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# Transfer Functions

Chapter 4

x (t )

X (s)

system

y (t )

Y (s)

x

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect
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Chapter 4

## Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an

output, y. Then, by definition
G (s)

Y (s)

X (s)

where:
Y ( s ) = L y ( t )
X ( s ) = L x ( t )

Chapter 4

3

## Recall the previous dynamic model, assuming constant liquid

holdup and flow rates:

dT
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
V C
dt

(1)

Chapter 4

## Suppose the process is initially at steady state:

T ( 0 ) = T , Ti ( 0 ) = Ti , Q ( 0 ) = Q

( 2)

conditions:
0 = wC (Ti T ) + Q

(3)

## Subtract (3) from (1):

dT
V C
= wC (Ti Ti ) (T T ) + ( Q Q )
dt

(4)
4

But,

dT d (T T )
=
because T is a constant
dt
dt

(5)

Chapter 4

dT
V C
= wC (Ti T ) + Q
dt

(6)

## where we have introduced the following deviation variables,

also called perturbation variables:
T = T T , Ti = Ti Ti , Q = Q Q

(7)

Take L of (6):
V C sT ( s ) T ( t = 0 ) = wC Ti( s ) T ( s ) Q ( s ) (8)
5

Evaluate T ( t = 0 ) .
By definition, T = T T . Thus at time, t = 0,

Chapter 4

T (0) = T (0) T

(9)

But since our assumed initial condition was that the process
was initially at steady state, i.e., T ( 0 ) = T it follows from (9)
that T ( 0 ) = 0.
Note: The advantage of using deviation variables is that the
initial condition term becomes zero. This simplifies the later
analysis.
Rearrange (8) to solve for T ( s ) :
K
1

T ( s) =
Q ( s ) +
Ti( s )
s +1
s +1

(10)
6

=

1
and
wC

V
w

(11)

Chapter 4

## Transfer Function Between Q and T

Suppose Ti is constant at the steady-state value. Then,

## Ti ( t ) = Ti Ti( t ) = 0 Ti( s ) = 0. Then we can substitute into

(10) and rearrange to get the desired TF:
T ( s)
K
=
Q ( s ) s + 1

(12)

## Transfer Function Between T and Ti :

Suppose that Q is constant at its steady-state value:

Chapter 4

Q ( t ) = Q Q ( t ) = 0 Q ( s ) = 0
Thus, rearranging

T ( s )
1
=
Ti( s ) s + 1

(13)

1. The TFs in (12) and (13) show the individual effects of Q and Ti
on T. What about simultaneous changes in both Q and Ti ?

Chapter 4

Answer: See (10). The same TFs are valid for simultaneous
changes.

## Note that (10) shows that the effects of changes in both Q

and Ti are additive. This always occurs for linear, dynamic
models (like TFs) because the Principle of Superposition is
valid.

## 2. The TF model enables us to determine the output response to

any change in an input.
3. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for TF
models.

## Properties of Transfer Function Models

Chapter 4

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in the
input. For example, suppose we know two steady states for an
input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the steadystate gain, K, from:

y2 y1
K=
u2 u1

(4-38)

## For a linear system, K is a constant. But for a nonlinear

system, K will depend on the operating condition ( u , y ) .
10

K = lim G ( s )

Chapter 4

s 0

(14)

Theorem

## Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,

integrating process in Ch. 5)

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2. Order of a TF Model

## Consider a general n-th order, linear ODE:

Chapter 4

an

dny
dt

+ an1
bm1

dy n1
dt n1

d m1u
m1

dy
d mu
+ K a1 + a0 y = bm m +
dt
dt

du
+ K + b1
+ b0u
dt

(4-39)

dt
Take L, assuming the initial conditions are all zero. Rearranging
m
gives the TF:
i
b
s

i
Y ( s ) i =0
G (s) =
= n
(4-40)
U (s)
i
a
s
i
i =0

## The order of the TF is defined to be the order of the denominator

polynomial. Note: The order of the TF is equal to the order of the
ODE.
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## Suppose that an output is influenced by two inputs and that

the transfer functions are known:

Chapter 4

Y (s)

U1 ( s )

= G1 ( s ) and

Y (s)

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s )

## Then the response to changes in both U1 and U 2 can be written

as:

Y ( s ) = G1 ( s )U1 ( s ) + G2 ( s )U 2 ( s )
The graphical representation (or block diagram) is:
U1(s)

G1(s)
Y (s )

U2(s)

G2(s)
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4. Multiplicative Property

Suppose that,

Y (s)

Chapter 4

U2 ( s)

= G2 ( s ) and

U2 ( s)
U3 ( s )

= G3 ( s )

Then,
Y ( s ) = G2 ( s )U 2 ( s ) and U 2 ( s ) = G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Substitute,

Y ( s ) = G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )U 3 ( s )
Or,

Y (s)

U3 ( s )

= G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )

U3 ( s )

G2 ( s )

G3 ( s )

Y (s)

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## Linearization of Nonlinear Models

So far, we have emphasized linear models which can be
transformed into TF models.

Chapter 4

## But most physical processes and physical models are nonlinear.

- But over a small range of operating conditions, the behavior
may be approximately linear.
- Conclude: Linear approximations can be useful, especially
for purpose of analysis.
Approximate linear models can be obtained analytically by a
method called linearization. It is based on a Taylor Series
Expansion of a nonlinear function about a specified operating
point.

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Linearization (continued)

Chapter 4

## Consider a nonlinear, dynamic model relating two process

variables, u and y:

dy
= f ( y, u )
dt

(4-60)

## Perform a Taylor Series Expansion about u = u and y = y and

truncate after the first order terms,

f
f ( u, y ) = f ( u , y ) +
u

f
u +
y
s

(4-61)

## where u = u u , y = y y , and subsrcipt s denotes the steady

state, ( u , y ) . Note that the partial derivative terms are actually
constants because they have been evaluated at the nominal
operating point, s.
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Linearization (continued)
Substitute (4-61) into (4-60) gives:

Chapter 4

dy
f
= f (u , y ) +
dt
u

u +
s

f
y

(A)

f (u , y ) = 0

(B)

## Also, because y = y - y, it follows that,

dy
dy
=
(C)
dt
dt
Substitute (B) and (C) into (A) gives the linearized model:
dy f
=
dt u

f
u +
y
s

(4-62)

s
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qi

## Example: Liquid Storage System

Mass balance:

Chapter 4

dh
A = qi q (1)
dt
q = Cv h
(2)

Valve relation:
A = area, Cv = constant
q

C
dh 1
= qi v
dt A
A

h = f (h, qi )

(3)

## Eq. (3) is in the form of (4-60) with y = h and u = qi . Thus,

we can utilize (4-62) to linearize around h = h and qi =qi ,
f
dh f
= h +
qi
dt h s
qi s

(4)

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Chapter 4

where:
Cv
f
=

h s
2A h

(5)

f 1

=
qi s A

(6)

Cv
dh 1
h
= qi
dt A
2A h

(7)

## This model can be expressed in terms of a valve resistance, R

1
2 h
dh 1
= qi
h with R =
dt A
AR
Cv

(8)

(8)
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Chapter 4

State-Space Models
Dynamic models derived from physical principles typically
consist of one or more ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
In this section, we consider a general class of ODE models
referred to as state-space models.

## Consider standard form for a linear state-space model,

x& = Ax + Bu + Ed

(4-90)

y = Cx

(4-91)
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Chapter 4

where:
x =

u =

## the control vector of manipulated variables (also called

control variables)

d =

y =

## the output vector of measured variables. (We use

boldface symbols to denote vector and matrices, and
plain text to represent scalars.)

## The elements of x are referred to as state variables.

The elements of y are typically a subset of x, namely, the state
variables that are measured. In general, x, u, d, and y are
functions of time.
The time derivative of x is denoted by x& ( = dx / dt ) .
Matrices A, B, C, and E are constant matrices.
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## Example: CSTR Model

Consider the previous CSTR model. Assume that Tc can vary
with time while cAi, Ti , q and w are constant.

Chapter 4

Nonlinear
Model:

Linearized
Model:
where:

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Example 4.9
Show that the linearized CSTR model of Example 4.8 can
be written in the state-space form of Eqs. 4-90 and 4-91.
Derive state-space models for two cases:

Chapter 4

## (a) Both cA and T are measured.

(b) Only T is measured.
Solution

The linearized CSTR model in Eqs. 4-84 and 4-85 can be written
in vector-matrix form:
dcA a
dt 11

=
dT a
dt 21

a12 cA 0
+ T
c
a22 T b2

(4-92)

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Chapter 4

## Let x1 cA and x2 T , and denote their time derivatives by x&1

and x&2 . Suppose that the coolant temperature Tc can be
manipulated. For this situation, there is a scalar control variable,
u Tc , and no modeled disturbance. Substituting these
definitions into (4-92) gives,
x&1 a11 a12 x1 0
+ u
x& = a

b2
21 a22 x2
2 14
{
243
B
A

(4-93)

which is in the form of Eq. 4-90 with x = col [x1, x2]. (The symbol
col denotes a column vector.)

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Chapter 4

## a) If both T and cA are measured, then y = x, and C = I in

Eq. 4-91, where I denotes the 2x2 identity matrix. A and B are
defined in (4-93).
b) When only T is measured, output vector y is a scalar,
y = T and C is a row vector, C = [0,1].
Note that the state-space model for Example 4.9 has d = 0
because disturbance variables were not included in (4-92). By
contrast, suppose that the feed composition and feed temperature
are considered to be disturbance variables in the original
nonlinear CSTR model in Eqs. 2-60 and 2-64. Then the linearized
model would include two additional deviation variables, cAi
and Ti.

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