estimation.
SRK has the capability to produce computerised geological models in any required software package to suit the needs
of the client, including Datamine, Gemcom, Vulcan, Surpac, Minex, Micromine Leapfrog and Geomodeller and can write
routines to interface between these and other specialist in-house software packages.

13.

Statistics & Geostatistics

Statistical and geostatistical analyses are essential in understanding the grade distribution and continuity in any mineral
deposit. SRK can apply knowledge and experience in this field to assist in optimising drilling and sampling strategies
and grade estimation domaining and kriging parameters. Understanding geostatistics can assist in Mineral Resource
classification and quantifying mining selectivity issues.
Services
Building from our extensive three dimensional geological modelling skills, SRK offers a wide range of statistical,
geostatistical and grade interpolation skills. Statistical and geostatistical methodologies utilised by SRK geologists
include:

Composite length analysis


Geological and statistical domaining
Statistical analysis (uni-, bi-, or multi-variate)
Spatial considerations (declustering)
Multivariate correlations, interdependencies and regression analysis
Variographic analyses which are suitable for your deposit (e.g. raw, pairwise, Gaussian transforms)
2 verses 3 dimensional environments for statistics and geostatistics
Outlier and top-cut analysis

Approach
SRKs approach to statistical and geostatistical analyses combines our strengths in the understanding of geostatistical
theory combined with our expertise in structural and ore deposit geology and 3D resource modelling. Fundamental to
SRKs approach is to ensure that any statistical or geostatistical analysis is tailored to the deposit under scrutiny, and
reflects the underlying geology.
Experience
SRK has considerable expertise in statistics and geostatistics applied to mineral resources. Our technical experts have
benefitted from global exposure to a wide range of mineral deposit types and commodities and have conducted and
supervised complex geostatistical evaluations.
SRK also has large base of Competent/Qualified persons as defined by the various internationally accepted resource
reporting codes.
We continue to build long lasting relationships with both small and large clients and through continued involvement have
seen many projects go from early grass roots exploration through to production.

14.

Grade Modelling

Grade modelling is an essential step in understanding your deposit, your approach to mining and how best to maximise
returns to your investors. SRK utilises the most appropriate techniques to model your deposit and has extensive
experience across a wide range of commodities and deposit styles.
Services

Statistical and geostatistical analysis


Grade estimation into block models using kriging as part of a detailed analysis of variability at both the
orebody and at selective mining scales.
Optimising grade estimation using quantitative kriging neighbourhood analysis
Dealing with difficult distributions using non linear techniques
Managing folded or uneven domains using unfolding or dynamic search methods
Assessment of recoverable resources using uniform conditioning

Approach
Our approach to grade modelling is primarily based on the geology and amount and type of sampling information
available. Using our extensive experience in a variety of methods we tailor the grade estimation process to your
individual deposit. We believe that getting the geological domaining right means that subsequent grade modelling can
be kept as straight forward as possible.
We may produce basic estimates to test input assumptions for scoping studies, whilst a much more comprehensive
estimate may be appropriate for bankable feasibility studies and operating mines taking account of the greater reliance
placed on estimates required at later stages in a project.
SRK assesses grade continuity in a 3D software environment to allow the best possible understanding of domain
geometry and grade distribution. These findings are used to optimise geological and grade domains, and search
orientations; they also influence Mineral Resource estimation confidence which leads directly to classification and
subsequent drilling and sampling strategy.
Experience
SRK has a large team of resource geologists all of whom are dedicated to producing high quality resource estimates.
Grade modelling is a significant part of a resource estimation project especially where multiple variables and domains
need to be considered. Our geologists are able to combine their skills and experience to quickly determine an optimum
approach for the wide variety of situations we can be faced with.
We have a large skill base in the use of advanced statistical and geostatistical packages. In particular, SRK uses Isatis,
an industry leading software package, interfaced with mining software such as Gemcom, Datamine, Vulcan and Surpac.
This ensures a seamless transfer of the model to our mine planning colleagues.

15.

Grade Control & Reconciliation

Understanding grade distribution, optimising mining selectivity and controlling mining dilution and losses through grade
control are essential for achieving the mine plan. SRK has the expertise to implement, monitor, analyse and react to
grade control data. This allows the results to be reconciled against planned production and actual plant data. Minimising
the difference between planned and actual production will improve business performance.
Services

On-site design, implementation and review of systems, protocols and processes


Differentiation of ore types for mining and processing
Reconciliation of resource models, grade control models and mining and plant feed records
Optimisation of stockpiling and blending strategy
Identifying problems and troubleshooting
Training for data capture, analysis methods and regular production reporting

Approach
When designing or reviewing grade control strategy, SRK considers the detailed geological controls on grade
distribution, optimal sample spacing, sample collection, preparation and analysis, and mining selectivity vs production
rate.
When undertaking reconciliation studies, SRK considers resource models used for short and long-term mine planning,
ore type demarcation, truck allocation records, pit and stockpile surveys, plant feed records and production results.
Where differences are found between these stages, the reasons for these are assessed to understand whether an
attempt should be made to change working practices and data capture methods. If appropriate we may incorporate
historical factors in production forecasts to improve the accuracy of forecasting mill feed tonnage and grade estimates.
Experience
SRK employs a number of geologists with significant experience from international operations, where their duties
included grade control, optimising the selective extraction of ore and routine reporting of the multiple components of
reconciliation.
Our geologists possess a sound understanding of a wide variety of mining operations, coupled with geological
modelling, sample theory and their practical application.
SRK has a large skill base in the use of advanced mining software packages, such as Datamine, GEMS, Vulcan and
Surpac, Leapfrog and Minex, and has a good understanding of the estimation methods suited to grade control in many
different commodities and styles of deposit.

16.

Resource Classification

Natural variability, sample spacing and analytical imprecision influence the confidence we have in production plans
derived from an orebody model. The quality of estimate should be considered alongside likely extraction methods in
order to assess the reliability of production schedules and dependent business plans. SRK has a large team of
Competent Persons experienced in judging such uncertainty and applying Mineral Resource classification in
accordance with international reporting codes, such as JORC, SAMREC and CIM (NI 43-101).
Services

Independent Estimation and classification of Mineral Resources


Reclassification of existing estimates in line with International Reporting Codes
Advising on sampling programmes to improve deposit confidence classification

Approach
Whilst there are several rules of thumb used in classification, each deposit needs to be considered on its own merits.
The underlying data is assessed for sampling representativeness, quality control on sample preparation and laboratory
accuracy and databasing errors.
The deposit model comprises geologically and statistically robust estimation domains whose geometrical continuity and
internal grade distributions can be specifically investigated. Understanding sample spacing in relation to domain size
geostatistical assessment of grade predictability and of scale mining selectivity is key to the reliability of resultant mine
plans. All these influence the choice of an appropriate classification category. The potential for economical extraction is
given consideration as part of the Mineral Resource classification process.
Experience
The international reporting codes require that classification of Mineral Resources is undertaken by Competent or
Qualified Persons. SRK employs several appropriately experienced geologists full time.
SRK has classified Mineral Resource estimates in accordance with international reporting codes, for hundreds of
deposits and our technical experts have presented to international workshops and conferences on Mineral Resource
Classification.
SRK has developed particular expertise in reviewing Soviet system estimates and re-classifying these in line with
international reporting codes.

17.

Mineral Resource & Ore Reserve Reporting

Internationally Recognised Reporting Codes

Our product line covers authoring and reviewing mandates with specific focus on reporting of Mineral Resources and
Ore Reserves for publication in technical studies and public domain documentation published in accordance with
regulatory reporting requirements. SRKs principal products include compliant technical reports in support of equity
market filings for the majority of international stock exchanges and include: Competent Persons Reports; Mineral
Experts Reports; National Instrument 43-101 Technical Reports; and Supplemental Information Forms. In addition, we
prepare tailored input for inclusion in listed Companys ongoing reporting requirements such as annual report sections
and technical supplements.
Approach
The approach adopted for reporting of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves at SRK follows the guiding principles of
competency, transparency and materiality as adopted by all internationally recognised reporting codes (IRRC) which
have been aligned with the Combined Reserves International Reporting Standards Committee (CRIRSCO) template:
JORC Code (2004); CIM Definition Standards (2005); Chile Certification Code (2004); SAMREC Code (2007); SME
Guide (2007); and PERC (2009). Where required we also align our reporting with specific requirements such as Industry
Guide 7 adopted by the Securities Exchange Commission of the United States of America. IRRC compliance in respect
of competency (Competent Persons/Qualified Persons) is assured through SRKs direct consultant and associate
network all of whom are members of recognised overseas professional organisations (ROPO) with a defined Code of
Ethics (CoE).
On a technical level we ensure that reporting is both balanced and accurate, which ensures that statements
appropriately reflect the development stage of the mineral asset. Mineral Resource reporting combines the potentially
economically mineable test as well as establishing a transparent foundation for Ore Reserves and identification of
upside potential. All Ore Reserve declarations are supplemented by appropriate technical studies and completed on a
multi-disciplinary basis to provide appropriate assurances in respect of technical feasibility and economic viability.
In facilitating the ongoing process of expanding applicable IRRCs, SRKs consultants are also directly involved in the
various initiatives for alignment of state approved reserve classification systems, such as those currently practised in the
Commonwealth of Independent States, with the CRIRSCO template.
Experience
Testimony to our experience in this regard is the association of our brand name with regulatory filings in support of
numerous initial and secondary public offerings in the international equity markets, as well as the publication of
feasibility studies completed to bankable standards. Historical mandates include the reporting of Mineral Resources and
Ore Reserves:

for the entire suite of bulk commodities, base metals, precious metals, gemstones, industrial minerals and the
energy sectors;
for mineral assets located in the majority of geographic regions;
derived from translated state approved reserve classification systems without recourse to fundamental
recalculation from source data; and
on all major international exchanges: the Alternative Investment Market (AIM); the ALTx exchange; the
Australian Stock Exchange; the Hong Kong Stock Exchange; the Johannesburg Stock Exchange; the London Stock
Exchange; the New York Stock Exchange; the Toronto Stock Exchange; and the Toronto Ventures Exchange.

18.
Stock Exchange Regulatory Documentation &
Public Domain Disclosure

Todays equity transactions invariably require a flexible approach to address the complexities of multi-staged and multijurisdictional reporting requirements encompassing fully integrated companies with international multi-commodity
operations. This combined with mineral assets at differing stages of development requires a unified approach combining
a thorough understanding of the listing and technical disclosure requirements in each reporting jurisdiction. Our
technical reports are tailored to balance detailed compliance with volume, whilst taking cognisance of the specific
considerations of the transaction sponsor and advisor audience. Technical reports produced by SRK include:

Mineral Experts Reports: CESR Recommendations for publication in European Prospectuses;


Competent Persons Reports: Alternative Investment Market of the London Stock Exchange; Section 12 of the
Listing Requirements of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange; and the ALTx;
43-101F1 Technical Report: National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects and
regulated by the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA);
Independent Specialist Reports: published in support of Independent Experts Reports (Section 640 of the
Corporations Act of Australia); and
Supplemental Information Forms: Securities Exchange Commission of the United States of America.

The qualitative and quantitative data included in our technical reports ensure full compliance with the relevant
internationally recognised reporting codes and declarations for Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves. Where
appropriate SRK also includes mineral asset valuations which conform to the relevant valuation codes, specifically: the
CIMVAL Code (2003); the SAMVAL Code (2008); and the VALMIN Code (2005).
For class transactions not requiring full technical reports SRK also provides tailored IRRC compliant opinion letters
which focus only on the Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve statements supported by the minimum quantitative and
qualitative technical data required to ensure compliance with the obligations of Materiality, Transparency and
Competency.
Approach
Our approach in undertaking such mandates combines consultation with the sponsor company and transactional
advisors (financial, legal and accounting) to establish a full understanding of the key components. This includes: the
mineral asset base, effective dates, structure and class, use of proceeds, timeline and jurisdiction(s), including the
principal regulatory authority. This initial assessment combined with our collective multi-disciplinary technical expertise,
consultative access to regulatory authorities on a no-name basis and understanding of the downstream advisor reliance
(environmental liabilities, working capital and impairment tests) ensures that documentation strikes an appropriate
balance between technical compliance, materiality, transparency and regulatory dispensation (e.g. prejudicial
disclosure; proprietary technology; commercially sensitive contracts).
SRKs due diligence process provides for structured validation and verification which may include multi-disciplinary site
visits to confirm technical data integrity and establish a foundation for our independent, clear and unambiguous
technical opinion. Our technical reports, be they structured on an asset or discipline basis are specifically tailored to
enable efficient correlation with the cross-referenced components of the host prospectus/offering memoranda (circular)
as well as limiting the need for excessive reliance statements. Their publication is also supported by no material change
statements and consent letters structured to meet the requirements of the appropriate regulatory authority.
Experience
Our market recognition as a name brand independent consultant with experience in such commissions is exemplified by
a combination of:

An extensive portfolio of technical reports in support of prospectuses, offering circulars, offering memoranda
and private placement memoranda encompassing the entire suite of commodities. To date the combined value of
these transactions exceed USD 50bn;

a well established working relationship with transactional advisors (including sponsoring brokers, financial
advisors, legal practices and reporting accountants) in the majority of international finance markets;
a tailored approach which provides appropriate input to IPOs, GDRs, ADRs, 20-F, annual reports, qualified
institutional buyers and accredited investors;
access to a technical representative(s) of various regulatory authorities as exemplified by input to the
generation/updating of the principal regulatory listing requirements in all principal jurisdictions; and
nomination as technical readers on certain regulatory panels.

The SRK Groups technical consultants located in 38 offices on six different continents enables rapid identification and
management of resources to meet the high demands normally associated with such mandates.

19.

Mining Engineering

Successful mining projects require a combination of technical and managerial expertise. SRK provides a wide range of
services across the mining sector and our experienced specialists have worked throughout the industry. This enables us
to advise clients based on our extensive knowledge and also draw on the skills of colleagues from other SRK offices
around the world.
The range of services offered covers every aspect of mining business. Key products are:

Design studies for new mines and expansions to existing mines. SRK can provide the complete range of
technical studies from conceptual to feasibility level. These documents provide the confidence to make key
investment decisions and can be used to help raise both debt and equity finance on international markets.
Mine scheduling. SRKs engineers use state of the art software such as XPAC and Mine 2-4D to provide
solutions that will optimise production and fleet planning in any type of operation. Use of such software allows
multiple scenarios to be evaluated rapidly allowing the most cost effective solution to be determined.
Mine ventilation planning. SRKs specialists can optimise your ventilation circuit and help select the fan
configuration and airway sizes to ensure that the working environment is safe and energy is used efficiently.
Business improvement initiatives. SRK combines detailed technical knowledge with operational experience to
assist clients to make the most of their mining assets. This could mean technical improvement programs in areas
such as grade control and planning, or operational improvements addressing workplace efficiency, training and
management issues.

20.

Approach

Underground Mine Design

SRK recommends a phased approach to the underground mine design, commencing with a Scoping Study to determine
the key project parameters and an order of magnitude estimate of the potential economics. A more detailed investigation
through a pre-feasibility study would develop the most suitable mining methods and design by considering reasonable
alternatives to an accuracy of 30%. A feasibility study would lead to an engineered development and operational
design, with a clear understanding of the project production and economics to a 15% accuracy. SRK typically uses
Mine 2-4D integrated scheduling software but is conversant in all the major software packages for mine design.
SRK considers that it is important to maintain an inter-disciplinary approach because the impacts of geological structural
controls and geotechnics are usually critical to the mine design, whilst the mining method, and ore controls are
important to the treatment process.
The design work would be tackled by a group of in-house consultants from the UK office managed by an experienced
professional engineer. All of SRKs design staff possess mining engineering degrees and have at least five years
experience in underground mining operations. If required, specialist sub consultants can be brought in to provide input
on specialist areas such as refrigeration, heating and backfill. Quality is maintained through regular in-house reviews by
the project director.
Services
The services that SRK can provide are as follows:
Reserve Estimation. SRK is fully conversant with all international reporting codes including JORC, CIM and Russian
codes and can tailor the estimation process to the needs of the client and jurisdiction.
Production Capacity Analysis. SRK can provide detailed technical advice on what an orebody can potentially
produce and also undertake option studies looking at different access and development scenarios.
Mining Method. SRKs experienced industry specialists examine the issues related to orebody geometry, geotechnics,
economics, selectivity, backfill, safety, available skills and culture in order to recommend the optimum mining method for
any orebody.
Mine Design. SRKs mine planning team can apply its experience to designing all aspects of mine architecture
including stope layouts, access development, shafts/hoisting, haulages, x-cuts, inclined development, ground stress,
stope and development support, infrastructure, ground handling, drill and blast, mining cycles, shift times, efficiencies,
utilisations and estimating equipment requirements.
Mine Transport. Movement of ore and waste in a mine is a critical activity which requires careful consideration and
planning. SRK can provide solutions to all transport issues specific to every operation.
Ventilation. Mines require a ventilation system that provides adequate airflow in a cost effective manner and also
adhere to local regulations. SRKs planning team can provide these solutions using its experienced engineering team.
Mine Services. As part of the design process SRKs planners can plan and estimate the requirements and reticulation
necessary for water, electricity and compressed air supply as well as the design of surface infrastructure, dewatering
systems and maintenance procedures.
Manpower. Input to technical studies from SRKs planning team typically consists of complements for development and
operation, supervisory and managerial structures and requirements, labour and skills availability, selection, recruitment
and training, salary levels, bonuses and conditions of employment;
Capital Costs and Operating Costs. Mine technical studies require estimates of capital and operating costs
appropriate to that operation. SRK uses software tools developed in-house to generate operating costs from first
principles benchmarked against other similar operations. Capital costs are normally based on quotations for equipment
or built up from detailed development schedules and
Economic Modelling. Life-of-Mine plans generated by SRK for technical studies involve financial modelling to bring
together capital costs, operating costs, production profiles, process recoveries, commodity prices, royalties, taxes and
depreciation to generate the project NPV and IRR for subsequent analysis.
Experience
SRK has a proven track record of completing mine design studies. Recent projects include:
Sindesar Khurd Mine, India. SRK completed a feasibility level mine design for the expansion of this underground mine
from 0.3Mtpa to 2Mtpa. The assignment included justification for a new decline, production shaft and process facility
including a paste backfill plant.
Khetri Copper Complex, India. SRK carried out a detailed design for a replacement orepass system at the Khetri mine
due to a failure with the existing facility. At the Kolihan Mine, SRK designed layouts for three new extraction horizons.

Bibiani Gold Mine, Ghana. SRK undertook a life of mine planning exercise on this mine which included design of new
ramps and levels, stope design, infrastructure planning, ventilation, production scheduling and costing.
Aguas Teidas, Spain. SRK undertook a detailed underground mine design as part of a Feasibility Study on this
project. The project utilised paste backfill to maximise orebody recovery and reduce the tailings footprint on surface.
Voskhod Chrome Project, Kazakhstan. SRK completed a a detailed underground mine design as part bankable level
Feasibility Study on this project. The Voskhod Mine was the first mine in Kazakhstan to be accessed solely through a
decline with no production shaft planned. One of the challenges of this project was to provide heating for the mine in the
winter with ambient temperatures of -30C.

21.

Open Pit Mining

The bulk of the worlds mineral production comes from open pit mines which depend on moving large volumes of broken
rock to keep unit production costs low. In a business where profit margins depend on cyclical metal prices, it is vital to
run an efficient operation based on an optimal mine design and schedule.
Approach
SRKs team of mine planners all have extensive industry experience gained at world class operations around the
globe. This experience allows a rigorous mine planning methodology to be applied to a resource in order to develop a
comprehensive life of mine plan and economic model for every type of orebody. The SRK approach, using pit
optimisation software, focuses on the determination of optimal pit depth, production rate and cut-off policy. SRK uses
industry standard software such as Datamine, Whittle, Minemax, GEMS and Vulcan to carry out technical assignments.
SRK can apply its technical skills to not just new operations, but also expansions and extensions of existing mines. A
common assignment is for SRK to review an existing mine and suggest ways to extend its life through cut-backs and
optimisation of design, taking account of changes in metal prices or revised geotechnical parameters. SRK mining
engineers work very closely with their geotechnical colleagues to find the optimal approach to slope design and
management. Often this includes implementation of a slope monitoring system or training of local staff in appropriate
logging procedures to expand and improve their knowledge of the orebody.
The SRK team is also experienced in assisting operations with improving their productivity through a variety of
improvement initiatives that can be applied. These vary from managing operational aspects such as maintenance and
cycle times to technical issues like blast design and mining sequence.
Experience
SRK has a proven track record of optimising and designing open pits in various locations around the world. Recent
projects include:

Malanjkhand Copper Mine, India. 10 Mtpa Copper Mine, India. SRK completed an operational review of the mine
and recommended improvements which led to a 20% increase in run of mine production. This work was followed by a
Whittle pit optimisation and detailed design which extended the life of mine by a further 15 years. A key feature of this
study was that SRK managed to persuade the state body in charge of permitting slope designs to adopt a more
aggressive international approach which significantly reduced the amount of waste stripping required.
Damang Extension Project, Ghana. 300,000 oz/yr Gold Project, Ghana. When SRK started the assignment this gold
mine had one year of production left before closure. A review of the drilling database resulted in the definition of targets
for a drilling program which resulted in a further cutback and an extension of the mine life of an additional five years.
Skouries Project, Greece. Large Porphyry Copper Mine, Greece. SRK undertook a feasibility study on this project
for a large copper porphyry deposit. The assignment included the determination of the optimal boundary between the
open pit and underground operations.
Services
SRK understands that a project must be brought on-line in time and within budget. The SRK team can provide a number
of services to mining companies to assist in achieving this. This range of services include:

Scoping, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies.


Reviews of mining methods and technical audits.
Reviews and re-optimisations of reserves.
Audits and development of mine designs and schedules.
Operational Audits and assistance/guidance for implementing improvements.
Due diligence.
Competent person reports.
Project reviews.
Stock market listing reports.

SRK engineers understand that the current or established methods may not always be the most suitable and are on the
lookout for new and innovative methods and equipment that may help mining companies lower their costs or increase
their efficiencies, both resulting in higher profits.

22.

Geotechnical Engineering

SRKs Geotechnical Engineering group works in diverse environments, from permafrost to equatorial latitudes. We have
experience of varied geotechnical environments and undertake design of open pits in weathered near surface rocks to
deep underground mines in high stress environments. Our group has broad experience in most mineral commodities,
base and precious metals, coal, iron ore and bauxite, diamonds and industrial minerals.
With our breadth and depth of experience, we can provide expert geotechnical advice and guidance through every step
of the mine development process with continued support into operations. We tailor each of our investigations, analysis
and design programmes to suit the site conditions and needs of the project. We have the capability and flexibility to
undertake project reviews, individual small scale studies, provide operational support and carry out detailed and
complex feasibility studies for open pit and underground deposits.

23.
Mining Geotechnical Investigations & Rock
Mass Characterisation

A geotechnical study completed efficiently and cost-effectively is an integral component for any proposed mined esign.
The geotechnical investigation programme should enable rock mass characterisation to determine the mine design
criteria for both surface and underground operations whilst providing the framework for more detailed engineering
design.
Services

Design and management of geotechnical investigation programmes;


Site supervision and training in geotechnical data collection and interpretation;
Core logging, geotechnical mapping and 3D photogrammetric mapping (Sirovision);
Geotechnical data management and database compilation;
Rock mass classification using systems, MRMR, Q, etc
Structural analysis of rock masses;
Statistical analysis of rock mass strength parameters;
Formulation of mine design parameters;
3 D block modelling;
Preparation of design sections and plans;
Data analyses and report preparation.

Approach
For a green field site, SRK will undertake a geotechnical drilling programme to characterise the site geotechnical
conditions. For existing operations, SRK will supplement the drilling programme by mapping existing pit faces. This work
will enable the rock mass to be characterised and the structural and hydrogeological conditions which influence the
design and stability of a proposed mine to be identified.
The geotechnical investigation is often a phased study. The first phase should identify the main issues and opportunities
and define the follow up site work. A phased approach ensures that the work is carried out efficiently and economically
and allows the engineer to review the options and redefine the objectives of the investigations as required.
SRK uses specialist contractors for drilling, in situ testing, geophysics and laboratory testing. SRK can take
responsibility for the entire project, from design through site work to reporting, including the drilling and testing.
Experience
SRK has significant worldwide experience in design, implementation, supervision and interpretation of geotechnical
investigations for many types of mining and civil engineering geotechnical projects from scoping level studies, through
pre-feasibility study to feasibility study level, including:

Open pit, quarry and underground mine design.


Soil, rock and waste dump slope stability.
Tailings and ash disposal sites.
Foundation investigations.
Contaminated land investigation.

24.

Underground Mine Geotechnics

The derivation of geotechnical mine design criteria is a fundamental aspect of the development and operation of
underground mining projects. The successful development and operation of an underground mine requires the design
and installation underground support systems appropriate to the rock conditions and the excavation geometries. This
allows ore extraction to be maximised and reduces waste dilution. Support of large capital development excavations is
required so that these facilities operate for their design life and support of temporary extractive and haulage
development can be required in areas of high mining induced stresses.
Services

Design and management of geotechnical investigation, drilling and laboratory testing programmes.
Core logging, geological and geotechnical mapping and rock mass characterisation
Structural interpretation and analysis.
Mining method selection and mine excavation sequencing.
Underground excavation stability analysis and stress modelling.
Development of geotechnical mine design criteria and underground support design.
Development of underground monitoring systems.

Approach
An appropriate mining method is selected based on the orebody geometry and the rock mass characterisation of the
orebody, footwall and hangingwall rock masses. For the selected mining method, detailed mine design parameters such
as excavation spans, and pillar size, stope support, excavation sequencing together with caveability, fragmentation and
dilution estimates are developed using a variety of empirical and analytical techniques, including:

A thorough assessment of geotechnical conditions in the vicinity of the excavation to be supported by


geotechnical mapping of adjacent underground development or geotechnical logging of exploration or geotechnical
borehole core.
Rock mass classification studies would be carried out using Barton's Q system, Bieniawski's RMR system or
Laubscher's mining rock mass rating system as appropriate.
Rock loading and potential instability mechanisms would be determined from rock block kinematic evaluations,
from numerical stress analyses, and from dynamic considerations.
Rock/support interaction, including both rock reinforcement and concrete/shotcrete linings, would be analysed
using numerical stress analysis techniques.

Deliverables

Definition of the expected ground and stress conditions and regional and local support types.
Specification of the most appropriate support which will maintain stability for the expected life of the
underground opening under all anticipated loading conditions.
Improved underground safety, and elimination of extra support work, resulting in reduced costs.
Underground monitoring systems, such as cave monitoring, stress monitors, closure meters, seismic
monitoring.
Fragmentation prediction.

Experience
SRK has world class expertise in geotechnical data gathering and the evaluation of a wide range of mineral deposits. Its
engineers are recognised experts in rock mass classification. They are skilled in the interpretation of geotechnical

conditions, in the evaluation of potential rock loading, and in the analysis of underground excavation stability.
SRKs expertise is backed up by significant worldwide project and operational experience in the whole range of mining
environments.

25.
Pit and Dump Slope Stability, Slope Design
Optimisation
Pit Slope Stability - SRK Mining Consultants

Slope stability and slope angle optimisation is critical in the design and operation of open pit mines having significant
impacts on safety and on the economics of an open pit project.
Services

Design and management of geotechnical investigation, drilling and laboratory testing programmes.
Core logging, geological and geotechnical mapping using scanline and window mapping systems as well as
3D photogrammetric mapping (Sirovision).
Geotechnical databasing, rock mass characterisation and domain modelling.
Structural interpretation and analysis.
Integration with the pit hydrogeological model.
Deterministic and risk based slope stability analysis using 2D and 3D numerical models.
Development of slope monitoring and management procedures.
Training of site personnel in geotechnical data collection and interpretation.

Approach
The raw data for slope stability analysis and design comes from a geotechnical investigation programme which is best
combined with the exploration drilling programme. For a green field site SRK will undertake a geotechnical drilling
programme to characterise the site geotechnical conditions. For an existing operation SRK will undertake mapping of
existing pit faces. From the results of this work it will be possible to define the major rock mass, structural and
hydrogeological conditions that will influence the design and stability of an open pit slope. SRK will use this information
to construct sectional or 3D geotechnical models. These will then be input into one of a number of slope stability
analysis software within which sensitivity and parametric analyses will be undertaken to establish appropriate pit design
configurations that satisfy prescribed factor of safety or failure probability criteria.
SRK use of a variety of geotechnical software for undertaking slope analyses, including:

Deterministic limit equilibrium programs for rock mass stability analysis, such as SLIDE and SLOPE-W;
DIPS and SWEDGE for kinematic analysis of discontinuity bound wedge stability; and
finite difference software, FLAC and FLAC3D, and finite element software,PHASE 2, for complex slope stability
analysis including fully coupled mechanical/groundwater analysis.

Deliverables
From the results of this work appropriate and cost effective detailed slope designs and/or remedial measures will be
developed.
SRK will also recommend appropriate monitoring systems and develop pit slope management procedures to assist the

operator to optimise slope design and manage the risks associated with potential pit slope instability in order to
minimise production loss.
Experience
SRK geotechnical engineers are international experts in the investigation of the stability of man-made slopes. SRKs
engineers have gained considerable operating experience at some of the worlds largest open pit mines and are
recognised world authorities in slope studies for mining operations worldwide.

26.
Mining Geotechnical Operational Review and
Monitoring

Operational reviews allow for improved design, efficiency and safety for a mine. Monitoring the behaviour of
excavations, dumps and dams and identifying changes in behaviour and performance is important to identify problems
and opportunities and manage the risk to personnel, equipment and infrastructure. SRK is responsible for the long-term
monitoring of many rock slopes, earth embankments, mine dumps, tailings dams and water dams. In addition to reviews
of operating mines, SRK undertakes inspections of abandoned underground mines, pit slopes and spoil dumps and insitu monitoring using remote sensing devices.
Services

Review of operational performance data.


update of rock mass characterisation/interpretation.
update/improvement of mine design/operational criteria.
recommendation of appropriate monitoring systems and
mitigate operational and safety risks.

Approach
Operational geotechnical parameters are reviewed as appropriate to specific criteria and mine design parameters or
aspects of the mining operation that can be improved are identified and developed.
In terms of specific elements, such as underground openings or pit slopes, inspections of affected areas would be
carried out to characterise the situation. Recommendations for improvement measures and/or monitoring systems
would then be given and installed if required. SRK would then undertake parametric and probabilistic analyses to
determine the level of risk and consequences to the operations.
Experience
SRK has world class expertise in operational reviews and the evaluation over the entire range of mineral deposits and
mine types. SRK is able to offer clients state of the art technical expertise in the development of appropriate
geotechnical mine design criteria for a given mining method. SRKs expertise is backed up by significant worldwide
project and operational experience in a variety of mining environments.

27.

Mineral & Metallurgical Processing

The metallurgy and processing aspects of an orebody have to be considered at all stages of a mining
project, during initial exploration and project evaluations, through to operations and plant enhancements or
expansions.
SRK has a core group of full time metallurgists and processing engineers with experience in the development and
evaluation of metallurgical testwork programs, technical studies, flowsheet and plant design, process audits, plant
debottlenecking and troubleshooting, and operations.
We work closely with our clients together with SRK specialists in geology mineralogy, geochemistry and mining to
provide the best process solution tailored to the specific requirements of the project. Where necessary, SRK have
access to a wide range of other processing specialists through our network of Subconsultants.

Process Testwork & Flowsheet Development Studies

Approach
Almost all deposits are different and have specific metallurgical challenges that need to be resolved in order to be able
to develop them. Metallurgical testwork is always required to be able to develop robust and metallurgically efficient
process flowsheets. SRK has the experienced staff to manage the testwork program and to investigate, evaluate and
solve the processing issues.
SRK metallurgists, working closely with in-house geologists, mineralogists and mining engineers, will select
representative samples from across the orebody and develop tailor made test work programs to investigate all aspects
of the mineralogy, metallurgy and associated treatment processes. SRK is familiar with defining and supervising test
work programs from laboratory scale through to pilot plant operation. SRK will take responsibility for defining, managing,
evaluating and reporting all stages of the test work program, working closely with the clients representative.
Once the extractive methods have been identified and the processing parameters established, SRK will take these
conceptual factors and develop proven and cost effective process flowsheets that can be used as part of the ongoing
development of a project.
Services

Experienced metallurgists and mineral processing engineers familiar with defining and supervising test work
programs from laboratory scale through to pilot plant operation.

In-house process mineralogy and metallurgical expertise covering:

crushing and materials handling;

grinding Conventional rod and ball milling, AG and SAG mills, HPGR, vertical mill;

minerals processing such as ore sorting, classification, flotation, DMS, filtration;

hydrometallurgy including heap leaching, atmospheric and pressure leaching, adsorption and
desorbtion, precipitation, bio-oxidation, SXEW; and

Pyrometallurgy using Associate metallurgists.


2
Access to specialists through a network of known Associates from around the world.
3
Close association with Cardiff University providing laboratory test facilities and analytical services.
4
Flowsheet development for conceptual through to full feasibility studies.
Experience
SRKs engineers are experienced in all facets of metallurgical testwork sample selection, testwork development and
management, and flowsheet design based on testwork results.
Recent project examples include:

Russian Cu-Au-Fe concentrator metallurgical study including comminution circuit testwork and design, a
review of flotation and
magnetic separation testwork and development of a flowsheet (laboratory and pilot plant).
Liberian gold project flowsheet design for conceptual study, testwork program design for Pre-Feasibility
Study.
Venezuelan gold project testwork program design for a Feasibility Study.
Diamond Project in North West Russia testwork definition, supervision and interpretation.

28.
Process Plant Design and Engineering
Services

Approach
The basis of all good process design is a sound interpretation of comprehensive testwork performed on representative
samples taken from across the ore body. SRK metallurgists and process engineers are experienced in both the
definition and interpretation of testwork and in the development of robust flow sheets that are flexible to treat the range
of ores that are likely to be fed to the metallurgical process plant. As part of this work, a detailed equipment list clearly
identifying each process item required would be prepared.
Once testwork is complete and the flowsheet established, SRK process engineers will prepare comprehensive design
basis which will define the parameters to be used for the metallurgical plant design. This will include all process and
metallurgical design parameters, operating times and realistic design margins and operating ranges for individual items
of equipment and sections of the plant. All reagent and consumable requirements are clearly identified and used for
estimation of operating costs.
Using these parameters, SRK will prepare a mass/metallurgical balance for the plant which will identify the range of
tonnages and material flow rates around the circuit. This information is then used to size and specify the individual items
of equipment required. These process specifications are used to obtain equipment details, operating cost data and
budget quotations from recognised equipment suppliers.
Once this information is available, SRK prepares a list of the electrical loads based on the equipment selected, the
duties specified and the operating times for each item of equipment. The electrical supply requirements are then
calculated for the plant and the electrical operating cost for the process is estimated.
The flow sheets are further developed into piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), using the mass balance to size
the piping and valve requirements.
Based on clients requirements, local conditions and industry norms, a control philosophy for the plant would be
established and SRK would prepare instrumentation process data sheets.
Other engineering aspects of the plant, such as the plant layout, the structural steel requirements, civil and concrete
works, electrical, instrumentation and control on systems can be developed depending upon the clients requirements.
SRK works closely with recognised engineering companies to develop the appropriate level of engineering detail.
Capital costs can be generated to varying levels of accuracy the higher the accuracy, the greater the amount of
engineering that has to be performed.
Services
Fully independent engineers and metallurgists;
definition of realistic plant design parameters based on sound interpretation of testwork;

development of flexible flow sheets suitable for the range of feed parameters and operating conditions;
equipment selection and sizing;
development of detailed plant information;
estimation of plant operating costs;
estimation of plant capital costs;
established working relationship with equipment suppliers.; and
experienced in working with engineering contractors.
Experience
Lead - zinc concentrator Ireland. Full process design as part of a turnkey mine development.
Metallurgical study for a concentrator producing gravity gold, copper sulphide flotation concentrate and iron rich
magnetic separation concentrate. Services included mass and metallurgical balances for a range of ores, flow sheeting,
equipment selection and sizing and estimation of capital and operating costs.
Process design package for an effluent treatment plant as part of a chemical complex in Taiwan. Services included
mass and metallurgical balances, flow sheeting, equipment specification, definition of P&IDs and preparation of
instrument process data sheets, outline plant layouts.
Process design for a major gold plant development in Australia. Plant incorporated Primary Crushing, SAG and ball
milling, gravity concentration of gold and intensive cyanidation, flash flotation and conventional flotation of sulphides,
two-stage concentrate regrinding, CIL and carbon desorption, gold electrowinning and smelting and cyanide
detoxification of tailings using hydrogen peroxide.

29.
Independent Engineer - Due Diligence &
EPCM Monitoring

Approach
SRK is an independent mining consultancy, privately owned by its employees. It is not owned by nor has any interest in
any financial institutions or mining companiess, as such SRK is able to act totally impartially.
This independence allows SRK to act on behalf of its clients in the role of a multidiscipline engineer to monitor and
report on all aspects of a mining project during the project life cycle including processing and metallurgy. This includes
technical audits of feasibility studies, review and progress monitoring during project implementation, performance
testing as part of the project handover and operational monitoring and reporting through start-up, ramp-up and in to
steady production.
SRK is able to provide specific specialists to match the specific needs of both the project and the client.
Services

Fully independent technical audits of all aspects of metallurgy and processing;


independent assessment and interpretation of metallurgical testwork;
audit of feasibility study work;
monitoring and progress reporting of metallurgical aspects during project implementation;
capital cost and cost control monitoring over project life cycle;
monitoring and evaluation of process and metallurgical performance tests; and
operational assessments and reporting.

Experience

Independent Engineer for the Talvivaara Nickel Project. This role has included the preparation of the Technical
Audit Report on the project as part of a USD 300 million loan facility followed by monitoring and reporting on the
project including the metallurgical aspects of the new bio-heap leach process and the extensive metals recovery
plant.
Independent Engineer acting on behalf of financing syndicate for a refractory gold project in Romania. The role
has involved a review of the projects Feasibility Study and an ongoing role in monitoring progress through detailed
engineering to construction and initial production.
Review of a novel process to treat a low grade tin ore developed by a cconfidential client in Kazakhstan. This
involved an independent review and reporting of the testwork and process design as part of the ongoing
commercialisation of the process. The report including a review of available testwork, the process chemistry, the
proposed flow sheet and equipment selection, clients capital and operating costs together with SRK
recommendations for further work.
Independent Engineer acting on behalf of financial institution for a gold project in Burkina Faso nearing
commissioning. The role commenced with a review of the Feasibility Study and has continued on an ongoing basis
reviewing progress through detailed engineering and construction.
Independent Engineer acting on behalf of a funding syndicate for a copper-gold project in Kazakhstan. The
role has involved a review of progress through construction and commissioning, and an ongoing role monitoring
production ramp-up and optimisation.
Independent Engineer acting on behalf of a financial institution for a mineral sands project in Mozambique.
The role involved a review of the projects Feasibility Study, followed by an ongoing review of detailed engineering,
construction, commissioning and production ramp-up and optimisation.

30.

Process-Metals Accounting Audits

Metal accounting audits can be required for a number of reasons. For example, it could be necessary as part of an
assessment and improvement of plant metallurgical performance, or as a check on security issues around the plant or
as part of a mine-wide metallurgical accounting exercise. As part of these exercises it is necessary to audit the historical
operating data, the actual physical plant and equipment, and plant inventory details.
SRK would always visit the plant/operation in order to:

collect current and historical operating data including feed, products and waste stream information;

review and assess the different measurement methods used in the normal plant accounting process (e.g.
conveyor weightometer accuracy, slurry mass flow instrumentation, sampling metods, analytical methods and
reliability, etc);

undertake an inventory audit including items of equipment as well as the overall operation in order to identify
specific metal inventory issues within the circuit and where necessary to instigate a full circuit inventory exercise
(e.g. stockpiles, gold lock up in leaching and adsorption/desorption circuits, product storage, etc);

comment on any security issues that may affect metal accounting; and

review the metal accounting procedures used.


The results of the metal accounting audit would be presented in a report identifying any shortcomings in the practice
and procedures used with recommendations for improvement.
Services

Use of experienced metallurgical engineers.

Site visits and current and historical data collection.

Plant metallurgical Inventory reviews.

Review of operating practices pertinent to metal accounting issues.

Detailed reporting identifying issues requiring attention and potential improvements to the overall metal
accounting practice and procedures.
SRK is also able to undertake International Cyanide Code auditing of operations using accredited staff.

Experience
SRK has access to a broad base of personnel who have experience of different operations and processes and are
familiar with the normal accounting methods used on metallurgical plants throughout the world.

31.

Plant Performance Review & Optimisation

Approach
The efficient performance of a processing plant is a critical factor in the success of any mining operation. The feed to a
plant changes with time, over the life of the mine, and equipment and the overall process may need to be adjusted to
maintain optimum performance. This may be a particular piece of equipment or the overall metallurgical performance. In
many cases the day to day operating issues take precedence over fine tuning plant performance resulting in wasted
resources, increased operating costs and reduced product revenues. SRK can provide the services required to maintain
peak plant performance.
SRK look at the problem from all aspect of the process, from the integration with the mining operation, through the
entire processing facility including products and waste treatment and storage and including the provision of all utilities
and services. Each area can affect overall performance of the process plant.
SRK adopts a hands on approach and would always visit the plant/operation in order to:

observe the operating plant and practices;

understand the interface issues between the mine plant product handling facilities;

discuss current operating practice and performance with site personnel, including the plant management,
supervisory staff and the operators;

collect detailed operating data, both current and historical, including feed, products and waste stream
information, utility and services details;

collect equipment details sufficient to be able to assess the performance and the potential for improvements;

conduct detailed plant and/or equipment surveys;

review and assess the metallurgical controls in place;

identify any testing requirements;

collect operating cost data

collect local capital cost information;

prepare a detailed evaluation of plant performance and potential improvements or modifications; and

identify the capital and operating costs of improvements, together with an evaluation of the benefits, and
prepare an overall cost-benefit analysis for management evaluation.
Services

Access to a broad base of experienced metallurgical engineers.

Site visits and collection of current and historical operating data.

Definition and supervision of plant metallurgical surveys for plant performance evaluation (including the
collection of process stream mass balance information, metallurgical sampling and analyses and process conditions
and equipment settings.

Identification of plant bottlenecks.

Definition, supervision and evaluation of mineralogical studies and metallurgical testing (on-plant sampling,
geo-metallurgical investigations, laboratory testwork and/or plant trials).

Assessment, reporting and improvement of equipment/plant utilisation and availability.

Equipment optimisation.
Review of operating costs and identification of potential savings.
Cost benefit analysis of modifications and/or changes.

Experience
SRK engineers have a broad base of different operations and processes and are familiar with the normal operating
practices used on most metallurgical plant. This, together with the experience employed on normal due diligence and
auditing work, SRK is familiar with the evaluation and interpretation of performance and operating data in order to
identify potential problems and areas for improvement.

32.

Tailings & Waste Management

SRK has extensive experience in the field of mine tailings and waste engineering, having designed and developed
waste management facilities on numerous gold, platinum, uranium, copper, iron, oil sands and coal mines worldwide.
International best practice guidelines for tailings and waste management stipulate that storage facilities are designed,
operated, closed and rehabilitated to ensure performance that meets strict technical and environmental criteria. Based
upon 25 years of operational and design project experience, SRK has developed a framework of management
principles and checklists for implementing these activities throughout the entire mine life cycle.
SRK tailors engineered solutions and geotechnical investigations to the complexity and risk rating of the project, to
provide the required information for detailed design and project decision-making. We apply appropriate tailings and
waste management solutions from conception to closure which integrate geotechnical site investigation, seismic
assessments, physical and chemical characterisation of waste materials, hydrogeological studies, stability analysis,
construction scheduling, tails disposal and piping design, environmental permitting, and closure and rehabilitation
planning. Our innovative designs incorporate the latest technological developments in areas such as paste technology
and integrated landform design.

Site Selection & Permitting

Site selection and permitting issues arise at the onset of any major tailings storage facility study. Detailed assessment of
foundation conditions, land use patterns, seismic risk and hydrology can result in significant capital, operating and
closure cost savings. Early consultation with local authorities can also prevent unnecessary delays at the permitting
stage.
Experience
SRK uses worldwide project experience combined with intimate knowledge of local legislation and guidelines to ensure

that all potential liabilities associated with a particular site are addressed at an early design stage. Our Tailings
Engineers work closely with Environmental Specialists to prepare detailed risk assessments at conceptual study stage
to prevent costly delays and reduce economic, environmental and social liabilities which may arise during facility
construction.
Approach
SRK's site selection philosophy combines engineering expertise with environmental considerations to ensure that the
most appropriate site is identified within the applicable constraints. This is achieved through the development of
decision matrices and typically addresses such items as:

Topography;
Disposal method and volume requirements
Land ownership and use
site geology
Surface and ground water issues
Availability of borrow materials
Closure implications;
Capital / operating costs

33.
Material Property Testing - chemical and
physical

The design and management of a tailings storage facility is mainly a function of the material properties of both the
tailings waste and the containment dam. The design of the facility is preceded by a thorough testing program which
includes the study of chemical and physical properties. Although SRK does not operate a laboratory, our standard
practice involves the specification, monitoring and interpretation of the testing results obtained from an accredited
commercial or research facility.
Experience
The testing and interpretation of the results of tailings, foundation and construction materials is performed by teams of
skilled specialist engineers, technologists and environmental scientists that work closely with SRKs engineers.
SRK's material testing philosophy combines engineering expertise with environmental considerations to ensure that the
most appropriate and cost effective testing program is established and carried out within the applicable constraints:

Chemical and biological stability including potential for acid generation


Physical and mechanical properties of all soils and rocks
Water and air quality testing and monitoring.

34.

Disposal Design Method

Tailings and waste rock storage facilities must be designed, constructed and operated to the highest standards, taking
into account the eventual need for closure and rehabilitation. Optimum strategies for facility management are site
specific and therefore the facility location, disposal method, approach to water management and long term closure
objectives must be clearly defined. SRKs team of qualified professionals uses worldwide project experience and
international best practice guidelines to select the most appropriate tailings delivery and waste rock storage methods.
SRK has significant experience of most conventional tailings disposal methods including:

Slurry disposal to a valley storage involving tailings discharge downstream towards a water retaining
containment with supernatant decant or upstream away from the containment wall with a decant facility located at
the upstream end
Slurry disposal to a ring containment wall on relatively flat ground with a centrally-located decant facility
Slurry disposal to a series of cells with tailings deposition cycled between the cells to facilitate consolidation
and desiccation
Central thickened discharge on relatively flat ground, with supernatant water collected behind a water-retaining
perimeter containment wall or in a water-tight perimeter channel
Down valley discharge of thickened tailings towards a containment wall, located at the head of a catchment
Disposal of thickened tailings to cells, possibly in combination with mechanically enhanced evaporative drying,
as used for red muds in the alumina industry
In-pit placement of tailings as a slurry, as thickened tailings or combined with waste rock
Underground backfill of mined-out stopes, in the form of hydraulic fill, rock-fill or cemented paste tailings
backfill

SRK integrates innovative disposal technologies wherever possible, in order to optimise tailings delivery methods.
Recent developments in thickened, paste and enhanced dewatering technologies are frequently utilised to maximise
water recovery, increase plant efficiency and minimise the environmental impacts of a particular development.

35.

Mine Site Closure & Rehabilitation

A key measure of the mining industrys ability to contribute meaningfully to sustainable development is in its long term
environmental performance. If mine closure and completion are not undertaken in a planned and effective manner, a
site may continue to be hazardous and a source of pollution for many years to come.
SRK demonstrates a commitment to achieving stable and self-sustaining landforms by planning and testing closure
engineering concepts well before closure occurs, so that the closure design can be confidently and cost-effectively
managed.

Services
SRKs thorough risk management methodology enables clients to identify risks and develop controls associated with
sustainable mine closure and achievement of sustainable mine completion.
Our tailings and geotechnical team offer the following services:

Detailed knowledge of international legislation and guidelines related to mine closure and rehabilitation
Progressive rehabilitation planning, implementation and supervision
Optimisation of materials placement, drainage and re-vegetation
Integrated waste dump and tailings landform designs
Design and costing of engineered soil and geotextile cover systems which limit the percolation of rainfall or
ingress of oxygen (or both) in stored reactive wastes
Comprehensive characterisation of the properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes to
determine their capacity to support plant growth and their potential to have future adverse impacts on water quality
Planning of long term environmental and hydrogeological monitoring plans for post closure periods
Chairing of stakeholder consultation with affected communities, Governments and regulatory organisations to
ensure that all environmental and social liabilities are met

Approach
Understanding the future liabilities associated with tailings storage facilities is of fundamental importance to effective
closure and rehabilitation planning. SRK combines engineering and environmental specialists to provide the most
effective long term strategies for mine closure and rehabilitation planning. This ensures that:

The post-mined landscape is safe and stable from physical, geochemical and ecological perspectives
The quality of the surrounding water resources is protected
the agreed sustainable post-mining land use is established and clearly defined to the satisfaction of the
community and government
Success criteria are agreed with relevant stakeholders, monitored and reported to stakeholders.

Experience
SRK has over 25 years experience in the field of mine closure planning having assisted a variety of mining companies
on major projects worldwide. Our engineering team is well versed in sustainable construction and design methods,
having worked on challenging projects in a variety of ecosystems and habitats.

36.
Ongoing Monitoring, Regulatory Reviews &
Audits

SRK can provide both short term and long term monitoring plans for tailings storage facilities, both for existing facilities
and during the design of new facilities. Monitoring provisions should include:

The installation of piezometers to monitor groundwater mounding beneath and surrounding the facility
Surface and groundwater quality sampling both upstream and downstream of the facility, the trialling and
monitoring of closure strategies, including slope treatments and covers
Monitoring reports prepared at appropriate intervals which are accessible, easily understood and transparent
to stakeholders

Our technical specialists, from a range of disciplines, work together to ensure that the most cost effective and indicative
monitoring techniques are applied to any given operation.

The design and construction of all storage facilities must be compliant with local government performance standards
and international best practice guidelines. SRK has provided due diligence reviews for numerous organisations who
require expert knowledge on permitting requirements, legislative procedures and environmental regulation worldwide.
SRK utilises the combined knowledge of its teams based in office locations worldwide to ensure that appropriate
permitting and legal requirements are adhered to.
Currently SRK is involved in numerous Feasibility Study audits, having developed expertise through work with financial
and government institutions, investors and operating companies.

37.

Engineering & Construction Design

As part of the design process, appropriate site characterisation is required to select the optimal tailings and waste rock
storage method for a given operation. SRK tailors engineering and geotechnical investigations to the complexity and
risk rating of the project, to provide required information for detailed design and project decision-making. SRK also
provides a complete QA/QC for the construction of tailings and waste rock storage facilities.
As part of feasibility and engineering studies, SRK prepares detailed reports covering:

Geotechnical investigation for each proposed structure and its critical components
Seismic assessment of the site
Method of tailings deposition and containment construction
Internal and external stability of the tailings containment
Physical and chemical characteristics and engineering parameters of the tailings in particular, the potential
for acid and metalliferous drainage, salinity and other contaminants to be generated by the tailings
Hydrogeological investigation conceptual groundwater modelling including background water quality within
the projected zone-of-influence of the tailings storage facility

Following on from site characterisation, SRK completes detailed design of containment structures, which typically
integrates the following key design criteria:

Minimum, maximum and average tailings production rates at which the delivery system will operate
Geochemical characteristics which may influence the selection of the most appropriate design for operation
and closure
Range of solids concentrations and the average solids concentration (as a percentage by mass) over which
the production rates are applicable
Annual and life-of-operation tailings tonnages for which the tailings storage facility must be designed
The rated maximum capacity of the return water system (m 3/hour)
The range of rheological characteristics of the tailings slurry
Public health and safety, community, and environmental compliance targets, as defined in consultation with
stakeholders, including seepage, ground water quality, decommissioning, rehabilitation and closure requirements,
air quality and radioactivity compliance levels
Operating and maintenance requirements, for example, unmanned, low maintenance

38.

Water Management

It has been calculated, that on average, it takes over 700 cubic meters of water to produce one tonne of gold. The
mining sector is a significant water user - as well as a significant producer of wastewater. It follows that effective mine
water management is an essential component of a mine's success.
Water specialists in SRK have the experience and expertise to evaluate water issues and associated risks within the
context of the wider development objectives of a mining project. This might compromise an integrated hydrogeological,
geotechnical and structural geology study to predict mine water inflows, for example, or evaluating water quality and
water supply aspects of an environmental and social impact assessment study.
Effective mine water maangement involves fully assessing such issues and delivering solutions which are practical,
appropraite and cost effective. SRK delivers on all counts, effectively and knowledgeably, to add value to your project
and help minimise your risks.
Mine Water Management Consultants - SRK Mining Consultants

39.

Dewatering and Mine Water Management

Dewatering and mine water management are essential aspects of many mine and quarry operations. SRK takes a
planned and integrated approach towards water management, incorporating the overall mine development strategy,
operational requirements and environmental considerations.
Effective dewatering and mine water management strategies deliver cost saving benefits through managing risks and
minimising uncertainties.
Services

Mine dewatering and depressurisation for slope stability management


Mine water supply, including conjunctive use
Mine water balance to optimise and minimise water use
Acid Rock Drainage Metal Leaching (ARDML) characterisation, prediction and management
Surface water management, including site drainage, river diversions and storm water management
Water chemistry and treatment (active and passive systems)
Groundwater assessment of tailings management facilities
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) baseline studies
Licensing and permitting
Mine closure, groundwater recovery and remedial works

Approach
SRKs approach to effective dewatering and mine water management is to adopt a planned and integrated approach
throughout the mine lifecycle, working closely with mine planning, process and geotechnical engineers. The
development of a conceptual model is central to the understanding of the surface water and groundwater environment
and dynamics.
A conceptual model is derived through the integration of field data, desk-based analysis and interpretation of specific
testing programmes. Predictive modelling using a variety of analytical and numerical tools then enables the proposed
mine water management system to be optimised.
Experience
SRK has a depth and breadth of experience in dewatering and mine water management which is globally recognised in
the mining industry. Our reputation is based on insightful, practical advice built upon sound science and engineering.
Our team of specialists includes hydrogeologists, hydrologists, surface and groundwater modellers, geochemists and
environmental scientists supported by mining and process engineers. This expertise is supported by state of the art
software tools for modelling of groundwater flow, surface water hydrology, contaminant transport, mine water balance
assessment and ARDML prediction and impact.

40.

Mine Water Supply

Mine water supply can be a critical aspect in the planning and development of a mining project, particularly in locations
which are arid or experience prolonged dry seasons.
SRK provides specialist advice and support in the complete lifecycle of mine water supply, from preliminary resource
assessment through to operational management of sustainable water supplies.
Services

Assessment of water demand through life of mine;


preliminary resource mapping and desk-based evaluation;
recharge estimation and catchment analysis;
licensing and permitting;
feasibility studies and options assessments;
mine water balance;
conjunctive use schemes;
design and supervision of borehole drilling, well installation and pumping tests;
design and supervision of submersible pumps, rising main and headworks;
water supply wellfield design;
groundwater and surface water modelling;
water quality and treatment;
risk assessment and impact prediction
pipeline analysis and design, and
reservoir yield analysis

Approach

Sustainable mine water supply is critical to a mining project, from meeting process water requirements to providing
potable water for the mining community. SRK adopts a risk based approach to suit the mine development requirements
and to optimise water supply.
We also ensure that wider objectives, including the long-term development strategy for the project, operational
requirements and environmental considerations, are accommodated within our approach.
Experience
SRK has a blend of wide-ranging mining industry capability and technical water supply expertise which enables us to
deliver effective and practical solutions to a projects water supply needs.
Our team of specialists includes hydrogeologists, hydrologists, surface and groundwater modellers, geochemists and
environmental scientists supported by civil, mining and process engineers. This expertise is supported by state of the art
software tools including pumping test and well yield analysis, and modelling of groundwater flow, surface water
hydrology and mine water balances.

Hydrogeological Services

Groundwater is a critically important global resource which requires careful protection and management. Many
infrastructure projects, industrial processes or others activities impact groundwater and a hydrogeological study is often
essential in such circumstances.
SRK has a full service capability of hydrogeological services and a wealth of global experience. Our hydrogeologists
work with related scientific and engineering specialists in SRK to provide a team matched to the requirements of the
project.
Services

Regional groundwater resource studies


Hydrogeological desk studies and conceptual model development
Design, project management and supervision of groundwater monitoring wells, abstraction boreholes and well
field installations
Design, project management, supervision and analysis of borehole pumping tests
Design and management of dewatering scheme
Groundwater modelling
Aquifer management studies
Hydrogeochemistry
Specialist groundwater investigations: packer testing; piezometer design and installation etc
Groundwater risk assessment
Groundwater contamination and contaminant transport modelling
Drainage and soakaway design
Groundwater data handling and management
Hydrogeological baseline studies for environmental impact assessment (EIA)
Permitting and licensing
Regulatory support and advice

Approach

Hydrogeological assessments range from regional aquifer resource management studies through to highly specialist
investigations on complex construction projects. Many studies require a multi-disciplinary approach incorporating
geologists, chemists, engineers and other professionals.
SRKs hydrogeological services are built on a combination of extensive experience, a team approach and a practical
focus. We take projects through from desk study inception through to commissioning (and decommissioning when
required!).
Experience
SRK's capability is built upon an experienced team of hydrogeologists, hydrologists, surface and groundwater
modellers, geochemists and environmental scientists.
This expertise is supported by state of the art software tools for modelling of groundwater flow, surface water hydrology,
contaminant transport.

Water Quality Assessment

Water quality assessment is relevant to many aspects of mining and infrastructure operations, from potable water
supply considerations to environmental aspects of water quality.
SRK has extensive experience in all aspects of water quality assessment within the mining industry context. This
experience extends from water quality assessments at scoping and feasibility study stages through to mine closure
assessment of issues such as Acid Rock Drainage Metal Leaching (ARDML).
Services

Potable water supply quality and health


Water treatment
Water quality sampling and monitoring;
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) baseline studies
Acid Rock Drainage Metal Leaching (ARDML) characterisation
Corrosion assessment (sulfate-reducing bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria etc)
Biogeochemical processes
Water quality risk assessment
Treatment options and water use optimisation
Mine closure and water quality.

Approach
Water quality is an important consideration relevant to many aspects of a mining project. These include potable water
supply, process water quality, environmental water quality, ARDML and water treatment.
SRK can advise on specific water quality issues when required or we can address water quality in a more integrated
manner when involved in multi-disciplinary studies. Our approach is always pragmatic, thorough and focused on
identifying solutions to water quality issues.

Experience
SRKs value in water quality assessment is based upon extensive and diverse experience across the mining and
infrastructure sectors. This experience extends into broader areas including mine water supply, environmental and
social impact assessment and mine geochemistry.
Our team of specialists includes hydrogeologists, hydrologists, geochemists, hydrogeochemists and environmental
scientists supported by process and civil engineers. This expertise is supported by state of the art software tools for
modelling of water quality, contaminant transport and ARDML prediction and impact.

Mine Closure and Groundwater Recovery

The impacts of groundwater recovery at mine closure stage of a mining operation can be substantial and complex,
whether the closure is permanent or temporary. Predictive modelling prior to closure is an effective tool towards
managing closure impacts.
SRK can evaluate the impacts of groundwater recovery and advise on long term closure aftercare strategies
accordingly.
Services

Hydrogeological studies
Groundwater and surface water monitoring
Groundwater modelling
Pit lake dynamics
Geochemistry and water quality
Acid Rock Drainage Metal Leaching (ARDML) generation
Contaminant transport modelling
Water collection and treatment
Licensing and permitting
Closure costs and liability assessment

Approach
Ideally, surface and groundwater management is planned for closure at the start of mining to minimise potential
liabilities for closure. For mines operating below the water table, cessation of dewatering needs to be managed to
minimise impacts. Similarly, the chemistry and internal dynamics of the resulting pit lake or water discharges need to be
understood.
Groundwater and surface water modelling is a key tool for assessing and predicting the effects of mine closure on the
water environment. SRK can undertake the data collection through to development of conceptual and numerical models
for both the assessment of groundwater and surface water flow and water quality. Calibrated models are then used as a
management tool to support aftercare strategies.

Experience
SRK has a blend of wide-ranging mining industry capability and technical groundwater and surface water modelling and
assessment expertise which enables us to deliver effective and practical solutions to a projects mine closure
management strategy.
Our team of specialists includes hydrogeologists, hydrologists, surface and groundwater modellers, geochemists and
environmental scientists. This expertise is supported by use of state of the art software tools for modelling of
groundwater flow, surface water hydrology, contaminant transport, mine water balance assessment and ARDML
prediction and impact.

Geochemistry
Traditional geochemistry focused on the exploration needs of the mining industry, looking for anomalies
that would point the way to new deposits. Then came environmental geochemistry that assessed the potential for
the environmental impact from operations. More recently, geochemistry has developed a branch into geometallurgy
that combines an understanding of the minerals and their properties with the way they are liberated into
commodities. Geochemistry at SRK has evolved to encompass all these aspects.
The SRK geochemistry team has a breadth of experience and is a combination of geochemists and geochemical
engineers. Working together, they can help define and assess problems, and provide engineered solutions. The
team regularly provides exploration services and can cover all environmental assessment from baseline studies
through to closure evaluation.
The team works closely with academic institutions, where required, to keep at the forefront of this developing field
and has an extensive publication list. This enables the team to provide the most up to date and appropriate solutions
to the clients and to develop unique solutions where existing solutions are not adequate.

Applied Mineralogy

Mineralogy provides information on the nature of natural and synthetic materials and focuses around the chemistry and
physical properties of crystalline products.
Services

Geological characterisation of an orebody to understand exploration significance or origin or to define controls


on mineralization, which can be useful when modelling the deposit as a framework for resource estimation
In exploration as a direct tool for determining presence of pathfinder or ore elements in surficial or weathered
materials, particularly useful with diamond and gold exploration
Characterisation applied to mineral processing to determine the metallurgical properties of those materials;
this incorporates the principles of process mineralogy and material characterization as a tool for predictive
metallurgy or geometallurgy
Assessment of physical structures, inconsistencies or weaknesses that may reveal inherent geotechnical or
mining issues when extracting a material
Determine presence of phases hosting deleterious elements that may be leached by environmental processes
and is an essential component in the prediction of Acid Rock Drainage-Metal Leaching potential

Approach
SRK in collaboration with Cardiff University can provide a range of services that cover a comprehensive approach in
applied mineralogy. In addition we do work with other research institutes and contract laboratories as required. This
independence allows us to evaluate all possible options for evaluation work and not to focus only on issues that can be
addressed by preferred equipment suppliers.
Experience
As a consultancy specialising in the provision of services to the mining industry, SRK has acquired more than 25 years
experience in prediction, prevention and control of ARD, in all types of mining and geographical environments, from
green field sites through to operating mines and on to post closure remediation evaluation. SRK scientists and
engineers have published numerous technical and research papers, both in journals and presented at many
international conferences.

Mine Waste Classification & ARD Assessment

Acid Rock Drainage and Metal Leaching (ARDML) is probably one of the major environmental impacts a mining
operation can have on the surrounding environment. The majority of contaminants from a mining operation arise
through the mobilisation with water. When materials are excavated the change in environment can have a dramatic
effect on the natural breakdown of those materials. This can lead to both metal and salt release, and can be
accentuated by dramatic changes in pH. As these contaminants are mobilised by water there is the potential for
significant impact.
Services
The integrated input to mining projects includes:

Design and supervision of rock characterisation programmes, standard static and kinetic tests
Impact prediction including geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrological modelling
Mitigation design with laboratory verification
Implementation of ARDML control measures

These activities form an important and integral part of the ESIAs and feasibility studies, as well as the basis of water
aspects of mine closure plans and rehabilitation schemes.
Approach
SRKs approach to ARDML studies focuses on understanding the problem. This requires knowledge of proposed mining
processes, mine geology, rock geochemistry and mineralogy, surrounding hydrogeology and hydrology, together with
any ecology and geotechnics of mine wastes and wall rocks. In addition tailings materials need to be characterised and
the implications of the potential impact of any process chemistry.
Experience
As a consultancy specialising in the provision of services to the mining industry, SRK Consulting has acquired more
than 25 years experience in prediction, prevention and control of ARDML, in all types of mining and geographical
environments, from green field sites through to operating mines and on to post closure remediation evaluation.

SRK scientists and engineers have published numerous technical and research papers, both in journals and presented
at many international conferences.

Predictive Modelling & Risk Assessment

An important task in the management of mine water quality is the prediction of changes in mine water chemistry in
response to changes in mining, or development of a project over time, or on closure. The task of making valid accurate
predictions of mine site water quality is therefore a critical component in understanding and minimising liabilities.
SRK has experience of making quantitative, valid predictions of water quality throughout the life cycle of mining
operations for most mineral commodities and in all mining and process scenarios and in different climates and
regulatory environments.
The benefits of accurate predictions are improved confidence in the project by mining regulators, accurate assessment
of capital and operational costs associated with mine water quality management, and early prediction and planning of
any adverse events that may arise and lead to excessive engineering costs or uncontrolled pollution incident.
Services

Predictive modelling of mine site water quality including waste rock, tailings, groundwater, surface water and
pit lake geochemistry
Quantitative prediction of heap leach and in-situ recovery metal and mineral recovery for gold, copper,
uranium, potash, lithium and nickel operations
Numerical modelling of both passive and active mine water treatment options and associated cost-benefit
assessment
Fate transport modelling and prediction of contaminant attenuation for metals, metalloids and other potential
pollutants
Process geochemical modelling
Risk assessment and management strategies based on the results of geochemical prediction calcualtions
Approach
A conceptual model is constructed from the best available geological, meteorological, hydrogeological, water quality,
mineralogical, and waste rock geochemical characterisation data. From this, a numerical prediction is completed using a
variety of software packages including: PHREEQC, PHAST, PHMT3D, MINTEQA2 and/or Geochemist Workbench
software. After a number of calculation simulations (or sensitivities) are run to identify the most sensitive parameters and
potential range of errors of Monte Carlo simulation using calculations, a screening Level Ecological Risk Assessment
(SLERA) is applied to the calculated results.
Experience
SRK has a geochemical team whose members are respected in both corporate and academic fields. To date, we have
completed numerous mine site water quality predictions with SLERA style risk: assessment, uranium transport, cyanide
and arsenic attenuation, passive and active mine water treatment systems. In a number of cases, the predictions have
had to stand up to rigorous environmental agency scrutiny.

Geometallurgy

Geometallurgy incorporates the principles of process mineralogy and material characterisation as a tool for predictive
metallurgy. SRK can help you define the ore material variability in terms of process parameters, such as ore hardness,
leach and flotation kinetics and presence of impurities. Minimising differences between planned and actual production
will improve business performance.
Services
SRK, in collaboration with Cardiff University, can provide a range of services covering a comprehensive approach in
geometallurgy. The laboratory is regulated for uranium metallurgy and to undertake work using cyanide.
Services include:

Optical and electron microscopy and XRD


Laser ablation - IC-MS for trace element analysis in solid minerals
Diagnostic leaching using targeted chemicals to establish mineralogical distributions of metals proportionally
to the total content
Crush grind assessment
Flotation testwork
Hydrometallurgy leaching ore at various pressures, temperatures and pH ranges to evaluate recovery
Recovery methods ion exchange, solvent extraction, MRT and resins.

Approach
When undertaking a geometallurgical study, SRK considers mineralogical studies on the ore, metallurgical testwork
(using multi-faceted approaches to determine optimal recovery methods on a case by case basis), and develops
geostatistical models used for short and long-term mine planning.
Experience
SRK employs a number of process engineers, metallurgists, geochemists, and mineralogists with significant experience
at various international operations, including R&D, processing plant management, and numerous studies on optimising
the processing of various ore types. A research group established between SRK and Cardiff University has published
more than 40 papers together and has developed a novel method for vapour extraction of metals from smelter slag that
is currently being patented.
Since 1997, SRK has undertaken geometallurgy studies for a variety of commodities in many parts of the world
including Botswana, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Kazakhstan, Namibia, South Africa, Spain,
Tanzania, USA, Zimbabwe.

Environmental & Social


Environmental management has been a core competency of SRK since its establishment, and our environmental and
social services skills have now diversified to meet the needs of the global mining industry and address evolving
international trends. We adapt studies to deal effectively with the unique circumstances of each project and its
associated decision-making processes. Our history in the mining and natural resource sector enables us to quickly

discern potential issues faced by our clients relating to the full scope of mining projects including processing facilities,
transport infrastructure, power and water supply systems, dredging of waterways and resettlement.
By partnering our clients during project development, we help clients avoid or minimise impacts and identify effective
management measures for inclusion in the project design. Our environmental and social impact assessment experience
is complemented by the successful undertaking of baseline and compliance monitoring, auditing and due diligence
studies.

Environmental & Social Impact Assessment

When planning a project, staying on course or closing a facility, companies need to satisfy regulatory requirements while
also addressing community expectations. These challenges can be compounded by a need to prove to investors that
risks are handled appropriately. We can assist you in achieving your goals, whether they are an environmental permit,
an investment decision, a social licence to operate or a closure certificate.
Services

Environmental and social impact assessments (ESIAs)


Stakeholder consultations
Undertake and/or manage baseline studies (using appropriate in-house, local or international consultants)
Management (action) and monitoring plans and systems development
Closure planning and costing
Land acquisition, resettlement and compensation planning
Training of company staff on international trends and best practices such as those set by the International
Finance Corporation (IFC) and International Council of Mining and Metals (ICMM)

Approach

ESIAs are conducted by SRK in a phased manner in close contact with the project development team
Multi-specialist technical knowledge is combined with project management to ensure appropriate level of study
undertaken
Consideration is taken of host country regulations & guidelines, corporate standards and lender requirements
Integral stakeholder consultations are used to understand and address interested and affected parties
concerns
SRK holistically considers social, environmental, labour and community health and safety for the overall
project, including any support infrastructure or services

Experience

Over 20 years exposure to natural resource and mining projects enabling identification of issues critical to a
ventures success
Skills and experience to reduce risks whilst meeting project objectives in a cost and time-efficient manner
Successfully undertaken high profile impact assessments in accordance with Equator Principles, IFC
Performance Standards, World Bank Groups Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) guidelines and other
international guidelines and standards
Understanding host country requirements based on experience in countries across Africa, Asia,
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Middle East, South America, Europe and Greenland

Stakeholder & Public Consultation

Engagement with stakeholders to understand their issues and jointly identify solutions is increasingly important for the
successful development of projects. It demonstrates responsible citizenship, reduces project risks and assists project
developers to obtain their social licence to operate. SRK can help in planning and implementation of stakeholder
consultations during project development and throughout the life of a project.
Services

Consultation planning, which could range from development of a policy framework to a detailed action plan for
impact assessment or operational purposes
Identifying and consulting with interested and affected parties, including communities, government, NGOs and
other stakeholders
Developing and maintaining a database of stakeholders and their issues
Designing customised disclosure documents for stakeholders
Preparing grievance procedures
Training of project staff in international trends and requirements for successful stakeholder engagement

Approach
SRK views stakeholder consultations not merely as a one off exercise for regulatory approval, but as a tool for building
and maintaining a relationship of mutual trust and credibility with stakeholders to reduce social risks to the project. Key
principles that SRK believes in and promotes are:

Participation
Transparency
Accountability
Respect for traditional knowledge
Recognition of indigenous rights

In recognition of this, SRK takes into account country specific cultural and political aspects when designing stakeholder
involvement processes.
Experience

Over the last 20 years, SRK has assisted its clients by successfully designing and managing consultations
with interested and affected parties to meet both host country regulatory requirements and international standards,
such as the Equator Principles and International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards
We have experience with communities in Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Africa, Middle
East, South America and Europe
SRK has worked with indigenous people and facilitated development of mutually agreeable and often
unprecedented terms for consultation based on international best practices

Mine Closure Design, Planning & Cost Estimation

From initial project planning through to design, construction, operation and closure, SRK can assist clients in developing
and implementing strategies for mine closure. SRK has developed an integrated approach to analyse, evaluate and
compile closure plans from conceptual through to detail plans depending on project requirements.
Services

Closure planning for Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs), feasibility studies and
operational requirements
Determination of asset retirement obligations
Site investigation studies in support of closure planning
Environmental and social impact studies, including environmental, economic and social mitigation planning
Detailed engineering of closure concepts
Engagement strategies for interested and affected parties
Closure cost estimates
Review and audit of closure plans and costs
Post closure monitoring

Approach

SRK employs a multi-disciplinary approach to mine closure, drawing on our experience of international mining,
augmented by the review, planning and implementation of large scale closure plans
By considering bio-physical and social impacts, engineering requirements and the regulatory framework for a
project, SRK evaluates associated risks, costs and benefits of identified closure options
Recognising the complexities associated with closure, SRK considers it fundamental to work with our clients to
develop appropriate strategies at all stages of a projects life.

Experience

SRK has over 20 years experience in mine rehabilitation, decommissioning and closure
SRKs specialists have conducted numerous programmes and designs for closure including the development
of policies, guidelines, closure criteria and management plans
SRK is able to integrate the various closure aspects relating to environmental, community, engineering, health
& safety and financial considerations into comprehensive closure plans applicable to all mining operations and
associated infrastructure

Environmental & Social Management Planning

Successful environmental and social management planning can lead to improvements in a companys community,
environmental and financial performance. SRK offers comprehensive approaches to managing these issues to meet

corporate, host country, lender and stakeholder requirements.


Services

Development of framework and detailed management systems and plans based on outcomes of
environmental and social impact assessments
Review and audit of existing management plans/systems to evaluate performance and facilitate compliance
reporting
Develop and assist with implementation of plans and systems
Integration of plans into existing quality systems and procedures
Identify performance objectives, pollution reduction measures and resource optimisation
Provide training to staff and management
Engage with stakeholders to ensure a companys social licence to operate is not affected

Approach

A systematic approach to environmental and social management is provided by SRK for both new projects (as
part of an environmental and social impact assessment process) and existing operations
Successful management is achieved through a process of planning, implementing, evaluating and improving
Combining in-depth technical knowledge of mining operations and project development processes with a
sound understanding of environmental and social management issues enables SRK to develop cost effective
management plans and systems that minimise risk and maximise on opportunities

Experience

Over 20 years of experience in the mining industry provides insight into management practices that work
SRKs team comprises skilled environmental scientists and engineers and social specialists with operational,
regulatory and impact assessment experience
By combining this experience, SRK assists companies to develop site specific management plans and/or
systems with the aim of meeting agreed objectives
SRK has worked in countries across Africa, Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Middle East,
South America, Europe and Greenland

Environmental & Social Audits, Review & Monitoring

Provision of an independent opinion on performance by means of audits, reviews and monitoring programmes enabling
risks, liabilities and opportunities to be identified and evaluated. The results of such studies can be used to inform
company management and facilitate communication with regulators, stakeholders or investors.
Services

Due diligence studies to raise finance or inform mergers and acquisitions


Review feasibility studies and impact assessment reports against agreed criteria such as host country laws or
the Equator Principles
Develop and implement monitoring programmes to evaluate specific issues
Undertake quantitative or qualitative liability and risk assessments
Evaluate management system effectiveness including organisational capacity and training needs
Undertake compliance audits
Estimate budget needed to prevent, remediate or compensate for identified liabilities

Approach

Selected teams are chosen by SRK to suit specific scope of work based on technical, regulatory and country
experience
Work is scoped and clearly defined proportional to the expected risk/liability
Reporting is clear, concise and unambiguous fashion highlighting risks and opportunities
Technical, managerial or financial solutions are proposed by SRK to emphasise envisaged benefits and
potential cost savings
Close relationships with our geology, mining, water, geotechnical and financial colleagues enable
environmental and social issues to be considered within the context of the overall project

Experience

Over 20 years of auditing, reviewing and monitoring the environmental and social aspects of mining and
associated projects
SRKs specialists have completed studies all over the world, ranging from high level reviews to detailed
compliance audits
Our team is well-respected by the investment community due to our extensive due diligence and independent
review work
Our fully independent specialists conversant with various international standards such as the Equator
Principles, International Finance Corporations ( IFC) Performance Standards, African Development Bank standards
and International Council on Mining and Metals ( ICMM) guidelines

Mining Economics
Commodity price and macro-economic assumptions are frequently required as input to our technical authoring and
reviewing mandates which include:

Technical studies requiring input for cut-off grade determination and optimisation analysis for Mineral
Resource and Ore Reserve reporting;
benchmarking for comparative cost of production analysis;
Financial Models (link to service statements) for comparative assessments of economic performance; and
Mineral Asset Valuations (link to service statements) for reporting in regulatory documentation prepared for the
equity capital markets.

Approach
To facilitate the above SRK has established a historical database with daily and monthly granularity covering the
majority of international benchmark indicators including: commodity prices for bulk commodities, base metals, precious
metals, gemstones, energy products and industrial minerals; and macro-economic parameters for country specific
consumer price indices and exchange rates. In addition SRK collates on a quarterly basis various financial analysts
quarterly, annual and long-term commodity price assumptions. These are subsequently collated in real terms to
establish a median for each reporting period defined as the Consensus Market Forecasts (CMF). Specifically the CMF
comprises annual forecasts leading to the long-term price (LTP) assumptions as appropriate for Ore Reserve
declarations.
Our approach in this regard is to provide a simplified independent benchmark which enables objective comparisons with
that associated with the specific mandate at hand. This does not seek to replace the detailed supply-demand-price
analysis as normally completed by recognised market specialists and accordingly where named reliance is required
(e.g. public domain documentation) SRK recommends that these market specialists be separately appointed. Our
historical databases also facilitate authoring of country profile reports and comparative country production contributions
to global production and reserve status.
Experience
SRKs experience in this area is exemplified by the numerous mandates requiring such input for public domain
consumption, specifically in respect of technical reports filed in support of equity capital markets transactions. Access to
our wider natural resource sector participants also enables us to compare and contrast the current market trends in key
LTP assumptions as typified by those assumed to support Ore Reserve declarations.
Furthermore we have also been engaged in specific mandates with the majority of the commodity market specialists
specifically in respect of assessments requiring cost curve benchmarking. Our collective appreciation of the natural

resource sector coupled with appropriate specialist input, assures that forecasts are benchmarked at the outset thus
ensuring early identification of any unexplained significant variance from consensus.

Technical Economic Modelling


Approach
The development of a Technical Economic Model (TEM) is a fundamental part of any mining feasibility or due diligence
study and in order to derive income based approach valuations. SRK has developed a team who specialise in the
production and review of TEMs.
As part of a scoping, pre-feasibility or feasibility study SRK will develop a fully integrated TEM using the technical and
economic inputs provided by the specialists in their respective fields and also build in the flexibility for scenario and
option analysis in order to assess the optimum plan for the project.
SRK typically uses the same approach as part of a due diligence review or valuation. By developing its own TEM based
on that provided by the client if available, SRK considers this not only ensures the integrity of the model itself but also
enables the inputs to be verified and alternative inputs to be evaluated which assist in assessing the viability or
sensitivity of the project to different technical and economic parameters.
SRK has extensive experience in the production and review of TEMs as part of scoping, pre-feasibility and feasibility
studies and also as part of due diligence reviews for projects seeking to raise project finance or in deriving a value for a
company or project seeking to raise new equity through listing on a stock exchange. In addition, SRK can develop
TEMs for companies or projects for use in merger and acquisition transactions.
Due to our independence SRK is often called upon by international banks and financial institutions to assist them in
making a decision regarding providing project finance and also by mining companies seeking to obtain an independent
valuation of their company or project.
Our team works alongside other in-house specialists in the fields of geology and resources, mining engineering, mineral
processing and in the areas of tailings, water and environmental management to ensure the technical and economic
inputs to the TEM are appropriate for the study being undertaken.
Services
Development and review of TEMs for:

Scoping Study.
Pre-Feasibility Study.
Feasibility Study.
Project Finance.
Equity raising.
Valuations.
Mergers and Acquisitions.

Technical Valuation

Where insufficient information is available on an exploration property to derive a net present valuation based on a
discounted cashflow model, an alternative approach is needed to determine the value of a project. SRK has a team of
highly experienced people who specialise in the valuation of such early to mid stage projects.
Services

Valuations of assets, properties or projects from grass roots land holdings with no exploration history, to those
which have been demonstrated to contain mineralisation but which have only limited exploration data, to well
explored deposits which have a defined Mineral Resource but where a pre or full feasibility study has not yet been
completed.
Valuations of assets at later stages of development and where a cashflow model can be developed are
covered under a separate Technical Economic Modelling service statement.

SRK has no equity interest in any exploration, mining company or deposit thereby guaranteeing independence in the
work carried out.
Approach
SRK would typically visit the site, and review all available current and historic information pertaining to the project. In
addition, SRK can use its experience in the relevant commodity, its knowledge of the location and other projects near
the project site to derive a fair value or more typically a value range. We use a range of techniques which would be used
depending on the development stage of the property: Cost Based Methods, Market Based Methods, and Income Based
Methods
Using a combination of the above techniques and drawing upon our experience and the databases at our disposal, SRK
is very well placed to determine a fair value for a property for almost any commodity and at any stage of its
development.
Experience
SRK is regularly called upon by exploration and mining companies seeking to obtain an independent valuation of either
the company as a whole, of individual, or groups of, assets that they own or of assets that they might be interested in
owning. The valuations so derived have variously been used in support of stock exchange listings and the raising of
new equity, mergers and acquisitions, joint venture and farm in agreements.

Commodity Price and Macro-Economic Consensus Market


Forecasts

Markets and Product Lines


Commodity price and macro-economic assumptions are frequently required as input to our technical authoring and
reviewing mandates which include:
technical studies requiring input for cut-off grade determination and optimisation analysis for Mineral Resource
and Ore Reserve reporting;
benchmarking for comparative cost of production analysis;
Financial Models for comparative assessments of economic performance; and
Mineral Asset Valuations for reporting in regulatory documentation prepared for the equity capital markets.
Approach
To facilitate the above, SRK has established a historical database with daily and monthly granularity covering the
majority of international benchmark indicators including: commodity prices for bulk commodities, base metals, precious
metals, gemstones, energy products and industrial minerals; and macro-economic parameters for country specific
consumer price indices and exchange rates. In addition, SRK collates on a quarterly basis various financial analysts
quarterly, annual and long-term commodity price assumptions. These are subsequently collated in real terms to

establish a median for each reporting period defined as the Consensus Market Forecasts (CMF). Specifically the CMF
comprises annual forecasts leading to the long-term price (LTP) assumptions as appropriate for Ore Reserve
declarations.
Our approach in this regard is to provide a simplified independent benchmark which enables objective comparisons with
that associated with the specific mandate at hand. This does not seek to replace the detailed supply-demand-price
analysis as normally completed by recognised market specialists and accordingly where named reliance is required
(e.g. public domain documentation) SRK recommends that these market specialists be separately appointed. Our
historical databases also facilitate authoring of country profile reports and comparative country production contributions
to global production and reserve status.
Experience
SRKs experience in this area is exemplified by the numerous mandates requiring such input for public domain
consumption, specifically in respect of technical reports filed in support of equity capital markets transactions. Access to
our wider natural resource sector participants also enables us to compare and contrast the current market trends in key
LTP assumptions as typified by those assumed to support Ore Reserve declarations.
Furthermore we have also been engaged in specific mandates with the majority of the commodity market specialists
specifically in respect of assessments requiring cost curve benchmarking. Our collective appreciation of the natural
resource sector coupled with appropriate specialist input, assures that forecasts are benchmarked at the outset thus
ensuring early identification of any unexplained significant variance from consensus.

Where insufficient information is available on an exploration property to derive a net present valuation based on a
discounted cashflow model, an alternative approach is needed to determine the value of a project. SRK has a team of
highly experienced people who specialise in the valuation of such early to mid stage projects.
Services

Valuations of assets, properties or projects from grass roots land holdings with no exploration history, to those
which have been demonstrated to contain mineralisation but which have only limited exploration data, to well
explored deposits which have a defined Mineral Resource but where a pre or full feasibility study has not yet been
completed.
Valuations of assets at later stages of development and where a cashflow model can be developed are
covered under a separate Technical Economic Modelling service statement.

SRK has no equity interest in any exploration, mining company or deposit thereby guaranteeing independence in the
work carried out.
Approach
SRK would typically visit the site, and review all available current and historic information pertaining to the project. In
addition, SRK can use its experience in the relevant commodity, its knowledge of the location and other projects near
the project site to derive a fair value or more typically a value range. We use a range of techniques which would be used
depending on the development stage of the property: Cost Based Methods, Market Based Methods, and Income Based

Methods
Using a combination of the above techniques and drawing upon our experience and the databases at our disposal, SRK
is very well placed to determine a fair value for a property for almost any commodity and at any stage of its
development.
Experience
SRK is regularly called upon by exploration and mining companies seeking to obtain an independent valuation of either
the company as a whole, of individual, or groups of, assets that they own or of assets that they might be interested in
owning. The valuations so derived have variously been used in support of stock exchange listings and the raising of
new equity, mergers and acquisitions, joint venture and farm in agreements.