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EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF MADRID

ENGINEERING SCHOOL
BACHELORS DEGREE ON AEROSPACE ENGENEERING

FINAL REPORT

AIRFOIL PROJECT
ANALYSIS OF NACA 4421 AIRFOIL

Bosco Campomanes Varela


Pablo Villanova Tamayo
Raphael Rubiano Vasco
Carlos Sans Ajo
Marcos Benedi

YEAR 2013-2014

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

ABSTRACT
Nowadays the interest in aerospace vehicles development is growing
and driving the need for an improved understanding of the relevant
aerodynamics. A reasonable starting point is the study of airfoil section
aerodynamics.
Performance of several geometry characteristics of two-dimensional
airfoils are study using different fluid analysis software to know its general
effects. Variations in the thickness, camber, and leading/trailing edge shape
are considered.
An analysis of NACA 4421 were being held the results obtained the
results obtained show how pressure distribution, lift-to-drag ratio and
velocity magnitude of fluid change with the Reynolds selected and the
different angles of attack in our case 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees were
evaluated.

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 3
1

INTRODUCTION............................................................................... 5
1.1 Project objectives........................................................................5

BASIC CONCEPTS............................................................................5
2.1 Lift............................................................................................... 5
2.2 Drag............................................................................................ 6

ANALYSIS NACA 4421......................................................................7


3.1 Theoretical results of NACA 4421................................................7
3.2 Experimental results with ANSYS Workbench fluid flow software.
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3.2.1 Velocity Magnitude................................................................9
3.2.2 Velocity Vector....................................................................10
3.2.3 Absolute Pressure................................................................12
3.2.4 Pressure Distribution...........................................................14

CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................. 17

REFERENCES................................................................................. 17

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

1 INTRODUCTION
The analysis performed under this study are intended to provide
theoretical predictions for comparison with experimental measurements.
The first step in airfoil analysis is choosing a method that has the
proper balance of fidelity and speed for the given application.
These range from linear methods, concerned with solving velocity
potential equation, to more complicated methods that involved solving the
Euler (inviscid) or Navier-stokes (viscous) equations at various points on and
around the airfoil to determine the nature of the flow.

1.1 Project objectives


The main objective of this project is to evaluate the NACA 4421 airfoil
with artificial compressibility methods offering a straightforward and
efficient means of preconditioning to allow for the solution of an
incompressible homogenous flow field.
The analyses make use of three assumptions about the flow field. The
flow is incompressible by the formulation of the flow solver, the flow is fully
laminar, and the flow field is steady.

2 BASIC CONCEPTS
2.1 Lift
An airfoil develops lift at positive angles of attack through lower
pressures over the top of the airfoil compared to pressures under the airfoil.
The lift and drag coefficients are strongly dependent on angle of attack
and less dependent on Reynolds number.
Reynolds number effects are particularly important in the region of
maximum lift coefficient just prior to stall.
The lift force can be found from the lift coefficient, CL, in the following
way:

1
2
L= A V Cl
2

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB
Where is the density of the fluid through which the airfoil moves, A is
the area equal to the span times the mean chord of the airfoil, V is the
undisturbed flow speed, CL is the lift coefficient, and L is the lift force.
The lift coefficient then expresses the ratio of the lift force to the force
produced by the dynamic pressure times the area.

Relation between angle of attack and Cl is generally linear at


moderate angles.
Cl increases as angle of attack increases smoothly until a
maximum value is reached (Cl max).
After that maximum value is reached, the airfoil is said to be
stalled.

Also, the lift to drag ratio is often of interest to the designer since it
represents a kind of aerodynamic efficiency-the most economical cruising
condition for an airplane is determined from the point of maximum lift to
drag ratio.
Delivering that lift with lower drag leads directly to:

Better fuel economy.


Climb performance.
Glide ratio.

2.2 Drag
The force on an object that resists its motion through a fluid is called
drag. When the fluid is a gas like air, it is called aerodynamic drag. When the
fluid is a liquid like water it is called hydrodynamic drag.
Fluids are characterized by their ability to flow. In somewhat technical
language, a fluid is any material that can't resist a shear force for any
appreciable length of time. This makes them hard to hold but easy to pour,
stir, and spread.

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB
Drag depends on the density of the air, the square of the velocity, the
air's viscosity and compressibility, the size and shape of the body, and the
body's inclination to the flow. In general, the dependence on body shape,
inclination, air viscosity, and compressibility is very complex.

1
D= A V 2 Cd
2
The drag coefficient then expresses the ratio of the drag force to the
force produced by the dynamic pressure times the area. The drag coefficient
contains not only the complex dependencies of object shape and inclination,
but also the effects of air viscosity and compressibility.

3 ANALYSIS NACA 4421


3.1 Theoretical results of NACA 4421
Cl/Cd ratio on the four digit airfoil NACA 4421.

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

The curve represents the ratio of the lift coefficient to the drag
coefficient of NACA 4421. The rapid decline of the Cl/Cd ratio for high angles
of attack is clear.

Lift and drag coefficients against angle of attack for a NACA 4421
airfoil. As the angle of attack exceeds about 20 degrees, the lift drops off
while the drag begins to increase, so that understanding the rapid decline
but smoothly decreasing of the drag-to-lift ratio.
A higher ratio is typically one of the major goals in aircraft design.

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

3.2 Experimental results with ANSYS Workbench fluid flow


software.
The analysis were made for different angles of attack at a velocity of
50 m/s, assuming the three assumptions mentioned before: incompressible
flow, laminar flow and steady state.
3.2.1 Velocity Magnitude

Figure 1. Velocity Magnitude at 0

In the upper image we can see that a zero degrees, since the airfoil
NACA 4421 is almost symmetrical, the lift produced is very low but there still
exist life as we can see the velocity distribution is higher in the upper wall.

Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 2. Velocity Magnitude at 5

Figure 3. Velocity Magnitude at 10

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 4. Velocity Magnitude at 15

Velocity distribution is growing faster at the leading edge while


decreasing at the trailing edge, where we can see that it has been produced
separation of the fluid an so that vortex are being generated.
3.2.2 Velocity Vector
With the velocity vector we can see the direction of the fluid,
combining with the color of the velocity distribution magnitude for better
understanding.
In all below images we can see at the leading edge and their nearest
the stagnation point through concentration of vectors and low velocity. Also
at the trailing edge in blue we see the reduction of the fluid velocity and the
change in the direction due to the layer separation.

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 5. Velocity Vector at 0

Figure 6. Velocity Vector at 5

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 7. Velocity Vector at 10

Figure 8. Velocity Vector at 15

3.2.3 Absolute Pressure


The absolute pressure is inverse to the velocity magnitude, it is due in
simple words for the Bernoulli theorem it means when the velocity increases
the pressure drops and when the velocity decreases the pressure increase.

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 9. Absolute Pressure at 0

Figure 10. Absolute Pressure at 5

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 11. Absolute Pressure at 10

Figure 12. Absolute Pressure at 15

3.2.4 Pressure Distribution


In the below images we can see how the absolute pressure is being
distributed along the entire airfoil length.
We can see that there is always lower pressure in the upper wall of the
airfoils so that generating always lift for the angles of attack study in this
project.

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB
Also, as the angle of attack increases the magnitude of the pressure is
being reduce until the angle where better performances are achieved in this
case and according with theoretical results is at an angle of attack of 20
degrees, from this point pressure will increase in the upper face and the stall
will be produce.

Figure 13. Pressure Distribution at 0

Figure 14. Pressure Distribution at 5

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

Figure 15. Pressure Distribution at 10

Figure 16. Pressure Distribution at 15

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Analysis of NACA 4421 Airfoil


RRV PVT BCV CSA MB

4 CONCLUSIONS

NACA 4421 airfoil tends to progressive and gradual movement of


separation from trailing edge toward leading edge as the angle
is increased (Trailing Edge Stall).

Trailing edge stall shows gradual bending-over of lift curve at


maximum lift, soft stall.

Maximum lift coefficient, Cl max.


o Effective airfoil shape produces high value of Cl max.
o Stalling speed of aircraft (take-off, landing).
o Improved maneuverability (turn radius, turn rate).

As more information and data on this report have been obtained by


computational fluid dynamics, future efforts should focus on obtaining a
complete range of experimental data that will confirm the results.

5 REFERENCES
References used in this report:
1. Juan P. Murcia, Alvaro Pinilla. CFD Analysis of Blunt Trailing Edge
Airfoils. 2009.
2. Dam, K. J. Standish and C. P. Van. Experimental Research on
Blunt Trailing Edge Airfoils. 2003.
3. Drag and Lift coefficient. The Engineering Toolbox. [En lnea]
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/drag-coefficient-d_627.html.
4. Heffley, David. Baylor. [En lnea] January de 2007.
http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/41147.pdf.

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