You are on page 1of 166

ARHITEKTONSKI FAKULTET U SARAJEVU | CICOP BIH | CICOP ITALY | CICOP SERBIA | GRAEVINSKI FAKULTET U SARAJEVU

BOOK OF CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS - Importance of Place (CD-ROM)

5th International Conference


on Hazards and Modern Heritage

SARAJEVO | 22-24 APRIL 2013

Editors
Nina Avramidou
Amir Causevic
Nerman Rustempasic
Aida Idrizbegovi-Zgoni
Technical editors
Erdin Salihovi
Mevludin Zeevi
Published by
CICOPBH, Sarajevo
Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013
ISSN 2232-965X

ABOUT
Conference is organized as Pre-Congress ac#vity of 2nd Biennial of Architectural and
Urban Spaces, BRAU2, 15 - 30 October 2013, under patronage of UNESCO.
Conference as a main goal has to introduce modern approaches for the preserva#on and
management of cultural heritage and introduce Young People to the Protec#on of Heritage Sites
and Historic Ci#es. Ac#ons that contains management plan, with long-term goals, may include
ac#ve and passive use, in order to achieve the sustainability of heritage and involvement in
modern trends of life and to sa#sfy main demands regarding aesthe#c values, comfort of living
areas and environmental sustainability.
It is also an opportunity to coordinate, promote and encourage the exchange of
informa#on for a historical cultural heritage, and dene mechanisms for the protec#on of
modern architectural heritage.
We must add the sense of the rela#on between memory, territory and the quality of a
meaningful life which underlies the associa#ve heritage work in considering the importance of
place; we highlight the concepts of community resilience and risk management, key aspects
of a response to change, while we dene the word sustainability, the responsibility of us
living people towards the heritage we received and towards the heritage we will leave to our
successors, in order to play a pivotal role.
All this leads us to a conclusion that there is a need for a new responsible architectural
ethical design that will surpass the ego, the preten#ous and apstract architectural concepts, but
will result in a dynamic process through design and buildings life cycle.
The best way to preserve a historically valuable modern building is if one you can make the
house owner be aware of the values of the building, see to that he gets the needed knowledge
how to maintain the building and that he is proud of being the owner. It is also important that
the building is used and that it is used in a way that respects the historical values of the building.

CICOP.NET CONFEDERATION
CICOP ITALY, BH CICOP AND CICOP SERBIA
IN COOPERATION WITH

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGENEERING,


UNIVERSITY SARAJEVO
Organize
Pre-Cogress Ac!vity of 2 Biennial of Architectural and Urban Spaces, BRAU2, 15-30 October
2013
nd

under the patronage of UNESCO

The 5th Interna!onal Conference on Hazards and Modern Heritage


The Importance of Place
Conference theme

MODERN HERITAGE BETWEEN UPGRADING AND PRESERVATION


Risks and Remedies
22 - 24 April, 2013 in Sarajevo

Heritage and ideals, our code and standards the things we live by and teach our children are preserved or
diminished by how freely we exchange ideas and feelings.
Walt Disney

GENERAL SPONSOR:

GOLD SPONSORS:

SPONSORS

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Head Dr. Sci. Amir auevi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Rada ahtarevi, Dean of Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Nerman Rustempai, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Mr. Sci. Mevludin Zeevi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Lemja Akamija, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Nina Ugljen-Ademovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Erdin Salihovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Aida Idrizbegovi Zgoni, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Benede&a Maio Miranda, University of Florence (IT), Florence, Italy
Mr. Sci. Adnan Veli, Arch.-country manager Aluknigstahl d.o.o. Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Vedad Islambegovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Amira Salihbegovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Mr. Sci. Merjema Zatri, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Nermina Zagora, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Mladen Burazor, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Lana Kudumovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Vila Sutovi, Editor-in-Chief of the AGD pro Magazine
Arch. Lejla Hadi, Regional Coordinator of Cultural Heritage without Borders
Arch. Nadira Kuljuh-Boli, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Lejla abi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Mr. Sci. Lejla Kreevljakovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Asja Damadi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Mr.sci. Senka Ibriimbegovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Edvin Bari, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Prof. Arch. Nina Avramidou, President of CICOP.NET CONFEDERATION, President of CICOP-Italy,
University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Prof. Dr. Zeynep Ahunbay, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Faculty of Architecture, Turkey
Prof. Dr Grn Arun, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Jos Luis Moro, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, University of Stu&gart,
Germany
Prof. Ma'as Rotner, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, University of Stu&gart, Germany
Prof.Dr. Giorggio Mon#, La Sapienza University, Rome , Italy
Prof. Dr. Rada ahtarevi, Dean of Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Mustafa Hrasnica, Dean of Faculty of Civil Engineering , University of Sarajevo
Prof. Dr. Amir Pai, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Denis Zvizdi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Lemja Akamija, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Aida Idrizbegovi Zgoni, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Amra Hadimuhamedovi, Commission to Preserve Na#onal monuments, Sarajevo, BiH
Arch. Valen#na Satolli, Municipality of Orvieto
Arch. Antonino V.Pirozzi, President of CICOP Chile
Prof. Dr. Neriman Sahin Guchan, Dep. of Architecture, METU, Ankara
Doc. Dr. Samir Dolarevi, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Nerman Rustempai, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Nina Ugljen-Ademovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Erdin Salihovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Amir auevi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, Head of BHCICOP
Prof.Dr. Mesud Hadiali, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Prof. Dr. Ahmet Turer, Dep. of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Milos Drdacky. Associate Professor, PhD, DrSc, C.Eng. Ins#tute of Theore#cal and Applied
Mechanics, Czech Republic
Prof. Arch. Alberto Satolli, Secretary of CICOP-NET, Italy

10

Prof.Dr. Tadeja Zupani, Faculty of Architecure, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia


Prof.Dr. Borut Juvanec, Faculty of Architecure in Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Doc. Dr. Alan Topi, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Tuzla, University in Tuzla, BiH
Prof. Dr. Ugurhan Akyuz, Dep. of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Dr. Omur Bakirer, Dep. of Architecture, Graduate Program, METU, Ankara, Turkey
Doc. Dr. Selma Rizvi, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Ajna Zatri, M.S. Theory of Arts, Cicop Serbia
Eng. Mario Maio, CICOP-Italy
Dr. Sci. Nermina Zagora, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Mladen Burazor, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Dina ami, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc.Dr.Aleksandar Kekovi, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Ni
Prof. Dr Fehim Hadimuhamedovi, Academy of Design, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Edin Jahi, IUS Interna#onal University of Sarajevo, BiH
Dr. Sci. Amira Salihbegovi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Denana Bijedi, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, BiH
Doc. Dr. Nana Palini, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Rijeka
Doc. Dr. Nihad engi, Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, University of Sarajevo, BiH

11

12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ARCHITECTURAL LEVEL
JAKOBSGRDARANA HOUSING AREA * ENERGY EFFICIENT REVITALIZATION OF MODERN
HERITAGE
Tina Wik
MARIBOR 1960 + 1980; SEVEN ORIGINALS, THREE RENOVATIONS
Andrej mid

26

RESTAURATION OF THE MODERN


FANUCHIS RESIDENCE, CAMBU, MG, BRAZIL
Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira

28

IMPROVEMENT OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REDESIGN


CONCEPTS OF KINDERGARTENS IN SERBIA BUILT BETWEEN 1970 AND 1990
Ljiljana Jevremovi, Branko AJ. Turnek, Milanka Vasi

29

RESTAURATION OF THE MODERN FANUCHIS RESIDENCE,


CAMBU, MG, BRAZIL
Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira

30

THE SARAJEVO SCHOOL OF MODERNISM ON THE EXAMPLE OF


URBAN VILLAS + THE SARAJEVO WHITE PERIOD
Mirza Rustempai, Nerman Rustempai, Amir auevi

31

URBAN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NI MODERNA


Aleksandar Kekovi
PARALLELS BETWEEN THE SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND ITS SOLUTIONS FROM
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Ambreen Saqib

13

25

32

33

MEMORIAL ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN WORLD WAR II AND 1990


Orjana Lenasi and Amra arani Logo

34

MOSQUES OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA


Amra arani Logo

36

DESIGN OF NEW OBJECTS IN HISTORIC CITY CENTER REVITALIZATION PRECES


Esad Muminovi

37

MODERNIST TRADITION: IDEA OF MEGASTRUCURE IN FEW SPECIFIC PROJECTS IN


SARAJEVO, NOVI PAZAR AND PRISTINA
Demila Beganovi

40

CONTEMPORARY INTERIOR DESIGN APPROACH


CONSERVATION OF THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH*CENTURY VERNACULAR
DWELLINGS IN PRIZREN: FROM TRADITIONAL LIFESTYLE TO THE MODERN COMFORT
Nora Arapi Krasniqi
ARCHITECTURAL CONVERSION AND LOSS OF MEANING. THE CASE OF CATALONIA
Gemma Domnech Casadevall

45
46

AD HOC STRATEGY AS CONTEMPORARY INTERIOR DESIGN IN DIALOGUE WITH A


MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN CASE OF PALACE TOKYO PARIS, FRANCE
Senka Ibriimbegovi

47

RE*EVALUATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN SARAJEVO: HISTORICAL


OVERVIEW AND THE QUEST FOR CONTINUITY
Nermina Zagora

48

PROBLEMS IN REMODELING OF RESIDENTIAL INTERIORS: KITCHEN DESIGN ISSUES


Dragovi Danilo, Slavkovi Branko

49

CONSERVATION PRACTICE
A HOLISTIC CONSERVATION APPROACH TO MODERN HERITAGE: A READING ON HISTORIC
ENVIRONMENTS
zlem Karakul
THE GREAT PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATES, THE CITY AND THE FUTURE
Kers$ Berggren
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURVIVAL TOOLS FOR MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN
TURKEY
Duygu Saban kesli

53
54

57

STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS


A MODERN APPROACH TO STRENGTHENING AND REPAIR OF EXISTING REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES USING HPFRC
Mira Vasic, Valen$na Sumini

61

14

MODERN APPROACH TOWARD THE USE OF GLASS IN THE MATERIALIZATION OF THE


BUILDING SKIN
Branko Slavkovi, Danilo Dragovi

62

INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY IN CAMPANIA /ITALY<: THE DISMISSED TANNERIES OF


SOLOFRA
Pierfrancesco Fiore

63

THE APPEARANCE OF THE FLORA ON THE CONCRETE WALLS


OF FILTER FIELDS IN THE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER
Emir Troi, Edin Smaji

64

CONSERVATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SYSTEM; CASE TURKEY, KAYSERI


SMERBANK LOCAL*THEATER
Hikmet Eldek

66

SEISMIC ASPECTS REGARDS UPGRADING OF MODERN HERITAGE FACILITIES


Amir auevi, Nadira Kuljuh-Boli, Asja Damadi
TRANSPARENT STRUCTURE IN THE SENSE OF PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF
MODERN HERITAGE
Amira Salihbegovi

67

68

BUILDING TECHNIQUE AND TECHNOLOGY


HIDDEN INNOVATION AND ITALIAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
COMPONENT OF LIGHT TECHNOLOGY IN THE CHURCH OF CRISTO RE IN LAQUILA /1933*
1935<
Alessandra Bellicoso, Alessandra Tosone

15

73

COLONY IX MAY TO THE SEAS PEOPLE IN LAQUILA


AN PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF THIRTY YEARS ARCHITECTURE
Renato Morgan$, Alessandra Tosone, Simona Cocciolone

74

ARCHITECTURE OF FORTY YEARS.


I.N.F.A.I.L. BUILDINGS ON COURSE FEDERICO II IN LAQUILA
Alessandra Tosone, Alessandra Bellicoso

75

INTERVENTIONS ON HOTEL CENTRAL IN SARAJEVO*


BETWEEN UPGRADING AND PRESERVATION
Nerman Rustempai, Mevludin Zeevi, Amir auevi

76

AT THE ORIGINS OF MODERN CONSTRUCTION:


EARLY APPLICATIONS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE IN THE FLOORS
DESIGNED BY THE ITALIAN ENGINEERS CORPS
Emanuele Zamperini
STRUCTURAL LOGIC SOUNDLY INTEGRATED IN OVERALL ARCHITECTURAL DELIVERY
PROCESS + REACHING THE SYNERGY WITHIN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
Denana Bijedi, Denis Zvizdi
THE LATE MEDIEVAL TOWER IN TESHOVO
Radosveta Kirova

77

78
80

URBAN LEVEL
URBAN DEVELOPMENT RISK ON THE FIRST MODERN FABRIC OF KAYSERI: ORNEKEVLER
AND SAHABIYE QUARTERS
Ceyhan YCEL

85

PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE OF THE 20TH CENTURY THROUGH A


REVALUATION OF CULTURAL, HISTORICAL AND AESTHETIC ELEMENTS
Emilija Kastelic

86

INDUSTRIALIZATION AS THE GENERATOR OF MODERN SARAJEVO


Denis Zvizdi, Mejrema Zatri, Nasiha Pozder, Pavle Krs$

87

IMPORTANCE OF SCALE AND COMPLEXITY IN GROWING FORM OF THE CITY


Rada ahtarevi; Dana Spahi

88

FRAGMENTED TRANSFORMATION OF THE CENTRAL URBAN SPACE IN POST*DAYTON


TUZLA TOWN
Edin Jahi
20TH CENTURYS HERITAGE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
AS INTEGRATED PART OF CULTURAL ROUTES * AUTHENTIC BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
CASE STUDY: MINING TOWN BANOVII
Lana Kudumovi
URBAN FORM AND URBAN ETHICS IN CHANGING SOCIALISTIC DEMOCRACY
Nihad H. engi
TRANSFORMATION OF TURKISH TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENT, AN EXAMPLE
ODUNPAZARI
Guler Koca, Rana Karasozen

89

90
91

94

16

SUCCESSIVE INTEGRATION OF THE OLD AND THE NEW: AN ONGOING PROCESS


Nadja Kurtovi-Foli

95

POST*MODERN HERITAGE IN NEW BELGRADE


Simone Sante

97

LOCAL COMMUNITY
CONSERVING MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN POST*COLONIAL
CONTEXT: MOZAMBIQUE
Lisandra Franco de Mendona

103

NEW MEMORY
Lemja Chabbouh Aksamija, Lejla abi

104

PLANNED HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MODERNIST MANNER IN BIH


Maja Pliani, Adi orovi

106

PODGORICA /BUILT HERITAGE/ + INTEGRATION OR DISINTEGRATION = LEGEND OR


BINDING REALITY?
Igbala abovi Kerovi

107

THE ROLE AND IMPACT OF PRESERVATION ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE ON DOMESTIC


TOURISM
Abdullah Al-nfeesi

108

TITLE: BOBOVAC* A MONUMENT INFLUENCING PEOPLE


Katarina Bonjak

109

LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATIONS
RECOVERY OF THE VACUUM: THE QUARRIES OF MASSACIUCCOLI
Alessandra Beca&ni, Leonardo Benede&

17

113

THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRADITIONAL WATER RESOURCES EXPLOITATION AND


SETTLEMENT
Emir Troi, Edin Smaji

114

KREMIKOVTZI METALLURGICAL PLANT + THE WASTED PAST OR THE WASTE OF THE


PAST. POSSIBILITIES FOR ADAPTATION OF A POST*INDUSTRIAL TERRITORY
Dimitar Mehandjiev, Iliana Ovtcharova

116

GLOBAL/LOCAL
SARAJEVO MUSEUMS, REPRESENTING THE POST*WAR B&H SOCIETY IN TRANSITION
Lejla Kreevljakovi

121

NEW MOSQUES=NEW CULTURAL HERITAGE?


CONTEMPORARY PLACES OF WORSHIP IN BOSNIA*HERZEGOVINA AND TURKEY
Alma Hudovi

122

THE LEGACY OF MODERNIST SETTING AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO POST WAR


DEVELOPMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Mladen Burazor

123

FORMER INDUSTRIAL AREAS STUMBLING BLOCK OR DEVELOPING


GENERATOR
Anica Tufegdi, Dejana Neduin

124

SEARCHING FOR THE LOST RESOURCES: HEMP + INVESTIGATION OF HEMP AS A


BUILDING AND ISOLATION MATERIAL
atovi Nina, Dizdar Sanela, Durmievi Nejra

126

ETHICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL


THE DESTINY OF TEMPLES OF CULTURE IN BANAT VILLAGES TODAY
Maria Siladji, Nadja Kurtovic Folic

131

HERACLEA CITADEL. RISKS AND REMEDIES


Valen$n Feodorov

132

ITS NOT MY HERITAGE ANYWAY. SOME ISSUES SURROUNDING THE CONSERVATION OF


MODERN HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE IN NEW SOUTH AFRICA.
Walter Peters

133

NATURAL HAZARDS
HOUSING AND HEALTH: A LOCAL AND TAILOR*MADE LOW*TECH APPROACH TO
MINIMIZE DISEASES IN A RISING COMMUNITY OF HAITI
Sara Parlato, Roberto Pennacchio, Andrea Tulisi

137

NEW TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO PROTECT ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN OASIS AND


DESERT SETTLEMENTS
Ruiz Plaza, Angela; Moreno Adn, Carmen; Domnguez Mar'nez, Oriol

138

18

URBAN LANDSCAPE OF THE CITY OF VELIKO TARNOVO IN THE 19TH CENTURY: THE
IMPACT OF THE NATURAL HAZARDS
Radosveta Kirova

140

MAN"MADE HAZARDS
BANDITRY AS A FORM OF CHANGE
Erik Toth
MODERN SOCIAL CONFLICT AS HAZARD TO THE PRESERVATION
BUILT HERITAGE IN A HILL RURAL AREA OF PIACENZA PROVINCE
/NORTH OF ITALY<
Valen$na Cinieri

145

146

PRESERVATION OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE, CORDOBA IN SPAIN


Ambreen Chaudhary

147

CHALLENGES OF FAST GROWING CITIES


Bujar Bajinovci, Kaltrina Thaci

148

EDUCATION
THE ROLE OF ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE IN PRESERVATION OF CULTURAL IDENTITY
Nina Ugljen Ademovi, Ela Turkui
THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNICAL RULES OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE ENACTED AFTER THE
TANZIMAT REFORMS, IN URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES IN
KOSOVO
Vlora Navakazi, Florina Jerliu
CONTEMPORARY MEMORIAL: PERSERVING AND CREATING A SENSE OF PLACE
Sabina Tanovic
SOCIALISTIC HERITAGE IN*BETWEEN THE DESIRE FOR PRESERVATION OF ITS
ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE AND THE NEED FOR TRANSFORMATION OF ITS
CULTURAL CHARACTER
Nina Stevanovi

19

153

154
155

156

MODERN ARCHITECTURE AS CULTURAL HERITAGE


Adnan Zorani

157

THE LEGACY OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN PRISHTINA


Florina Jerliu, Vlora Navakazi

158

URBAN SPACE AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: CASE STUDY OF YADAV COMMUNITY OF


HARYANA, INDIA
Shashi Bala

159

VIRTUAL HANDLING
HERITAGE CONSERVATION + ALIGNING TECHNOLOGIES
Rand Eppich, Lejla Hadzic
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT TO
PROCESS AND SHARE HERITAGE HAZARDS DATA
Amir Hajdar

163

164

20

21

22

ARCHITECTURAL LEVEL
23

Architectural level

24

Architectural level

JAKOBSGRDARANA HOUSING AREA " ENERGY EFFICIENT


REVITALIZATION OF MODERN HERITAGE
Tina Wik
University of Dalarna
$w@du.se
ABSTRACT
Jakobsgrdarna housing area - energy ecient revitaliza#on of modern heritage
At the University of Dalarna we are ini#a#ng a research project about how to restore and revitalize the residen#al area Jakobsgrdarna in Borlnge, central Sweden, to achieve be&er energy
performance of the buildings as well as study maintenance problems for architecture from this
period. The residen#al area was built in 1974 by the well-known architects Hasse Bckstrm
and Bengt Hidemark, at the end of the million housing program in Sweden when one million
residen#al units were built in ten years. It consists of a number of residen#al quarters around a
small commercial centre adjacent to the centre of Borlnge. Jakobsgrdarna was built right a]er
the million housing program was nalized when the program was strongly cri#cized as being
monotonous and boring. Here the architects wanted to achieve low-cost small scale housing in
wood based on the Swedish tradi#on, but s#ll modern in its expression for the workers in the
expanding industrial town of Borlnge. Its architecture is an expression of what Kenneth Frampton calls a Cri#cal Regionalism, an architecture rooted in local tradi#on but based on modern
ra#onality and technology.
The project suers from lack of maintenance since the architecture from this period was
expected to not require much maintenance. In this case, common in many projects from this period (due to the amount of buildings that were produced during a short #me), the buildings also
suer from being badly built from the beginning. Today, many immigrants lives here, mostly from
Somalia. They have dierent social codes which challenge the possibili#es of the original design.
The research project aims at nding solu#ons to reduce hea#ng costs by 50 % of today without
disturbing the architectural expression. Another aim is to nd solu#ons for the maintenance
problems of specic materials. A third aim is to study how the new residen#al groups use the
buildings, as well as the site itself, in order to study the adaptability of this kind of an area.
How can interest and awareness of quali#es from these areas be widened? It is easier to get
support to preserve one building or a small scale residen#al area than a large scale area built in a
ra#onal way. S#ll, these areas are important witnesses of the societal view on how new technology will create a be&er society in Europe post WWII. How many and how much of these areas
should we preserve and how?
Keywords: modern heritage, energy eciency, wood

25

MARIBOR 1960 # 1980; SEVEN ORIGINALS, THREE RENOVATIONS

Architectural level

Andrej mid
PhD Student, Doctoral school of Architecture, Graz University of Technology (TU Graz), Austria
and Deputy director of Komunaprojekt d.d. Maribor, Slovenia
andrej.smid@gmail.com, andrej.smid@komunaprojekt.si
ABSTRACT
The role of architecture in Maribor, Slovenia, is similar to other post WW2 modernist urban
city developments, yet the transforma#ons and architectures in the city centre are dierent. The
postwar urban planning in Maribor, Slovenia begun with the Ljubo Humek urban regula#on plan
for the whole city in 1949, but in the city fabric very concise architecture stories are wri&en:
Maribor city structure was heavily bombed in 1944 and 1945 and the reconstruc#on of the
ruined buildings allowed the urban planners to introduce a new series of public buildings to
the city. Apparently the architects have done a sensible job in detailed urban planning they
understood and followed the city elements of square, street and city block perfectly and built
architecture with small gestures that are fully preserved on architectural and urban planning
level.
The understanding that these architectural works create unchangeable urban situa#ons
is essen#al for any future preserva#on procedures. The symbiosis of sensible architecture and
urban planning will be presented on seven buildings:
Gospodarsko zavarovalna zadruga Drava, Saa Dev, 1937
Vija ekonomsko komercialna ola, Branko Kocmut, 1960-62
Restavracija Center, Rudi Zupan, 1960-62
Hotel Slavija, Milan ernigoj, 1961-63
Trgovska hia VeMa, Borut Peenko, 1965-68
Trgovska hia Kvik, Borut Peenko, 1968-70
Nova zgradba VEK, Borut Peenko, 1976
The main preserva#on principle of the modernist architecture could be concealed in
understanding of the urban context created by the buildings.
The three examples of the Maribor modernist architecture show that the renova#on and
even extensions can be done when adequate measures are taken to outline the modernist and
clearly show the contemporary addi#ons to it:
Renova#on of the Talum oce building, Kidrievo Danilo Frst, 1954, renewal Janko
Zadravec, 2002
Renova#on and extension of Hotel Bellevue, Pohorje mountain Ivan Kocmut, 1956-62,

26

Architectural level

renewal and extension Oskar Virag, Iztok Rajter, 2006


Renova#on of the Kreditna banka Maribor headquarters 1979, renewal of the facade
Peter Kocmut, 2000, new interior of public bank hall Janko Zadravec and Branko epi, 2002
There are many renova#ons of buildings of modern architecture in Maribor, Slovenia
only few show that the authors of the renewals are understanding the language of the authors
of the original building mgs. Since renewal and restora#on of the modernist architecture are
exquisite themes in the architectural cri#cs, new evalua#ng methods and criteria are to be
invented and revealed.
Keywords: modern architecture, Maribor architecture, urban block renova#on, urban
portal

27

RESTAURATION OF THE MODERN


FANUCHIS RESIDENCE, CAMBU, MG, BRAZIL

Architectural level

Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira


Ren Rachou Research Center-Fiocruz Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
beneditoo@cpqrr.ocruz.br

ABSTRACT
The Fanuchi residence was conceived in 1981 by two architects who had just graduated
at the Universidade de Braslia-UnB and was built in the city of Cambu, Minas Gerais state,
Brazil. The construc#on was completed in 1983, In 2008 the Fanuchis residence was protected
by the City Cultural and Patrimony Council of Cambu, as an important example of the modern
architecture in this city and in 2011 the owners decided not only to restore and up-grade
the modern building, but also to build on another wing to house leisure and support area.
The restoring interven#on, which obeys the modern preserva#on principles of cultural
patrimonies, is an important opportunity for a reec#on in this Conference about the use of
these principles which were conceived for an architecture of other #mes but that can also
respond very well when used in the contemporary architecture.
Keywords: conserva$on, restaura$on, modern, heritage

28

Architectural level

IMPROVEMENT OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE


REDESIGN CONCEPTS OF KINDERGARTENS IN SERBIA BUILT BETWEEN
1970 AND 1990
Ljiljana Jevremovi, Branko AJ. Turnek, Milanka Vasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis
jevremovicljiljana@gmail.com; ajbranko@yahoo.com; milanka.vasic@gaf.ni.ac.rs
ABSTRACT

29

This paper deals with the phenomenon of evolu#on of design principles in general, but
then focusing on the kindergartens as a specic building type. As a part of scien#c project Revitalisa#on of the Kindergartens in Serbia Program and Methods for Improvements of Ambient, Func#onal and Energe#c Quality conducted by a group of scien#c researchers headed by
Dr Danica Stankovic, at Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, this paper
for its research material takes a several kindergartens built in Nis from 1970 to 1990. The kindergartens examined in this paper were chosen according to their func#onal scheme of oor plan.
For this analysis is taken only those ones with the atriums, that give a specic architectural layout
of the buildings. Firstly the thorough analysis of the exis#ng building was done, considering the
architectural analysis of physical space, but as well the analysis of the building material quality.
This implicated the needs for the renewal of those kindergartens as well rethinking of possible
models of building transforma#on according to contemporary design paradigms.
The irregular maintenance of the buildings caused their low level of performance and
sa#sfac#on that has emerged through this survey and conducted analysis. Reconstruc#on of
the exis#ng kindergartens should be also guided towards reducing a number of occupants in a
favour of bigger space per single unit within the kindergartens. The renova#on process of kindergartens may have dierent ranges. This is implicated with two key elements, condi#on of the
buildings and nancial support for the reconstruc#on. First one is determining, while the other
is limi#ng. Depending of the age and current condi#on of the building, it may be suggested large
reconstruc#on opera#ons; otherwise the reconstruc#on can be focused on interven#ons in the
interior, equipment and furniture, as elements that have short shelf life. The scope of the reconstruc#on is also condi#oned with amount of available nancial resources. Good nancial basis
may give a free hand to architects and others involved in process of reconstruc#on to make a
total makeover of the building, but in most cases this cannot be a case. Therefore it is suggested
to strive towards crea#ve and ra#onal solu#ons. In order to do more with the less, the problem
of reconstruc#on must be considered through priori#es.
Keywords: kindergarten, building reconstruc$on, redesign, architectural concepts, atrium
buildings, Serbia, children needs

RESTAURATION OF THE MODERN FANUCHIS RESIDENCE,


CAMBU, MG, BRAZIL

Architectural level

Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira


Ren Rachou Research Center-Fiocruz Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
beneditoo@cpqrr.ocruz.br
ABSTRACT
The Fanuchi residence was conceived in 1981 by two architects who had just graduated at the Universidade de Braslia-UnB and was built in the city of Cambu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The construc#on
was completed in 1983, In 2008 the Fanuchis residence was protected by the City Cultural and Patrimony
Council of Cambu, as an important example of the modern architecture in this city and in 2011 the owners
decided not only to restore and up-grade the modern building, but also to build on another wing to house
leisure and support area.
The restoring interven#on, which obeys the modern preserva#on principles of cultural patrimonies, is an important opportunity for a reec#on in this Conference about the use of these principles which
were conceived for an architecture of other #mes but that can also respond very well when used in the
contemporary architecture.

Keywords: conserva$on, restaura$on, modern, heritage.

30

Architectural level

THE SARAJEVO SCHOOL OF MODERNISM ON THE EXAMPLE OF


URBAN VILLAS # THE SARAJEVO WHITE PERIOD
Mirza Rustempai, Nerman Rustempai, Amir auevi
Ins$tute for Development Planning of Canton Sarajevo,
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
rustempasic@gmail.com, nermanr@af.unsa.ba, causevicamir@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
This Paper introduces the work of architects in Sarajevo between the two World Wars.
Due to insucient documenta#on and turbulent #mes, this period (1918-1941) has remained
unexplored and almost forgo&en.
Urban (city) villas built in this period are the main focus of this Paper. Research proved
that these buildings had a major impact on the development of a new approach to architecture.
Construc#on of city villas laid the founda#ons of new architectural thoughts. Architects began
applying new and contemporary space principles, where form was very important for achieving
high quality standards.
The objec#ve of this Paper is to prove that all of the aforemen#oned led to establishment
of the Sarajevo School of Modernism. The main thesis states that the residen#al architecture
from this period is specic for its elements and pa&erns, and can be said to belong to a period
classied for the rst #me as the Sarajevo White Period.
Key words: The Sarajevo School of Modernism, the White Period.

31

URBAN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NI MODERNA

Architectural level

Aleksandar Kekovi
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Ni
kekovic.aleksandar@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
A contribu#on to the crea#on of quality urban matrix of a structure or group of structure
in an environment can be considered par#cular town planning designing task, and the #me
and people are the nal judges of the results and successfulness of the designs. Lapse of almost
one century and temporal distance since the rst Moderne style structure appeared in Nis, is a
sucient historical span for an objec#ve and quality analysis of their inuence and the contribu#on of this movement in architecture for crea#on of urban matrix of Nis. This period is sucient
to make a certain statement, whether the architecture of the Moderne in Nis managed to t in
the inherited architecture of the city and create new urban values and city landmark locali#es.
Through an analysis of certain solu#ons in respect to the environment and rela#onship of individual large en##es which were designed in the spirit of the Moderne, an a&empt is made to answer whether the architecture of the Moderne &ed in the inherited environment and whether
it created new and more quality urban segments and en##es.
Keywords: Moderne of Ni, city core, street front, &ng in, Ni

32

Architectural level

PARALLELS BETWEEN THE SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND ITS


SOLUTIONS FROM ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Ambreen Saqib
United States Of America
ambreensaqib1@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
There is a major dri] in the culture and technology of contemporary architecture as it has
dissolved the link between the tradi#on, nature and human being. The advent of contemporary
architecture with its technical innova#ons has severed that sacred rela#on which existed between mankind and nature.
This research aimed at restoring what has been lost, taking inspira#on from the rich heritage of Islamic culture with special reference to the city of Cordoba in Spain. The city provides
us a demonstra#ve paradigm to see the approach of two major religions to the same God, as
depicted in its architecture of sacred spaces--Mosque and the Church. The Mosque is a lowbuilt building, signifying Muslims emphasis on submission to Allah; the Church soars upwards,
sugges#ng reach towards heaven itself. The wisdom of Islamic architecture absorbing a church
within a mosque is a perfect metaphor of the symbio#c blending of the two cultures.
Cordoba has a hot and dry climate, which has made the citys residents to adapt the design solu#ons to their needs. They have accomplished this by making the home centre around
an inner courtyard, with a fountain in the middle. Every spring the city bursts into bloom with
special fes#val. Pa#os, arches, staircases and courtyards with heavy oral planta#on show remarkable proximity of mankind to nature which seems to have lost its luster to the outrages
of modern architecture. I have been immensely inspired to discover solu#ons to the modern
architectural dri]s, by taking guidance from planning and structural innova#ons of Islamic heritage, and incorpora#ng them into contemporary sustainable design. Further proposed, how to
maintain a posi#ve sterile air pressure will generate oxygenated environment for a be&er brain
dwellers. Hence, the study was an a&empt to establish a bridge between tradi#on and future,
and was conducted with a visit to Cordoba.
Keywords: sustainable design, Cordoba, natural ven$la$on, pa$os, Andalusia, Moorish
Architecture, courtyards, wind catchers, mashrabiya, cisterns.

33

MEMORIAL ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN WORLD WAR II AND 1990

Architectural level

Orjana Lenasi and Amra arani Logo


Commission to Preserve Na$onal Monuments, Bosnia and Herzegovina
orjana.lenasi@kons.gov.ba, amra.s.logo@kons.gov.ba
ABSTRACT
Memorial architecture, as architecture designed to preserve the remembrance of ideas,
to commemorate historic events, or to honour vic#ms, may fairly be described as among the
earliest forms of architecture, preceded only by residen#al, religious and military architecture.
Memorial architecture is one of the most striking and prominent physical markers of those
moments in history that have had a signicant or crucial impact, dicta#ng the future course of
events. Their monumentality, signicance, size, complexity, uniqueness and integrality are not
to be wondered at, therefore. Nor is it surprising that in modern #mes, famous and recognized
architects have been engaged in designing and shaping it.
This paper deals with the memorial architecture da#ng from between World War II and
1990 that was created in memory of the 1940-1945 War of Na#onal Libera#on. These memorial
complexes are greatly under-represented and seldom described in exis#ng works on modern
architecture. Their importance is beyond ques#on, and is corroborated by their having been
recorded and entered in the Register of the immovable heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and
classied in the sec#on on natural and cultural assets in the 1980 Spa#al Plan for Bosnia and
Herzegovina.
For this reason, the paper begins with an overview of memorial complexes and their typology. Their types are determined on the basis of their loca#on (their posi#on in an urban or
natural se'ng) and the reason for erec#ng them the event to which they are dedicated (war#me oensives, terror against the civilian popula#on), or to honour vic#ms, for instances.
Given the scope and type of the work, three memorial complexes have been selected to
represent this typology. These are described and analyzed in detail with a view to determining
their present state.
In the professional literature, memorial complexes are sketchily described, mainly as works
of the War of Na#onal Libera#on and the former regime as Yugoslav works, in short. This is
reected in the rst problem iden#ed by this paper our a'tude towards the architectural of
memorial complexes, which is considered in the paper from three perspec#ves:
can memorial complexes be regarded as genuine works of modern architecture of unques#onable value,

34

Architectural level

35

does memorial architecture cons#tute living works of art of total design in their set#ng, and
what is our cultural a'tude nowadays towards the memorial architecture commemora#ng the War of Na#onal Libera#on what are the reasons for the scant a&en#on paid to their
conserva#on and maintenance and for the deliberate vandalism or destruc#on of parts of these
complexes by certain individuals.
Memorial complexes are examples of architecture that has no func#onal use, that primarily cons#tutes the integra#on of spa#al art installa#on, architecture and the natural se'ng or
cultural landscape. This gives rise to the second problem iden#ed by this paper as crucial to
the approach to memorial complexes their conserva#on and revitaliza#on, and their ac#ve,
sustainable preserva#on. Given our present-day a'tude as a society towards the memorial
complexes of the War of Na#onal Libera#on, the ques#on is what our approach to their revitaliza#on should be; how we can return to a view of these complexes as, above all, integral works
of art, architectural points of reference and cultural landscape that have a crucial impact on the
form and the experience of a town, and thereby put an end to the increasing indierence with
which they are regarded.
Keywords: War of Na$onal Libera$on, Memorial complexes,

MOSQUES OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Architectural level

Amra arani Logo


Commission to Preserve Na$onal Monuments, Bosnia and Herzegovina
amra.s.logo@kons.gov.ba
ABSTRACT
Paper, Mosques of 19th and 20th Century in Bosnia and Herzegovina is dealing with research of development of Islamic sacral facili#es mosques, throughout the 19th and 20th century.
The paper is making an eort to determine whether the mosques from the 19th and 20th
century are tes#mony of development of the architectural thought and local building tradi#on in
the area of Islamic sacral architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina or whether they are evidence
of stagna#on and decadence.
Architecture that came to be in the period of decline of the O&oman Empire, frequent
economic and social crises in Bosnia and Herzegovina, caught between struggles for independence and struggle against a new occupying force, is o]en men#oned as a less praiseworthy architecture, with less quality construc#on works and without special architectural features. Sacral
Islamic architecture of the 19th century, its form and style, are o]en considered decadent and
without prominent values. S#ll, given the extremely specic social, economic and historic context in which it was made, as well as the fact on numbers of built facili#es and the size of a large
number of them, sacral Islamic architecture of the 19th century deserves to be inves#gated and
analyzed into details.
Specic poli#cal, cultural and economic circumstances at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century gave birth to new approach toward mosques design.
Therefore, only on basis of objec#ve evalua#on, it is possible to determine the place of
the Islamic sacral architecture of the 19th and 2oth century in the historic development of sacral
Islamic architecture on territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, through a cri#cal analysis, to
suggest the existence of stylis#c expressions of 19th and 20th century mosques.
With the aim to carry out a thorough examina#on of the problem of evalua#on of mosques
of the 19th and 20th century, the paper gives, also, an brief overview of development of sacral architecture of the 19th century of two other most numerous religious communi#es in Bosnia and
Herzegovina i.e. the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
Paper, Mosques of 19th and 20th Century in Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely based on
the research and conclusions of the authors master paper, Islamic Sacral Architecture of 19th
and 20th Century in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Keywords: Mosque, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 19th century, Islam sacral architecture

36

Architectural level

DESIGN OF NEW OBJECTS IN HISTORIC CITY CENTER REVITALIZATION


PRECES
Esad Muminovi
State University of Novi Pazar
esad.muminovic@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
In this paper the ques#on is given how to relate to the exis#ng architectural heritage when
designing new projects. There is no doubt that these new objects come in a complex rela#onship with the old buildings, besause the new conict is born between the architects desire and
community at all to give a impression of their #me and degrada#on of the current envoirment
by adding too many new elements. As Robert Venturi said, the diculty and the beauty of this issue is in its duality, ambiguity, because the rela#on to the given physical environment, especially
to the se&lement, street or square as the historic space where for a several decades or even
centuries a cultural and architectural tradi#on is living, is at the same #me a image of our en#re
architectural a'tude to the history at all, as one of the eternal issue for any architectural manner and the key of many results in architecture. In this paper the special a&en#on is given to the
analysis of physical context, no ma&er if this term covers much wider area.
While searching for this answer, theore#cal overview of the history is given, where build
styles are connected each to another with no nega#on of the value from the previous style.
Examples where objects from dierent #me epochs are harmoniously adjusted are shown here.
It looks like the respect of the aesthe#c principles were responsible for that the genera#on of
unknown designers and ar#sans are respecingt the exis#ng urban environment, without leaving
the originality and quality of the work.
All the way to the rise of modern, the con#nuity in the construc#on was alive. Modernists
who preach abandonment of historical styles because they are not in the spirit of the #mes oftenly uses contrast in their design. In some cases it seemed powerfully, but by an increase in the
frequency of such examples, their power decreases.Ous towns were full of these exampels, so
they turned into the chaos before drama [9]. Inuenced by modernism many historic ambients
will be signicantly degraded and transformed. This was especially referred to the less valuable
objects in historical sites, which were a part of a homogeneous complex and harmony with the
monumental buildings. En#re ambients are destroyed and they are replaced with a new structure that will negate the exis#ng environment. War destruc#ons brings his tremendous contribu#on to that what modernists have been made with a conscious destruc#ve behavior.
Postmodern architecture has emerged as a reac#on to modern and all its imperfec#ons.
As a resistance to any dogma#c and all canonical inexibility of prior periods in history of se&le-

37

ments and houses, it is very precious. As Ranko Radovi alleges, the danger is in its lightness and
none cri#cism towards to the basic arguments of architecture and its forms. A few basic thesis
of this architecture style are not unknown: acceptance of history and extensive use of its language, emphasis on language and meaning of single architecture what seems more important
to its use or func#oning, big resistance to all kinds of standardiza#on and typing, simultaneous
ambiguity of form and its mul#ple transform as more complex thinking about envoirment instead of many earlier simplica#on. These boundaries are valuable for changing the consciousness about modern gesture of architecture and its changes, but they are not enough.
In examples that are shown, postmodernists answer about respec#ng of a tradi#on are
given. The contrast about which will be discussed here, is not a literal interpreta#on of the term
(sharply expressed opposite sides, overstate), but an opposing styles (actual to the previous).
This means that in the process of revitalizing the cultural and historical benice any modern
interven#on that does not imitate any previous style, but fully uses new technological developments and expressions is allowed. By this method, the concept of envoirment, which are characteris#c for every epoch, including our, should reect modern #me, and this also applies to the
distribu#on of the volume in the ambiance and their rela#ons, as well as a way of separa#ng the
outer and inner envoirment and their interac#on. This method This method also accepts the use
of materials and structures that modern architecture oer complete opportunity to express and
arm. So the contrast method helps contemporary art to achieve full arma#on in the process
of revitaliza#on of legacy, only if it protects and highlights the inherent values and together with
them achieves new quali#es and harmony in envoirment. That integra#on of old and new ambiences, structures and values is responsible, complex and an arma#ve crea#ve act [11].
In this work paper, an analysis of visual criteria from the examples located in the German
town of Kempten, with the compara#ve analysis of similar examples located in the city of Novi
Pazar. The criteria that have been used in this analysis are: line construc#on, the width of the
objects, contour, propor#on, ornaments, mass ra#o, the posi#on of aperture and colors. Conclusion from this analysis is that objects can act harmoniously and without respect rigid set of rules.
In last chapter the example from Novi Pazar is given, where in new buisness center which
is located in central area, at Rifata Burdevia street, is using the value of local architecture, not
with blind copying, but with one free interpreta#on. The architect carefully chose those elements that reect the true value of local tradi#ons that emerged from the lifestyle and clime.
The applica#on of these fundamental values, which are keeping track to the way of one culture
and people for centuries, and found a full jus#ca#on can not be considered simply as copying
whle crea#ng a new structures in protected cultural and historical sites. The architect retained
dimensions and design elements of the facade, without bringing confusion in rela#on to the
authen#c inherited values and in the spirit of their #me.

Architectural level

38

Architectural level

39

In our community, so o]en exposed to rapid and uncri#cal recep#on, with of many
people desire for the a'tude, instead the whole and thorough and pa#ent work (even learning and changing) always is the #me to take a thorough analysis of visual criteria and then take a
ac#on in envoirment with that results.
There is only one area of architecture and important deciding life as itself and real
people around us. When we accept that, we have the right on every experiment and every research. When a man is at a crossroads, rst he must to think deeply about his way and prepare
himself for the chosen one.
Keywords : Revitaliza$on, Historic city center, new objects, design criteria

MODERNIST TRADITION: IDEA OF MEGASTRUCURE IN FEW SPECIFIC


PROJECTS IN SARAJEVO, NOVI PAZAR AND PRISTINA

Architectural level

Demila Beganovi
State University Novi Pazar
dzemilab@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Theory and prac#ce of modern urban studies imply research of origins of modern urbanism in urban movements in late 18-th and beginning of 19-th century. Industrial revolu#on in
Great Britain resulted in massive density intra muros of exis#ng medieval ci#es, and their extension in suburbs with very poor hygiene and health condi#ons. On the other hand, variety of socialist and utopist ideas were developed oering dierent models of living with the benets of a
healthy and human dwelling and work. The ideas star#ng with Ledouxs Ideal city of Chaux, new
ideal world of Robert Owen, ideal community phalange to live in phalansteries of Charles Fourier, linear city of Soria Y Mata, and garden ci#es of Ebenezer Howard lead to the new ideas of
early modern urban planning in the beginning of 20-th century, such as: Toni Garniers Idustrial
City, Berlages development of Amsterdam South and Antonio SantElias futurist Ci&a Nuova.
Spreading in space, weather wide (broad) or linear, combined with spreading in height,
enabled forming dierent concepts of buildings from very simple programs of residen#al or ofce buildings. Addi#on of dierent contents changed programs on and look of dierent parts
of buildings to complex structures. The origin of such structures can be traced in early palaces
(since Diocle#an Palace to Versailles). Modern movement has developed this idea in dierent
direc#ons - one of the most interes#ng -.megastructures as an idea of city as a building.1
Le Corbusier, as one of most signicant gures of Modern Architecture and Urban Planning, had great inuence on Modern architecture developing this idea from his early work forward. One of the characteris#cs of his work was admira#on for engineering exac#tude, aesthe#c
and values of nature (Sun, space and greenery). Combined with vernacular architecture research,
this has resulted in dierent concepts through #me. He proposed a variety of projects with new
concepts, from Ville Pilo#s (City on Columns) in the beginning, and later Ville Contemporaine for
three million inhabitants, where a city was elevated above the con#nuous park. His Plan Voisin
for the reconstruc#on of Paris proposed the incorpora#on of modern urban structures which
prac#cally negated the existent historic city quarters. These ideas were further developed in
Ville Radieuse with strictly divided city func#ons in horizontal parallel belts (adopted from linear
city), and were widely adopted as Func#onalist City by 11th Congress of organiza#on CIAM (Con1

Barne/, J. The Elusive City, The Herbert Press, London 1987., pp 157-184

40

Architectural level

gres Interna#onaux dArchitecture Moderne) in 1933.


In early ]ies Le Corbusier developed concept of dwelling unity: Unit dHabita#on, rstly
built in Marseille, later in other ci#es, where he has promoted many of his conceptual, func#onal, s tructural and aesthe#c ideas. The idea was self contained community, with shopping
street on sixth oor, dierent contents on oors and roo]op of the building as hotel, kindergarten, and swimming pool, whose uni#ng with 337 dwellings made it as much social condenser
as a Soviet commune blocks of the 1920s. This total integra#on of community services recalled
the 19-th century model of Fouriers phalanstery not only through its size but also in its isola#on from immediate environment.2 The idea was widely spread in ]ies and six#es in dierent
worldwide projects implying dierent quali#es of Unite as model.
This paper will discuss the modern structures of Sarajevo, Novi Pazar, Pris#na. There, Modernism has developed in dierent condi#ons. All three ci#es tradi#onally evolved inside O&oman empire, Sarajevo and Novi Pazar founded by Isa-beg Ishakovi almost the same year. All
of them have characteris#cs of oriental city structures with arija as a city center including
manufacture, cra]s and trade, and most important public buildings, surrounded with mahalas rela#vely independent neighborhoods, quarters with its own school, religious building, mayors
representa#ve, local shop etc.
Mahalas were o]en named a]er the rst se&ler or, when ethnically separated, according to the dominant ethnicity. Size of mahala varied, but was approximately between 40 and 50
houses. Before WWII this structure had been signicantly changed only in Sarajevo where, under
Austro-Hungarian rule, the new parts of the city (both center and neighborhoods) in European
style were added. Western inuences in Novi Pazar and Pris$na were poor, due to very late libera$on, in the beginning of 20-th century.
At rst, the changes a]er WW II were modest. The priority was given to the renewal of the
badly aected countryside. The condi#ons for extensive development improved in 60s when
major ci#es got new city quarters and variety of new buildings. Three buildings from 80s will
be treated as par#cularly illustra#ve in depic#ng inuences of Modern movement in context of
transforma#on of neighborhoods from tradi#onal mahala towards modernist tradi#on of megastructure. They are known as:
Papagajka (The Parrot Building) in Sarajevo,
Lucna zgrada (The Curved Building) in Novi Pazar and
Kicma (The Spine Building) in Pris#na.
Keywords: modernist tradi$on, megastructure,neighborhood, mahala, Sarajevo, Novi Pazar, Pris$na
2

Frampton, K., Modern architecture a cri$cal history, Thames and Hudson, London, 1985.

41

p. 227

42

CONTEMPORARY INTERIOR
DESIGN APPROACH
43

Contemporary
interior design
approach

44

Contemporary
interior design
approach

CONSERVATION OF THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH"CENTURY


VERNACULAR DWELLINGS IN PRIZREN: FROM TRADITIONAL LIFESTYLE
TO THE MODERN COMFORT
Nora Arapi Krasniqi
Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports, Kosovo
nora.arapi@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Vernacular Heritage is the fundamental expression of the culture of a community, of its rela$onship
with its territory and, at the same $me, the expression of the worlds cultural diversity.

Vernacular architecture stands as a tes#mony of long tradi#ons translated into programmes, forms, materials, construc#on techniques, cra]smanship, and interrela#ons between
the buildings. Kosovo possesses a valuable treasure of vernacular architecture that expresses the
way of living in the past and the wisdom of the builders. Vernacular dwellings are par#cular because of their posi#on, form, composi#on, building materials, construc#on methods, and ar#s#c
decora#on. Prizren and the southern part of Kosovo have characteris#c tradi#onal dwellings
from the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, combining a stone ground oor with wooden
structure lled in with mud bricks at the upper levels and pitched roof with wide eaves.
Today, however, vernacular heritage in Kosovo is subjected to a con#nuing transforma#on
process, depending on social, economic and environmental factors. Rapid changes of economic
and social factors during the last decade caused new living concepts. Young genera#ons want to
live be&er than their parents and transform their homes. While for centuries vernacular dwellings featured comfort and pres#ge, it is presently highly vulnerable to urban decay and physical
degrada#on.
This paper is focused in the interrela#on between the social and economic condi#ons to
the tradi#onal lifestyle in the 19th and beginning of 20th centuries and how this was translated
to the func#onal programme and plot composi#on of the vernacular dwellings. Rapid social,
economical and technological changes transformed the living standards as well as residen#al
culture of the communi#es.
Main aim of this paper is to dene how those vernacular dwellings in Prizren could be
used in the present life in a way that respects their heritage values. Besides standing there as evidences from the past, the vernacular dwellings may play an important inspiring role in designing
and building everyday environment of tomorrow. It is the role of the professionals dealing with
heritage to understand the programme of vernacular architecture and use it as a base point for
revitalisa#on of the old and designing of the new architecture.

45

Key Words: vernacular dwellings, 19th and 20th centuries, Prizren, tradi$onal lifestyle, modern
lifestyle, func$onal programme, sensi$ve and conserva$ve interven$ons.

ARCHITECTURAL CONVERSION AND LOSS OF MEANING. THE CASE OF


CATALONIA
Gemma Domnech Casadevall
Catalan Ins$tute for Cultural Heritage Research (ICRPC). Spain
gdomenech@icrpc.cat

Contemporary
interior design
approach

ABSTRACT
Now that there is consensus on the need to conserve modern architecture as part of our heritage,
we wish to draw a&en#on to the new meanings arising from most contemporary conversions. We will
focus on three dierent types of Catalan architecture (bullrings, lighthouses and slaughterhouses) to
show how, in the interests of sustainability, the historic memory of the buildings is becoming completely
lost.
The banning of bullgh#ng in Catalonia has endangered the con#nued existence of bullrings.
Even before the ban, however, lack of public interest had already le] Catalan bullrings largely devoid
of spectators. This situa#on, together with pressure from town planners, has led to the demolishing of
several bullrings. Unfortunately, the few conversion projects carried out so far have only considered
conserving the outer skin of the building. The new sports pavilions and shopping centres opened up in
the former bullrings overlook the history of the buildings.
Each lighthouse is a living tes#mony of Catalan mari#me history, is part of the countrys heritage.
Today, lighthouses have lost their original func#on as naviga#on aids. So far, the new uses have been
of an eminently cultural nature, with lighthouses converted into museums and interpreta#on centres
related to the sea. However, on the Catalan coast, there is no former lighthouse oering visitors the
opportunity to appreciate the space and daily life inside the lighthouse.
Approximately half of the historic slaughterhouses in Catalonia have been converted to new uses.
In every case, this involved the total loss of the historic memory of the building. Saving a building from
demoli#on implies nding a new use for it. Why must this new use be at odds with the memory of the
original use? Maybe the #me has come to start thinking about how we transform our historical buildings
into cultural heritage.
Keywords: cultural heritage, historic memory, architectural conversion, new uses, demoli$on,
bullring, lighthouse, slaughterhouse, Catalan architecture, iden$ty.

46

Contemporary
interior design
approach

AD HOC STRATEGY AS CONTEMPORARY INTERIOR DESIGN IN DIALOGUE


WITH A MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN CASE OF PALACE TOKYO
PARIS, FRANCE
Senka Ibriimbegovi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
senkai@af.unsa.ba; senkaibrisimbegovic@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Modern architecture that marked the 20th century is characterized by a new rela#onship
that exists between architecture as art and architecture as a shelter. Industrial and technological development and the art of that period are the picture of the context in which architecture
occurs and exists. That architecture ist determined and can not be analyzed without the knowledge of all the inuen#al factors and changing paradigms. Streamline Moderne, some#mes referred to by either name alone or as Art Moderne, was a late type of the Art Deco design style
which emerged during the 1930s. Its architectural style emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and some#mes nau#cal elements. Buildings of this period are in todays 21st century
stable and treated as modern architectural heritage, reec#ng the new age paradigm mainly in
their interiors. New paradigms are contemporary; they imply trend of globaliza#on, economic
hardship, recession, architectural reec#on that treat new strategies. This papre will show some
of this strategies emphasising ad hoc strategy in contemporary interior design approach of the
museums of contemporary art in dialogue with a modern architecural heritage. Architecture is
seen as a materializa#on of philosophy, outer frame as human life, while its internal frame as
core - philosophy. In constant integra$ng past into the present and in their interpenetra$on
we can talk about con$nuity of architecture. That does not mean the disrup$on of exis$ng, but
steadily building and upgrading the exis$ng, because only in this way it is possible crea$ng condi$ons for the recogni$on of the present moment in the future. (ehovin in Ugljen-Ademovi,
2004: 89)
Key words: historical con$nuity, modern architectural heritage, contemporary interior design, museum of contemporary art, ad hoc strategy

47

RE"EVALUATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN SARAJEVO:


HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND THE QUEST FOR CONTINUITY

Contemporary
interior design
approach

Nermina Zagora
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
nerminaz@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Modern architectural heritage from the post WW2 period is now at the threshold of the
third age of maturity. The task of re-evalua#ng and revitalizing modern architectural legacy is
par#cularly delicate in case of BiH and its capital city, partly due to the eects of BiHs turbulent
history in the 1990s and current economic and poli#cal instability. Therefore, this paper aims to
highlight the necessity of rereading modern architecture from post-WW2 period in Sarajevo and
iden#fy the new meanings which are generated in the clash between modernist values and novel#es of contemporary age. One of the tasks that architectural profession in BiH is facing today
consists of bridging the gaps and discon#nui#es, and re-establishing con#nuity with the exis#ng
context and historical precedents. The named task certainly includes revitaliza#on of modernist buildings (especially public buildings) and their integra#on in contemporary life and society,
while at the same #me raising awareness among the general non-architectural public about the
modern architectural heritage in BiH.
Keywords: modern architectural heritage, public buildings, evalua$on guidelines, raising
public, awareness, con$nuity, interiors

48

Contemporary
interior design
approach

PROBLEMS IN REMODELING OF RESIDENTIAL INTERIORS: KITCHEN


DESIGN ISSUES
Dragovi Danilo, Slavkovi Branko
State University of Novi Pazar, Serbia
danilo.dragovic@yahoo.com, brankoarh@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the func#onal zone of the kitchen in apartment buildings, in terms
of planning and designing this zone. More precisely, it is concerned with inadequacies of building
layout design, which directly aects the kitchen organiza#on. Downsizing the kitchen facili#es
to the minimal needs of modern households is o]en accompanied by inadequate installa#ons
which in most cases prevent from eec#ve organiza#on and func#oning of the kitchen. Using
the evidence gained from the experience with the common prac#ces applied in the kitchen
design reveals that in most cases due to inadequate installa#on projects in modern residen#al
buildings, it is not possible to remodel the kitchen according to the here proposed schemes.
This paper will present several case studies in order to demonstrate these problems and point
to possible solu#ons and changes in design prac#ces. Also, it will discuss contemporary trends
in kitchen design and planning process, and comment on the dependency on the technological
aspects of kitchen equipment and 'ngs.
Keywords: Residen$al kitchen design, kitchen organiza$on concept, kitchen technology,
&ngs

49

50

CONSERVATION PRACTICE
51

Conserva#on
prac#ce

52

Conserva#on
prac#ce

A HOLISTIC CONSERVATION APPROACH TO MODERN HERITAGE: A


READING ON HISTORIC ENVIRONMENTS
zlem Karakul
Seluk University, Faculty of Fine Arts
karakulozlem@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The conserva#on concerns to provide the cultural con#nuity from the past to the future.
The selec#ve conserva#on approaches highligh#ng one period or one style have replaced with
the contemporary approaches focusing on the vitality and con#nuity in historic environments. Opposing to physical-led approaches, ensuring the con#nuity of the life of buildings and
environments with all tangible and intangible aspects in the rapidly changing condi#ons is the
main aim of the contemporary conserva#on approaches. The mutual and genuine interrela#ons
of tangible and intangible values have power to transform space to place and to create the
condi#ons of the authen#city in historic environments. As in the genera#ve process of the tradi#onal buildings directed by the interrela#ons of tangible and intangible values, the design process of the modern buildings is also organized by various physical, social and cultural factors, like,
the lifestyle of the society, economic, social structure, the cultural expressions of architects and
customers synthesized through the cultural context lived in. So, the conserva#on of the modern
buildings necessitates understanding the complex structure of their forma#on and transforma#on process.
Historic environments are produced by master cra]smen interpre#ng the context, culturally and physically, and using local materials, considering cultural prac#ces and expressions.
These complex interrela#ons between tangible and intangible values of the context and their
handling way of the master cra]smen create the sources of authen#city and the quality of
place. The modern buildings of the 20th century designed by the architects become worth
to be conserved, as long as they meet these complex rela#ons between tangible and intangible
values of their contexts in a genuine design work. Therefore, the conserva#on of modern buildings needs to do a selec#ve process considering the rela#ons of tangible and intangible values
in the iden#ca#on and documenta#on processes. So, it is clear that a comparison between
the conserva#on processes of tradi#onal and modern buildings can be helpful to conclude the
iden#ca#on principles of modern heritage
Keywords: Modern heritage, tangible and intangible values, conserva$on

53

THE GREAT PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATES, THE CITY AND THE FUTURE

Conserva#on
prac#ce

Kers$ Berggren
Head of Unit Vrmlands Museum, Sweden
kers$.berggren@varmlandsmuseum.se
ABSTRACT
A reporter from Radio Sweden prepared a feature about suburbs from the 1970s. She
asked people she met at Stockholm city centre about the rst to come to their minds when
thinking of suburbs.
A mixture, answered a young woman. There are both posi#ve and nega#ve aspects.
And what are they?, asked the reporter.
Oh. Rented apartments. High rise building blocks. Immigrants.
And the nega#ve aspects?
The public housing estates from the 1960s and 70s have forever changed the look of
Sweden. They were when built the answer to many severe poli#cal challenges; they tried to
solve the problem with housing shortage, increase the low technical dwelling standards, create
a child-friendly and safe environment as well as make it easier for people to live where the jobs
were.
They were the symbol for Swedens welfare and a proof of the ra#onal planning. They
were light, airy and spacious, in contrast to the dark, crowded and unsanitary old citys buildings.
They were not planned to be urban, they were intended to be sub-urban. And the design chosen
reected this a'tude.
One million dwellings in ten years
The great public housing estates were planned in a #me of ourishing op#mism in Sweden,
and almost a spiritual belief in the future, a #me of ever growing economic and social welfare.
The poli#cal goal was to build one million dwellings for the working and middle class, in a 10year period. The total popula#on at that #me in Sweden was seven and a half million. The ambi#on a&racted Swedens most renowned planners, architects and engineers. When the ten years
elapsed, 1 006 000 dwellings were raised (30% of them one-family houses). Whatever opinion
you might have about the result, it cannot be treated as a mistake.
The built heritage le] by this epoch is impressive, rich and dieren#ated. The dwellings
from the 1960s and 1970s were designed to be dierent from the rest of the building stock.
They became kind of abnormal and s#ll are. And they were and are even today at the very
edge of the city, at the end of the urban sprawl. In a world full of antagonism, the edge can be

54

Conserva#on
prac#ce

55

treated as a fron#er of something that grows or as a dead end.


Segrega#on and otherness
Today, these housing estates are under the siege of poli#cal statements and shi]ing opinions, mainly considered to be the very room of isola#on and otherness in the Swedish society. A
short period of mostly construc#ve discussions, research and development work was some ten
years ago succeeded by a much more par#al and alarmist debate about their future.
In her disserta#on In search of the good City from 2009, Moa Tunstrm a young urbanist,
writes that the construc#on of contemporary urban ideals is star#ng from the understanding
that they [the urban ideals] are constructed in rela#on to both an idea of an urban renaissance
and one of a dissolving, or sprawling city.
The predominant European polemic urban discussion takes for granted that the suburbs
are characterised by imperfec#ons according to the agreed norms; norms that are gathered
from a very blurry concep#on of what a city was and should be. An invented historical city core
is ascribed quali#es as diversity, varia#on, iden#ty and urbanity! At the same #me, the suburbs
with their dwellings that house approximately 20 % of the urban popula#on are supposed to lack
all good.
How to nd a long-las#ng solu#on on their own terms
The present reality stonewalls the possibility for dieren#ated discussion. Even being part
of the urban landscape, too few urbanists and heritage professionals are interested in what quali#es and opportuni#es these great housing estates can bring to the city as a whole. This biased
debate goes on with only a sporadic contribu#on from heritage professionals, as the majority
of them seem to have retreated to a familiar comfort zone: the inner city and the single monument. The human city. The rising interest for history has ironically seemed to turn the heritage
professionals into hostages of the contemporary concep#on historical city core, a construc#on
that underlines the widening of the social gaps in society.
A no#on gaining acceptance nowadays in Europe is that somebody in the enlightened
past built ci#es, and then it came a stupid #me when somebody, instead, started building
houses and suburbs. But have there ever been any planning principles behind what we now understand as the best of urban environment, called the historical city core? Did anybody plan that
the brick barracks, constructed for the working classes, with numerous one-room ats without
any comfort, should become, a hundred years later, the symbol for the best urban life ever?
So, if it is share coincidence and historical circumstances that design the good city, what
shall we as planners and heritage professionals do then? What will be our task?
Understanding is usually a key word in heritage protec#on. Most o]en it is used from the
perspec#ves of the public (or private) professionals and is directed towards the general civil society. Through rising awareness and comprehension about heritage values, it is believed that the

civil society would support public restric#ons towards, for instance, listed buildings.
But understanding is more than simply being au fait with facts. It is also sensing values,
mo#ves, loyal#es and a&achments. So, when it comes to the housing estates from the 1960s
and -70s and their enormous importance for shaping the appearance and history of urban Europe, how well understood are they by us, the heritage professionals?
The great public housing estates are s#ll forming the future of urban Sweden. At one hand,
the suburbs house the world, a young world, a coming world. At the other hand, they reect a
deep segrega#on in our society, no#ced even by the European Union. According to the report
Racism and Xenophobia in the EU Member States: trends, developments and good prac#ce
(2005), Sweden is a country with one of the highest indices of urban ethnic segrega#on. The situa#on has not developed in a be&er direc#on since 2005, on the contrary. A reality that is hard
to face. A reality that is going to test our ability as professional planners and conserva#onist to
commit ourselves in dealing with this part of the Swedish urban future.

Conserva#on
prac#ce

56

Conserva#on
prac#ce

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURVIVAL TOOLS FOR MODERN ARCHITECTURAL


HERITAGE IN TURKEY
Duygu Saban kesli
ukurova University, Department of Architecture
fduygu@cu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
Legisla#on in Turkey for lis#ng buildings that have a cultural value is mostly concerned
with the ones built before 20th century; yet modern buildings can also be listed with the decision of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. A limited number of modern buildings are listed accordingly; however ac#ons for their conserva#on vary depending on the interpreta#on of local,
na#onal and some#mes interna#onal decision makers. Local authori#es are legally forced to ask
for the opinion of the local conserva#on commissions before making a decision, and very o]en
local conserva#on commissions even though its not statutory- ask for the opinion of Do.Co.
Mo.Mo. experts in the country.
This paper is concerned with the decision-making process for conserva#on of modern
architectural heritage in Turkey, focusing on a recent project developed for two neighbouring
plots in the city of Adana including two listed modern buildings designed by the same architect.
The business centre developed on the plots resulted in the reloca#on and reconstruc#on of one
of the listed buildings, construc#on of a new high-rise building and a nega#ve while permanent
transforma#on of the architectural context. This inves#ga#on showed that although lis#ng modern buildings, making laws for their protec#on, crea#ng authorized oces that have experts to
make decisions for their preserva#on and asking for advice from the na#onal branch of Do.Co.
Mo.Mo make a good combina#on of survival tools for modern architectural heritage, it is ascertained that the lack of a sound control mechanism for the decision-making process reduces the
level of eec#veness of the prac#ce.
Keywords: modern heritage, conserva$on, Adana, Turkey

57

58

STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS


59

Structure and
materials

60

Structure and
materials

A MODERN APPROACH TO STRENGTHENING AND REPAIR OF EXISTING


REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES USING HPFRC
Mira Vasic, Valen$na Sumini
Politecnico di Milano (Technical University), Milano, Italy
vasic@stru.polimi.it, sumini@stru.polimi.it
ABSTRACT
This work presents a cri#cal review of current trends in strengthening and repairing of
exis#ng reinforced concrete (RC) structures using modern materials. The a&en#on is par#cularly
given to the applica#on of High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) jackets, being in
the focus of scien#c community in the past few years. Based on the literature review and stateof-the art in this eld, a comparison has been done with other widely used techniques, such
as external bonding of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites or RC overlaying. Moreover,
the technique eec#veness has been discussed analysing experimental results available in the
literature, not only in terms of engineering features (e.g. load capacity or re resistance), but
also considering par#cular aspects in case of applica#on to the RC heritage structures, being an
important part of Europes modern heritage.
Keywords: Preserva$on, Strengthening, High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC), Fire resistance.

61

MODERN APPROACH TOWARD THE USE OF GLASS IN THE


MATERIALIZATION OF THE BUILDING SKIN

Structure and
materials

Branko Slavkovi, Danilo Dragovi


State University of Novi Pazar, Serbia
brankoarh@hotmail.com, danilo.dragovic@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Development of technology in construc#ons and applica#on of new and improved materials became even more present in the construc#on of all types of buildings, from residen#al and
commercial, to specialized and mul#func#onal. Sustainable architecture involves taking care of
the environment, use of passive solar systems, protec#on from extreme climate, noise, micro
loca#on.
There is a number of modern technological solu#ons that are available today in terms of
building materializa#on. Glass industry over the past 30 years has substan#ally progressed. Different types of glass with special characteris#cs in terms of leakage of light and solar heat has
been developed. By using a proper type of glass adjusted to the specic orienta#on of the building and the climate in which the building is situated, it is possible to provide both thermal and visual comfort in both summer and winter condi#ons. One of the most important inven#ons concerning facade industry, is certainly double-skin facade system, which present mul#func#onal
solu#on in terms of energy eciency and interior comfort. Transparent thermal insula#on have
excellent performance in preven#ng heat loss and it is gran#ng heat gains, provision of adequate
brightness and modern architectural designs.
Keywords: glass, modern architecture, solar architecture, technology development,
energy eciency, renewable energy

62

Structure and
materials

INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY IN CAMPANIA $ITALY%: THE DISMISSED


TANNERIES OF SOLOFRA
Pierfrancesco Fiore
Universit degli Studi di Salerno
pore@unisa.it

ABSTRACT
In the inland areas of the region of Campania, the most widespread ac#vity has always
been agriculture, with it being the primary source of income un#l the 1960s of the last century.
The excep#on is a small town in the province of Avellino, Solofra, which, historically, based its
economy on tanning. In fact, the rst tanneries date back to the fourth century and were then
developed over #me, par#cularly in the area known as Toppolo.
The structures that s#ll exist, clearly highlight not only the need of the #me to use local
materials as well as adapt to the produc#on process of the leather, but also the spontaneous
adapta#on to the condi#ons and opportuni#es that the characteris#cs of the site oered.
The state of abandonment of these interes#ng examples of industrial archeology and
the fate of the dismissed tanneries have been the centre of discussion for a number of years.
The study of the abandoned tanneries in Solofra gives the opportunity to understand how human ability both in terms of construc#on techniques and produc#on requirements has been
expressed through the construc#on of tanneries, as well as how the characteris#cs of the place
have aected these choices.
Keywords: Tanneries, Industrial archaeology, Solofra

63

THE APPEARANCE OF THE FLORA ON THE CONCRETE WALLS


OF FILTER FIELDS IN THE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER

Structure and
materials

Emir Troi, Edin Smaji


emirtrozic@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Modern facility for the treatment of drinking water is in use since 2004. Spring water is
in the physical and chemical terms in accordance with the Regula#ons. Blur and the presence
of bacteria uctuate during the year. The work is automated at the plant for the treatment of
drinking water. Filter elds are open to the quartz sand and anthracite. Disinfec#on of the water
is a]er treatment. On the concrete walls of lter elds has been developed ora.
Flora is intensively developed in brightly lit and airy places on damp walls of open channels and lter elds. The depth of penetra#on of ora below water level is about 15 cm, with
a tendency to decrease with sinking deeper into the water. From this it can be concluded that,
in addi#on to light and oxygen concentra#on is an essen#al factor in the development of ora.
Height above water level of ora from 15 cm to over 30 cm depending on the humidity of the
substrate caused by water waves and created by the movement of the concrete channel by entering into lter elds.
One of the most striking possible causes of ora on concrete walls of lter elds may be
direct light entering through a huge glass wall of the north facade. The intensity of development
of colonies of ora increased transparency and embedded glass.
Through debate and discussion will be analyzed the possible causes of the ora on the
concrete walls of lter elds. When analyzing the possible causes of development of colonies
of ora it cant be just kept on ligh#ng as the cause. Causes the development of ora can be
external inuences, as well as a deciency in the produc#on process. Against external inuences
that can facilitate the development of colonies of ora it can be: ven#la#on, ligh#ng, proper#es
of concrete and cement topcoats. Deciencies in process that may accelerate or reduce the development of colonies of ora it can be: bacterial load of spring water, the pH value of the water
a]er the addi#on of coagulant, irregular cycles are self-cleaning lter eld, in front of the lter
steriliza#on phase chlorine dioxide or UV sterilizer, and so on.
In the conclusion will be suggested possible solu#ons to minimize the development of
ora. At the sample of facili#es for treatment of drinking water is to explore cause of the development of colonies of ora on the concrete walls of lter elds. It discusses some possible
causes of op#ons that are given comments can be directed to the further course of research. In
addi#on to the excessive inuence of daylight and ven#la#on there are some weaknesses in the

64

Structure and
materials

65

process of treatment. Besides controlling the pH value of the water before entering lter eld it
is necessary to pre-lter and sterilize water with UV sterilizer. A]er these correc#ons it can be expected to stop the development of colonies of ora on the walls of lter elds. Further research
will be useful in assessing the proper correc#ons made in further improving of the overall water
treatment.
Keywords: treatment of drinking water, Filter elds are, quartz sand, anthracite, turbidity,
bacteria, ora.

CONSERVATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SYSTEM; CASE TURKEY,


KAYSERI SMERBANK LOCAL"THEATER

Structure and
materials

Hikmet Eldek
Erciyes niversitesi, Mimarlk Fakltesi, Kayseri, Turkey
hikmeteldek@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Kayseri Smerbank Tex#le Factory was built in 1935 with modern approach. It was the
rst factory complex established by The Turkish Republic. Architects, who designed complex in a
structuralism style, were Russian. Its manufacturing was stopped and it was resigned a property
to Erciyes University in 1998. University has not used complex and le] the fate of it so factory
was abandoned from 1998. It has serious structural and material problems because of lack of
care and vandalism. Complex was formed by nine buildings such as produc#on parts (manufacturing of tex#le, electric central, iron foundry and depots), other parts (local-theater, management, inrmary, public housing and entrance). This paper aim is determina#on of structural and
material problems of local-theater building of factory,
Local-theater was constructed in 1935 like other parts of factory. It has reinforced concrete system with brick walls. In spa#al organiza#on factories social system is also perceived.
Workers and clerks had separate entrance for local and theater also manager of complex had
a VIP entrance. This situa#on reected discrimina#on of social status. It was located approximately 400m2, has various heights spa#al. Local is nearly 4m, theater is 7 m height. Firstly building was demolished by people who were tried to empty the building. Windows, doors and some
walls were broken to move furniture to outside. Then lack of care and to be out of usage caused
demolished in materials such as concrete plaster, #mber doors and windows, ceramic oor #les.
In 2006 theater and worker entrance red. Building was also demolished by re and during
the ex#nguishing. Its structural system was seriously demolished. Today this building is tried
to restore. Its conserva#on project and restora#on decisions are going to be determined also
structural and material deforma#on is inves#gated by civil engineers. This papers main aim is
determina#on of structural problem especially concrete and reinforcement of deforma#on and
deni#on of conserva#on decisions for these problems according to conserva#on criteria.
Keywords: Reinforced Concrete System, Conserva$on, Analyses, Moderniza$on, Turkey

66

Structure and
materials

SEISMIC ASPECTS REGARDS UPGRADING OF MODERN HERITAGE


FACILITIES
Amir auevi, Nadira Kuljuh-Boli, Asja Damadi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
causevicamir@hotmail.com, nadirak@af.unsa.ba, asja.damadzic@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, modern heritage objects usually experience changes during exploita#on. In
areas of emphasized seismic risk, in cases of change of use, refurbishment, reconstruc#on, extension, or addi#onal building to an exis#ng facility, it is necessary to analyze the seismic aspect
of such interven#ons.
It is necessary to do all the steps regarding technical regula#ons, legal regula#ons, methods of approach, theore#cal considera#on, methods of calcula#on, and in the end to determine
the needs of that object.
In this paper we will show all the necessary steps in that process. At rst, well focus on
the legal and technical regula#ons. For start well look back to UNESCOs Program on Modern
Heritage, than domes#c and regional legal and technical regula#ons and with all of that dene
the rst step of the process.
Next step would be a detailed registra#on of the current state of the object, and also
determining the characteris#cs of the embedded materials. This considers all detailed maps,
plans, and details of the built in materials, and especially detailed record of all the damages on
the structure.
Determining the actual load in the nal phases of interven#on on the object, including
all the external and internal, both permanent and temporary loads, is very important step. This
process includes the en#re calculated load, but also all the theore#cal load, based on knowledge
and experience.
A]er determining loads, we have to choose best method and procedure of analyzing
and calcula#ons. Calcula#ons, based on the planned and current state of the object, will show
whether the strengthening and rehabilita#on are needed for the structure.
Theore#cal considera#on regarding the determined state of structure, from all the above
men#oned aspects, is next step to be done. This also includes evalua#on of the viability of these
interven#ons, regarding experience.
Keywords: masonry, aseismic building, upgrading

67

TRANSPARENT STRUCTURE IN THE SENSE OF PRESERVATION AND


RESTORATION OF MODERN HERITAGE

Structure and
materials

Amira Salihbegovi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
amiras@af.unsa.ba

ABSTRACT
For sustainability of modern heritage is necessary rehabilita#on process both physical and
sociological context. Physical context means mee#ng ecological and energy performances and
sociological, less tangible context, is reected in the values of psychosocial and func#onal transforma#on during the life cycle or period of #me. With the treatment of transparent structures
through relevant examples, along with the synthesis of tradi#onal and modern achievements,
we want to point to the possibility of transforma#on and restora#on of modern heritage vitality
in the context of contemporary life and sustainable construc#on.
Keywords: modern heritage, rehabilita$on process, a synthesis of tradi$onal and modern
achievements, vitality in the context of sustainable construc$on.

68

Structure and
materials

69

70

BUILDING TECHNIQUE
AND TECHNOLOGY
71

Building technique
and technology

72

Building technique
and technology

HIDDEN INNOVATION AND ITALIAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE TWENTIETH


CENTURY. COMPONENT OF LIGHT TECHNOLOGY IN THE CHURCH OF
CRISTO RE IN LAQUILA $1933"1935%
Alessandra Bellicoso, Alessandra Tosone
Department of Civil, Building-Architecture and Environmental Engineering
University of LAquila - Italy
alessandra.bellicoso@univaq.it, alessandra.tosone@univaq.it
ABSTRACT
When in 1933, the architect Riccoboni, Superintendent of Medieval and Modern Art for
Abruzzi and Molise regions, drew up the plans for the Church of Cristo Re in LAquila, the reinforced-concrete framework had, in Italy, already fullled completely its func#on as an independent load-bearing building skeleton.
It does not appear that Riccoboni had gone into the technological aspects in depth. In the
choice of a construc#on system for the church, the decisive contribu#on came from engineer
Vacca, the designated agent of the ACEAM rm which won the contract for the work. He offered a 30% discount on the cost of the project if he could be allowed to use the Hes#a building
system instead of ordinary masonry. This system consisted in lling the ver#cal meshes of the
reinforced-concrete frame using paired panels of expanded metal covered with concrete-based
plaster, with the air space between the panels being lled with an insula#ng material made of
cellulose, quicklime and gypsum called Termolit.
The load-bearing skeleton was a frame made of reinforced-concrete portals forming a
nave and two side aisles, connected by beams on the level of the oor and of the two eaves of
the aisles and of the nave; it rested on a con#nuous founda#on of concrete mixed using coarse
gravel and a low percentage of cement.
Analysis of the direct source, represented by the open building site, delved more deeply
into and conrmed the indirect archival and bibliographical sources of the #me, and revealed
the characteris#cs of the structure, the walling, and the adop#on of a system of arched wooden
structures cladding using plastered metal mesh, hung from the load-bearing skeleton, which
congures the interior space by means of the transversal and longitudinal arches of the naves.
Keywords: Techniques, load-bearing skeleton, walls, arches, cladding, patents

73

COLONY IX MAY TO THE SEAS PEOPLE IN LAQUILA


AN PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF THIRTY YEARS ARCHITECTURE

Building technique
and technology

Renato Morgan$, Alessandra Tosone, Simona Cocciolone


Department of Civil, Building-Architecture and Environmental Engineering
University of LAquila- Italy
renato.morgan$@univaq.it, alessandra.tosone@univaq.it
ABSTRACT
Among the numerous architectural themes introduced in the Thir#es by the Fascist Regime special place is occupied by the Colonie clima#che di soggiorno together with the more
familiar examples of the Casa del Fascio, Palazzi Li&ori, Post oce buildings, etc.
The colony IX May was built in 1937 by architect E&ore Rossi on behalf of The ins#tute
of assistance to the seas people, in Poggio di Rojo (LAquila), about a thousand meters above
sea level. Used for only few years as colony, during the second world war hosted American army
un#l 50s, and then Dalma#ans refugees without any architectural transforma#ons. Between
60s and 70s it was considered appropriate to host University func#ons and during his period
was subjected to many changes and enlargements which transformed the original envelope.
The 2009s earthquake damaged most of the facades and internal par##ons without compromising seriously the par#cular structure. In the specic condi#on of the post-earthquake, this
paper intends to contribute to the reconstruc#on of its historical and structural events, in the
frame of applica#on par#cular modali#es , in Italy, of the reinforced concrete technique, also
with respect to aspects of seismic safety, without omi&ed the aspects more closely connected
to the restora#on and rehabilita#on of the modern building signicant for the architectural solu#on and environmental context.
Keywords: building heritage, modern architecture, techniques, typologies

74

Building technique
and technology

ARCHITECTURE OF FORTY YEARS.


I.N.F.A.I.L. BUILDINGS ON COURSE FEDERICO II IN LAQUILA
Alessandra Tosone, Alessandra Bellicoso
Department of Civil, Building-Architecture and Environmental Engineering
University of LAquila - Italy
alessandra.tosone@univaq.it, alessandra.bellicoso@univaq.it
ABSTRACT
In the renewed urban structure plan, coherent with the spirit of the Grande Aquila project promoted by the Podest Adelchi Serena, one nds the complex events linked to the project
and the building of the terminal sec#on on Corso Federico II. This project, between 1940 and
1947, was commissioned to construc#on on behalf of the Na#onal Fascist Ins#tu#on for workers compensa#on insurance or Is#tuto Nazionale Fascista per lAssicurazione contro gli Infortuni
sul Lavoro (INFAIL), for the crea#on of the headquarters and of a movie theatre.
The purpose of this research is to give a direct and cri#cal reading of the chosen construc#ve systems and of the construc#ve solu#ons adapted in the erec#on of two important
buildings. Both are signicant in the local context of Italian architecture of the 1900s, a period
in which the use of reinforced concrete in Italy nds, for cultural and also poli#cal-economical
reasons, dierent varia#ons fused by a bond with the building technique or object of a hidden
technological experimentalism. This research is useful to describe the cri#cisms and problems
posed following the earthquake of April 2009, by the necessary repara#on interven#ons employed both to conserve and improve the seismic capacity of this par#cular building heritage.
Keywords: building heritage, modern architecture, techniques, stone cladding

75

INTERVENTIONS ON HOTEL CENTRAL IN SARAJEVO"


BETWEEN UPGRADING AND PRESERVATION

Building technique
and technology

Nerman Rustempai, Mevludin Zeevi, Amir auevi


University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Architecture
nermanr@af.unsa.ba, mevludinz@af.unsa.ba, amirc@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
This paper will explore the delicate balance between upgrading and preserva#on of structures classied as architectural heritage buildings through the Case Study of Interven#ons on
Hotel Central in Sarajevo. The approach in this case was to preserve the faade and to implant
an en#rely new structure within the exis#ng walls.
So, is facade reten#on something that can be accepted by the conserva#onists? Is this an
untruthful approach, a mask of reality, or a viable solu#on for similar issues and buildings?
If a buildings overall shape, volume and facade are main elements of its iden#ty as an
architectural heritage building, then it can be said that maintaining, repairing or replica#ng facades can play an important role in the protec#on process. One important dimension of urban
protec#on process is aimed at keeping (preserving) townscapes that people can relate to, where
the signs and meanings are clear and the quali#es of ambient are recognizable.
Most of the conserva#onists agree that preserving the en#re building with its co-rela#on
between structure, interior and exterior is an appropriate course of ac#on.
Is protec#on an extensive and intrusive upgrade of structures and infrastructure that preserves their overall appearance by crea#ng faade-ism in our ci#es, or is it a necessary step
in order to reuse and preserve buildings and make them convenient and appropriate for future
use?
Every eort needs to adapt to the demands of safety and heritage protec#on in terms
of materials and preserva#on of the original structure. Any interven#on will result in specic
changes, causing loss of buildings authen#city, which means that one must be very careful when
deciding on and implemen#ng an intrusive interven#on method.
Each case should generate an answer on its own. Dierent case studies must provide us
with knowledge to be used in all future interven#ons. The example of the Central Hotel is only
one of the possible solu#ons, not because it is the least complicated, but because it contains the
most elements of this process.
Keywords: facade reten$on, renova$on, reconstruc$on, structure, upgrading, preserva$on

76

Building technique
and technology

AT THE ORIGINS OF MODERN CONSTRUCTION:


EARLY APPLICATIONS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE IN THE FLOORS
DESIGNED BY THE ITALIAN ENGINEERS CORPS
Emanuele Zamperini
Dipar$mento di Ingegneria Civile e Archite/ura, Universit degli Studi di Pavia
emanzamp@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
In the last three decades of the 19th century, in Italy the cement produc#on started and
grew. In these years cement was widely used for civil and military purposes. The ocers of the
Engineers Corps were ac#ve in the experimenta#on of new construc#on materials and used
widely cement concrete (e.g. for the construc#on of for#ca#ons and for barrack pre-cast decora#ons).
In 1890-1910, the use of reinforced concrete spread in Italian construc#ons; it started to
be used for oors because of its characteris#c of high s#ness, which avoids vibra#ons, and of
its good resistance in case of re. Later on, it had been used also for frame structure, especially
for buildings with large span or heavy loads (warehouses, stables and riding schools).
Some ocer of the military Engineers had a fundamental role, both theore#cal and experimental, in the development of reinforced concrete. Among them, general Caveglia and lieutenant colonel Marrullier had a key role. The former developed new computa#on methods and patented new construc#on techniques for oors and founda#ons. The la&er introduced the study
of reinforced concrete in the Scuola di Applicazione di Ar#glieria e Genio in Turin, and promoted
its dissemina#on in civil engineering with his Guida pra#ca per la costruzione degli edizi con
speciale riguardo al cemento armato.
Keywords: Cement, concrete, reinforced concrete, Military Engineers, barracks.

77

STRUCTURAL LOGIC SOUNDLY INTEGRATED IN OVERALL


ARCHITECTURAL DELIVERY PROCESS # REACHING THE SYNERGY WITHIN
THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Building technique
and technology

Denana Bijedi, Denis Zvizdi


Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
dzenanab@af.unsa.ba, denisz@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Architectural building is ul#mately the result of the search for the best solu#ons in rela#on to the environment, func#ons, technology, comfort, security, stability, and aesthe#cs. With
the increased awareness of the impacts the construc#on and buildings opera#on processes
have on the environment and human health, the project team is facing ul#matum from the
necessity of simultaneous and integrated approach to all stages of the Architectural Delivery
Process (ADP). In this sense, success could be reached only if the decision making process is supported with relevant informa#on.
Making informed decisions is the key to success in all our ac#vi#es, including the given
context. Consequently, decisions regarding the selec#on of structural system, will directly aect
the decision on materializa#on, and vice versa. This will, in turn, signicantly aect the service installa#on systems, the disposi#on of interior par##ons, func#onality and aesthe#cs, all of
which will directly predispose the en#re life cycle of the building.
To establish a synergy of components of architectural structures, primarily structural and
material synergies, knowledge of new technologies and interac#on of one system with another,
is prerequisite for good architectural solu#ons.
Knowledge and understanding of the structural morphology, the science of form and
structure related to is a key for innova#on in the development of structural systems soundly
integrated in the specic architectural design. The underlying logic of these systems is based on
the principles of physics, geometry, materials science, and explains how to combine the basic
elements in the genera#on of dierent types of buildings.
Advances in science and technology, especially in the eld of building materials, have developed complex structural forms in which is possible to iden#fy the basic structural elements.
Construc#ve logic is applied to explain how these elements are combined in the design of buildings of dierent structural typologies. In this sense, structural forms can be classied into those
that respond to the pressures of power and those that correspond to the compressing force, and
they can be geometrically described as a two-dimensional shapes that are repeated in succession, or as a three-dimensional, doubly curved surfaces.

78

Building technique
and technology

79

In the development of surface structural systems of mathema#cs and geometry are crucial.
A long #me in the architecture dominated Cartesian orthogonal design principles with an emphasis on two-dimensional planes and circuits. Tradi#onally, the principles of three-dimensional
surface, such as domes and vaults, realized at predetermined posi#ons by planimetry, and the
main parameters were usually generated from the orthographic projec#on (plan, sec#on, views).
Today, the development of computer programs and the availability of three-dimensional
modeling methods (interfaces), made possible to create a virtual surfaces such as NURBS (calculus-based non-uniform ra#onal B-spline). Thanks to this development, architects are increasingly
releasing two-dimensional orthogonal logic.

THE LATE MEDIEVAL TOWER IN TESHOVO

Building technique
and technology

Radosveta Kirova
Ins$tute of art Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
terrarossa@abv.bg
ABSTRACT
Teshovo is a village of the region of Goce Delchev (Nevrocop) on the way to Thessaloniki,
that inhabitants used to be occupied in ore-produc#on.
The stone masonry late medieval tower situated now in one of the districts of the village,
used to have 7-storeys and an unique water supply and plumbing ceramic installa#on is in ruined
condi#on due to inadequate heritage policy.

80

Building technique
and technology

81

82

URBAN LEVEL
83

Urban level

84

Urban level

URBAN DEVELOPMENT RISK ON THE FIRST MODERN FABRIC OF KAYSERI:


ORNEKEVLER AND SAHABIYE QUARTERS
Ceyhan YCEL
ceyhanyucel@gmail.com, ceyhanyucel@erciyes.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
Kayseri, as a metropolitan centre in the central Anatolia, is one of the important examples
of planned ci#es in Turkey. Parallel to the rapid urbanisa#on process, the urban plans of Kayseri
generally have included decisions of new and denser housing and working areas with more popula#on. These plans also created a new urban environment shaped by the technology and design
principles of their era. Because each urban development period created a new layer on former
urban fabric, today it is hardly possible to read the urban past of the Kayseri in urban space.
This paper aims to examine the Ornekevler and Sahabiye Quarters that were built in the
mids of the 20th century according to the rst urban plan of Kayseri. As the very characteris#c
examples of rst modern se&lements in Kayseri, strict geometric grid pa&ern and 3-5 storey
apartments in new architectural schemes have meant a new urban life with their style, technology and material contrary to the tradi#onal Kayseri urban features.
However, because being posi#oned in city centre today, rapid development process especially a]er 80s, caused loses and renewals in these areas in physically and func#onally. In this
paper, a]er presen#ng a brief urbanisa#on and planning process of Kayseri in 20th century, Ornekevler and Sahabiye quarters are analysed and dened with their characteris#cs. At the end,
the urban development pressure and the risks over these quarters are argued in urban context.
Keywords: Modern heritage, urbanisa$on, urban risks

85

PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE OF THE 20TH CENTURY


THROUGH A REVALUATION OF CULTURAL, HISTORICAL AND AESTHETIC
ELEMENTS

Urban level

Emilija Kastelic
University of Primorska, Science and research center, Slovenia
emilija.kastelic@zrs.upr.si
ABSTRACT
The paper will address the problem of awareness and conserva#on of architectural heritage in the new misappropriated territories of Slovenia and Croa#a to Italy during the fascist
regime, which was forcibly introduced in 1922. Few analyses of the causes for the forma#on of
this heritage and the specic socio-poli#cal regula#on have as a result the neglect of the importance of architectural heritage, which has changed the urban environment of Croa#a and Slovenia. The socio-poli#cal situa#on aected the eld of architecture, par#cularly by regula#ng the
func#onal status of architects and the construc#on set. The legal basis for this regula#ng system
cons#tuted acts of 1923, n. 1395; Act of 1925, n. 2537 and R.D. n. 1660. All men#oned acts are
the legal basis for the subscrip#on in special lists so called Albo. In Italy, including the areas of
Slovenia and Croa#a, there were 1600 registered architects. This selec#on system was one of
the most inuent factors on the architectural heritage. Due to the sensi#vity of understanding
the regime the research eld of architecture has a large decit of knowledge, which devalues
the object and its author. Analysis of the above men#oned facts will serve for the revaloriza#on
of the architectural heritage, which people are not familiar with or even deny. Regardless of the
intended use of the object, the ignorance of its historical, aesthe#c and cultural elements represents a problem as important for the proper conserva#on and preserva#on of it as the physical
(not) reconstruc#on in the case of the building degrada#on.
Keywords: architectural heritage, fascism, architects, engineers, revalua$on, 20th Century

86

Urban level

INDUSTRIALIZATION AS THE GENERATOR OF MODERN SARAJEVO


Denis Zvizdi, Mejrema Zatri, Nasiha Pozder, Pavle Krs$
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
denisz@af.unsa.ba, mejremaz@af.unsa.ba, nasihap@af.unsa.ba, pavlek@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Modernity and moderniza#on of urban space have been profoundly intertwined with the
processes of industrializa#on. The becoming of modern European city can only be fully understood on the backdrop of the industrial revolu#on.
The intensive urbaniza#on and the main collateral elements of industrializa#on (such as
demographic explosion and transport revolu#on) were ini#ally co-opted in Sarajevo through the
domina#on of Austro-Hungarian rule and as such resulted in the new types of urban fragments,
then located in the urban periphery. Combining of the new urbanis#c postulates of the modern industrial city with the residen#al zones, in the hitherto un-urbanized space, con#nued this
trend, thus genera#ng urban discon#nui#es in the era of de-industrializa#on.
Furthermore, the modernist planning prac#ce unfolded hand in hand with the processes
of industrializa#on, being profoundly determined by the ways in which it seeked to accommodate for the set of its manifesta#ons in the social reality. Being developed in line with this kind
of theore#cal bases for forty years, socialist ci#es can be said to have been urban environments
in which modernist planning prac#ce fuelled by industrializa#on has been taken to its extreme.
As the contemporary planning prac#ce is being progressively based on the building of the
city upon city (urban transforma#on), rather then extensive urbaniza#on (occupa#on of Greenelds with new urbaniza#on), the discon#nuous urban fragments brought along with the industrializa#on-processes seem to be the main poten#als of the contemporary urban development.
Understanding the modern city and its urban discon#nui#es as one of the crucial ques#ons of contemporary planning prac#ce, this inves#ga#on oers a comprehensive review of the
intertwined processes of industrializa#on and urbaniza#on that gave rise to the Modern City of
Sarajevo. We propose that be&er understanding of these intertwined processes that triggered
the emergence of what today are urban discon#nui#es contributes to our possibili#es of their
use in advantage of the contemporary urban transforma#on.
Keywords: moderniza$on, industrializa$on, urbaniza$on, urban discon$nui$es

87

IMPORTANCE OF SCALE AND COMPLEXITY IN GROWING FORM OF THE


CITY

Urban level

Rada ahtarevi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo,
radac@af.unsa.ba
Dana Spahi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo,
dzanas@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Form of the city grows and changes in dierent states of dynamic equilibrium maintaining its
consistency and con#nuity in #me and space. City is growing and developing through dierent urban processes and mechanisms that acts on dierent scales. Absence of some scales is destruc#ve to the urban
structure. Modern city geometry reveals deciency regarding dierent scales that could provide connec#ons and interac#ons within the urban system. Con#nuity of modern urban pa&erns with more tradi#onal
parts of the city was lost, lacking the subscales and rela#on to human scale, as could be no#ced in the case
of Sarajevo.
New concepts in urban planning are beginning to understand city as a complex organic whole, a
dynamic, non linear system on dierent scales. City as a system has its internal and external pa&ern, that
has complex mul# leveled geometry. Geometric model that could be applied in representa#on of city evolu#on is not based on descrip#on of city structure as predetermined form. Complexity science will help
us to implement new forms of descrip#on, planning and predic#ons, of both bo&om-up genera#on of the
city on the smaller scale, as well as top-down regula#on on the large scale.
By regenera#ng smaller scales that is missing in modern urban spaces, the vitality of space could
be reestablished. Pa&erns of urban fabric arises not only from hierarchy of homogenuous scales, but on
heterogenous interac#on and mutual interdependence of dierent scales, sizes and densi#es. Development of the city should be based on genera#ve processes that rule the growth in complex internal and
external dynamics on all scales and all levels of development. New methods could allow the urbanists to
examine, regulate and regenerate mul#-levelled, mul#-scalable and #me varying processes, to make effec#ve decisions and provide sustainable future.

Keywords: complexity, scale, geometry, hierarchy, urban growth, modern city, regenara$on

88

Urban level

FRAGMENTED TRANSFORMATION OF THE CENTRAL URBAN SPACE IN


POST"DAYTON TUZLA TOWN
Edin Jahi
FENS, Department of Architecture, Interna$onal University of Sarajevo
edin.jahic@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
This paper aims to point out some aspects of the changes that occur in a narrow urban
area of Tuzla town in recent #me. Last decades of post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina are characterized by altered socio-economic and proprietary rela#ons followed by a new principles of
the market. While the regulatory framework provides the pragma#c condi#ons for sustainable
development, the statutory planning system do not always deliver outcomes that improve or
correct real problems in the urban environment. A few exemplifying cases in Tuzla town are
analysed in order to point to devia#ons in the planning and decision-making. The interven#ons
in central town space are carried out without taking into account the ambient context, leading
to an overall abasement of the urban values and cultural heritage. Another valuable structures
are currently pending for some kind of renewal. To prevent false transforma#on trends or loss
of valued heritage, the answer should be sought through an integral and professional review of
exis#ng planning system in accordance with the general principles of the heritage preserva#on
and sustainable development. These principles and objec#ves should then be incorporated as
the statutory instruments and guidelines in accordance with the law.
Keywords: fragmented transforma$on, heritage preserva$on, town centre renewal, urban planning

89

20TH CENTURYS HERITAGE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA


AS INTEGRATED PART OF CULTURAL ROUTES " AUTHENTIC BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA
CASE STUDY: MINING TOWN BANOVII

Urban level

Lana Kudumovi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
lanakudumovic@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Cultural heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been created in con#nuity through
dierent historical periods, and today represent reec#on of those dierent social-economic
and cultural condi#on dening authen#c Bosnia.
Characteris#c of Bosnian urban development from pre-history un#l the contemporary
#me is possible to dene through accessible sources. This paper gives us brief overview of historic
development of Bosnian state and urban development and as well showing links between of
20th century ci#es or towns development and heritage-management plans as challenge in order
to include dierent type of 20th century heritage into contemporary #me.
Good example that illustrate development trend of Bosnia and Herzegovina during
Socialist Yugoslavia is small town Banovii located on the north of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Socio-economic framework of state policy based on the development of mining and industry has
led to crea#on of the en#rely new town on an empty territory.
The chosen case study will discuss future development of town Banovii, and the railroad
Brko Banovii. Railroad is consist of two valuable components represen#ng the Socialists
industrial heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and as symbol of this #me should be seen as part
of several possible hypothe#cal routes of authen#c Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The topic Authen#c B&H is everlas#ng challenge in order to interpret cultural heritage
properly and implies the necessity of comprehensive approach including preserva#on,
improvement, usage and development as well.
The aim of this paper is to emphasize the necessity of synthesis thinking about inherited
values. It is important to include architecture and urban areas of the 20th century that have
occurred within the former Yugoslavia, in programs of the heritage preserva#on and development.
This paper will help to dene specic challenges associated with industrial heritage
preserva#on poin#ng on case of town Banovii.
Keywords: Banovii, industrial heritage, cultural routes, integrated management plan

90

Urban level

URBAN FORM AND URBAN ETHICS IN CHANGING SOCIALISTIC


DEMOCRACY
Nihad H. engi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
nihadc@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Ci#es, hundred years ago, were seen as [] almost given a symbolic role in the implied
interdependency of physical deforma#on and degenera#on, with increasing immorality and depravity. Ci#es today are depicted as climate change generators, physically and socially fragmented, highly sprawling an obstacle toward sustainable development. At the same #me, cities are seen also as the resource toward sustainable development, based on the fact that ci#es
are central places of decision making.
Globally, our community is determent that in the centre of our interest are human beings,
en#tled to a healthy and produc#ve life in harmony with nature. But, the nature of our reality is
conrming that human beings are s#ll not in the centre of our interest but economy, the market
economy. Market and community are incompa#ble. Economy by deni#on requires dynamicity,
while community good is related to rather sta#c environment and slowly changing built space.
But, physical manifesta#on of economys produc#on surplus is characterized by sudden appearances, which are then in conict with community.
Todays economy is calling for new forms of planning, more dynamic and more adaptable
to dynamics of economy. On the other hand, it will be shown, planning legacy, theory and prac#ce developed during eigh#es in the last century in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is explicitly dynamic
and adaptable, of course with the certain limits capacity of nature to support urban development. Planning and processes a]er WWII are of our interest, specically three genera#ons of
Urban Plans (UP) related to city of Sarajevo, including the present one which is expiring in 2015
(UP genera#ons: 1948-55; 1960-65 and 1980-85). There is one striking thing about these plans
they have arma#vely, structurally and conceptually incorporated urban morphologies and
urban forms coming from the #me before, and before. Although the targeted planning theory
and prac#ce is coming from the #me of socialism in BH, which is usually presented as rigid and
overregulated, we will argue that modern plans do not belong to a specic #me, or even society
but they belong to its city and ci#zens rstly. We can describe these plans as complex system
planning orientated toward common good in balance with nature. The historical, societal and
physical layers and palimpsests are the core and meaning of urban form and urban planning,
including all the crises in development of urban form in #me, as today is.

91

It is reasonable than to raise the ques#on of the nature of todays economy rather than
the nature of todays planning. Economy is depicted as short-term prot orientated and insensi#ve to public prot, as it can not dene precisely the beneciary.
It is also reasonable to raise the ques#on of the nature of decision making process within
governing ins#tu#ons today, for which we have reason to claim that are priva#zed. Contemporary urban prac#ce of decision making process is showing that public ins#tu#ons are opera#ng
on servile-adaptable basis for the benet of private interest, disregarding public domain interest
and always fallowed by distrust from ci#zens side. Architectural and planning profession is not
abolished by the fact. Decision making process is o]en seen as corrupted and maa involved. We
can conrm that urban form today is composed somewhere at the outer limits of formal - planning and informal selforganiza#on, though it was more in the centre before 1992. As a result,
there is signicant discrepancy between ci#zens expecta#ons on the quality of urban life and
actual development trends.
Driven by economy of private interest, overriding public, new urban form is appearing and
it is not manifesta#on of comprehensive and balanced development, but fast, punctual, unselec#ve and unbalanced ac#ons and consequen#al imbalanced urban form, even self-destruc#ve.
The focus of this work is changing urban form in changing society and changing economy.
Urban form is now seen simplied to a physical manifesta#on depicted in its envelope or shell,
represen#ng the spa#al physical structure, where nature is playing equally important role. The
changing urban form envelope is not seen from the composi#onal-aesthe#cal point of view but
from the perspec#ve of rela#onship between changing physical form and its reec#ons to natural environment capacity where city is embedded.
The override of public interest is clearly expressed in a morphological appearance of tall
or XL buildings, dispersed across agglomera#on. To analyze the issue we will use explanatory
concept of urban morphology. We will compare morphology of the city as it is foreseen or prescribed in actual Urban Plan and morphology at the scene, as well as behavioural pa&erns of
stakeholders. Sarajevo urban form is showing growing conict between very urban form and the
planned one, a conict that is changing natural processes and with long-term risks.
The major change that strike Bosnia and Herzegovina is priva#sa#on of land property and
consequent behavioural pa&ern both new owners as well as governing ins#tu#ons. Changing
ownership over urban land raised new percep#ons on the right to built. The interrela#onship
between changing society, changes in ownership structure over the urban land and consequent
emerging envelope will be established.
Central ques#on raised is how someone claims the right to build and creates its own percep#ons on the right to built. In last hundred years, ownership structure over urban land from
dominantly publicly owned toward dominantly privately owned land has undergo two cycles

Urban level

92

Urban level

93

(from O&oman #me to Austro-Hungarian, and from SFRJ #me to post-one, that is today). Drama#c change of urban form related to newly established ownership structure over urban land in
the last ]een years is evident. New composi#on of property rights create new forms and new
percep#ons on the right to built. It is very common a'tude within formal domain, almost fashion, to use bad prac#ce and promote it as good prac#ce. In the same #me, professional urban
and architectural cri#cs can be found within informal domain.
The analysis has incorporated ethical dimension of decision making process and urban
development that has been already long ignored.
Keywords: urban planning, changing socialis$c democracy, priva$za$on, right to build,
urban ethics

TRANSFORMATION OF TURKISH TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENT, AN


EXAMPLE ODUNPAZARI

Urban level

Guler Koca, Rana Karasozen


Anadolu University, Department of Architecture
gkoca@anadolu.edu.tr, rkarasozen@anadolu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
The tradi#onal Turkish towns were shaped with the needs and customs in life. The smallest unit of the O&oman urban life was called the quarter (mahalle). These neighbourhood units
were built around a central square, a spring or a religious centre with narrow organic streets.
Neighbourhood in the O&oman system can be dened as an administra#ve and social unit. The
houses of the rich and the poor were not dis#nguished from each other as loca#on and building
principles except for the dimensions and building details of the houses. Dwellings of a neighbourhood had always had the responsibility of helping and protec#ng each other with close
neighbourhood rela#ons. The O&oman neighbourhoods preserved their principles un#l beginning of the twen#eth century.
The rapid and dense growth of ci#es and socio-cultural transforma#on of the society from
tradi#onal to modern and post-modern have destroyed neighbourhood order especially in big
ci#es. As the dwellers of these new neighbourhoods have no common backgrounds, the rela#ons between them get weakened and they have not felt themselves belong to the place. The
responsibility of protec#ng and watching each other has disappeared and the crime rate has increased. The neighbourhoods of the rich and the poor have been separated absolutely. Some of
these neighbourhoods are designed with tradi#onal forms which cannot be dened as sustainability of tradi#onal socio-cultural values which are independent from changing life styles. The
other change at the last decades occurred with the restora#on and res#tu#on of the tradi#onal
neighbourhoods for touris#c purposes. This type of transforma#on aimed to serve the consump#on culture which caused changes in physical, func#onal and social character of the se&lements
breaking the cultural sustainability.
Eskisehir is a city located at mid-west Anatolia. The earliest O&oman Turkish housing
Odunpazari se&lement had the process of change and deteriora#on both physically and socially
in 20th century. The most important facts of this process were res, change of socio-cultural
structure, migra#ons, misjudgements of local government, conserva#on plans and restora#on
studies. In this paper, Odunpazari in Eskisehir as an example for tradi#onal O&oman neighbourhoods will be examined with this transforma#on process.
Keywords: Turkish town, tradi$onal se/lement, transforma$on

94

Urban level

SUCCESSIVE INTEGRATION OF THE OLD AND THE NEW: AN ONGOING


PROCESS
Nadja Kurtovi-Foli
Faculty of technical sciences, University of Novi Sad
nfolic@uns.ac.rs
ABSTRACT
The process of integra#on of the old and the new is one of the most sensi#ve and complex
problems faced by people in the eld of protec#ng the cultural heritage. This includes organizing
the pieces (or elements) into a single totality (or structure) that works harmoniously in achieving
the common goals, i.e. that includes the harmony between the individual and general shapes.
The process of integra#on is the essence of architectural crea#vity since the prehistoric man
made an eort to establish something that is more than merely a home two successively made
homes are already genera#ng an integra#ve process.
There are two aspects of integra#ng the old and the new: a wider and a narrower. The
wider aspect implies a natural evolu#on of the built environment whereby the old (i.e. the existing) is con#nuously expanded with new built forms, thus, forming both the rural and urban built
#ssue. The narrow aspect refers to designed interven#ons to the old structures or built environments by applying new engineering measures, new materials, forms and the like.
Throughout the history, the process of integra#on of the old and the new was largely
unobtrusive, given that it was carried out in long periods of #me and not always through the
introduc#on of some radical contrasts. Buildings were sequenced almost never in an iden#cal
manner; however, they were similar in shape, materials, construc#on and stylis#c features. As
a rule of thumb, signicant changes and implementa#on of new ideas that were signicantly
dierent from the old especially regarding the style have encountered the resistance of the
majority, being accepted when their numbers have reached the cri#cal mass, or when they were
publicly praised by the arbiters of fashion. In many cases, the original ways of construc#on were
resumed also in periods of en#rely dierent stylis#c determina#ons.
The ques#on is: what were the engineers guidelines throughout the history for mainly
adhering to the principle of harmonious reconcilia#on of the new and the old buildings, despite
the fact that the human need for separa#on and originality is imminent to the creators? An example for this is modernism with all its charisma#c authors, who were o]en constructed as not
to care about the environment. However, the awareness that the inclusion of their work into the
cultural heritage would be useful has made them to invest extra eorts to protect some of their
works. One of the best examples is perhaps that of Le Corbusier during his life#me, a series of
his buildings were protected.

95

Nowadays, the interpreta#on of integra#on of the old and the new has taken on the nature of discourse and there are several opinions that operate in parallel, covering a range of solu#ons: from copying the old building, which was located on the site of the new one or some other
building in the immediate neighborhood, through the applica#on of the associa#ve method, to
the crea#on of a striking contrast and a spa#al excesses.
As a valuable future legacy, the new architecture needs to reect such a quality in its
environment that will prevent the exis#ng values of cultural and natural heritage from being
destruc#ve and capable in the same #me to create its own criteria of quality. Shape and spa#al
organiza#on should be important engineering contribu#ons to the actual space and #me. The
evalua#on should be based on the rela#onship between cultural, historical, symbolic and applied criteria in an interdisciplinary manner.
The new system of rela#ons requires a specic method of evalua#on if the goal is to respect the system of protec#on and management of cultural heritage to which new objects in
the environment are being added. This complex theore#cal approach to architectural heritage
requires applying special technologies in prac#ce. The eects of many modern materials successfully used in modern buildings, when applied to old buildings, are adverse and unhealthy
making their integra#on with the old buildings unsuccessful. This is just a physical problem that
may arise when integra#ng the old and the new.
Much more complex and deeply concerning the doctrine of protec#on is the view that
new materials and construc#ons can be applied to protect hidden areas in order to prolong the
buildings life. This dichotomy opens another issue: are the principles of authen#city and reversibility actually implemented in protec#on?
However, as a rule of thumb, when it comes to the integra#on of the old and the new,
what is considered is the spa#al rela#onship between the old and the new buildings. This rela#onship has signicantly evolved as compared to the examples from the beginning of this presenta#on and now there are two parallel approaches: a conven#onal approach which is based
on predetermined condi#ons of protec#on and an inspired crea#on that is juxtaposed to the old
building. The la&er approach, in principle, is derived from involving some extremely talented and
crea#ve architects of strong sensibility.
Due to all the above reasons, instead of being original and homogeneous, the cultural
heritage that has survived to this day is of a mul#-layer and modied structure which results
from the integra#on of the old and the new in a con#nuous process.

Urban level

96

Urban level

POST"MODERN HERITAGE IN NEW BELGRADE


Simone Sante
Faculty of Architecture, University of Rome Sapienza
santesimone@me.com
ABSTRACT

97

In a quick view, though the representa#ons of New Belgrade can appear oleographic, every part seems lived by elements not explained, ghost architectures, that if on one side can
conrm the cri#cism against the modern city, on the other side oer the possibility to research
the meanings and the deep #es in the history of the european city.
An important lesson regarding the anguish of the present, with which the contemporary
Serbian culture must keep in touch in order to understand what to do with the heritage of New
Belgrade, is lectured by Bogdan Bogdanovic. Although his posi#on against the modern city (he
was a designer engaged in the construc#on of yugoslav memory through the crea#on of monuments where he recognizes the strange spirit that inhabits the landscapes and the stories of the
South Slavs), Bogdanovic found in the experience of New Belgrade values to preserve, to protect
and on which to build the yugoslavian iden#ty.
The socialist heritage, that s#ll is the representa#on of this experience, is related to the
city-founda#on and to the commencement, the moment when a new community, made up of
dierent people (similarly to the Roman city story), gets together to dene a new beginning.
Bogdanovic aware of this, with a considera#on that New Belgrade is not a closed experience without any iden#ty, calls architects for an important compe##on: Future of New Belgrade
(1985). Worried about the possible changes typical of the capitalist city, he summons the architects from all over the world. The sixty projects delivered are invas#ga#ng in the heritage of this
modern experience. Among these, special interest holds the proposal by Paolo Portoghesi.
This important postmodern architect, along with Slobodan Selinkic, Pier Luigi Eroli and
Sandro Sartor engaged in a careful analysis of New Belgrade, with the belief that this is one of
the most important experiences of urban development in recent decades, and yet, as almost all
parts of the city, planned and built during the same period, was le] in an uncompleted condi#on. At some #me also the oldest ci#es in the past have lived, in their existence, a moment of
incompleteness. Subsequently, the growth and integra#on with new projects led them to reach
a level of quality that has dened their aesthe#c balance. William of Auvergne in his Tractatus
de bono et malo states, in fact, that the ugly was both the one who had three eyes or just one:
the rst for being awful, the second for not having what is required. So for the Italian group, fascinated by the condi#on of incompleteness of that city, it is necessary to establish the policy that

is inner to the modern project, where the economy and the formal coherence give the law to the
various parts. The Portoghesis project, then, focuses on giving a new life to what has been lost
or has not been done. In the early 80s, in the neighborhoods of New Belgrade prevails the need
of the individual blocks dedicated to habita#on. It can be understood as a sum of apartments,
where the collec#ve dimension is limited to the blocks of apartments where residents are, in
fact, secluded.
In New Belgrade this character does not leave to the dormitory town the possibility to produce what Portoghesi calls city eect necessary to dene the urban life. The incompleteness of
Novi Beogard is comparable to that of a man whose brain works only par#ally. In par#cular, what
seems not to work are those areas of the brain that govern on memory, coordina#on between
func#ons, which should establish a unity of many aspects of life, the unity that is essen#al to
dene the personal iden#ty. What, therefore, the Italian group oers to the city center of New
Belgrade is to complete the modern project giving the full func#on of the brain and of the nervous system. To obtain this, they try to re-establish a balance between the exis#ng parts and the
project, through a therapeu#c transplant that joins separate parts, redenes the role of aggrega#on in the city center in the same way that can be fund in the historic ci#es in Europe where
this role was exercised by the ancient core, around which, the city is developed in dierent #mes.
The methodology used is that proposed by postmodernism in the cultural debate that
spreads in Europe in those years. The interest of these assump#ons lies in their intent to revive,
also through an homeopathic approach, and to counteract the loss of the iden#ty in the city.
The spa#al con#nuity, the human scale and complexity are the main features of this proposal for
New Belgrade.
As Petric has already assumed in his cri#cal review of the Athens Paper, he tries to re-establish, inside each block, the spa#al con#nuity between voids through an indiscriminate openness. Portoghesi and his team, re-propose instead to establish the urban con$nuum through a
sequence of streets, squares and parks. In that way they introduce in the urban discourse an
ingredient just men#oned in the proposals of the 60s, un#l they obtain an aspect of con#nuity
in dierence.

Urban level

98

Urban level

99

100

LOCAL COMMUNITY
101

Local community

102

Local community

CONSERVING MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN POST"COLONIAL


CONTEXT: MOZAMBIQUE
Lisandra Franco de Mendona
Ins$tute for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Coimbra, Portugal
lisandramendonca@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This essay focuses on the material heritage of the nal period of Portuguese sovereignty
in Mozambique (the late nineteenth century --- 1975) and is interested in deepening the knowledge in architecture of the twen#eth century and the par#culari#es (ideological, technical and
material) involved in heritages conserva#on and associated with modern post---colonial context. The diculty relates greatly to func#onality, materials, the replacement of infrastructures,
its surroundings, its maintenance, pa#na, the recogni#on of this heritage and protec#on by an
ocial tutelage. Studies, the aging buildings and the rela#onship between such dierent cultures, bring new challenges and the discussion of issues that deserve considera#on: 1) The life
#me proximity of these buildings aects the distance required to interpret and to evaluate
their signicance. 2) We have not accumulated knowledge or technical exper#se to handle all
the variety of Modern architecture and we are not interested in mastering only the technology:
the authen#city covers the project inten#on and the created space; the materials alone do not
dene architecture. 3) The occidental no#on of heritage has not found unanimity in areas of
non---European roots.
Keywords: Modern Architecture, Conserva$on, Cultural Heritages of Portuguese Inuence, Mozambique, Conserva$on in postcolonial context.

103

NEW MEMORY

Local community
Lemja Chabbouh Aksamija, Lejla abi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
lemjaa@af.unsa.ba, lejlas@af.unsa.ba

ABSTRACT
The idea of the monument is as old as human civiliza#on itself.
From the Menorah, which carried within itself the spirit and memory of important gures or dei#es that had represented, through Monumentum, to which were given the poli#cal
and ethical traits, to the purely conceptual resolved marks, people are trying through the monument not only to remember, but also to alert, which is the original meaning of the word
menorah.
The phenomenon of the monument as visual-aesthe#c representa#on of a memory on a
par#cular person or event, roughly speaking, has two primary forms of expression - while the
evoca#on of a real person, either specic or anonymous, usually requires a more or less realis#c appearance, the event is mainly presented through abstractedly form, expressing the basic
character of the event.
Spa#al menorah - the bearers of memory of the space - are closely related to a specic visual characteris#cs of the space, which, however, does not necessarily have to be one or unique.
Features of the space, which are exis#ng in the present, dont longer need to be dis#nctly individual, or single structures. The ability to recognize is diverse, both in the image of the city and
in the sense that it causes.
Every built space carries memory; the only dierence is the longevity of memory, which in
turn depends on the value or quality of such space. Long-term memory is #ed to the concept of
collec#ve memory and emanate from such quali#es of space that are both unique and universal.
Short-term memory is related solely to the primary and possibly secondary genera#on,
which has a direct and very individual rela#onship to the architecture of its environment. Such
memory has no possibility of survival and must always be re-created with each new genera#on.
It is clear that, with the construc#on of new structures in places which carry short-term
memory, it comes up to cancela#on of the memory of such places.
Within the broad framework of the Socialist architecture, it was tried with automa#sm to
create a new memory of place, o]en at those loca#ons that have already been heavily marked
by a certain spirit stemming from long-term historical memory, a memory that s#ll existed beyond its material origins.
Impossibility of abolishing memories of the previous structure and the ambiguity of such
areas is the main subject of this paper.
This raises the ques#on whether is it possible to impose a new memory of the regions that

104

Local community

105

already possess such an extent of it, that the construc#on of new structures are nearly desecra#on; whether and to what extent reminiscent of the previous structure should be established,
taking into account the value of the new one.
It also raises the ques#on whether the new memory and iden#ty are in conict, because
an ideological approach to the crea#on of new memory and a sense of unity and commonality
was located in a rela#vely short period of #me, which was not enough for the natural ow of
things.
Examples of such places are numerous. New styles of architecture have always delete old,
but we will analyze area of Sarajevo, where the socialist architecture had some#mes genuine
and not just a random target to annul the diversity with the desire for unica#on and reduc#on
in the two-dimensional collage of remembrance.
Keywords: Heritage, socialism, iden$ty, memory, space

PLANNED HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MODERNIST MANNER


IN BIH

Local community

Maja Pliani, Adi orovi


Pedagogical Faculty of the Sarajevo University, BiH
Commission to Preserve Na$onal Monuments, BiH
majasiric@gmail.com, adicorovic@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The period between the two world wars was characterized in Bosnia and Herzegovina by
marked socio-economic stagna#on, the result of specic poli#cal circumstances, which had a
major impact on building ac#vity and the countrys urban development. Despite this, there are
some very well-preserved examples of various types of building in the modernist manner, some
of which are of outstanding merit and worthy of special protec#on.
This paper deals with housing developments planned and in part built in the inter-war
period, the Crni Vrh housing development in Sarajevo and the workers housing development
designed by Juraj Neidhardt in Vare.
Despite their dierent architectural typologies, both developments were conceived at
much the same #me, and both respect the axioms of local architecture harmoniously composed
with the principles of modernism. As such, they cons#tute an important record of the development of Modernist thought in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addi#on, both were at risk in the early
21st century, and have been or are s#ll under threat of complete degrada#on.
This paper is intended to oer methodological guidelines for the protec#on of housing developments in the modernist manner, by establishing uniform criteria for according value on the
basis of common denominators of the architectural and urbanis#c values of the developments
in ques#on. They are analyzed as a whole, in detail and in their se'ng, so as to generate the
criteria for according value to them.
The solu#on to the preserva#on of these se&lements lies in nding a new role for them in
contemporary urban life, with a view to preserving the cultural iden#ty of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is associated to a considerable degree with the cultural tradi#on of Central Europe.
Future interven#ons must preserve the iden#ty and authen#city of the place, but at the
same #me must create opportuni#es for integra#ng the built heritage into new socio-economic
and cultural circumstances using the authen#c vocabulary of contemporary architecture.
Keywords: Planned housing developments, Crni Vrh, workers housing developments,
Vare, Juraj Neidhardt, Modernism

106

Local community

PODGORICA /BUILT HERITAGE/ # INTEGRATION OR DISINTEGRATION =


LEGEND OR BINDING REALITY?
Igbala abovi Kerovi
Founda$on for monuments and sites of Montenegro ELArt
ela1@t-com.me
ABSTRACT
Development and func#oning of a city is based on a range of factors that inuence planning and the development of urban space. The role of the architectural heritage can be elevated
highly in the hierarchy or completely neglected as a result of ideological interpreta#ons, generally accepted values and meanings.
The old town, the urban nucleus of Podgorica, is con#nually faced with an adversial a'tude towards heritage. Synthesis of diversity, oriental O&oman and Mediterranean, are her reality that should be seen as an advantage in the crea#on of an urban city image in all its cultural
layers and its specici#es. It is the sense of place!
However, its iden#ty is le] to an uncertain future, although essen#ally there should not be
a problem considering the wide range of possible methodological approaches to its protec#on.
Due to the frui~ul improvisa#on of current planning condi#ons, and contradic#ons between protec#on measures and recommenda#ons for new developments, the remainder of the
heritage is unfortunately on the path towards irreversible decline.
Unequivocally, the ques#on arises whether and to what extent the exis#ng physical structure possesses architectural and cultural poten#al in the urban context of Podgorica? Where is
the limit? Can the integral reconstruc#on of the fortress and the old town, as an urban-economic, cultural and mul#-ethnic centre, be part of the tradi#onal physiognomy of the city (there a lot
of good examples)?!
Therefore, the evolu#on and genesis of the urban structure will be presented in several
#me scales, based on the analysis and chronological presenta#on of urban development and the
construc#on of signicant architectural structures/buildings and their gradual degrada#on in
the urban development of the city (transforma#on). Finally, the structure and the current status
of the remaining built heritage will be presented, as the star#ng point for the development of
strategies and heritage conserva#on.
Keywords: Old town, sense of place, transforma$on, urban context

107

THE ROLE AND IMPACT OF PRESERVATION ARCHITECTURAL


HERITAGE ON DOMESTIC TOURISM

Local community

Abdullah Al-nfeesi
College of Basic Educa$on
a_alnafeesi@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Cultural and heritage tourism has become a major source of revenue for many communi#es and states across the globe. Heritage exploita#on is currently a factor of human welfare
and local development, raising new ques#ons on preserva#on and safe guarding both material
and tangible heritage. The promising role of tourism a&racted the a&en#on of developing domes#c tourism. Domes#c and regional tourism development is a key factor which contributes
to economic welfare of the host country. Tourism des#na#ons and businesses are becoming
increasingly prone to the impacts of crises and disasters due to global environmental change
and security risks. This paper is to determine the link between architectural heritage and tourism
development.
Keywords: Heritage, tourism, architecture, development, culture

108

Local community

TITLE: BOBOVAC" A MONUMENT INFLUENCING PEOPLE


Katarina Bonjak
student, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
katarina.bos@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Bobovac is the most important and well for#ed town of medieval Bosnia. It was raised on
steep,stepwise rock of southern slopes of Dragovski and Mijakovski massif. The headquarters od
bosnian rulers from rst half of 14th century #ll the end of independence of bosnian country in
1463. was set here. Bobovac was composed of upper town with quadra#cal tower, whose remains s#ll stand, and lower town on a step cca 20 meters under, shaped like a 40x25 m polygon, of
wich today only the courtyard and the well are recognizable.
It was built, like many european towns in several stages, for more than a century, where
the kings court, four palaces, churches, kings mausoleum were for#ed with 1100 m of rampart
100-150 cm thick.
On 6. November 2002. Comission for preserva#on of na#onal monuments of Bosnia and
Herzegovina declared historical site of Medieval city of Bobovac a na#onal monument.
The goal of this research is the development and the regenera#on of Bobovac, also regarding the sociological aspect of this area, refering to the main ques#on: How does a town which
is considered a monument inuence the people living in or around it?
Keywords: monument, for$ca$on, preserva$on, awareness

109

110

LANDSCAPE
TRANSFORMATIONS
111

Landscape
transforma#ons

112

Landscape
transforma#ons

RECOVERY OF THE VACUUM: THE QUARRIES OF MASSACIUCCOLI


Alessandra Beca&ni, Leonardo Benede&
ITALY CICOP members
Beca&ni@alice.it, Benede&3000@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The other landscape subject of the research is the landscape of the quarries overlooking
the town of Massaciuccoli, along the famous Lake Massaciuccoli in Tuscany, silent and cumbersome presence for many years in the background of the lake, but at the same #me outside his
landscape. The quarries achieve unexpected spa#al values: these spaces subtracted from the nature, from the hidden depths of the earth generate a kind of peace that comes from the vacuum
and becomes a place. The deser#ca#on of sense of these places, which took place with their
disposal, relegated them to invisible landscapes, forgo&en, trivialized wounds from everyday life,
nameless places, unrelated to ourselves, nondescript, which upsets our skill of recognizing and
look based on tradi#onal aesthe#c categories.
The project focuses on rehabilita#on of landscapes called rejected by choosing as aim
of the study, the landscape of the Massaciuccoli abandoned quarries. The enormous extent of
these empty spaces, in panoramic place of absolute privilege, puts the urgent need for their
architectural redeni#on, which reintegrates them into the produc#on cycle of this region and
reinvested them with new meanings. The theme of abandoned mining areas recovery (created
exclusively by technical and economic requirements without reec#on on the landscape, or
rather explicit aesthe#c reference) requires designers to present new ideas for their redevelopment: a dicult but exci#ng design challenge that is able to recover an aesthe#c and ar#s#c
perspec#ve in the recovery of the altered landscape. In the case of abandoned quarries in fact,
the removal of materials change the poten#al (as well as the aesthe#c) of the sites and makes,
in prac#ce, the original condi#on almost impossible to restore. Therefore the planner needs to
give new meanings to these places and not to repair them. The research analyses the dierent
design approaches so far adopted to these rejected areas.
Keywords: Quarry, abandoned mining area, industrial archaeology, reinven$on of
meaning.

113

THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRADITIONAL WATER RESOURCES EXPLOITATION


AND SETTLEMENT

Landscape
transforma#ons

Emir Troi, Edin Smaji


emirtrozic@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Tradi#onal the use of water power was in the mills, blacksmith shops and foundries. Today it is hard to nd clues to the loca#on where such facili#es once were. In the contemporary
prac#ce of producing energy from renewable sources are trying to nd the op#mal place to build
mini hydro. Through the earlier results will show a rela#onship where they have tradi#onally
been mills and surrounding villages who were users of these mills.
Through debate and discussion will be compared tradi#onal loca#ons mills with modern
mini-hydro power plant sites. The result of these rela#onships needs to answer the ques#on:
how many places have been selected for the construc#on of mini hydropower plant op#mally
and what is their posi#on in rela#on to the se&lement and ecology.
By just look at the earlier topographic maps can be even remotely iden#fy sites of watermills on watercourses. At one detail topographic maps, prepared dated 1953rd, based on
reambula#on dated 1930th, scale 1:50000, at approximately 55 km, can be iden#ed 50 mills.
For this sample, one can determine the prevalence of watermills per km of land, with 0.91
mills/km. If from this sample separately analyzes one watercourse, with its se&lements, it is
possible to reach certain orienta#on data. One watercourse was selected that has 20 mills to a
total length of 11,430 km ow. According to this sample is calculated to 1.75 mills/km, or 0.57
km/1 watermill. At approximately 55 km area of eld has iden#ed 600 buildings for housing.
On the basis of previously established a number of watermills 15 objects/1 watermill, or under
the previous, 0.91 mills/km.
Since 80-ies of the last century use of watermills are smaller so that today it is very rare
to nd a working watermill, with approximately previous capacity. If we take into account the
capacity of the watermills that operated and now abandoned or damaged ones, it can be concluded that a signicant amount of the water resources ows not used. Spa#al watermills were
deployed on all streams in or near the centers of se&lements. Comparing the dimensions and
engine interven#on of Tyrolean mini hydropower plants, it can be concluded that they are not,
signicantly, higher than those of the former watermill. So, in the ecological sense, the construc#on of new mini hydropower plants on the rivers where they previously has existed watermills,

114

Landscape
transforma#ons

115

certainly, does not endanger the natural environment, as well as plant or animal species. U#liza#on of available water resources would be a much bigger to build mini hydropower plants, and
to maintain the physical loca#on and dimensions of the new facility compared to the earlier watermills. Comparing the expected annual electricity produc#on, observed in the case of watercourses, also possible impact of earlier watermill it comes up with signicantly more informa#on
about benets of construc#on of small mini-hydro power plants.
Keywords Tradi$onal water power, water mill, forge, foundry, mini-hydro.

KREMIKOVTZI METALLURGICAL PLANT # THE WASTED PAST OR THE


WASTE OF THE PAST. POSSIBILITIES FOR ADAPTATION OF A POST"
INDUSTRIAL TERRITORY

Landscape
transforma#ons

Dimitar Mehandjiev, Iliana Ovtcharova


Phd students, Bulgarian Academy of Science
dimitar_l_m@dir.bg; ilianaovtcharova@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The process of deindustrializa#on radically changes the urban se'ngs of the contemporary city. An example are the so called post-industrial city areas: obsolete, derelict manufacturing sites, vibrant and successful job providers in the past, which decline today in search of new
ac#vi#es.
This report covers the topic of the sustainable adapta#on of such post-industrial areas on
the example of the territory of Kremikovtzi Metallurgical Plant.
The fate of Kremikovtzi has long been one of the major social issues to polarize the public opinion in Bulgaria and its capital city, Soa. A seemingly intractable problem is the correct
direc#on of redevelopment of the second-largest industrial complex on the Balkans and its vast
territory (over 8 000 000 m2 consolidated land).
Two major research ques#ons were iden#ed. What should the new development be:
for example, industrial revitaliza#on, adap#ve reu#liza#on, historical conserva#on or ecological
renaturaliza#on? Is it at all possible to reintegrate in Soas agglomera#on system this vast postindustrial complex and its immediate area of inuence, including other (func#onal) industrial
areas, fading worker towns and extensive disturbed lands in need of recul#va#on?
Discussing these issues, a detailed analysis of the site is made, and based on this - three
development scenarios for its future are oered.
Keywords: post-industrial development, industrial brownelds, metallurgical plants, adapta$on, urban reintegra$on, revitaliza$on, reu$liza$on, conserva$on

116

Landscape
transforma#ons

117

118

GLOBAL/LOCAL
119

Global/local

120

Global/local

SARAJEVO MUSEUMS, REPRESENTING THE POST"WAR B&H SOCIETY IN


TRANSITION
Lejla Kreevljakovi
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
lejlak@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
While the end of the XX and the beginning of the XXI century is characterized as a period
of rapid transforma#on and expansion of the museum space in the world, when the museums
were recognized as important tourist elements of each city on a global cultural-tourist map, and
as generators of urban and social renewal, Sarajevo survives the longest siege in history of mankind. This, among other things, brought out post-war Sarajevo on the global cultural-tourist map
men#oned above. However, a]er the war, only formal par#al restora#ons of museums into the
original state were made, while the substan#al renova#on of the museum spaces, in terms of
spa#al and programma#c openness and inclusiveness for the local and global community, were
not represented.
The research was carried out on the examples of Sarajevo Museums. It was noted that
in the case of exis#ng na#onal museums, lack of consen#ent a'tude towards history, culture
and heritage of the poli#cal government structure at na#onal level, was reected in each and
every ins#tu#on, from Museum of History to B&H Gallery of Art, resul#ng in an extremely difcult situa#on of these ins#tu#ons, as well as museum buildings. On the other hand, there were
ini#a#ves to establish new museums, all ini#ated and led by individuals based on their personal
involvement. There was no systemic approach in resolving these, evident societys needs for new
museums. Inclusive model of the building for Ars Aevi Museum encountered misunderstanding
on the part of local government, while the claustrophobic architectural proposal for the Siege of
Sarajevo Museum was approved for its realiza#on without any discussion in public. In that way
Sarajevo Museums are far from being elements of both urban and social renewal.
The architectural expression of museum buildings expresses precisely the state of society,
which is non-transparent society. Paradoxical, but true, museums even in this example of a]erwar B&H in transi#on, proved to be the best representa#ves of culture and society. The contemporary absence of public openness and inclusivity of museum space represent current Bosnian
society and culture.
Keywords: museums architecture; society in transi$on; post-war renewal

121

NEW MOSQUES=NEW CULTURAL HERITAGE?


CONTEMPORARY PLACES OF WORSHIP IN BOSNIA"HERZEGOVINA AND
TURKEY

Global/local

Alma Hudovi
Interna$onal University of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina
ahudovic@ius.edu.ba
ABSTRACT
When we speak about heritage in general, we speak about everything what we inherit
from our predecessors-in short, all the physical artefacts and metaphysical aspects. What we
perceive as architectural heritage is the en#re built environment regardless of its historical, cultural or aesthe#c value. The ques#on that rises upon is how responsible are we towards our
physical and social surroundings during the crea#on process? What is the quality of buildings
and ar#cially created spaces we are leaving to the future genera#ons as inheritance?
It is commonly known that every built object does not have equal value. Therefore their
precondi#ons to be recognized as objects of cultural, historical and architectural importance are
very dierent. The focus of my research lies on contemporary Islamic sacral buildings and their
social and architectural value par#cularly in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Turkey.
In this paper I would like to elaborate on new trends in mosque design and how responsible do we act regarding this ma&er? It is also interes#ng to study the role of poli#cs and patrons
in crea#ng contemporary religious legacy. Sacral objects have a priori certain value: a religious
one. Yet among the examined examples of contemporary mosques in those two countries there
might be several that dis#nguish themselves from the mass of others and whose value is more
than just a religious one.
Keywords: heritage, value, responsibility, Islamic sacral legacy, contemporary mosque
design

122

Global/local

THE LEGACY OF MODERNIST SETTING AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO POST


WAR DEVELOPMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Mladen Burazor
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
mladenb@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
Modernist movement had an important role on city planning and regula#ons in Europe
in the years a]er the Second World War. Devasta#on on a large scale during the war made a
good se'ng a]erwards to test new urbanism ideas and large areas within ci#es became playground for planners. Humanis#c approach to architecture and division of func#ons inuenced
planners to derive new concepts of modern ci#es. The Capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina grew
rapidly in size and popula#on a]er the Second World War and Modernist approach is strongly
incorporated in the city fabric. Ques#ons regarding architectural heritage that were raised in
the Modernist era, are raised again today when, from a safe distance, we evaluate architecture
from that period of #me. We can examine eects of previous policies and learn from mistakes
that were made. This is even more important now when, with the most recent war in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, we can s#ll witness great deal of devasta#on. A'tude towards architectural and
cultural heritage is a reliable indicator of moral, ethical and social level of a certain community
and with Bosnia and Herzegovina there are mixed feelings. Some ini#a#ves are to be praised but
at the same #me some standards that were established in Modernist era are now being ignored
by some architects and planners.
Keywords: transi$on, redeni$on, smart growth, architectural legacy

123

FORMER INDUSTRIAL AREAS STUMBLING BLOCK OR


DEVELOPING GENERATOR

Global/local

Anica Tufegdi, Dejana Neduin


Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
atarher@gmail.com, dejana_neducin@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Rapid technological development and transforma#on of economic trends during the last
decades of the 20th century have made most of tradi#onal industries infrastructure unusable. A
consequence of de-industrializa#on was not only the devasta#on of industrial buildings, but also
the degrada#on of the surrounding urban structure. Former industrial areas soon have become
a pla~orm for urban regenera#on, a process in which factories and other buildings related to the
produc#on processes were or destroyed or restored. Reac#va#on of abandoned buildings has
become main reconstruc#on method, as evidenced by transforma#ons of industrial urban areas
in cultural, business or residen#al centres across Europe.
Implementa#on of the industrial heritage reac#va#on project is a complex process because it necessarily involves numerous stakeholders. Bri#sh prac#ce has shown that the level of
local community development is the measure of project success. Interests of abandoned buildings owners and local community are o]en contradictory. Although interven#ons on the ruined
buildings are generally uneconomical for owners, when local community recognizes buildings
poten#al, owners a'tude can be changed. The most eec#ve way for project realiza#on is the
establishment of ini#a#ve group, that should be composed of ac#ve par#cipants in the community social life and experts from dierent elds, such as nance, law, management, conserva#on,
architectural design and urban planning. The role of local government authority is crucial, since
they can determine the nancial benets for area that is recorded as devastated and thus limit
malversa#ons and help transforma#on process. Former industrial areas in the urban structure,
a]er regenera#on and implementa#on of new func#ons, become generators of city economic
development.
Experiences of countries in transi#on are o]en quite opposite because of complex socioeconomic context, characterized by monopolis#c priva#za#on, bankruptcy of industrial enterprises and a series of nancial malversa#ons. Local community has no awareness of the abandoned industrial areas values and poten#al. Rigid and outdated legal framework allows new
owners, mostly focused on maximum prot, to replace ruined factories and warehouses by new
buildings, even without a feasibility study.

124

Global/local

125

Transi#on in Vojvodina began in 2000 when basic precondi#ons for its implementa#on
(aboli#on of economic sanc#ons and liberaliza#on of trade rela#ons) were obtained. Ownership
transforma#ons started at the company level before macroeconomic rehabilita#on. It is expected that priva#za#on will encourage business enterprise. The new, signicantly revised structure
of owners consists of the following categories: state (100% owner or joint owner), dispersed
outsider, insiders (managers and workers), managers, workers, banks (and other nancial ins#tu#ons), insurance companies, investment funds, foreign investors, block holders (a small number
of individuals and / or rms). Today, one decade later, a large number of priva#zed factories have
been in bankruptcy. Their des#ny is uncertain. Wai#ng for decision of ownership issues, empty
industrial complexes, mainly at a&rac#ve loca#ons along the river, became a stumbling block in
city development.
Based on the analysis of interna#onal regula#ons and successful examples, in this paper
will be proposed a strategy for former industrial areas regenera#on. Based on mul#disciplinary
approach and intersectoral collabora#on, in order to harmonize crucial local and foreign interests, strategy will be veried on local examples.

SEARCHING FOR THE LOST RESOURCES: HEMP # INVESTIGATION OF


HEMP AS A BUILDING AND ISOLATION MATERIAL

Global/local

atovi Nina, Dizdar Sanela, Durmievi Nejra


students, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
catovicnina@gmail.com, dizdarsanela@gmail.com, nejra_durmiska@hotmail.co.uk
ABSTRACT
The rst documented use of organic materials in construc#on dates as far back to 2000
years BC, using cob, straw-bale and adobe. This paper analyzes a rela#vely new idea - the use of
hemp and lime as a construc#on and isola#on material, a material which is both strong and light.
The combina#on of hemp and lime is considered as an alterna#ve structural building material,
whose advantages and disadvantages are examined in this study.
The historical background of the material was briey reviewed and the current methods
of produc#on were discussed. In the past, natural bers were major importance. However, with
the development of ar#cial bers they have become less important. Growing natural bers
does not release CO2 and the only energy it needs is the sun, which is, nowadays, a topic very
important and needed, both environmentally and nancially, as there is an urgent need to reduce pollu#on and the cost of energy produc#on is increasing steadily.
Hemp is a member of the Cannabaceae family, what makes it a material illegal in most
countries, and such as not explored. It bers are very strong with a tensile strength of 550
900MPa. The compressive and tensile strengths were measured for a variety of mixes and a
theore#cal value of the thermal conduc#vity was es#mated. Based on this informa#on, it was
concluded that a combina#on of hemp herds and lime is a viable structural and insula#ng material for dwellings.
Next eld of research was to ques#on the possibility of using hemp as an insula#on material in projects of preserving historical buildings with accent on Socialist residen#al buildings.
The aim of this project is also to provide some robust data to persuade the mainstream building
industry to use this building material more widely.
Keywords: hemp and lime, organic material, isola$on, sustainable buildings

126

Global/local

127

128

ETHICAL, SOCIAL,
ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL
129

10

Ethical, social,
economic,
ecological

130

Ethical, social,
economic,
ecological

THE DESTINY OF TEMPLES OF CULTURE IN BANAT VILLAGES TODAY


Maria Siladji, Nadja Kurtovic Folic
Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad
mariasiladji@gmail.com; nfolic@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Results of studies aimed at researching the culture of villages of the second half of the
20th century point to the unavoidable role of halls of culture as stages of cultural events in expanding rural or urban culture, along the new ideology. What where the role and signicance
of the halls of culture? What was their form and posi#on in reshaping rural culture? Religion
has had a special role in the tradi#onal Banat village it dened the codes of conduct, customs,
dressing and the popula#ons family life in general. The tradi#onal culture, which has been created by the rural society in a con#nuous manner, was sta#c because of the isola#on of villages.
Most villages throughout the Banat region con#nued to operate based on these and similar rules also in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, un#l the World War II, when the drama#c changes
in the socio-poli#cal and economic life imposed the rapid urbaniza#on of rural se&lements, i.e.
the complete transforma#on of the building stock, turning the village into a caricature of a small
town, especially its central area. Halls of culture were one of the means in accomplishing this
goal.
The crisis and disintegra#on of Yugoslavia in the 1990s drama#cally inuenced the opera#on of rural temples of culture as well. The loss of importance of the collec#ve spirit was
obvious, whereby the individual remains lonely and isolated, losing thereby the incen#ves for
par#cipa#ng in cultural and social life of the village. At the beginning of the 21st century, signicant improvements have occurred in this regard, because halls of culture of some Banat villages
have seen their revival in an a&empt to regain their role as a cultural hub, mo#va#ng people to
renew and improve their forms of social life, with the rural culture taking the key posi#on.
Keywords: house of culture, culture of the villages, tradi$onal village, socialist village,
Banat

131

HERACLEA CITADEL. RISKS AND REMEDIES


Valen$n Feodorov
UNESCO Chair ECOLAND, Bucharest, Romania
feodorovvalen$n@yahoo.com

Ethical, social,
economic,
ecological

ABSTRACT
The paper deals with the engineering and the environmental issues of the old Genoese
Citadel Heraclea in Dobrogea, which was probably erected around 1270. It is a part of the string
of medieval forts built during the 12th to 14th centuries on the territory between the Black Sea
and the Danube, to protect travel roads followed by the salt traders. Heraclea Citadel was located
on a calcareous cli overlooking a bay of the Black Sea, originally adjoining the Razelm Bay. The
Citadel has an irregular polygonal plan. Only a part of the second precinct has been preserved,
in ruins. Its three hexagonal towers are the only ones of this type found in Dobrogea. The Citadel
was rst conquered by the O&omans in 1389. A]er a short relapse, Sultan Mehmet conquered
it again in 1420 and the Citadel became a military stronghold. Because of the development of
sand spits that hampered the trade, the Citadel lost its commercial and military importance,
gradually decayed, and was nally abandoned around the end of the 15th century. It was later
renamed Enisala Citadel, a]er the Turkish name of a nearby village, Yeni Sale. Nowadays the
fort is in ruins, but it is comprised in the touris#c circuit as part of the Dobrogea highlights that
also include bird watching and boat trips. Recently the region was ooded, in a short span of
#me, by windmill parks and power plants. The most signicant risks s#ll come from earthquakes,
but also from climate changes and neglect. The paper presents sugges#ons of remedies to these
risks and to the danger of a total ruin of the Enisala Citadel.
Keywords: military citadel, Black Sea, trade roads, Genoese, earthquake, cyclopean concrete, bird watching, climate change, site preserva$on, UNESCO heritage.

132

Ethical, social,
economic,
ecological

ITS NOT MY HERITAGE ANYWAY. SOME ISSUES SURROUNDING THE


CONSERVATION OF MODERN HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE IN NEW SOUTH
AFRICA.
Walter Peters
University of the Free State, South Africa
PetersWH@ufs.ac.za
ABSTRACT
The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought with it some unintended consequences. Apartheid, the systema#c separa#on of social, poli#cal and economic life to maintain
supremacy of the white popula#on, had as its cornerstone the Group Areas Act 1950, which
demarcated residen#al areas for each par#cular race. When this Act was repealed in 1990, those
who could aord to acquired proper#es in formerly white areas.
Having acquired the property, it is natural to want to change it to suit the new owners
lifestyles. In this way, changes proposed for buildings over 60 years of age have to be were submi&ed to the statutory heritage body for approval. Having been refused, the applicants could
appeal and argue their case, which on mee#ng with objec#on resulted in the retort Its not my
heritage anyway. Regardless of ownership, the property had heritage status and any changes
required prior approval.
Similar issues occurred downtown. With the ight of white capital to the suburbs, retail
outlets and banks followed their tradi#onal market leaving their downtown premises to new
owners. In one case a key 1960s building, Miesian in concept yet tempered with a 1950s Brazilian
inspired brise soleil suspended over the glass curtain walls, saw the la&er being demolished to
increase the level of natural ligh#ng in the interior.
This paper will focus on the experiences in KwaZulu-Natal, a province with own heritage
Act, and with a popula#on of three main ethnic groups. It will document a few case studies in
Durban to illustrate the consequences of ownership changes within a newly established democra#c cons#tu#on, state some lessons learnt, and elaborate on the preven#on and restora#on
measures devised.
Key words: modern South African architectural heritage, apartheid, group areas, democra$c cons$tu$on

133

134

NATURAL HAZARDS
135

11

Natural hazards

136

Natural hazards

HOUSING AND HEALTH: A LOCAL AND TAILOR"MADE LOW"TECH


APPROACH TO MINIMIZE DISEASES IN A RISING COMMUNITY OF HAITI
Sara Parlato, Roberto Pennacchio, Andrea Tulisi
(1) DIPSA - Dipar$mento di Proge/azione e Studio dellArchite/ura dell Universit degli Studi Roma Tre, (2) DAD - Dipar$mento di Archite/ura e Design del Politecnico di Torino, (3) IDEAS
- Dipar$mento di Industrial Design Ambiente e Storia della Seconda Universit degli Studi di
Napoli
saraparlato@gmail.com, rob.pennachio@libero.it, andreatulisi@hotmail.it
ABSTRACT
With the slogan Intelligently designed housing can drama#cally improve peoples health,
the non-prot U.S. associa#on Arch.H.I.Ve invited applica#ons in 2010 for the implementa#on
of ve low-cost housing prototypes for families aected by AIDS and tuberculosis in Saint-Marc
(Hai#). This was the opportunity for an Italian team of three architects, one doctor and one engineer, to submit a project inspired by construc#on methodologies able to harmonise elements
of bioclima#c architecture with the psychophysical needs of the future occupants.
Shu&er Dwelling was short-listed as one of the ve winning projects, and its implementa#on is currently underway. It was inspired by a holis#c approach to housing design which looks at
a building as a whole generated by the interac#on of three types of factors: energe#c factors (air,
sun and water), which guarantee the microclima#c suitability of indoor environments; viral factors, which prevent the spread of infec#ons to other family members; func#onal factors, which
facilitate the interac#on of pa#ents with the other occupants and the wider community.
Taking its cue from that project, this paper seeks to contribute a new concep#on of housing design, suitable for temporary dwellings. The approach it proposes takes into account tradi#onal elements such as construc#on #me, costs and reproducibility, but also caters for healthy,
habitable environments, which preserve the social interac#ons of the occupants and are respec~ul of the local culture.
Keywords: natural disasters, housing, health, infec$ous diseases, temporary dwelling,
habitable environments, local culture, passive cooling strategies.

137

NEW TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO PROTECT ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE


IN OASIS AND DESERT SETTLEMENTS

Natural hazards

Ruiz Plaza, Angela; Moreno Adn, Carmen; Domnguez Mar'nez, Oriol


Polytechnic University of Madrid
angelarruiz@gmail.com, mamenmoreno@gmail.com, oriol.domar@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Currently, 900 million people worldwide live in desert or semi-desert climates, which
means 15% of the world popula#on. It is expected that this gure reaches 40% within the next
ten years because of global deser#ca#on processes and it means social-ecological deadline for
life in dryland, a need to include a raised from development strategy supported by research and
technology.
For the approaching to desert life and its habitat, we must research the architectural heritage. The architecture heritage in oasis and desert se&lements is of extreme quality and its a
heritage value in real risk of disappearance due to draught and deser#ca#on process. It becomes necessary to connect the environment, the inhabitants and the economic reality.
We are a mul#disciplinary group with a passion for desert life and the people who inhabit
it. We are working in a research project that has become a real project of collabora#on and coopera#on with a village in an oasis of the Sahara desert, Mhamid el Ghezlane, but the aim is to
set a system of strategies of sustainable development applied to the evolu#on of life in the oases
and desert environments.
We propose an interven#on that encompasses environmental, social and economic aspects. A project located between sustainable development and progress, innova#on, trying to
provoke social, cultural, economic, agricultural and architectural basis of research and intellectual sustainability.
We rescue the tradi#onal ways of building with the local materials for improving the technique and propose new materials, taking the latest technological advances and applying them
to real-world context, studying the economic, social, architectural and agricultural products that
can func#on in an unique mul#disciplinary synergy working for the development of the Oasis
system, inves#ga#ng new irriga#on techniques, new crops, new construc#on systems with earth,
management of water resources and energy, or specic economic systems that can coexist in a
mutually benecial ecosystem, built with the inhabitants of the oasis, in a bidirec#onal collabora#on frame.
To carry out the objec#ves we need to establish a methodological strategy for ac#on, to

138

Natural hazards

139

coordinate the dierent aspects we should consider and to focus on the oasis development globally, with the nal aim of improving the quality of life of its inhabitants and its cultural heritage
with a coordinated technological research adapted to the exis#ng resources in the oases.
The projects success will depend on the ability to integrate the dierent factors with the
exis#ng environment, on the quality of interac#on of cultures between old and new se&lers,
and the ability to dene a framework, guidelines and performance criteria that suit the specic
condi#ons in each specic context.
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Desert, Architecture, Rammed Earth, Oasis

URBAN LANDSCAPE OF THE CITY OF VELIKO TARNOVO IN THE 19TH


CENTURY: THE IMPACT OF THE NATURAL HAZARDS

Natural hazards

Radosveta Kirova
Ins$tute of art Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
terrarossa@abv.bg
ABSTRACT
Historical landscape of the old part of the contemporary city of Veliko Tarnovo is shaped
by dierent historical and social phenomena such as migra#on, economic development; but also
the natural hazards is of par#cular signicance for the architectural and urban outlook. The aim
of the paper is to trace how big res and earthquakes during the 19th century inuenced certain
architectural details in order to ensure be&er durability of the structures.

140

Natural hazards

141

142

MAN*MADE HAZARDS
143

12

Man-made hazards

144

Man-made hazards

BANDITRY AS A FORM OF CHANGE


Erik Toth
University of Primorska, Science and Research Centre, Slovenia
erik.toth@zrs.upr.si
ABSTRACT
Banditry has always been a form of (social) protest and change, usually coming from the
side of the oppressed or needing part of the popula#on, like the peasantry of lower classes (in
certain developed communi#es). The main aim was trying to survive, make a statement or just
change the leadership. Many #mes banditry was a form or tool of change in the hand of the
people or king or government. Eric Hobsbawm has brought to our a&en#on the eects (social)
banditry had in all its ways and shapes all over the world and throughout the last ve hundred
years. Most of these examples were men alone or groups, who in their own way aected other
groups of people and/or larger communi#es, but at the same #me they shaped/changed the
space in which they were involved, even if only for a short period of #me. The eect during the
life#me or a]er the death of a bandit (or a group of bandits) could spread in the mind of the
people as an idea of change or perhaps just a message for conserving what is s#ll le] for them.
Banditry is a delicate and complex topic within historiography, however in its fundaments we
can nd the idea of aec#ng and changing the community and space, shaping the previously
men#oned areas, and perhaps pu'ng a long term stamp in some tradi#ons.
Keywords: Banditry, shaping, society, inuence, change, conict, eect.

145

MODERN SOCIAL CONFLICT AS HAZARD TO THE PRESERVATION


BUILT HERITAGE IN A HILL RURAL AREA OF PIACENZA PROVINCE
$NORTH OF ITALY%

Man-made hazards

Valen$na Cinieri
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia
valen$na.cinieri@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The importance of the Cultural Heritage preserva#on is generally recognized, by now. In
spite of this, there are s#ll a lot of problems which endanger the conserva#on of historical buildings.
One of the main hazards is the social conict, which is derived from the conic#ng rela#onship between owners and built heritage. Social changes and the modern necessi#es require
dierent modern standards. The owners feel the discomfort of old buildings, but, at the same
#me, they perceive an emo#onal connec#on with the symbols of their tradi#ons and iden#ty.
Disrespec~ul refurbishments and new buildings show this duality; but the abandonment is a
worse risk, because it may conduce to the nal loss of material historical tes#monies.
The described situa#on is mainly frequent in case of historical buildings and villages which
are placed in rural areas, without easy routes and public services. Furthermore, while monumental buildings have availed of a be&er safeguard and easier nancial op#ons, the local built heritage represents the most fragile category of Cultural Heritage, because of lack of a real preserva#on culture and because of the absence of historical buildings adaptability to the modern needs.
These considera#ons represent the star#ng point of this study. The paper men#ons some
cases, which are located in hill rural areas in the province of Piacenza (north of Italy), such that
highlight well the issues of the research.
The case of Embresi was studied in eld of a thesis of Building Engineer and Architecture;
it is an high-medieval hamlet in Val Trebbia (district of Bobbio), which shows damages caused by
abandonment and lack of consciousness of its cultural value.
The built heritage in Val Chiarone is the subject of a research in progress, which has the
aim to study historical building technologies and also to propose an interven#on approach, respec~ul of material culture.
Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Social conict, Man-made hazards, preserva$on, Colline
Piacen$ne

146

Man-made hazards

PRESERVATION OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE, CORDOBA IN SPAIN


Ambreen Chaudhary
ambreensaqib1@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
There is a major dri] in the culture and technology of contemporary architecture as it has
dissolved the link between the tradi#on, nature and human being.
The advent of contemporary architecture with its technical innova#ons has severed that
sacred rela#on which existed between mankind and nature.
This research aimed at restoring what has been lost, taking inspira#on from the rich heritage of Islamic culture with special reference to the city of Cordoba in Spain. The city provides
us a demonstra#ve paradigm to see the approach of two major religions to the same God, as
depicted in its architecture of sacred spaces--Mosque and the Church. The Mosque is a lowbuilt building, signifying Muslims emphasis on submission to Allah; the Church soars upwards,
sugges#ng reach towards heaven itself. The wisdom of Islamic architecture absorbing a church
within a mosque is a perfect metaphor of the symbio#c blending of the two cultures.
Cordoba has a hot and dry climate, which has made the citys residents to adapt the design solu#ons to their needs. They have accomplished this by making the home centre around
an inner courtyard, with a fountain in the middle. Every spring the city bursts into bloom with
special fes#val. Pa#os, arches, staircases and courtyards with heavy oral planta#on show remarkable proximity of mankind to nature which seems to have lost its luster to the outrages
of modern architecture. I have been immensely inspired to discover solu#ons to the modern
architectural dri]s, by taking guidance from planning and structural innova#ons of Islamic heritage, and incorpora#ng them into contemporary sustainable design. Further proposed, how to
maintain a posi#ve sterile air pressure, will generate oxygenated environment for a be&er brain
dwellers. Hence, the study was an a&empt to establish a bridge between tradi#on and future,
and was conducted with a visit to Cordoba.

147

CHALLENGES OF FAST GROWING CITIES

Man-made hazards
Bujar Bajinovci, Kaltrina Thaci
University of Prish$na
bujarbaj@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ci#es are complex ecosystems with specic phenomena directly reected in our health,
natural resources, economic, social and aesthe#c elds. It can be conceptually considered that
ci#es are locally and regionally specic. Therefore the nega#ve environmental emana#ons are
specic a&ributes of each city. New challenges should s#mulate new research, directed towards
the exploita#on of all resources, in order to provide a be&er and higher quality of life. Despite
all the calls and requests for the climate change and worries about the life quality, nothing really
is being undertaken in the prac#ce. Apart from all natural a&ributes of the environment, people
work and produce quite opposite ac#vi#es. The new millennium began a crucial ac#vity for the
city of Prish#na in terms of demographic and socio-spa#al eects. The city is experiencing mul#dimensional changes in all possible elds. In a very short period of #me, the popula#on has
grown fast, almost doubled. In addi#on to that, approximately 30% of the popula#on of Kosovo
has migrated in Prish#na, the capital city, because of working opportuni#es and be&er living
condi#ons.
The neighbourhood of Ulpiana, one of the most newly developed areas in Prish#na is
threatening the quality of lives of its inhabitants. High-rise building boom, star#ng from residen#al, administra#ve and commercial one has occupied the exis#ng public spaces even parking
places and sidewalks. This building boom does not only degrade the urban fabric, including the
built heritage of the city but it also threatens locals health and quality of life. These problems
in urbanism and architecture were reected as a consequence of the rapid industrializa#on of
Kosovo in the 20th century, and the associated move of people from rural areas to ci#es and
towns. Prish#na was one of the ci#es to experience this drama#c change the most. With regards to the built heritage, it is being threatened and degraded because of the new unplanned
development, improper treatment, maintenance and protec#on associated with other dierent
factors, which all contribute to the state of decay. Prish#na is generally polluted due to its geomorphic posi#on rela#ve to the major polluters and power plants Kosovo A and B. In addi#on to
that, the contamina#on was even bigger when the dominant winds prevail. However, according
to this study, the pollu#on in the rst place belongs to the sta#on in the campus of the Clinical
Hospital Centre of Prish#na.
The analysis from the results of this research proposes the need of implementa#on of
an evolu#onary design strategy. The process of evolu#onary design emanates from the needs

148

Man-made hazards

149

of the new era, the rapid development of technology and the new phenomenon of globaliza#on. Thus to make the ins#tu#ons aware about their power of decision-making, it is of a vital
importance to elaborate and implement a new design strategy. By incorpora#ng the new design
strategy in the legal guidelines, it is expected to have a signicant posi#ve impact in the quality
of life in Prish#na. To conclude, it is quite possible that the problems we have had in the past,
facing them already today might help us to solve the ones coming in the 21st century.
Keywords: Kosovo, Prish$na, architecture, heritage, environment, design strategy, PM10,
health

150

EDUCATION
151

13

Educa#on

152

Educa#on

THE ROLE OF ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE IN PRESERVATION OF


CULTURAL IDENTITY
Nina Ugljen Ademovi, Ela Turkui
Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo
nnug5@bih.net.ba, elsat@af.unsa.ba
ABSTRACT
One of the key issues that architecture deals with is place, and the way it has been
shaped over the centuries. Exis#ng as it does between territorial and memorial meaning, it is
clearly a locus of symbolic iden#ca#on. However, we have witnessed constant reinterpreta#ons of the idea of place. We also have witnessed diverse modes of considera#on and reconsidera#on of that idea within actual interven#ons in urban space. The situa#on is addi#onally
complicated by changing concepts of moderniza#on in every aspect of life. In this sense, modern heritage (as a broad concept) arguably gives signicant meaning and dis#nc#ve character
to a place. At the same #me, modern heritage reects the all-importance of spa#al con#nuity
in crea#ng specic cultural iden#ty.
In order to formulate our contemporary views of this issue, we need to explain how modern heritage can contribute to the signicance of place, and thus open up new possibili#es
to be accepted. These ques#ons cannot be answered without introducing quality architectural
discourse into everyday developmental processes. This discourse entails studying the historical
features of a given work of architecture or the specic locus it creates, but also calls for a per#nent cri#cal considera#on of the role it bears in the spiritual and material sense.
Finally, we shall discuss part of a regional research project, Unnished Moderniza#ons:
Between Utopia and Pragma#sm, which presents the importance of arming cri#cal and theore#cal approaches to moderniza#on processes in this part of the world processes that un#l
now have been somewhat neglected or insuciently considered.
Keywords: moderniza$on, regionalism, cultural iden$ty, placelessness, globaliza$on

153

THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNICAL RULES OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE


ENACTED AFTER THE TANZIMAT REFORMS, IN URBAN AND
ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES IN KOSOVO

Educa#on

Vlora Navakazi, Florina Jerliu


Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Prish$na
vloranl@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Tanzimat reforms have greatly aected architectural structures and urban development of ci#es
which were under the administra#on of the O&oman Empire during the second half of the 19th century.
Urb-architectural changes a]er the Tanzimat reforms, in Kosovo, were made under the inuence of
European/western concept of city development. Aplica#on of such concept have moderately aected
oriental city characteris#cs, especially in the historic cores. New typology of government buildings
erected during the Tanzimat era in the O&oman Empire territories were design in e wesrtern style
and building techonlogy. This paper, brings forward the most representa#ve archive documenta#on
produced during the Tanzimat era on urban and architectural development. The Regual#on analyzied in
this paper, is the First Building Regula#on (Birinci Ebniye Nizamnamesi) from the year 1863. This binding
document consists of the building requirements (norma#ves), as well as urban planning provisions and
forms of problem solving in urban design scale, applied during the 19th century. Access to this notable
archival documenta#on is made possible with the help of the Kosovo Archive ocials and with direct
contribu#on in access of data by the Na#onal Archives O&oman Istanbul (BOA) (visited by the rst author
of this work in 2008; documents are wri&en in old O&oman language, transcript is done by professional
turkologists from Kosovo and Macedonia).
Key words: The rst Building Regula$on, Kosovo, building laws, construc$on skills, O/oman Empire,
Tanzimat Reforms, Westerniza$on.

154

Educa#on

CONTEMPORARY MEMORIAL: PERSERVING AND CREATING A SENSE OF


PLACE
Sabina Tanovic
PhD candidate, Del? University of Technology, The Netherlands
tanovic.sabina@gmail.com
ABSTRACT

155

Contemporary society recognizes a whole spectrum of trauma#c events. The number of


vic#ms cogently follows many modern atroci#es, reec#ng on commemora#ve prac#ces, both
personal and ocial. Further more, the pace with which memorial objects are created as outcomes of these commemora#ons results in what in contemporary world has been recognized as
memory mania.
Prolifera#ng eld of memorial architecture brings to front numerous responses or rather
physical concepts intended to support commemora#on and process of mourning, but at the
same #me they try to consolidate other func#ons which are o]en too many in number. Next to
its ini#al func#on of preserving memory on specic event and place, contemporary memorials
have to grapple with very dierent condi#ons and demands put forward by par#es par#cipa#ng
in its construc#on. Even though the dis#nc#on in terms (monument-memorial) was never fully
dened, contemporary memorials, I argue, are independent architectural domains. Within this
domain specic direc#ons are developing under various inuences and expecta#ons of local
communi#es. These expecta#ons grow higher if a memorial is intended for an authen#c historical place. Places of importance in certain na#onal narra#ves are constructed through a ritualized
performance as a part of the commemora#ve process. In the case of places of terror and suffering, which are in many ways par#cular, for the survivors of such places, they are cons#tuent
of their existence. In the aspect of forming the iden#ty, people and places are con#ngent upon
each other implying that both iden#ty of people and place, change and evolve in the course
of #me. In this dynamic process of change, an intui#ve sense of place becomes integral part
of peoples iden#ty. Consequently, a memorial object designed as a permanent structure for a
specic place in order to keep memory alive, both collec#ve and individual faces a contradic#on
in terms: how does a xed architectural structure respond to the men#oned dynamic process of
change? In rela#on to this one has also to consider inuence of the globaliza#on, crea#ng pi~alls
in memorial language with which memorial architecture o]en has to grapple with. It is invi#ng
to understand how contemporary memorials reconcile pressing expecta#ons and remain meaningful. This essay will focus on few examples of contemporary memorial architecture, exploring
their context, purpose and realiza#on in order to address the no#on of contemporary memorials
and tackle their meaning in the issue of preserva#on of a par#cular space and memory.
Keywords: Memorial, monument, commemora$on, cultural memory, iden$ty, transi$on

SOCIALISTIC HERITAGE IN"BETWEEN THE DESIRE FOR PRESERVATION


OF ITS ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE AND THE NEED FOR
TRANSFORMATION OF ITS CULTURAL CHARACTER

Educa#on

Nina Stevanovi
PhD Candidate at Technical University of Catalonia
nina.stevanovic@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Signicance of architectural heritage except in its ar#s#c, architectural and spa#al features is found in its historical and cultural character, and its valua#on as a na#onal asset is perceived from dierent points of view. However, when the social and cultural context to which
that heritage belongs are transformed and perceived as uncomfortable by current social tendencies, those non-architectural items can in grand extent inuence on the heritages signicance
overall and in some cases have the supremacy over the aesthe#c, formalis#c and technical features of that heritage.
The architectural heritage from socialism in Bosnia and Herzegovina faces that challenge.
Its belonging to specic social and cultural context had inuenced on its features in the past, but
as well is inuencing on the assessment of its importance in the present. The buildings and ensembles from this period listed by the Commission for the Preserva#on of Na#onal Monuments
have accentuated cultural and historical characters which are pu&ed in danger by changed social
circumstances, what at the end has resulted with the necessity for their lis#ng and protec#on.
On the other hand, other items of great architectural signicance are not recognized as a heritage, because of that they are dened as architectural, but not as well as cultural and historical
asset. In the same #me, the modernity and interna#onal character of that heritage, its separa#on from genius loci, and tradi#on of society to which belongs, had made it hardly expectable
as a ours, local, na#onal heritage and as a result of that it is le] undesirable, neglected and
degraded.
This leads to the ques#on(s) on which in this paper is searching for answer: How and in
what way is possible to preserve the signicance of heritage while its cultural, symbolical and
ideological character are perceived as uncomfortable by the society in which the assessment of
that signicance is being made and how one global, modern, interna#onal and mul#cultural
architectural language can be appropriated as a our peculiarity and the part of our tradi#on?

156

Educa#on

MODERN ARCHITECTURE AS CULTURAL HERITAGE


Adnan Zorani
Interna$onal University Sarajevo
azoranic@ius.edu.ba
ABSTRACT
Modern architecture is o]en not perceived as a cultural heritage and theese two terms
have almost opposite and opposing meanings in the public and professional percep#on. The
reasons for such a'tudes are dierent. On one side; lie in the interpreta#on of the cri#cs of
modernism that the new and modern architecture that has no tradi#on. On the other hand;
proponents of the modern were o]en exclusive to the previous styles and performed with the
arrogant and destruc#ve posi#on of ac#ng counter-produc#ve for the arma#on of modernist
ideas. From the beginning of their revolu#onary a'tudes modernism caused contradic#ons,
praise re supporters and non-selec#ve cri#cism of opponents. A]er more than a hundred years
of modern ideas, it is necessary to access the evalua#on of such architecture in a professional
and scien#cally based manner. The architecture of the 20th century is marked by modernism
and its dura#on has become a tradi#on with crea#ng a common European, and not just European iden#ty. Architecture and urban planning of the modern le] indelible marks on the faces
of the worlds ci#es, have brought new understanding about the impact of housing and work
space, on the behavior of people and their way of life and radically edit understanding of design
and materializa#on of the architecture. Objects created by this formula o]en represent some of
the most valuable architectural works in recent human history. At the same #me, the relevance
of modernist basic principles will not fade even in contemporary developments in architectural
prac#ce, despite the period of erce onslaught in the second half of the twen#eth century. The
rela#on to the cultural heritage of the immediate past in the case of modern is directly connected with the present and future #me, given the vitality and presence of recent architectural
developments. This must be related to modern masterpieces, but also the impressive achievements that constantly being rediscovered in the immediate living environment of European cities. There are not museums and places open for tourists and curious people eager admira#on in
such structures, we o]en live and go to work, school, or to the cinema etc.
The modern cultural heritage should be presented as such to be accepted by the general
public. It is required a comprehensive educa#on on values and the qualita#ve leap that such
architecture is brought about, despite the fact that people by nature do not aim at simplicity and
clarity and so tend to accept modern ideas and aesthe#cs.

157

THE LEGACY OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN PRISHTINA

Educa#on

Florina Jerliu, Vlora Navakazi


Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Prish$na
orinajerliu@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
A]er the Second World War, the modern movement urbanism in the former Yugoslavia
became impera#ve in the construc#on of socialism and the means for adjus#ng the so-called
spontaneous development inherited from the past. In this endeavour, Yugoslav urbanists produced dieren#ated urban regenera#on approaches, of which the so-called general radical reconstruc#on applied in the former o&oman towns. This paper a&empts to introduce in short
the historical account of the modern architecture in the capital city of Kosovo, Prish#na, and to
explore the changing context of the O&oman Prish#na through six iden#ed forms of modernis#c contribu#ons, developed between late 1940s and 1980s: 1) Historic core - Old Bazaar - demolished in 1960s to make room for the Brotherhood-Unity square; 2) Emergence of modernity through implan#ng the modern apartment blocks inside tradi#onal quarters (mahallas); 3)
The new city centre by recrea#ng the citys artery where new state and administra#ve buildings
came to be accommodated; 4) Subs#tu#on of mahallas perimeter segments through which the
ocial narra#ve on socialist Prish#na became visible from the street fronts, but remained silent
about the space behind the street; 5) New urban quarters created in free lands; 6) Landmarks,
dis#nct for their visionary architecture, yet, quite dispersed in spa#al terms and stripped from
the social dimension. Also, the paper discusses the changing a'tude towards modern architecture in the light of new emerging cultural aspects in Prish#na owing to the adverse context in
which it evolved, as well as to the recent transi#ons into global market economy. The paper is
mainly trying to bring a&en#on that the way forward is to acknowledge the values of twen#ethcentury architecture as part of citys present. In this endeavour, Prish#na should engage in safeguarding modern landmarks and housing complexes through their integra#on into city development schemes.
Keywords: Socialist urbanism, radical urban reconstruc$on, Prish$na, modern architecture, landmarks.

158

Educa#on

URBAN SPACE AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: CASE STUDY OF YADAV


COMMUNITY OF HARYANA, INDIA
Shashi Bala
Na$onal Museum Ins$tute, New Delhi, India
shashibala116@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This paper seeks to study, comprehend and iden#fy the rela#onship between cultural
iden#ty, socio-cultural memories and cultural context of the urban spaces in India though their
case study of Yadav1 Community of Haryana, India. Cultural heritage represent their social and
cultural values through the interpreta#on of tangible objects, Intangible heritage and oral expressions. Every space has their tangible material objects and intangible aspects like stories behind the subject, beliefs, people or community memories and social and cultural rela#onship.
Combina#on of all these aspect provides the cultural iden#ty to any community or space. In
India every community has its own ways to preserve, present and interpret the cultural heritage,
both tangible and intangible, through religious and cultural ceremonies and rituals. In the Yadav
Community of Haryana, women and elders are the source cultural keepers or preserver, without
whom there would be no customs and tradi#ons, no oral history and no social and culture iden#ty or value of the community or culture for the future genera#on.
Key words: cultural iden$ty, cultural context, Intangible Heriatge, Yadav and Haryana

Yadav is one of the oldest prominent castes in Indian society. It is a warrior clan originated from the era of Lord Krishna.

159

160

VIRTUAL HANDLING
161

14

Virtual handling

162

Virtual handling

HERITAGE CONSERVATION # ALIGNING TECHNOLOGIES


Rand Eppich, Lejla Hadzic
Tecnalia Research & Innova$on, Cultural Heritage without Borders
Rand.eppich@tecnalia.com lejla.hadzic@chwb.org
ABSTRACT
New technologies developed over the past decade are enabling us to visualize and experience our cultural heritage in ways never before possible. These new tools allow us to not only
see the past, but the hidden present and possible scenarios for the future. To name a few, they
include laser scanning, rapid prototyping, high dynamic range spherical and infra-red imagery,
unmanned aerial vehicle photography, augmented reality and computer rendering in mul#ple
dimensions. They give us visions and data that are at once seduc#ve, intriguing and even some#mes decep#ve. Their applica#ons are used in conserva#on educa#on, research, risk assessment, planning and design (further related to as conserva#on applica#ons)
With so many new and exci#ng tools versus so many dierent applica#ons it is necessary
to pause and evaluate the rela#onship between the technology used and appropriate applica#ons in conserva#on. A few important ques#ons must be posed:
Do these new acquired visions include the community and do they reect to the needs
of those who care for cultural heritage? Can the use of technology be evaluated, compared and
aligned with its applica#ons? If the technology is useful, how might it be used more eciently?
eec#vely? economically? Do these visions take into account the personal, emo#onal reac#on
to a monument and its usage?
This paper will present such a comparison and contrast in an a&empt to address these
ques#ons. Address, not answer as many of the ques#ons will remain elusive and they will need
to be con#nually asked as new technology is developed. The authors will present an overview of
these technologies in comparison to conserva#on applica#ons in the form of a matrix. The paper
will also present strategies and ideas for keeping pace with these rapid technological changes.
Keywords: conserva$on documenta$on, visualisa$on technologies, recording, visualiza$on of cultural heritage, technology educa$on

163

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING CLOUD COMPUTING


ENVIRONMENT TO PROCESS AND SHARE HERITAGE HAZARDS DATA

Virtual handling

Amir Hajdar
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Sarajevo
amir.hajdar@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Users of informa#on technology are becoming more and more spoiled by new possibili#es. Both hardware and so]ware are reaching heights never before imagined, especially through
parallel processing. Users demand secure remote access to cri#cal applica#ons from any loca#on using any device at any #me. As a result, IT industry has listened to these needs and desires
and developed a new path to handle these tasks - cloud compu#ng. Although, many s#ll do not
understand the concept en#rely, the concept of cloud compu#ng is not terribly complicated. It is
something that evolved over many years. The main idea is to oer the ability to provision applica#ons, processing or pla~orm services on the y from a provider. Provider can be a third party
or in-house IT department. Using cloud compu#ng paradigm, sta with access to applica#ons,
infrastructure or pla~orms needed to do their jobs, o]en just need to be familiar with standard
web technologies. By accessing cloud compu#ng environment, compu#ng resources are ready
to be taken by requested applica#on, therefore crea#ng a super ecient capability. Apart from
being ecient on the processing level, eciency on the storage and network capaci#es are obvious in this shared environment. There are several approaches an organisa#on can take when
deploying cloud environment. These are: public cloud, private cloud, community cloud and hybrid cloud. Each of these has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the paper, each of these
types of cloud paradigms will be thoroughly discussed with its advantages and disadvantages in
regard to the large data processing and sharing collected at heritage sites. If data is created to
model short or long term eects of hazardous ac#on on a heritage site, this use case will also
be considered when discussing advantages and disadvantages of listed cloud types. Common
advantages include cost savings for data processing services, increased mobility of users, more
ecient storage space and others. However, some disadvantages that will be discussed include
dependency on providers infrastructure performance, security and privacy risks, deployment
costs and others. Advantages and disadvantages not listed here will also be discussed as they
t the discussion. Apart from the fact that the paper should show benets of taking cloud compu#ng approach when handling data collected at heritage sites, it will also suggest which cloud
compu#ng paradigm is the best solu#on in the case of processing and sharing heritage hazards
data and knowledge.

164

Virtual handling

165

ARHITEKTONSKI FAKULTET U SARAJEVU | CICOP BIH | CICOP ITALY | CICOP SERBIA | GRAEVINSKI FAKULTET U SARAJEVU

www.hmh.ba

5th International Conference on Hazards and Modern Heritage, Sarajevo

w w w. h m h . b a
ISSN 2232-965X