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REVISION QUESTIONS

Managing the Primary ESL Classroom (TSL 3093)


1. Focus on the top three of classroom management approaches
i) Authoritarian classroom
ii) Behaviour modification
iii) Instructional classroom management
Then relate with the challenges encountered by the teacher and ways to
overcome the challenges by using the approaches above.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
The behaviour modification approach is based on the ideas and work of Skinner.
The basis of this approach are the assumptions that pupils will change their
behaviour in order to get desired rewards (Larrivee, 2009). Teachers who adopt
this approach believe that pupil behaviour can be changed by altering the
consequences that follow their actions and behaviours. They use reinforcement
principles systematically to change some aspect of educational practice or pupil
behaviour. Generally pupils can receive three types of consequences for their
actions: positive and

negative reinforcement to maintain or increase the

occurance of a desired behaviour; and punishments to discourage them from


inappropriate actions.

Positive reinforcement for desired behaviours include


rewards such as praises, grades, stickers and tokens.

Negative reinforcement include giving pupils extra weekend


homework, denying visits or their seating arrangements
changed.

And ways to overcome the challegens by given punishments to students

There are two levels of punishments which are labelled as


Punishment I and Punishment II.

Punishment I which involves undesirable stimulus such as a private


reprimand, isolation or a trip to the headmasters office, is given to pupils who
commit undesirable actions.

Punishment II involves stricter actions of removing or withholding a desired or


anticipated positive stimulus. For inappropriate behaviours, pupils can lose
free time or be excluded from some fun activities as watching movies or using
the computer for a specific period of time.
Both punishment I and II, can eliminate or decrease undesired pupil behaviours
provided they are appropriately used.
Besides that, Jacob Kounin (1970) in Marzano et al (2003) found that
teachers handle classroom problems differently. The primary difference was in
the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom
problems. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment;
they kept pupils actively engaged; and they conducted well-planned lessons with
smooth transitions. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom
managers because of their skill in four areas: withitness, overlapping activities,
group focusing, and movement management (Charles, 2002).
Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom
at all times; nothing is missed. Withit teachers respond immediately to pupil
misbehaviour and know who started what. A major component of withitness is
scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual pupils, and
having eyes in the back your head. Withit teachers dont make timing errors
(waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person
and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for misbehaviour). Withit
teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the
instigator is in a problem situation.

Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. Overlapping


means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time. Essentially, it
is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small
group on task, for example, while also helping other pupils with their seatwork.
Finally, Kounin notes that successful classroom management also
depends on movement management and group focusthat is, the ability to
make smooth lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all pupils
in a lesson. Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while
tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity
to another. They keep pupils alert by holding their attention, by holding them
accountable, and by involving all pupils in the lesson.
2. Discuss how different roles played by teachers and learners would lead
to effective classroom management?
i. Responsibility of teachers/ learners
ii. Accountability of teachers/ learners
SUGGESTED ANSWER
i. it is the teachers responsibility to formulate a classroom management plan to
facilitate the development of an effective learning environment. Teachers need to
provide quality instruction which is engaging and interactive learning experience
for pupils and organize classroom activities to meet pupils need for survival,
belonging, power, fun and freedom.
Shared responsibility can create discipline solution that would help pupils act
more responsibility in future. It is also the teachers responsibilities to:
- manage and control pupils behavior
- develop positive relationship with pupils
- conduct activities that foster friendship and cooperation among pupils

Students responsible to:


- obey disciplinary guideline
- fully engaged in classroom activities
- meet all behavioral and academic expectations
ii. accountability is a crucial element for the effective of classroom management.
To maintain a positive environment in the classroom at all times, teachers and
pupils have to be accountable for every action or behavior that does not
contribute to that behavior.
Teachers are accountable if they hold pupils responsible for their work. If
teachers give pupils work and do not check their work it demonstrate lack of
accountability.
Pupils are accountability for:
- communicating appropriately with peers and teachers
- preparing materials that would need for classroom participation
- being respectful
- keep classroom clean and tidy.
3. Discuss how the studied approaches theories and models could lead to
effective classroom management.
SUGGESTED ANSWER

DEMOCRATIC TEACHING

Democratic (support internal motivation and responsibility).


Because through democratic teaching it will:

Provide lessons with social interest in mind.

Provide a teaching environment that supports pupils sense of belonging.

Come up with a set of classroom rules as a group.

Support responsibility through freedom of choices in lesson plans.

Avoid power struggles and encourage pupils who display inadequacy.

Encourage pupils rather than praise them.

Provide pupils with logical consequences to mistaken goals to support


responsibility and avoid punishment.

CONGRUENT- HAIM GINOTT

Definition:
Haim Ginott believes that effective classroom management depends a lot on the
way in
which the teacher interacts with students. It is believed that the teacher is a
decisive
element in the classroom, who can shape students in anyway depending on the
teachers
behaviour. Ginott promotes the use of congruent messages and to respect
students as they
are for effective classroom management (Charles, 1999).
Congruent communication is open, harmonious with pupils feelings about
themselves and their situations, and without sarcasm. It sends sane messages
(Tauber, 2007) about a situation that involves a pupil, but not the personality or
character of the pupil.
According to Ginott, both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to
maintain positive classroom behaviour. Congruent communication can be
achieved when teachers:

promote self-discipline for both teachers and pupils;


believe the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives to discipline;
accept and acknowledge pupils without labeling, arguing, disputing, or
belittling the individual;
avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise instead;
avoid saying you and I messages to pupils;
demonstrate their best behaviours, and
invite rather than demand pupil cooperation.

INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT- KOUNIN

Definition:
Kounins theory on classroom management and discipline (Kounin in Everston,
1996) is important because without some idea on how to control the pupils in an
ESL classroom, there will be chaos. The most important aspect of teaching pupils
is classroom management and teachers cannot successfully teach a language
class if they are not in control.
How?

Withitnessscan constantly, make notes of repeated behaviours, get to


know the pupils on a personal level, keep moving through the classroom.

Do not allow for dead time during transitions. Keep momentum by keeping
the pupils engaged in language activity at all times.

Give lessons multiple times and reflect on your instructional management


during teaching.

Ask pupils questions to ensure that they are not experiencing satiation.

Ask pupils their input before planning lessons what interests them/ what
do they want to learn/ what challenging techniques do they want to

In an ESL classroom, withitness is very important because teacher is


constantly scanning the classroom and observing whether pupils are using
English language while communicating with their friends.

Group work is a great time to move throughout the classroom and make
sure that everyone is on task and understands the material.

Enjoyable and challenging lessons go hand in hand with ESL classes.

Teachers can ask pupils what challenges them the most and what they
want to learn.

4.

i) Explain how to manage resources and facilities in classroom

SUGGESTED ANSWER :
Classroom resources should be managed effectively to accommodate
and conduct a variety of educational activities. There are two ways to
manage resources and facilities in classroom:
Physical Classroom Environment including organising physical
space and locating instructional space.
Social Cultural Environment including safe environment, creating
positive environment
ii) Explain how to organize physical space effectively.

SUGGESTED ANSWER :
Every teacher has different ideas on organising and arranging their
classroom that might be influenced by their different styles of teaching.
Therefore, it is important for the teacher to organise physical space in classroom.
Firstly, teacher has to think of the pupils movement during the different
instructional activities conducted in the classroom which is floor space because
this would affect the pupils seating arrangements and the layout of the furniture
in the classroom. Besides that, seating arrangement also can be one of the
effective physical space organizers in classroom. Teacher should group their
pupils to seat as near to his/her as possible, facing a chalkboard or whiteboard.
This way, it will keep the teacher fairly close proximity to pupils working at their
desks. Teacher can also be able to oversee everyone in the class and the pupils
are aware of that too. Work and activity areas also play the importance part in
organizing effective physical space. Teacher can made the areas attractive by
having an attractive file cabinet, and shelves for a small collection or personal
books. Other than that, wall space also can be used to display pupils work. It
provides recognition of pupils achievements which builds their self-esteem and is
highly motivating.

5. Explain how good management of learning grouping helps ESL


learners improve their English proficiency.
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:

Ideally classrooms should be arranged so that the pupils are in a U


shape, where the desks on the sides are diagonal, facing the board.

With this arrangement, the teachers can see every pupil, and every pupil
can see the board. This set up puts the focus on the centre of the room
where the teachers will be teaching.

The teachers desk is at the back of the room so that he/she can see all
of the pupils.

Also, this set-up allows for ease of putting them into groups or partners.
There is plenty of room to walk in- front- of and behind desks, as well as
room to walk behind rows.

Teachers can also use other means of pupil location and grouping
according to their needs.

Classroom management theories and organising instructional time are based on


the idea of developing classrooms providing a climate of respect, a democratic
environment, cooperatively developed rules, logical consequences and a focus
on the rights and welfare of both teachers and pupils.
6. Dicuss the impact of personal characteristic of good and bad
communication to young group ESL learners. Briefly give examples: nonverbal/verbal

communication

and

managing

verbal/non-verbal

communication.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Impacts of personal characteristic of good and bad communication to young
group ESL learners are providing motivation. Teachers provide motivation and
encouragement as they engage their pupils in lesson. Teachers should realize
that teaching does not just mean imparting knowledge but it also a process of
nurturing ones personal growth. For example, boys and girls, this is a contest
lesson to see if you can set a new record for yourself of for the class. Second
impact is able to give direction. Giving good direction is essential for good
classroom management which can help to evade problem. Therefore in giving
instruction, a teacher should be clear, short and precise. In managing verbal
communication, teacher can inform pupils and conducting instruction. Teachers
inform pupils most of the time. Normally, after teacher has informed the pupils, he

will continue checking the pupils understanding by asking questions or repeating


himself.

7. Explain ways to manage the different pattern of behaviour:


i.
ii.

Disruptive behaviour/Non-disruptive behaviour


Productive behaviour for group and individual

Then discuss on how to overcome them. Give examples


SUGGESTED ANSWERS
1. WAYS TO MANAGE DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOURS
Fundamental to the understanding of behaviour problems is recognition that
there is no one method or strategy to manage disruptive behaviour. It is thus
important for schools and teachers to have an accurate picture of the nature and
prevalence of behaviour that interfere with teaching and learning. Once the
disruptive behaviour has been identified and clarified, it is important for teachers
to consider causes for the disruptive behaviours before selecting and adopting
strategies to prevent the behavioural problems from escalating. Based on
insights from theories and research on effective behaviour management,
suggested strategies to prevent and manage disruptive behaviours include:
1

Engage pupils academically and socially


Engagement in the classroom includes behaviours that are important for
learning (attending to instructions and completing seatwork)

and social

behaviours that facilitate learning (following classroom rules, working


cooperatively with other pupils). When pupils are not engaged in the
classroom either academically or socially, they are less likely to actively
involved in the learning process and more likely to disrupt other pupils or the
teacher. Increasing pupils on-task behaviour in the classroom will enable
teachers to maximise learning time. By varying the types of activities during a
lesson according to the developmental level of pupils and ensuring the
duration of the learning activities match pupil attention spans will increase

pupils engagement in the learning tasks, thus minimise disruptive


2

behaviours.
Set and maintain clear and concise classroom rules and procedures
Teachers are advised to keep classroom rules simple and to state rules in
terms of what pupils should do than what pupils should not do. The purpose
is to set reasonable limits for behaviour, create norms for classroom
behaviour and communicate thoughts and concerns for the learning
environment. To ensure that pupils understand what is expected from them,
the rationale for each rule and procedure, teachers need to teach and
demonstrate the class rules and procedures consistently and fairly so that
they fully accept the logical consequences in which they will be imposed if

they violate any of the rules or procedures.


Set clearly defined learning goals/objectives
Setting clearly defined goals for each lesson communicates pupils
accountability and responsibility for learning. At the beginning of a lesson,
teachers can tell pupils what they did during the previous class, what they will
do during the present lesson including the activities or tasks for the lesson in
order to achieve the set learning goals/ objectives. When the learning goals
or objectives are clearly communicated, pupils will direct their focus and
commitment toward achieving the goals. Disruptive behaviours are less likely
to occur as their accountability for completing a definite task in a given time

motivates them to engage in the learning activities.


Verbal Recognition
Some pupils display an abnormally strong need for attention from a teacher.
They are out of their seat most of the time or ask irrelevant questions.
Teacher can subtly ignore their attention-seeking behaviour by praising all
other pupils for in-seat behaviour. Praise and give encouragement to the

attention-seeking pupil when he/she demonstrates appropriate behaviour.


Develop an acknowledgement system
An effective way to focus pupil attention on desired behaviour is to set a
good acknowledgement system. Acknowledgements are positive verbal
statements such as Thanks for helping me distribute the papers, Thanks
for behaving well today. Acknowledgements such as these are crucial if
teachers

wish

to

establish

positive

classroom

environment.

Acknowledgement system may also involve predefined rewards awarded to


individual pupils for selected target behaviour. Rewards can be in the form of
tokens or merit points and pupils can trade points or tokens for a variety of
tangible (stickers, school supplies, stamps) and intangible items (a note to
6

parents, extra time for recess, first to line up, class leader for the day).
Do a perception check
Sometimes pupils can be disruptive simply by displaying nonverbal
behaviours aimed at the the teacher that communicate disapproval, such as
making faces or rolling their eyes. This can be a form of passive aggressive
behaviour intended to challenge the teacher. If these behaviours are onetime reactions, they are probably best ignored, but if they persist and
annoyed, it is time to deal with them.
Teacher can do a perception check either by describing the behaviour in
neutral, objective terms (e.g. Ali, I noticed that you were rolling your eyes
just now) or by asking for feedback ( e.g. Can you tell me what was going
on?). Here, the teacher communicates curiosity rather than accusation
which will make the pupils become aware of their inappropriate behaviours.

Develop weekly progress report


Similar to acknowledgement system, developing a progress report works
especially well with pupils who exhibit frequent and consistent patterns of
disruptive behaviour. Progress report can be a simple checklist item that a
teacher can use to monitor targeted pupil disruptive behaviour at the end of
the week. A point is given each time the pupil behaves appropriately or has
improved his/her behaviour. The points collected can be exchanged for

rewards at a later time.


Pupil-teacher conference
Communicating with pupils who displayed disruptive behaviour either before
or after class can be a powerful strategy to curb disruptive behaviours. Apart
from showing them that the teacher care for them, it also communicates
teachers expectations. When communicating with the pupil to find out why
he/she is misbehaving, teacher must make sure that it is done in a nonthreatening and non-judgemental manner. The communication should only
focus on the pupils behaviour. Avoid negative statements (you always give

me headaches. You cant sit still for a second and you cant stop talking),
instead start off by pointing out the positive attributes of the pupil.
Communicate how the pupils disruptive behaviour affects the lesson and
other pupils. The teacher can ask the pupil to change and then develop a
plan of action including a progress report to monitor the changes in his/her
behaviour.
2. WAYS TO MANAGE NON - DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOURS
Adjust the volume
With loud classes, avoid raising your voice. It only increases the noise.
Lowering your voice can be much more effective. If the volume of your
voice is always high, it loses its effect and doesn't help to control the
situation.
Move around
Your presence is extremely powerful. Don't stay stagnant at the front of
your class. Move around and don't allow the children to become
distracted. Talk to them about their task. Give them deadlines. For
example say: "I'd love to see two more ideas by the time I come back
as your ideas are really interesting." Then walk and visit another
child/pair but make sure you come back.
Shut out negativity
Don't allow negativity to enter your classroom. If a child isn't ready to
come in, stop them and provide a distraction. Allow the child to calm
down so that they can enter in a calmer frame of mind.
Be prepared
This one is a basic one but doesn't always happen. Prepare your
resources before you start teaching. It allows you to challenge the
children's energy as much as you can. Rustling papers and setting out
resources while children wait only encourages low-level disruptions and
sets the mood for the lesson.

It's your classroom


Control your space. You are the decisive element in your classroom.
Stand at the door as they enter. Talk, change moods. Say hello to the
children regardless of whether you have their eye contact or not.
Always say goodbye.
Keep calm
Have a calm outlook. If you can't leave the room but are getting
annoyed, flick through your assessing pupil progress (APP) sheets or
walk away from the situation to calm yourself down before returning.
Don't deviate from teaching
There is no need for an excessive response to low-level disruption.
Don't interrupt your teaching to deal with it. It can be corrected by
including the child's name into your explanation, a look or a signal of
some sort.
Be positive
Deal with low-level disruptions by using positive language. "We sit in
our chairs so that our handwriting is beautiful." It doesn't give the child
the opportunity to opt out but also sets the expectation.
Share your expectations
Don't assume children understand what your version of acceptable is.
Tapping, shouting, and throwing could be acceptable at home. A child
needs to have reinforcement of your expectations.
Have a routine
Having a routine in your classroom can help. Children can be uneasy
when they do not know what is going to happen in the day. Children
need to feel secure in their classroom and with their activities. They
like to know what is coming up in their day so if things are going to
change give them warning that something different will be happening
and explain what to expect.
3. WAYS TO MANAGE PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR FOR GROUP AND
INDIVIDUAL

In the presence of high quality behaviour management, students typically


understand and engage in the range of acceptable classroom behaviours and
little time is spent managing their behaviours. This minimizes distractions and
disruptions, allows the majority of classroom time to be spent on instructional
activities, and increases the amount of time students are immersed in learning.
Furthermore, dealing with misbehaviour can be draining and stressful for
teachers and students. By reducing the frequency and intensity of behavioural
problems, the classroom is a more comfortable and enjoyable environment for
all.
1. CLEAR COMMUNICATION OF BEHAVIOURAL EXPECTATIONS.
a) Be explicit and be clear. Establish rules that can be generalized
across many different activities and are stated positively (e.g., Be
respectful, rather than Dont be rude.). Be specific about
expectations. For example, if a student keeps interrupting others
during a classroom discussion, prompt this student by saying
Robert, remember that we need to let each person complete
his/her thoughts without interruption.
b) Be consistent with consequences. Immediately following any
misbehaviour, provide students with a predictable response about
the behaviour. If it is a classroom rule for students to raise their
hands in order to respond, be consistent in only calling on students
with a hand raised. Make sure that students know when this rule is
or is not in effect. Make sure students understand the
consequences of their behaviour, but avoid threats. Be open to
discussion about students perceptions of fairness and unbiased
treatment.
2. PROACTIVE PLANNING

a) Monitor student behaviour. Look for cues (e.g., body language,


facial expressions, rising noise level) that indicate students may be
moving toward more disruptive or inattentive behaviour.
b) Anticipate problem behaviour. Establish classroom rules and
behavioural expectations early. Giving students some role in this
process can give them a sense of ownership and fairness. Review
rules and expectations regularly. Anticipate moments when
misbehaviour is likely to occur (e.g., transitions, discussions of
sensitive topics), and reiterate rules/expectations at this time,
before any misbehaviour occurs.
c) Get in close proximity to your students. Move closer to where
you note behavioural problems. Your presence will make a
difference to your students!
d) Give specific praise. Notice when students are behaving, and give
specific information about what it is they are doing well. For
example, rather than telling students, Youre behaving really well
today, say, You folks are working together well. Youre helping
each other, and I can see you are each taking part. You are making
good progress. This statement promotes desired behaviour and
serves as a model for other students so they know what types of
behaviour are expected.
3. REDIRECTION OF MISBEHAVIOUR
a) Use subtle cues to redirect. Intervene before situations escalate
by redirecting minor misbehaviour. Effective and quick redirection
techniques for individual students include eye-contact, moving
closer to the student, gentle touch, using the students name, and
specifying the desired behaviour. Develop classroom level routines
that quickly reorient the whole class when they are too loud or not

paying attention (e.g., visual and verbal cues, lowering your voice,
etc.). These subtle signals encourage students to monitor their own
behaviour and self-correct.
4. STUDENT BEHAVIOUR
a) Students behaviours meet expectations. As a result of your clear
expectations, proactive strategies, and effective redirection of
misbehaviour, your students behaviour meets expectations. There
is an absence of aggression, defiance or chaos in the class.
8.

Discuss what you need to consider when preparing a personal

classroom management plan.


SUGGESTED ANSWER
The first thing needs to be considered when preparing a personal
classroom management plan is the reflective session. Reflective session is
important as teachers need to assess their own as well as pupils classroom
performance and behaviour. Besides, it is important for the teachers to have a
reflective session as it enable them to analyze and evaluate how they students
work and how the students work.
The next aspect to be considered is the selection of approaches, theories
and models. A good understanding of the different approaches, theories and
models of classroom management development will help the teachers make the
right decisions and select strategies that will work for their situation. Factors such
as the age group of pupils and school learning environment could be looked
upon to find a suitable classroom management plan.
Apart from that, it is also essential for the teachers to have expectations
on the classroom when preparing a classroom management plan. The
expectations can be made based on the teachers belief about pupils ability and

their beliefs about intelligence, pupils socioeconomic background (gender and


ethnicity), and also pupils test scores or academic achievement.
The fourth aspect, which needs to be considered, is the rules and
procedures. Determining rules and procedures, teaching them to pupils and
outlining the benefits of working within them, is a critical up-front investment of a
teachers time and energy. These pieces of classroom management plan help to
promote appropriate pupils behaviour, prevent pupil misbehaviour and create a
sense of order and consequences in the classroom.
Other than that, teachers also need to think of the consequences on the
rules when

preparing a

classroom management plan. In establishing

consequences, the teacher will want to take into account what characteristics
make some consequences more effective than others. The degree of
consequences should increase gradually, so as to give pupils adequate warning
before imposing a more severe penalty. Effective consequences flow logically
and naturally from the pupils behaviour while the effective consequences keep
the pupils dignity intact.
9. Rules and procedures that a teacher needs for his/ her classroom will
depend on the needs and disposition of the teacher and students.
Identify specific rules and procedures for your class.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
1. Arrival and dismissal.
Attendance at beginning of period, missed work the previous day because of
absence, students who are tardy, ending period with clear expectations for
homework and clean-up, signal for dismissal.
2. Transitions and interruptions
Arriving late with pass, leaving room, returning to room, going to office.

3. Materials and equipment


Distributing and collecting materials, storage of personal or classroom
materials.
4. Group work
Movement in and out of group, expected behaviour in group and not in group,
roles and leadership.
5. Seatwork and teacher led activities
Students attention during presentations, student participation, talking among
students, obtaining help, movement in room, what to do when work is
completed.
Use specific techniques to establish a strong level of purpose and guidance.
1. Exhibit assertive behaviour

Body lang-

Tone of voice

Persistence

2. Model the behaviour that you expect- at all times, but in particular when
dealing with problem.
3. Establish clear learning goals- use rubrics frequently
4. Arrange the classroom to allow for close proximity to students and their
work.
Be aware of students needs, temperament and learning style.

1. Notice behaviours and outcomes, suggest assistance , formulate plans,


follow-up, evaluate.
2. Assist students to know more about themselves
Provide consequences :
1. Teacher reaction
-

Eye contact and proximity

Use a silent signal

Privately offer a reminder or an initiating request

Provide physical signals and private acknowledgment for appropriate


behaviour.

2. Tangible recognition
-

Rewards ( stars, candies )

3. Direct cost : time out


-

Removal from activity

Removal from others

Very short- purpose is to regain control.

4. Group contingency
-

Interdependent students in the group must meet the established


behavioural criterion for the group to earn credit.

Dependent a specific individual or set of individuals must meet the


criterions for the group to earn credit.

5. Home contigency
-

Inform parents for positive and negative behaviour of their children.

Parents collaborate to establish a system of positive and negative


consequences enacted at home.

10. Define rules and procedures


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Rules: A statement that tells you what is or is not allowed in a particular
situation Procedures: A series of actions that are done in a certain way or
order
1. Elaborate the importance of rules and procedures in the classroom
i. To establish the behavioural context of the classroom by specifying
what behaviours are expected of pupils, what behaviours will be
ii.
iii.
iv.

reinforced, and the consequences for inappropriate behaviour.


to manage classwide behaviour,
to manage the behaviour of targeted groups of pupils
to manage the behaviour of individual pupils as part of a
comprehensive classroom-management plan

2. Discuss how rules and procedures can be developed, taught and


reinforced:
Developed:
i.

Rules should be kept to a minimum to allow pupils to remember them.

ii.

Rules should contain language that is simple and appropriate to the


developmental level of the pupils and classroom.

iii.

Rules should be positively stated.

iv.

Rules should be developed for various situations or contexts as needed.


Taught:

i.

Rules should be consistent with the schoolwide behaviour plan and


teachers need to teach rules and routines systematically, not only at the

ii.

beginning but also throughout the school year.


Emphasize rules and routines on occasions when increased violations are
likely to occur (e.g., before school breaks) or if warranted by inappropriate
behaviour.
Reinforced:

i.

Teacher can reinforce rules by acknowledge and encourage pupils


appropriate use of these rules and routines by giving specific and
contingent praise, practicing a token economy system, in which pupils
earn rewards for behaviour and set up behaviour contracts for the
students.

3.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
11.

Give examples of rules that teachers commonly used in classroom


Pupils must listen when teacher is talking
Pupils must follow directions quickly
Pupils must raise hand to speak to the class
Pupils must throw rubbish in the bin
Pupils must walk in the class- not run
Explain two ways in which the teacher can use non-verbal
communication to control

misbehavior in the classroom.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Facial Expressions
Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. The expressions tell the
attitudes of the communicator. Researchers have discovered that certain facial
areas reveal our emotional state better than others. A teacher who delivers his
lesson accompanied by the right facial expression will display his own
enthusiasm and sincerity that would be appreciated by his observant pupils.
Eye Contact
Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The
teacher generally maintains eye contact longer than the pupils. The direct stare

of the sender of the message conveys candour and openness. It elicits a feeling
of trust. Downward glances are generally associated with modesty. Eyes rolled
upward are associated with fatigue.
In many instances the simplest and most effective corrective move is for the
teacher to make solid eye contact with the pupils. Proficient classroom managers
often rely heavily on their eyes as basic tools for keeping a class orderly and
attentive
12. Discuss how effective communication skills would lead to effective
lessons.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Having effective communication skills will make teachers non-judgemental
towards their pupils; thus treating them with respect. Psychologically the pupils
will feel appreciated, which will help develop their self-confidence and selfesteem as well as enhance their class performance. Teachers too will improve
their self-confidence and ability to conduct good lessons. Hence effective
communication skills:
i. Promote Pupils Self Esteem
Pupils will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated when teachers listen
to their opinions. This increases their self esteem and confidence. Confident
pupils are less likely to second guess their answers on tests, and self-assured
pupils are more likely to speak up in class. Class participation leads to increased
learning for the entire class.
ii. Build Teachers Self-Confidence
Communicating effectively also boosts teachers self-confidence over time which
in turn helps them to effectively deal with pupils. Consequently, they will be able

to deliver their lessons efficiently and motivate as well as inspire their pupils to
excel in their studies.
iii. Prevent Misunderstandings
Communicating

and

expressing

effectively

can

minimize

the

risk

of

misunderstanding among pupils. Teachers will be able to deliver their lesson in


the best possible way so that teaching and learning takes place in the classroom.
They will use various communication strategies to ensure that the lesson is well
understood and the pupils achieve the learning outcome for that day.
iv.

Improve Class Performance

Teachers who practise effective communication will notice an improvement in the


overall class performance. Teachers can gauge the effectiveness of a lesson
through their pupils feedback. By asking questions, teachers can determine if
their pupils were able to retain the imparted information. Since there will be less
room for misunderstanding to occur in the class, the pupils will learn better and
this will contribute to better class performance.
13. Explain what is effective classroom management in an ESL classroom?
SUGGESTED ANSWER
The fundamentals of effective classroom management are the methods
and strategies used to provide a safe and conducive classroom environment,
instil self-discipline and prevent disruptive behaviours, maintain an orderly
development of daily activities, and of course implement instruction successfully.
A positive and productive learning environment is the key to academic
success and making sure your pupils feel they are in an environment that allows
them to achieve is of utmost importance. It is your responsibility to control the
environment and interaction in your classrooms so that time is not lost due to
disruptive behaviours.

Keeping pupils focused in order to get the most out of their daily
classroom experiences is also an important factor which can be successfully
done through the employment of different instructional techniques. Time lost to
disruptive behaviour and the inability to keep the pupils focused on the core
processes of learning can result in low achievement.
In managing their classrooms and executing instruction, teachers need to
recognise options, make decisions and take actions based on their own attitudes,
intentions, beliefs and values as well as researched educational theories. If
teachers are unable to positively recognise options, make decisions and take
actions they would be faced with a disorganised classroom. Undeniably, having
poor classroom management skills would make teachers less effective
instructional leaders as it could be difficult for them to conduct instruction and
learning in a chaotic environment.
To be an effective classroom manager teachers need to observe positive
behaviours, take into consideration the diverse nature of the classroom
population and make appropriate decisions to facilitate and maximise pupils
learning. This includes planning and preparing effectual instructional materials
and activities, setting rules and procedures for classroom routines, as well as
organizing and decorating the classroom to create a productive learning climate.
14. Define ESL classroom management, Give 3 reasons to know good
classroom management practices
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

The definition of classroom management Manning & Bucher (2013) is


strategies to provide physical and psychologival safety in the classroom,
techniques for changing pupil misbehaviours and instruction self-discipline,
methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day and
intructional techniques that contribute to pupils positive behaviours.

According to Brophy, (1983 in Regina & Daniel 2007) a good classroom


manager adheres to three principles. The first principle that needs to take charge
by teachers is to be willing to accept responsibility for classroom control. The
second reason is to advocate to long term, solution-oriented approaches to
problems and abstain from short-term, control responses. The third reason is
endeavour to discover underlying personal problems (impulsivity, lack of
awareness, home problems, etc.) for symptomatic behaviour.
Effective classroom management requires a comprehensive approach
that includes structuring the school and classroom environment, actively
supervising pupil engagement and implementing classroom rules and routines.
15. Discuss how students diversity (cultural, gender, social class, and
developmental differences) affect behavior and perspectives of behavior.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Differences in culture, social class and developmental would affect the students
behavior in the classroom and may lead to misbehavior such as demotivated,
passive in the classroom and show no interest in learning. They will feel that they
are not belonging to the group. The lack of sense belonging make them tend to
stay quiet and avoid from contacting to their peers. On the other side, they tend
to only make friend with the same group with them for example, the Indian pupils
will only be friend to the Indian pupils only. Same goes to the Chinese and Malay
pupils. On the social class, the pupils also will only communicate with the same
level with them and hang out with the same class with them. The poor and
unfortunate pupils will stay behind and afraid to mingle in the group of higher
state in term familys economy state.

16. Explain why educators should develop a personal philosophy of c/room


management, one on which they can base their daily management
practices and strategies.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
In general, effective teachers display the following characteristics to create a
positive climate in the ESL classroom as described in the next section.

Leadership styles

Effective communication

Levels of friendship

High expectations

Classroom norms

Managing conflict

LEADERSHIP STYLES
Lippitt and White, with guidance from Lewin (Mills, 2007), observed effects on
youth of three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire.
Autocratic leaders made all decisions about group goals and work procedures.
Democratic leaders specified group goals, but urged group members to decide
among alternative ways of working.
Laissez-faire leaders abdicated authority, permitting youth to work as they
pleased. Groups with democratic leaders performed best with high quality work
output and high morale.

Autocratically lead groups had high quality work output, but low morale. Groups
with laissez-faire leaders performed worst overall.
Classroom research has shown that although autocratic teachers can get pupils
to accomplish high amounts of academic work, they also create conformity,
competition, dependency, and resentment.
Pupils of democratic teachers accomplish both a great deal of excellent
academic work, and establish positive social climates.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Effective communication is the key in understanding differences between
autocratic and democratic teachers.
Autocratic teachers use one-way communication in persuading pupils to accept
learning goals and procedures as well as rules for classroom behaviour; such
unilateral direction giving is often an ineffective way of transmitting information.
In contrast, democratic teachers use two-way communication often to
encourage pupils to participate in making decisions for themselves and in
establishing group agreements for classroom procedures. By using transactional
communication whereby pupils and teachers reciprocate in trying to understand
one another, democratic teachers help build a climate that is participatory,
relaxed, personal, and supportive.
Attributes of democratic teachers who are effective transactional communicators
are receptivenessto pupils' ideas, an egalitarian attitude, openness, warmth,
respect for pupils' feelings, sensitivity to outcasts, a sense of humor, and a caring
attitude.
Levels of friendship

Such participatory teachers understand that friendships in the classroom peer


group cannot be separated from teaching and learning; friendly feelings are
integral to instructional transactions between teachers and pupils and among
pupils.
Pupils who view themselves as disliked or ignored by their peers often have
difficulty in performing up to their academic potential. They experience anxiety
and reduced self-esteem, both of which interfere with their academic
performance.
As outcasts they might seek revenge, searching for ways to be aggressive
toward teachers and peers. By watching their teacher interact with the class,
pupils learn who gets left out and who gets encouragement and praise.
Teachers can help rejected pupils obtain peer support by giving them an extra
amount of encouragement and praise in front of their peers, and by assigning
them to work cooperatively with popular classmates
. Teachers with friendly classes see to it that they talk and attend to every pupil
rather than focusing on a few, and often reward pupils with specific statements
for helpful and successful behaviour; they seek to control behavioural
disturbances with general, group-oriented statements.
High expectations
In tandem to positive climate are the expectations that teacher and pupil hold for
one another. Teachers' expectations for how each pupil might behave are
particularly important because they affect how teachers behave toward that pupil.
Thus, teachers should engage in introspection and reflection to diagnose their

expectations, and obtain feedback from colleagues about how they are behaving
toward particular pupils.
Teachers should also use diverse information sources to understand what
makes their pupils behave as they do. In particular, teachers should reflect on
their expectations and attributions toward girls and boys, pupils of different social
classes and ethnic groups.
Teachers should deliberately seek new information about pupil strengths in order
to free themselves of stereotypes.
Classroom norms
Classroom norms form when most pupils hold the same expectations and
attitudes about appropriate classroom behaviours. Although norms guide
pupils' and the teacher's behaviour, they are not the same as rules.
Rules, on the hand are regulations created by administrators or teachers to
govern pupils' behaviour which are not neccessarily group norms. Pupil norms
frequently are in opposition to teachers' goals, and can become counter
productive to individual pupil development.
Teachers should strive to help pupils create formal group agreements to
transform preferred rules into pupil norms. In particular, cooperative peer-group
norms enhance pupil self-concept and language learning more than do norms in
support of competition.
Managing conflict
Conflict, natural and inevitable in all groups, exists when one activity blocks,
interferes, or keeps another activity from occurring. Conflicts arise in classrooms
over incompatible procedures, goals, concepts, or interpersonal relationships.
The norms of cooperation and competition affect the management of conflict

differently. With cooperative norms pupils believe they will obtain their selfinterest when other pupils also achieve theirs. Teachers should strive, therefore,
to build a spirit of teamwork and cooperation in their classes, so that pupils will
feel that it is in their self-interest to cooperate with their peers. When a
competitive spirit exists, particularly when pupils are pitted against each other to
obtain scarce rewards, a pupil succeeds only when others lose. In the
competitive classroom, interpersonal conflict will arise frequently between pupils.
For teachers to build and maintain successful classrooms with high pupil
achievement and positive social climate, they should attend to their leadership
style, communication skills, friendliness and warmth, expectations and
stereotypes of pupils, tactics for establishing pupil group agreements, and their
skills in managing conflict.

17.

Define Assertive Discipline. Identify significant advantages and


disadvantages of Assertive Discipline.

SUGGESTED ANSWER :
Assertive Discipline is a structured, systematic approach designed to assist
educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment.
Advantages

Disadvantages

build positive, trusting relationships


with pupils and teach appropriate

classroom behaviour (via direct

instruction.describing,
modelling,
practicing, reviewing, encouraging,
and rewarding)

Rewards

and

punishments

are

effective.
Both teachers and pupils have rights

Inhibition of pupils self-regulation


neglect pupils needs
Punishments
consequences

may
-

cause

embarrassing,

rebellion or revenge
the causes of discipline problems

to feel comfortable.
Teachers create an optimal learning
environment.

18. Explain whether Assertive Discipline has the potential for addressing
student misbehaviours in contemporary is the key to effective
classroom management.
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:

Dismiss the thought that there is any acceptable reason for

misbehaviour (Biologically based misbehaviour may be an exception).


Decide which rules you wish to implement in your classroom.
Devise four or five rules that are specific and easily understood by your

pupils.
Determine negative consequences for noncompliance (You will be
providing a consequence every time a pupil misbehaves). Choose three
to six negative consequences (a "discipline hierarchy"), each of which is
more punitive or restrictive than the previous one. These will be

administered if the pupil continues to misbehave.


Determine positive consequences for appropriate behaviour. For
example, along with verbal praise, you might also include gift vouchers
that are given to pupils for proper behaviour. Pupils write their names on
the cut up pieces of paper and drop them into a container for a daily prize
drawing. Even if a pupil is having a bad day, there is a reason to improve.
Pupils might get a gift voucher have a chance to redeem a gift from the
local supermarket. Others might receive notes of praise to be shown to
their parents. Group rewards are also used. A marble might be dropped
into a jar for each predetermined interval that the class as a whole has
been attentive and respectful. When the jar is full, a special event is held.
Some assertive teachers write a letter of the alphabet on the board for

each period/ activity of good group behaviour. When the letters spell

"Pizza Party" (or some other activity), that event is held.


Conduct a meeting to inform the pupils of the rules. Explain why
rules are needed. List the rules on the board along with the positive and
negative consequences. Check for understanding. Review the rules
periodically throughout the year in order to reiterate important points and

consolidate the rules.


Have the pupils write the rules and take them home to be signed by
the parents/ guardians and returned. Attach a message explaining the
rules and requesting their help.

19.

Explain what Dreikurs means by Democratic Teaching and

management and the belief that democracy is the key to effective


classroom management.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
- Teachers promote pupil self-discipline in a democratic classroom where pupils
need and teachers make decisions on how the class will work. Pupils behaviour
is a goal directed and all pupils went to belong. Pupils misbehave out of mistaken
goals. Teacher use logical consequences and encouragement instead of praise,
and should never use punishment.
20.

Discuss

Rudolf

Dreikurs

means

by

encouragement,

logical

consequences and the four goals of misbehaviours and how educators can
apply these concept in primary schools.
SUGGESTED ANSWERS
1. ENCOURAGEMENT
Dreikurs did not believe in the use of punishment, reinforcement or praise.
Instead, he believes that natural/logical consequences and the process of
encouragement are the most useful techniques for preventing discipline

problems.

Praise

vs.

Encouragement

According

to

Dreikurs,

encouragement is more important than any other aspect of child rising


because a misbehaving child is a discouraged child. Encouragement
corresponds so well to childrens goals. Children seek approval and
encouragement is a legitimate way to do it. Encouragement focuses
on effort rather than achievement, so it gives positive feedback to
children

who

are

trying

hard

but

may

be

unsuccessful.

Encouragement motivates them to continue trying. Praise is very


different from encouragement. It focuses on the level of achievement.
Encouragement:
o Encouragement is a acknowledgement of an effort
o Encouragement helps students evaluate their own
performance
o Encouragement is a message between equals.
o Encouragement stimulates cooperation
o Encouragement stimulates helpfulness
2. LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
Logical consequences referred to reasonable results that follow
behaviour either desirable or non-desirable. They usually require
students to make right of what they have done wrong. For example, if
Marisa does not complete her work during class, she is required to do it
for homework. In a democratic classroom, Marissa would know in
advance the consequences of her misbehaviour because as part of the
classroom she helped formulate the consequences.
3. FOUR GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOURS

i.

Attention getting
Attention is the most common goal for most of the young children.
Children who seek excessive attention are often annoying in class.
They distract their teachers by showing off, being lazy, being
disruptive,

asking

special

favours,

needing

extra

help

on

assignments, asking irrelevant questions, throwing things around


the room, crying, or having an overly desire to please. They seem
to function appropriately only as long as they have their teachers
approval. They do actions to make him the center of attention.
When asked to stop, will comply but will start again later. Giving
attention to attention seeking children does not necessarily improve
their behavior. When attention is given in response to childrens
misbehavior, the misbehavior increased. A student who seeks
attention should not receive it when he acts out. To give attention to
the student for inappropriate behavior would not solve the problem,
instead would get the situation worse.
Instead, the teacher might use some techniques such as:
Minimizing the attention: ignore the behavior, give the eye.
Legitimizing the behavior: have the whole class to join in the
behavior.
Doing the unexpected: turning out the lights, changing the
voice, playing a musical sound.
Distracting the student: ask a direct question.
Noticing appropriate behavior: thank the students, write wellbehaved students names on the board.

ii.

Power and Control


When children fail to gain all the attention they seek, they often
engage in a power struggle with parents and teachers. Teachers
should avoid putting pressure on these children to make them
behave appropriately because such pressure usually leads to a
power competition. Teachers never win these power competitions.
Children win because society expects adults to behave in a
responsible, moral way. However, children can cry, argue,
contradict, lie, be stubborn, and disobedient. Adults are expected to
be honest, trusting, loving, and helpful. Here, the child repetitively
does actions to make him the center of attention. When asked to
stop, he becomes defiant, and increases his negative behavior and
challenges the adult.

iii.

Revenge
This is a goal for the student who feels unable to gain attention or
power. He believes that others have deliberately tried to hurt them
and attempts to get even. He is convinced that nobody likes him.
He believes that If Im hurting, then I have the right to hurt others.
He hurts others physically or psychologically. He hits, kicks others
or destroys their property. A revenge-seeking child is very difficult to
help. Teachers must realize that he hurts others because he feels
hurt. Causing him more pain will only provoke more revenge
seeking behaviours. It is probable that this student appears
unloving and uncaring and is very hard to warm up to. But this is
exactly what he needs to feel cared for.
The teacher might use some techniques with power and revenge
students such as:
Refusing the fight

Changing the subject


Using time out
Establishing consequences.
iv.

Helplessness and Inadequacy


The student operating with this goal is the most pathetic. He has
given on the possibility of being a member of the group. This child
wishes not to be seen, to be left alone, rejects social contact, and
refuses to try most educational demands.
The teacher might use some techniques with helpless students
such as:
Providing tutoring
Avoiding criticism
Making mistakes okay
Building confidence

Acknowledging effort. How does a teacher understand the


goal of the misbehaving child?

If the teacher feels annoyed, then the childs goal is


attention getting.

If the teacher feels beaten or intimidated, then the childs


goal is power.
If the teacher feels hurt, then the childs goal is revenge.

If the teacher feels incapable, then the childs goal is

helplessness.
4. EDUCATIORS APPLYING THESE CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL
TEACHERS SHOULD:
1. Give clear-cut directions for the actions expected of students. Wait
until you have the attention of all class members before giving directions.
2. Establish a relationship with each individual based on trust and
mutual respect.
3. Use logical consequences instead of traditional punishment. The
consequence must bear a direct relationship to the behavior and must be
understood by the students.
4. See each behavior in its proper perspective. In this way, you will avoid
making serious issues out of trivial incidents.
5. Let students assume greater responsibility for their own behavior
and learning.
6. Treat students as your social equals.
7. Combine kindness and firmness. The student must always sense and
respect that while you are a friend, you will not accept certain kinds of
behavior.
8. At all times distinguish between the deed and the doer. This allows
you to retain respect for the student while not accepting their behaviour.
9. Set limits from the beginning but work toward mutual understanding,
a sense of mutual responsibility and mutual consideration for others.

10. Mean what you say, keep your demands simple and ensure that they
are carried out.
11. Deal with incidents quickly and effectively, bring them swiftly to closure
and work to repair damaged relationships. Let students know that
mistakes are corrected, forgiven and then forgotten.
TEACHERS SHOULD NOT:
1. Nag and scold as this is likely to strengthen a student's regrettable
concept on how to get attention.
2. Work to obtain a promise from a student. Most students will promise to
change in order to free themselves from an uncomfortable situation.
Requiring a student to give you a promise is a sheer waste of time.
3. Find fault with students. It may hurt their self-esteem and discourage
them.
4. Adopt double standards - we are all familiar with these.
5. Use threats as a method to discipline students. Although some students
may become intimidated and conform for the moment, threats have no
lasting value. They do not lead to a change in a student's basic attitude.
21. Discuss how educators can create democratic classroom rather than
autocratic or permissive classroom.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Traditionally, classroom management has implied a top-down, hierarchical
model that values a teacher's authority over her students. Recent research,
however, has questioned the validity of this management model, and has
concluded that a more democratic approach can be more effective. This

approach includes greater opportunities for student socialization, group activities


and participation in classroom decision-making.
The first step in a democratic classroom requires a teacher to distribute
some authority over the classroom to his students. This does not, however, mean
that a teacher gives all decision-making power to his students. Instead, a
common approach to a democratic classroom involves a "morning meeting."
Such a meeting might involve students in planning how a school day might
progress -- what to learn or what activities to do. This "micro-governance"
approach to a classroom has proven results, with students learning more about
self-government and democracy in a natural setting. In addition, students
improve their social skills and feel more invested in the class.
A second piece of a democratic classroom involves students learning in a
self-directed way, often in a group setting. This contrasts with the traditional
model of a teacher lecturing in front of a classroom. By moving the direction of a
classroom from teachers to students, students obtain a sense of ownership in
their education. Teachers often face challenges foreseeing what is interesting to
students; by giving students some ability to determine a classroom's direction,
there is less concern that students will be bored.
As a result of greater student engagement with their social and academic
environment, students in general tend to behave better. Classrooms, for
example, that integrate a Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports
program, which is closely linked to a democratic classroom model, have shown
improved student behaviour. Office visits and suspensions also declined and
attendance rates improved. The democratic model of a classroom encourages
students to work together to solve problems. Simple conflicts, therefore, become
negotiations that lead to solutions, not trips to the office, and reduce the teacher's
role as disciplinarian.
Another major impact of a democratic classroom on classroom
management involves a closer integration of diversity and new perspectives. By

actively encouraging students to speak, a teacher ensures that the myriad


differences among her students are shared.
22. identify the behaviours Ginott would describe as teachers at their
best and teachers at their worst.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Congruent communication: address situation, not the students characters or
personality.
Teacher at their best :
When teachers are at their best they display a common orientation: they do not
believe in the power of pontification. They neither preach nor moralize. They give
no guilt and demand no promises.
They are not preoccupied with the child's past history or distant future, they deal
with the present. What matters to them is the here and now of the child in
distress.
Teachers at their Worst :
Some teachers work too hard.
They spend time and wasted energy on battles that can be avoided and wars
that can be prevented. In each school there is a gigantic waste of human
resources. Time and talent are devoured by needless conflicts and useless
quarrels.
23. Explain sane messages and provide example
SUGGESTED ANSWER

-Sane messages (Tauber, 2007) is about a situation that involves a pupil, but
not the personality or character of the pupil. These messages are used to guide
pupils away from inappropriate behaviour. Teachers should avoid using
evaluative praise as it is destructive to the pupils character. Instead, teachers
should resort to use appreciative praise as it shows appreciation for what the
pupil has done and the effort taken.
-focus calmly on what needs to be corrected without attacking the students
character or personality.
Example of sane messages:
1. Rosalyn, we are all supposed to be in our seats before the bell rings, not
Rosalyn, youre always gossiping at the doorway and coming late to
class.
2. You have a lot of erasures and whiteouts on your homework, not Your
homework is sloppy;
3. You form your letters correctly, not You are a good writer.

24.

List Ginotts essential principles and explain how they can be


implemented effectively.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Congruent communication
Haim Ginott believes that effective classroom management depends a lot on the
way in which the teacher interacts with students. It is believed that the teacher is
a decisive element in the classroom, which can shape students in anyway
depending on the teachers behavior. Ginott promotes the use of congruent
messages and to respect students as they are for effective classroom
management.

Congruent communication is open, harmonious with pupils feelings about


themselves and their situations, and without sarcasm. It sends sane messages
about a situation that involves a pupil, but not the personality or character of the
pupil. These messages are used to guide pupils away from inappropriate
behaviour. Teachers should avoid using evaluative praise as it is destructive to
the pupils character. Instead, teachers should resort to use appreciative praise
as it shows appreciation for what the pupil has done and the effort taken.
According to Ginott, both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to
maintain positive classroom behavior.
According to Ginott, both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to
maintain positive classroom behavior. Congruent communication can be
achieved when teachers:

promote self-discipline for both teachers and pupils;


believe the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives

to discipline;
accept and acknowledge pupils without labeling, arguing,

disputing, or belittling the individual;


avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise instead;
avoid saying you and I messages to pupils;
demonstrate their best behaviours, and
Invite rather than demand pupil cooperation.

Pupils, on the other hand should behave properly according to classroom norms
and accept responsibility for their behaviour.
25. Explain what Kounin meant by the term instructional management and
why he thought teachers behaviors contributed to positive student
behavior.
SUGGESTED ANSWER

Instructional management is when the teacher prevent misbehaviours through


awareness in the classroom and by using effective lesson management
techniques (pupil movement, group awareness, smoothness of lesson delivery)
to influence pupil behaviour.
Teachers behavior contributed to positive student behavior because:
1. If a teacher can correct a misbehavior by using one student as the
instigator, other students within the classroom normally will correct their
misbehavior as well! This is what Kounin meant by the "ripple effect".
2. All teachers should be aware of what is taking place within all parts of the
classroom at any given time. "Withitness" is what Kounin describes this
as.
3. According to Kounin, if the teacher can create little chaos between
activities, keep on task, and utilize good time management skills they are
modeling effective group management.
4. All educators should be able to maintain group alertness, as well as hold
each member of the group accountable for understanding the content of
the lesson. Kounin believes that by doing this, all students have a chance
for optimal learning.
5. In order to avoid students getting bored or uninterested, the teacher
should give assignments and tasks that provide the students with a feeling
of progress or accomplishment when completing the assigned work.
Kounin also stresses the importance of creating a diverse curriculum, as
well as a change in environment every now and then.

Kounin discovered the fact that if students think that the teacher is alert/aware of
what is going on within the classroom, they are not likely to misbehave. This is
because the teacher has effective classroom management skills that leaves little
room for misbehavior or discipline to occur. By having a teacher-directed
curriculum where the classroom students know who is the "boss" they are less
likely to try and take over the classroom. If misbehavior occurs, it is crucial to
correct the problem within a timely manner in order for the discipline to be

effective. It is always beneficial to try your best to discipline the correct student, if
you misjudge and correct the wrong student, your tactics will be less likely to
work on future problems within the classroom. Always make sure that those who
truly are in the wrong are the ones who get punished, otherwise students who did
nothing wrong will begin to not enjoy being in your classroom.
26. Explain how Kounin define the term movement management and
related aspects such a jerkiness, stimulus bound, thrust, dangles, flip flow
and over dwelling
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Movement management and group focus is, the ability to make smooth
lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all pupils in a lesson.
Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while tending to
something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity to another.
They keep pupils alert by holding their attention, by holding them accountable,
and by involving all pupils in the lesson.
Dangling - Dangles occur when a teacher leaves a topic without having
finalized it, provides a summation, or otherwise drawn the lesson to a full
conclusion. If a lesson is important enough to teach, it is important enough to
finish. To avoid dangles, teachers work on proficient planning and the timeliness
of their lesson presentation. They should not be surprised by the time on the
clock: Oh my! Its almost time to go to lunch. Clean up quickly and line up at the
door.
A flip-flop is somewhat like a dangle. It occurs when a teacher is
teaching a lesson on one topic, but then inserts unrelated material from a
previous lesson. This act destroys student concentration, and they are now
confused as to where to focus their attention. Once a lesson has been
concluded, and another one begun, avoid reminiscing back to previous material
(except to relate the earlier material directly to this new subject matter in order to

facilitate comprehension). Teachers should avoid leaving a topic on which the


students are focused in order to introduce unrelated material.
Thrust - Thrusting occurs when teachers fail to give clear, well-worded
directions when group attention was upon them. Non-descript directives result in
student confusion, complaints, multiple questions as to what to do, conversations
with other students, refusals to work, and so forth. Teachers then find themselves
answering the same question multiple times, having to address misbehaviour,
and pulling students who did comprehend off-task
Becoming "Stimulus-Bound"- Teachers who allow themselves to be
distracted by outside stimuli, move the class attention to that distraction. The
students are now off-task, have trouble re-engaging in the task, and engage in
misbehaviour. Teachers also become bound up in the wrong focus when they
draw

student

attention

away from

the

lesson

to

make

spontaneous

announcements (OhRemember that field trip permission slips are due


tomorrow. Or Mr. Lee! Before Ms. T. goes to the deli, please tell her to order a
vegemite sandwich for me.
27. Explain whether Kounins Instructional Management can contribute to
the effort to make contemporary schools safe.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Kounins Instructional Management can contribute to the effort to make
contemporary school safe as Jacob Kounin (1970) in Marzano et al (2003) found
that teachers handle classroom problems differently. The primary difference was
in the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom
problems. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment;
they kept pupils actively engaged; and they conducted well-planned lessons with
smooth transitions. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom
managers because of their skill in four areas: withitness, overlapping activities,
group focusing, and movement management (Charles, 2002).

Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom
at all times; nothing is missed. Withit teachers respond immediately to pupil
misbehaviour and know who started what. A major component of withitness is
scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual pupils, and
having eyes in the back your head. Withit teachers dont make timing errors
(waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person
and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for misbehaviour). Withit
teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the
instigator is in a problem situation.
Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. Overlapping
means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time. Essentially, it
is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small
group on task, for example, while also helping other pupils with their seatwork.
Finally, Kounin notes that successful classroom management also
depends on movement management and group focusthat is, the ability to
make smooth lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all pupils
in a lesson. Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while
tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity
to another. They keep pupils alert by holding their attention, by holding them
accountable, and by involving all pupils in the lesson.
28. Explain what Kounin meant by the term group focus and related
terms such as group alerting and accountability.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
Group focus meant by Kounin in his Theory of Instructional Management is work
group is a great time to move throughout the classroom and make sure that

everyone is on task and understand the materials. Whereby, teachers are


expected to help students develop attitude, skills and many more. Enjoyable and
challenging lessons go hand in hand with ESL classes. Teacher can ask pupils
what challenges them the most and what they want to learn. In group work,
accountability of the group members are the group members should
communicate appropriately giving ideas, paying attention to group task (group
alerting), preparing materials answers that they needed to complete within their
group and being respecting towards each other.
29. Identify 5 factors you will consider as you build a positive classroom
climate and instill a sense of community, one that will make students feel
physically and psychologically safe.
SUGGESTED ANSWER
1. teachers are sensitive about their cultural diversity
2. They do not have to explain about their misbehaviours
3. not practice discrimination and has high tolerance towards the cultural
diversity.
4. No one person or group can bear the responsibility for creating and
maintaining safe classrooms. Instead, a collaborative effort must be made
that includes teachers, pupils and parents
5. helping pupils to develop social competencies, problem-prevention skills
and coping skills;
6. emphasizing pro-social attitudes and values about self, others and work
and avoids negative labelling and tracking;
7. monitoring pupils academic progress, behaviour and attitudes on a
regular basis;
8. creating a buddy system in the classroom in which current pupils help the
new arrivals;

9. getting the pupils involved in a class project together such as a classroom


beautification campaign; and
10. establishing pupils tip lines which provide anonymous, non threatening
way for pupils to report school crime. However, it is often controversial
because some parents and teachers do not want pupils placed in
awkward situations.
11. Encouraging them to communicate with teachers and making special
effort to know their childrens friends and childrens activities at and away
from school.
12. Familiarising with the school safe school policy as well as an individual
teachers safe classroom policy.

30.

Identify three of the major types, causes and effects of students

misbehaviours.
SUGGESTED ANSWER :
Misbehaviour is regarded as behaviour that is inappropriate in a situation or
setting and that it occurs and done wilfully or intentionally such as, fighting,
shouting out or interfering with the work of other pupils. There are two types of
misbehaviours, namely overt and covert. Overt misbehaviours are more open
and observable such as pupils talking during lesson, kicking others, and damage
properties. While, covert misbehaviours are more passive such as sleeping
during lesson, arriving late to class, acting bored and disengaged.

Behavioural problems are usually caused by a mixture of interacting factors,


some of which reside within the individual pupil, while others are related to
conditions within environment in society, school and home.
I.

Home Environment

If pupils see violent and aggressive behaviours at home, they might begin to
consider such behaviours as acceptable methods of dealing with problems.
There is a tendency for the child to use the same aggressive behaviour patterns
with his peers in school. In other words, what is learned at home will influence
what the pupil would do in school.
II.

Lack of sense of belonging

Pupils who are rejected by peer group will often form bonds with others with
similar behavioural problems to form their own peer group or gang.
III.

Motivation

Positive feelings about themselves will lead to the development of self-esteem


and self-respect which subsequently will further motivate pupils to learn and stay
focus on the lesson, hence reducing off-task behaviours in class.
Students misbehaviours have an adverse effect on pupils and teachers in terms
of:
I.

Teaching and Learning environment

Misbehaviours undermines quality classroom climate, builds trauma and


increases teachers dissatisfaction with teaching, which in turn affect quality of
instructions. Besides, it also will build up tension, anxiety and hostility between
the teachers and disruptive pupils which subsequently will lead to more disruptive
problems.
II.

Pupils Psychological safety

They will even lose their confidence in their teachers ability to protect them from
peer victimization. When this fear escalates and reaches a high enough level,

they will decide not to attend school or school activities, contributing to low
academic achievement.