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West Visayas State University

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


La Paz, Iloilo City
CONSTRUCTION OF TESTS
AND OTHER MEASUREMENT / EVALUATION / ASSESSMENT TOOLS
Test is a device used to obtain information needed for evaluation purposes. They provide
teachers with information that can aid them in improving instruction. They also provide
students with information that can aid them in improving themselves.
Measurement is the process by which information about the attributes or characteristics of
things are determined or differentiated. It is limited to quantitative description of an attribute.
Assessment - the reasons for assessment:
diagnose students strength and weaknesses,
monitor students progress,
assign grades,
determine ones own instructional effectiveness,
influence public perceptions of educational effectiveness,
help to evaluate teachers and clarify teachers instructional attentions
Evaluation is the process of summing up the results of measurements or tests, giving them
meaning based on value judgments (Hopkins / Stanley, 1981). It is a systematic process of
determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved by pupils (Gronlund,
1981). It includes quantitative description (measurement) or qualitative description and value
judgment concerning the result of measurement. Evaluation cannot be undertaken apart

from the teaching because it

validates the objective, and


points out the effectivity and propriety of the learning experiences.

What are the Scope of Evaluation?


1. Assessment of curricular offerings, school programs and industrial materials and
facilities.
2. Assessment of the mentors.
3. Assessment of the pupils / students.
Why Evaluate?
1.
2.
3.
4.

As students requirements to exit the course


To prepare students for other tests and examination
To answer professional accountability / index of teacher performance
To maintain universal academic standards (benchmark for the department)

What to Evaluate?
1. Students academic performance based on the specific objectives explicitly stated in the
syllabi.

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2. Learning outcomes achieved by the students that are the products of teaching.
3. Learning outcomes achieved by the students that can be categorized as cognitive,
affective, and psychomotor.
How to Evaluate?
A. By Giving Tests
1. Pencil and Paper Tests for Cognitive Learning Outcomes
Classification of Test
a. Educational Test
Primary function is the measurement of results or effect of instruction.
e.g. Periodic Examination, Achievement Test

Types of Educational Test


1. Criterion Referenced test are designed to determine whether or not an
individual has reached a target performance level on a specific scale called for by
the test exercises. The main concern is not to compare the performance of a student
relative to a present target.
Example

A teacher may aim for the students to learn addition of dissimilar


fractions with 80% accuracy. He teaches the concept and gives a
20 item test on adding of dissimilar fractions.
Anne got 75%. She is 5% short than the criterion.
Mario got 90%. He exceeded the target performance by 10%.

2. Norm Referenced Tests is constructed for the purpose of determining the


performance of a student with reference
to a target group.
Example
1) Marie got P80 in NCEE. She is much better than 80% of the students who
took the tests.
2) Psychological Tests measures the intangible aspects of behavior such as
attitudes, interests, emotional adjustments, intelligence and ability.
B.By Using Other Evaluation Tools for Non Cognitive Learning Outcomes
a. Authentic Evaluation Tools
b. Portfolios and Reflections
c. Celebrations and Other Culminating Activities
What are the Uses of Test?
1. Instructional Uses
Test results focus teachers attention on specific objectives need to be emphasized
more, the teaching methods that have to be utilized more or those that need to be
improved.
2. Administrative Uses

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Tests are useful for making selection decisions. They provide information that would be
accepted in particular programs. They are necessary in determining whether a
particular innovative program or teaching strategy or medium of instruction is more
effective in attaining educational goals.
3. Guidance Uses
Test results are useful in predicting an individuals success in a field of study and thus
aid him in choosing an appropriate course of study.
What are the Steps in Test Construction?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Determine the purpose of the tests Unit Test, Chapter test, MidTerm Exam
Prepare a table of specifications or test blueprint
Select the appropriate test items
Construct relevant test
Assemble the test
Administer the test
Appraise the test results
Use the test results for the purposes it was intended
Review the test items for improvement and future use

What are the Steps in Preparing a Table of Specification?


Table of Specification is a matrix where the rows consist of the specific topics or skills
and the columns are the objectives cast in terms of Blooms Taxonomy of educational
objectives. It is consist of the item number and the number of items prepared for each cell.
A. Review the syllabus
How much content was covered?
How much of the objectives were accomplished?

B. Determine the number of items in a Table of Specification


Determine the number of days spent in each topic.
C. Divide the total number of items by the total number of days.
D. Multiply the quotient to the number of days spent for each topic to determine the
number of items per topic.
What are the Characteristics that Objectives Must Possess?
1. Objectives should be written in terms of observable student behavior.
Example:
Poor:
To understand the addition of dissimilar fractions
Better:
To solve at least 8 out of 10 exercises in addition of dissimilar
fractions.
2. Objectives should contain only terms that have precise meanings.
The word understand means different to different people.
3. Objectives should be unitary.
Example:
To read the poems written by Edgar Allan Poe.

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To appreciate poems written by Edgar Allan Poe.


4. Objectives should be realistic. Objectives should consider the
time available for teaching,
time limit for testing and
characteristics of the learners.
What are the Hierarchy of Educational Objectives?
Blooms Hierarchy of Educational Objectives (Cognitive Domain)
1. Knowledge pertains to objective related to simple recall rate memory learning and
knowledge of facts. This is: To say the first letters of the alphabet
e.g.
To point all es in a word
To define mammal.
2. Comprehension refers to knowledge of facts with understanding
e.g.
To translate word sentences to number sentence.
To summarize the main idea of a paragraph.
To predict the ending of a story.
3. Application is the ability to use given abstractions (idea, rule, procedure) appropriate
to a new
situation and apply it correctly.
e.g.
To follow safety rules when the fire drill bell rings.
To make a cookies using a recipe.
To write 10 sentences using past tense of the verb.
4. Analysis is the ability to break down a concept into its constituent elements in order to
illustrate
the hierarchy, show the basis of organization and indicate how it conveys its
effect.
e.g.
To underline the main idea in a letter.
To distinguish the similar terms.
To identify parts of the sentence.
5. Synthesis refers to the ability of the learner to put together certain bits of information
into a
whole information.
e.g. To derive a formula.
To make a recipe.
To construct a collage.
6. Evaluation is making of judgments about the value, purpose of ideas, work solutions,
methods
and materials. The criteria for evaluations may be determine by the student or
the teacher and the judgments may be quantitative or qualitative.
e.g. To draw a conclusion based on the data.
To write a critique of a short story.
*& * & *&*& * & *& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * &
*&*& * & *&*& * & *&*& * & *

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Topic: Addition of Dissimilar Fractions


Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

At the end of the topic, the students should be able to:


identify similar fractions from dissimilar fractions (knowledge)
define dissimilar fractions in their own words (comprehension)
add dissimilar fractions (application)
state the rule in adding dissimilar fractions (synthesis)
Table of Specification

Objectives
Content

Objective Level
Knowledg
e

1. Similar
and
Dissimilar
Fractions
2. Least
Common
Multiple
3.
Changing
Dissimilar
Fractions
to Similar
Fractions
4. Adding
Dissimilar
Fractions
Total

Comprehensio
n

Applicatio
n

No. of
Hours

Synthesi
s

Total No.
of Items

11

10

Instrumentation of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain


TAXONOMY
Key Words
EXAMPLES OF DIRECT OBJECTS
CLASSIFICATION
EXAMPLES OF INFINITIVES
1.00 KNOWLEDGE
1.10 Knowledge of specifics
1.11 Knowledge of
terminology

To define, to distinguish,
to acquire, to identify, to
recall, to recognize

Vocabulary, terms, terminology,


meaning(s), definitions, referents,
elements

1.12 Knowledge of
specific facts

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Facts, factual information, (sources),


(names), (dates), (events),

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(persons), (places), (time periods),


properties, examples, phenomena
1.20 Knowledge of ways and
means of
dealing with specifics
1.21 Knowledge of
conventions

To recall, to identify, to
recognize, to acquire

Form(s), conventions, uses, usage,


rules, ways, devices, symbols,
representations, style(s), format(s)

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Action(s), processes, movement(s),


continuity, development(s), trend(s),
sequence(s), causes, relationship(s),
forces, influences

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Area(s), type(s), feature(s),


class(es), set(s), arrangement(s),
classification(s), category /
categories

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Criteria, basics, elements

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Methods, techniques, approaches,


uses, procedures, treatments

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Principle(s), generalization(s),
proposition(s), fundamentals, laws,
principal elements, implication(s)

To recall, to recognize, to
acquire, to identify

Theories, bases, interrelations,


structure(s), formulation(s)

2.10 Translation

To translate, to transform,
to give in own words, to
illustrate, to prepare, to
read, to represent, to
change, to rephrase, to
restate

Meaning(s), sample(s), definitions,


abstractions, representations,
words, phrases

2.20 Interpretation

To interpret, to reorder, to
rearrange, to differentiate,
to distinguish, to make, to
draw, to explain, to

Relevancies, relationships,
essentials, aspects, new view(s),
qualification, conclusions, methods,
theories, abstraction

1.22 Knowledge of trends,


sequences

1.23 Knowledge of
classifications
and categories
1.24 Knowledge of criteria

1.25 Knowledge of
methodology
1.30 Knowledge of universals
and
abstractions in a field
1.31 Knowledge of
principles,
generalizations
1.32 Knowledge of theories
and
structures
2.00 COMPREHENSION

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demonstrate
2.30 Extrapolation

To estimate, to infer, to
conclude, to predict, to
differentiate, to
determine, to interpolate,
to extrapolate, to fill in, to
draw

Consequences, implications,
conclusions, factors, ramifications,
meanings, corollaries, effects,
probabilities

3.00 APPLICATION

To apply, to generalize, to
relate, to choose, to
develop, to organize, to
use, to employ, to
transfer, to restructure, to
classify

Principles, laws, conclusions, effects,


methods, theories, abstractions,
situations, generalizations,
processes, phenomena, procedures

4.00 ANALYSIS

To distinguish, to detect,
to identify, to classify, to
discriminate, to recognize,
to categorize, to deduce

Elements, hypothesis / hypotheses,


conclusions, assumptions,
statements (of act), statements (of
intent), arguments, particulars

4.10 Analysis of
relationships

To analyze, to contrast, to
compare, to distinguish, to
deduce

Relationships, interrelations,
relevance / relevancies, themes,
evidence, fallacies, arguments,
cause effect(s) consistency /
consistencies, parts, ideas,
assumptions

To analyze, to distinguish,
to detect, to deduce

Form(s), pattern(s), purpose(s),


point(s) of view(s), technique(s),
bias(es), structure(s), theme(s),
arrangement(s), organization(s)

5.10 Production of a
unique work

To write, to tell, to relate,


to produce, to constitute,
to transmit, to originate,
to modify, to document

Structure(s), pattern(s), product(s),


performance(s), design(s), work(s),
communications, effort(s), specifics
composition(s)

5.20 Production of a
plan, or
proposed set of
operations

To propose, to plan, to
produce, to design, to
modify, to specify

Plan(s), objectives, specification(s),


schemantic(s), operations, way(s),
solutions, means

5.30 Derivation of a set


of abstract of
operations

To produce, to derive, to
develop, to combine, to
organize, to synthesize, to
classify, to deduce, to
develop, to formulate, to
modify

Phenomena, taxonomies,
concept(s), scheme(s), theories,
relationships, abstraction,
generalizations, hypothesis /
hypotheses, perceptions, ways,
discoveries

4.20
Analysis of
organizational
principles

5.00 Synthesis

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6.00 Evaluation
6.10 Judgments in terms
of internal
evidence

To judge, to argue, to
validate, to assess, to
decide

Accuracy / accuracies, consistency /


consistencies, fallacies, reliability,
flaws, errors, precision, exactness

6.20 Judgments in terms


of external
criteria

To judge, to argue, to
consider, to compare, to
contrast, to standardize,
to appraise

Ends, means, efficiency, economy /


economies, utility, alternatives,
courses of action, standards,
theories, generalizations

General Principles in Constructing the Different Types of Test.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
18.
19.
20.

The test items should be selected carefully. Only important facts should be
considered.
The test should have extensive sampling items
The test items should be carefully expressed in simple clear, definite, and
meaningful sentences.
There should be only one possible correct response for each test item.
Each item should be independent of the other items as much as possible.
Lifting sentences from books should not be done to encourage thinking and
understanding.
The first person I and We should not be used.
Various types of tests should be used to avoid monotony.
Majority of the test items should be of moderate difficulty. Few difficult and few easy
items should be included. The test items should be arranged in ascending order of
difficulty. Easy items should be at the beginning and the most difficult items at the
end. This will encourage the examinee to pursue the test. Up to the end.
Clear, concise, and complete direction should precede all types of test. Sample test
items may be provided for expected responses.
Items that can be answered by previous experience alone without knowledge of the
subject matter should
not be included.
Catchy words should not be used in the test items.
Test items must be based upon the objectives of the course and upon the course
content.
The test should measure the degree of achievements or determine the difficulties of
the learners.
The test should emphasize the ability to apply and use facts as well as knowledge of
facts.
The teacher should answer /perform the test her/himself (to come up with an answer
key) to determine its approximate time allotment (in the case of the midterm / final
exams, when the time allotted is 1 hours) The teacher must do the test in an hour
or less depending upon the subject / course, type of tests included, and target
objectives /performance the teacher purports /intends her/his students must
achieve.
The test should be of such length that within the time allotted it could be completed
by all or nearly all of the students.
Rules governing good language expression, grammar, spelling, punctuation and
capitalization should be observed in all items.
Information on how the scoring should be done should be provided.
Scoring keys in correcting and scoring the test should be provided.

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Pointers to be Observed in Constructing and Scoring the Different Types of Test.


A.

RECALL TYPES
1. Simple Recall Type
This type consists of questions calling for a single word or expression as an
answer.
Items in question form usually begin with who, where, when, and what.
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.
2. Completion Type
Only important words should be omitted.
Blanks should be of equal lengths. The blank as much as possible is placed
near or at the end.
Articles a /an / the should not be provided before the omitted word or phrase
to avoid clues for answers.
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.

3. Identification Type
The items should make the examinee think of a word / number / formula, or
group words/ expression / numbers that would complete the statement or
answer the question / problem.
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.
4. Enumeration Type
The exact number of expected answers should be stated.
Blanks should be of equal lengths
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.
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Examples:
1)

Faulty:

Ernest Hemingway wrote _____________________________

Improved: The Old Man by the Sea was written by


______________________________
Or
Who wrote The Old Man by the Sea?
2)
Faulty:
thought in America

________________ pointed out in _____ that freedom of


was seriously hampered by _________, _________,

_____________, and ____.


Improved:

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That freedom of thought in America was seriously


hampered by social pressures toward conformity was
pointed out in 1930 by __________________ .

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B.

RECOGNITION TYPE
1. True-False or Alternative Response Type
Declarative sentence should be used.
The number of true and false items should be more or less equal.
The truth or falsity of the statement should not be too obvious /evident.
Avoid negative statements.
The modified true-false is more preferable than the plain true-false
In arranging the items avoid the regular recurrence of true and false
statements.
Avoid using specific determiners like
all
always
never
none
nothing

often
some
most
Avoid weak statements such as
many
sometimes
as a rule
in general
Minimize the use of qualitative terms like
Few
great
many
more
Avoid leading clues to answers in all items.
Scoring: modified true-false
: number of correct answers
plain true-false
: number of correct answers
minus number of wrong answers

Examples:
1)

Faulty:

No picture-no sound in a television set may indicate a bad

Improved:

A bad SU4G tube in a television set will result in no

Faulty:
result of

It is not frequently observed that copper turns green as a

SU4G.

picture-no sound.
2)

oxidation.
Improved:

Copper will turn green upon oxidation

2. Yes-No Type
The items should be in interrogative sentences.
The same rules as in true-false are applied.

3. Multiple-Choice Type
There should be 3 to 5 choices. The number of choices used in the first item
should be the same number of choices in all the items od this type of test.
The choices should be numbered or lettered so that only the number or letter
can be written on the blank provided.
If the choices are figures, they should be arranged in ascending order.

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Avoid the use of a or an as the last word prior to the listing of the choices.
Random occurrence of the responses should be employed.
The choices, as much as possible, should be at the end of the statements.
The choices should be related in some way or should belong to the same
class / set.
Avoid the use of none of these as one of the choices.
Avoid the use of all of the above. It is usually the correct answer and makes
the item too easy for students with partial information.
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.

4. Best Answer Type


There should be three to five choices all of which are right but vary in their
degree of merit, importance or desirability.
The other rules of multiple-choice type are applied.
Scoring: One point for each correct answer.
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Examples:
Faulty:
Milk can be pasteurized at home by
A,
heating it to a temperature of 1300.
temperature of 1450.
C.
heating it to a temperature of 1600.
temperature of 1750.

B.

heating it to a

D.

heating it to a

Improved:
The minimum temperature that can pasteurize Milk at home is
A.
1300
B.
1450
C.
1600
D.
1750
Faulty:
None of the following cities is a state capital except
A.
Bangor B.
Los Angeles
C. Denver

D.

New Haven

D.

New Haven

Improved:
Which of the following cities is a state capital?
A.

Bangor

B.

Los Angeles

C.

Denver

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5. Matching Type
There should be two columns. Under Column A are the stimuli which should be
longer and more descriptive than the responses under Column B. The
responses may be a word, a phrase, a number, or a formula.
The stimuli under Column A should be numbered and the responses under
Column B should be lettered.
The answers will be indicated by letters only on lines provided in Column A.
The number of pairs should be between ten to twenty. Less than ten introduces
chance elements. More than twenty is decidedly a waste of time.

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The number of responses in Column B should be more than the number of


items in Column A to avoid guessing.
Only one correct matching for each item should be possible.
Matching sets should neither be too long nor too short.
All items should be on the same page to avoid turning of pages in the process of
matching the pairs.
Scoring:
One point for each correct answer.

Examples:
Faulty;
Directions:Match Column A with Column B. You will be given one point for each
correct match.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

A
cotton gin
reaper
wheel
TU54J tube
steamboat

B.
a. Eli Whitney
b. Alexander Graham Bell
c. David Brinkley
d. Louisa May Alcott
e. None of these

The shortcomings of this matching exercise may be summarized as follows:


The directions fail to specify the basis for matching or the mechanics for
responding.
The two lists are enumerated identically (in letters).
The responses are not listed alphabetically.
Both lists lack homogeneity.
There are equal number of elements in both lists.
The use of None of these is questionable here, serving as a giveaway to
list A elements c and d.
Furthermore, if a student uses it for element e in list A, it is not clear
that (s)he knows who did invent the steamboat, in fact.
Improved:
Directions:

Famous inventions are listed in the left-hand column


(Column A), and inventors in the right-hand column
(Column B) below. Place the letter corresponding to the
inventor in the space next to the invention for which he is
famous. Each correct match is worth one point, and None
of these may be a correct answer. Inventors may be
hosen more than once.
A
Inventions

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B
Inventors

12

_____

1.

Cotton gin

a.

_____

2.

Reaper

_____

3.

Sewing machine

_____

4.

b.

Steamboat

Alexander Graham Bell

Cyrus McCormick
c.

Eli Whitney

d.

Elias Howe

e.

Robert Fulton

f.

None of these

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C.

ESSAY TYPE
Complex Learning Outcomes That Can Be Measured Effectively With Essay Type
Tests/Examinations
1. Explain cause-effect relationship.
2. Describe application of principles
3. Present relevant arguments
4. Formulate tenable hypothesis
5. Formulate valid conclusions
6. State necessary conclusions
7. Describe the limitations of data.
8. Explain methods and procedures
9. Produce, organize, and separate ideas
10. Integrate learnings in different areas
11. Create original forms( e.g. designing an experiment)
12. Evaluate the worth of ideas.
How to Construct Essay Examinations
Determine the objectives or essentials for each question to be evaluated
Phrase question in simple, clear and concise language
Suit the length of the questions to the time available for answering the essay.
Avoid the use of optional question.
SCORING OF ESSAY ITEMS:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

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Prepare a Scoring Rubrics.


Avoid looking at the students name on the paper.
For each item, brush up he answers before scoring, that is, quickly read
through the answers of the students, evaluate the papers on the basis of
your opinion of worthiness and sort them into five groups very
superior papers, superior papers, average papers, inferior papers,
and very inferior papers.
Re-read the answers to an item in each group and shift any that you feel
have been misplaced.
Using the Scoring Rubrics score the response to an item.
Repeat steps 2 to 5 for each item.
Total the scores to get final score in the essay test.

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