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What is the Scope of Electrical Engineering?
[ This question is mostly asked to check your communication. Speak casually. Tell the
importance of electrical and electronics engineering course, what are the topics to be
covered in the course, what are the job prospects etc.]
Answer: Electrical Engineering has a very broad scope with the science and
technology which involves electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism in order to
design, construct, and maintain products, services, and information systems.
Electrical Engineering is a branch that deals with the field associated with power
transmission and motor control.
Electrical engineering is one of the core fields of engineering, so it is always
evergreen in terms of job prospects.
Electrical Engineering is the heart of whole engineering discipline.
Nowadays, we see Electronics playing an important role in the implementation and
control of Electrical Machines. Keeping this fact file in mind the course have
transformed from core electrical Engineering into a Fusion of Electronics and Electrical
and has been renamed as Electronics and Electrical engineering.
Electricity has become the basic need for survival, globally. From household to
industrial plants, communication and satellite navigation system, electronic
equipment, computers etc., all require electricity.
Electrical engineering thus deals with study and application of electrical systems for
use in these different environments. It equips you with the knowledge of transmission
and generation of electrical power, electrical circuit design, electronics,
instrumentation, control system, understanding electrical and electronic networks etc.
The course also covers the study of electronic devices and circuits involved in
measurement, instrumentation, control and protection of electrical equipments and
conversion systems. Concept of computer and recent applications of computer based
systems in design, analysis and efficient operation of power system, maintaining
quality and security, also included in the course.

Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor?

Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons:
Starting current is reduced 3-4 times of the direct current due to which voltage drops and hence
it causes less losses.
Star delta starter circuit comes in circuit first during starting of motor, which reduces voltage 3
times, that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused.
In addition, starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding.
State the difference between generator and alternator
Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical
energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that
their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which

rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the
induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and
rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and
stationary magnetic field is used.
Why AC systems are preferred over DC systems?
Due to following reasons, AC systems are preferred over DC systems:
a. It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and
b. Plant cost for AC transmission (circuit breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the
equivalent DC transmission
c. From power stations, AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting
d. When a large fault occurs in a network, it is easier to interrupt in an AC system, as the sine
wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.
How can you relate power engineering with electrical engineering?
Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. It deals with generation,
transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form. Design of all power equipments also
comes under power engineering. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of
the power grid i.e. called on grid systems and they might work on off grid systems that are not
connected to the system.
What are the various kind of cables used for transmission?
Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms:
Low-tension cables, which can transmit voltage upto 1000 volts.
High-tension cables can transmit voltage upto 23000 volts.
Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to 132 kV.

1. What is a System?
When a number of elements or components are connected in a sequence to perform a specific function, the
group of elements that all constitute a System
2. What is Control System?
In a System the output and inputs are interrelated in such a manner that the output quantity or variable is
controlled by input quantity, then such a system is called Control System.
The output quantity is called controlled variable or response and the input quantity is called command signal
or excitation.
3. What are different types of Control Systems?

Two major types of Control Systems are 1) Open loop Control System 2) Closed Loop Control Systems
Open loop Control Systems:The Open loop Control System is one in which the Output Quantity has no
effect on the Input Quantity. No feedback is present from the output quantity to the input quantity for
Closed Loop Control System:The Closed loop Control System is one in which the feedback is provided from
the Output quantity to the input quantity for the correction so as to maintain the desired output of the system.
4. What is a feedback in Control System?
The Feedback in Control System in one in which the output is sampled and proportional signal is fed back to
the input for automatic correction of the error ( any change in desired output) for futher processing to get
back the desired output.
5. Why Negative Feedback is preffered in the Control System?
The role of Feedback in control system is to take the sampled output back to the input and compare output
signal with input signal for error ( deviation from the desired result).
Negative Feedback results in the better stability of the system and rejects any disturbance signals and is less
sensitive to the parameter variations. Hence in control systems negative feedback is considered.

6. What is the effect of positive feedback on stability of the system?

Positive feedback is not used generally in the control system because it increases the error signal and drives
the system to instability. But positive feedbacks are used in minor loop control systems to amplify certain
internal signals and parameters
7. What is Latching current?
Gate signal is to be applied to the thyristor to trigger the thyristor ON in safe mode. When the thyristor starts
conducting the forward current above the minimum value, called Latching current, the gate signal which is
applied to trigger the device in no longer require to keep the scr in ON position.
8. What is Holding current ?
When scr is conducting current in forward conduction state, scr will return to forward blocking state when
the anode current or forward current falls below a low level called Holding current
Note: Latching current and Holding current are not same. Latching current is associated with the turn on
process of the scr whereas holding current is associated with the turn off process. In general holding current
will be slightly lesser than the latching current.
9. Why thyristor is considered as Charge controlled device?
During the triggering process of the thyristor from forward blocking state to forward conduction state
through the gate signal, by applying the gate signal (voltage between gate and cathode) increases the
minority carrier density in the p-layer and thereby facilitate the reverse break over of the junction J2 and
thyristor starts conducting. Higher the magnitude of the gate current pulse, lesser is the time required to
inject the charge and turning on the scr. By controlling the amount of charge we can control the turning on
time of the scr.

10. What are the different losses that occur in thyristor while operating?
Different losses that occur are
a)Forward conduction losses during conduction of the thyristor
b)Loss due to leakage current during forward and reverse blocking.
c)Power loss at gate or Gate triggering loss.
d)Switching losses at turn-on and turn-off.
11. What is meant by knee point voltage?
Knee point voltage is calculated for electrical Current transformers and is very important factor to choose a
CT. It is the voltage at which a CT gets saturated.(CT-current transformer).
12. What is reverse power relay?
Reverse Power flow relay are used in generating stations's protection. A generating stations is supposed to
fed power to the grid and in case generating units are off,there is no generation in the plant then plant may
take power from grid. To stop the flow of power from grid to generator we use reverse power relay.
13. What will happen if DC supply is given on the primary of a transformer?
Mainly transformer has high inductance and low resistance.In case of DC supply there is no inductance ,only
resistance will act in the electrical circuit. So high electrical current will flow through primary side of the
transformer.So for this reason coil and insulation will burn out.
14. What is the difference between isolators and electrical circuit breakers? What is bus-bar?
Isolators are mainly for switching purpose under normal conditions but they cannot operate in fault
conditions .Actually they used for isolating the CBs for maintenance. Whereas CB gets activated under fault
conditions according to the fault detected.Bus bar is nothing but a junction where the power is getting
distributed for independent loads.
15. What are the advantage of free wheeling diode in a Full Wave rectifier?
It reduces the harmonics and it also reduces sparking and arching across the mechanical switch so that it
reduces the voltage spike seen in a inductive load.
16. Mention the methods for starting an induction motor?
The different methods of starting an induction motor:
a)DOL:direct online starter
b)Star delta starter
c)Auto transformer starter
d)Resistance starter
e)Series reactor starter
17. What is the power factor of an alternator at no load?
At no load Synchronous Impedance of the alternator is responsible for creating angle difference. So it should
be zero lagging like inductor.

18. What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit breaker?

When breaker is close at one time by close push button,the anti pumping contactor prevent re close the
breaker by close push button after if it already close.
19. What is stepper motor.what is its uses?
Stepper motor is the electrical machine which act upon input pulse applied to it. it is one type of
synchronous motor which runs in steps in either direction instead of running in complete, in
automation parts it is used.
20. There are a Transformer and an induction machine. Those two have the same supply. For which
device the load current will be maximum? And why?
The motor has max load current compare to that of transformer because the motor consumes real power..
and the transformer is only producing the working flux and its not consuming.. hence the load current in the
transformer is because of core loss so it is minimum.
21. What is SF6 Circuit Breaker?
SF6 is Sulpher hexa Flouride gas.. if this gas is used as arc quenching medium in a Circuitbreaker means
22. What is ferrantic effect?
Output voltage is greater than the input voltage or receiving end voltage is greater than the sending end
23. What is meant by insulation voltage in cables? explain it?
It is the property of a cable by virtue of it can withstand the applied voltage without rupturing it is known as
insulation level of the cable.
24. What is the difference between MCB & MCCB, Where it can be used?
MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small
current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and
magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition.under voltage and under frequency may be
inbuilt. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.
25. Where should the lighting arrestor be placed in distribution lines?
Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incomming feeder of 33kv and near power
transformers in sub-stations.
26. Define IDMT relay?
It is an inverse definite minimum time relay.In IDMT relay its operating is inversely proportional and also a
characteristic of minimum time after which this relay operates.It is inverse in the sense ,the tripping time
will decrease as the magnitude of fault current increase.

27. What are the transformer losses?

TRANSFORMER LOSSES - Transformer losses have two sources-copper loss and magnetic loss. Copper
losses are caused by the resistance of the wire (I2R). Magnetic losses are caused by eddy currents and
hysteresis in the core. Copper loss is a constant after the coil has been wound and therefore a measurable
loss. Hysteresis loss is constant for a particular voltage and current. Eddy-current loss, however, is different
for each frequency passed through the transformer.

28. what is the full form of KVAR?

We know there are three types of power in Electricals as Active, apparent & reactive. So KVAR is stand for
``Kilo Volt Amps with Reactive component.
29. Two bulbs of 100w and 40w respectively connected in series across a 230v supply which bulb will
glow bright and why?
Since two bulbs are in series they will get equal amount of electrical current but as the supply voltage is
constant across the bulb(P=V^2/R).So the resistance of 40W bulb is greater and voltage across 40W is more
(V=IR) so 40W bulb will glow brighter.
30. Why temperature rise is conducted in bus bars and isolators?
Bus bars and isolators are rated for continuous power flow, that means they carry heavy currents which rises
their temperature. so it is necessary to test this devices for temperature rise.
31. What is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?
In simple, synchronous generator supply's both active and reactive power but asynchronous
generator(induction generator) supply's only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.This
type of generators are used in windmills.
32. What is Automatic Voltage regulator(AVR)?
AVR is an abbreviation for Automatic Voltage Regulator.It is important part in Synchronous Generators, it
controls theoutput voltage of the generator by controlling its excitation current. Thus it can control the
output Reactive Power of the Generator.
33. Difference between a four point starter and three point starter?
The shunt connection in four point stater is provided separately form the line where as in three point stater it
is connected with line which is the drawback in three point stater
34. Why the capacitors works on ac only?
Generally capacitor gives infinite resistance to dc components(i.e., block the dc components). it allows the
ac components to pass through.
35. How many types of colling system it transformers?

1. ONAN (oil natural,air natural)

2. ONAF (oil natural,air forced)
3. OFAF (oil forced,air forced)
4. ODWF (oil direct,water forced)
5. OFAN (oil forced,air forced)
36. Operation carried out in Thermal power stations?
The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit
the turbine , the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity.
37. What is 2 phase motor?
A two phase motor is a motor with the the starting winding and the running winding have a phase split.
e.g;ac servo motor.where the auxiliary winding and the control winding have a phase split of 90 degree.

38. What is the principle of motor?

Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in an magnetic field it produce turning or twisting
movement is called as torque.
39. What is meant by armature reaction?
The effect of armature flu to main flux is called armature reaction. The armature flux may support main flux
or opposes main flux.
40. What is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?
In simple, synchronous generator supply's both active and reactive power but asynchronous
generator(induction generator) supply's only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.This
type of generators are used in windmills.
41. Whats is MARX CIRCUIT?
It is used with generators for charging a number of capacitor in parallel and discharging them in series.It is
used when voltage required for testing is higher than the available.
42. What are the advantages of speed control using thyristor?
Advantages :
1. Fast Switching Characterstics than Mosfet, BJT, IGBT
2. Low cost
3. Higher Accurate.
43. What is ACSR cable and where we use it?
ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & distribution.

44. Whats the one main difference between UPS & inverter ? And electrical engineering & electronics
engineering ?
Uninterrupt power supply is mainly use for short time . means according to ups VA it gives backup. ups is
also two types : on line and offline . online ups having high volt and amp for long time backup with with
high dc voltage.but ups start with 12v dc with 7 amp. but inverter is startwith 12v,24,dc to 36v dc and
120amp to 180amp battery with long time backup.
45. What will happen when power factor is leading in distribution of power?
If their is high power factor, i.e if the power factor is close to one:
a)Losses in form of heat will be reduced,
b)Cable becomes less bulky and easy to carry, and very cheap to afford, &
c)It also reduces over heating of tranformers.
46. What are the advantages of star-delta starter with induction motor?
(1). The main advantage of using the star delta starter is reduction of current during the starting of the
motor.Starting current is reduced to 3-4 times Of current of Direct online starting.(2). Hence the starting
current is reduced , the voltage drops during the starting of motor in systems are reduced.
47. Why Delta Star Transformers are used for Lighting Loads?
For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding. and this lighting
load is always unbalanced in all three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta
winding in the primary. So delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.
48. Why computer humming sound occurred in HT transmission line?
This computer humming sound is coming due to ionization (breakdown of air into charged particles) of air
around transmission conductor. This effect is called as Corona effect, and it is considered as power loss.

49. What is rated speed?

At the time of motor taking normal current (rated current)the speed of the motor is called rated speed. It is a
speed at which any system take small current and give maximum efficiency.
50. If one lamp connects between two phases it will glow or not?
If the voltage between the two phase is equal to the lamp voltage then the lamp will glow. When the voltage
difference is big it will damage the lamp and when the difference is smaller the lamp will glow depending on
the type of lamp.

Why back emf used for a dc motor? highlight its significance.

The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of
magnet, in a DC motor, cut the magnetic flux, opposes the current flowing through the
conductor, when the armature rotates, is called back emf. Its value depends upon the speed of
rotation of the armature conductors. In starting, the value of back emf is zero.
What is slip in an induction motor?
Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed
of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually
expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol S.
Explain the application of storage batteries.
Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below:

For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and
For starting, ignition and lighting of automobiles, aircrafts etc.
For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains.
As a supply power source in telephone exchange, laboratories and broad casting stations.
For emergency lighting at hospitals, banks, rural areas where electricity supplies are not
9. Explain advantages of storage batteries
Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below:
Most efficient form of storing energy portably.
Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored
Reliable source for supply of energy.
The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate.
10. What are the different methods for the starting of a synchronous motor.
Starting methods: Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods:
By means of an auxiliary motor: The rotor of a synchronous motor is rotated by auxiliary
motor. Then rotor poles are excited due to which the rotor field is locked with the statorrevolving field and continuous rotation is obtained.
By providing damper winding: Here, bar conductors are embedded in the outer periphery of
the rotor poles and are short-circuited with the short-circuiting rings at both sides. The machine

is started as a squirrel cage induction motor first. When it picks up speed, excitation is given to
the rotor and the rotor starts rotating continuously as the rotor field is locked with stator
revolving field.
11. Name the types of motors used in vacuum cleaners, phonographic
appliances, vending machines, refrigerators, rolling mills, lathes, power factor
improvement and cranes.
Following motors are used: Vacuum cleaners- Universal motor.
Phonographic appliances Hysteresis motor.
Vending machines Shaded pole motor.
Refrigerators Capacitor split phase motors.
Rolling mills Cumulative motors.
Lathes DC shunt motors.
Power factor improvement Synchronous motors.
12. State Thevenins Theorem:
According to thevenins theorem, the current flowing through a load resistance
Connected across any two terminals of a linear active bilateral network is the ratio open circuit
voltage (i.e. the voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and sum of load
resistance and internal resistance of the network. It is given by Voc / (Ri + RL).
13. State Nortons Theorem
The Nortons theorem explains the fact that there are two terminals and they are as follows:
One is terminal active network containing voltage sources
Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. The output terminals are
equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance.
The Nortons theorem also explains about the constant current that is equal to the current of the
short circuit placed across the terminals. The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed
from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and
replaced by the internal resistance.
14. State Maximum power transfer theorem
The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from
the network. This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load
resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be
equal to the resistance of the network. This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and
the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind.
15. Explain different losses in a transformer.
There are two types of losses occurring in transformer:
Constant losses or Iron losses: The losses that occur in the core are known as core losses or
iron losses. Two types of iron losses are:
o eddy current loss

o Hysteresis loss.
These losses depend upon the supply voltage, frequency, core material and its construction. As
long as supply voltage and frequency is constant, these losses remain the same whether the
transformer is loaded or not. These are also known as constant losses.
Variable losses or copper losses: when the transformer is loaded, current flows in primary and
secondary windings, there is loss of electrical energy due to the resistance of the primary
winding, and secondary winding and they are called variable losses. These losses depend upon
the loading conditions of the transformers. Therefore, these losses are also called as variable
16. Explain different types of D.C motors? Give their applications
Different type of DC motors and their applications are as follows: Shunt motors: It has a constant speed though its starting torque is not very high. Therefore, it is
suitable for constant speed drive, where high starting torque is not required such as pumps,
blowers, fan, lathe machines, tools, belt or chain conveyor etc.
Service motors: It has high starting torque & its speed is inversely proportional to the loading
conditions i.e. when lightly loaded, the speed is high and when heavily loaded, it is low.
Therefore, motor is used in lifts, cranes, traction work, coal loader and coal cutter in coalmines
Compound motors: It also has high starting torque and variable speed. Its advantage is, it can
run at NIL loads without any danger. This motor will therefore find its application in loads
having high inertia load or requiring high intermittent torque such as elevators, conveyor, rolling
mill, planes, presses, shears and punches, coal cutter and winding machines etc.
17. Explain the process of commutation in a dc machine. Explain what are interpoles and why they are required in a dc machine.
Commutation: It is phenomenon when an armature coil moves under the influence of one polepair; it carries constant current in one direction. As the coil moves into the influence of the next
pole- pair, the current in it must reverse. This reversal of current in a coil is called commutation.
Several coils undergo commutation simultaneously. The reversal of current is opposed by the
static coil emf and therefore must be aided in some fashion for smooth current reversal, which
otherwise would result in sparking at the brushes. The aiding emf is dynamically induced into
the coils undergoing commutation by means of compoles or interpoles, which are series excited
by the armature current. These are located in the interpolar region of the main poles and
therefore influence the armature coils only when these undergo commutation.
18. Comment on the working principle of operation of a single-phase
Working principle of operation of a single-phase transformer can be explained as
An AC supply passes through the primary winding, a current will start flowing in the primary
winding. As a result, the flux is set. This flux is linked with primary and secondary windings.
Hence, voltage is induced in both the windings. Now, when the load is connected to the
secondary side, the current will start flowing in the load in the secondary winding, resulting in
the flow of additional current in the secondary winding. Hence, according to Faradays laws of

electromagnetic induction, emf will be induced in both the windings. The voltage induced in the
primary winding is due to its self inductance and known as self induced emf and according to
Lenzes law it will oppose the cause i.e. supply voltage hence called as back emf. The voltage
induced in secondary coil is known as mutually induced voltage. Hence, transformer works on
the principle of electromagnetic induction.
19. Define the following terms: Reliability,
Maximum demand,
Reserve-generating capacity,
Availability (operational).
Reliability: It is the capacity of the power system to serve all power demands without failure
over long periods.
Maximum Demand: It is maximum load demand required in a power station during a given
Reserve generating capacity: Extra generation capacity installed to meet the need of scheduled
downtimes for preventive maintenance is called reserve-generating capacity.
Availability: As the percentage of the time a unit is available to produce power whether needed
by the system or not.
20. Mention the disadvantages of low power factor? How can it be improved?
Disadvantages of low power factor:
Line losses are 1.57 times unity power factor.
Larger generators and transformers are required.
Low lagging power factor causes a large voltage drop, hence extra regulation equipment is
required to keep voltage drop within prescribed limits.
Greater conductor size: To transmit or distribute a fixed amount of power at fixed voltage, the
conductors will have to carry more current at low power factor. This requires a large conductor
21. State the methods of improving power factor?
Methods of improving power factor:
By connecting static capacitors in parallel with the load operating at lagging power factor.
A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over excited and therefore behaves like a
By using phase advancers to improve the power factor of induction motors. It provides
exciting ampere turns to the rotor circuit of the motor. By providing more ampere-turns than
required, the induction motor can be made to operate on leading power factor like an
overexcited synchronous motor.
22. State the factors, for the choice of electrical system for an aero turbine.
The choice of electrical system for an aero turbine is guided by three factors:
Type of electrical output: dc, variable- frequency ac, and constant- frequency ac.

Aero turbine rotational speed: constant speed with variable blade pitch, nearly constant speed
with simpler pitch- changing mechanism or variable speed with fixed pitch blades.
Utilization of electrical energy output: in conjunction with battery or other form of storage, or
interconnection with power grid.
23. What are the advantages of VSCF wind electrical system?
Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are:
No complex pitch changing mechanism is needed.
Aero turbine always operates at maximum efficiency point.
Extra energy in the high wind speed region of the speed duration curve can be extracted
Significant reduction in aerodynamic stresses, which are associated with constant speed
24. Explain the terms real power, apparent power and reactive power for ac
circuits and also the units used.
Real Power: It is the product of voltage, current and power factor i.e. P = V I cos j and basic
unit of real power is watt. i.e. Expressed as W or kW.
Apparent power: It is the product of voltage and current. Apparent power = V I and basic unit
of apparent power is volt- ampere. Expressed as VA or KVA.
Reactive Power: It is the product of voltage, current and sine of angle between the voltage and
current i.e. Reactive power = voltage X current X sinj or Reactive power = V I sin j and has no
other unit but expressed in VAR or KVAR.
25. Define the following: Average demand, Maximum demand, Demand factor,
Load factor.
Average Demand: the average power requirement during some specified period of time of
considerable duration is called the average demand of installation.
Maximum Demand: The maximum demand of an installation is defined as the greatest of all
the demand, which have occurred during a given period. It is measured accordingly to
specifications, over a prescribed time interval during a certain period.
Demand Factor: It is defined as the ratio of actual maximum demand made by the load to the
rating of the connected load.
Load Factor: It is defined as the ratio of the average power to the maximum demand.
1. How grounding is different than earthings?
2. What is diversity factor in electric installations?
3. Explain Marx circuit.
4. Why human body feel electric shock?
5. What is the principal of motor?
6. What is power factor?
7. Should power factor be low or high?
8. Difference between field rheostat and armature rheostat.
9. Why field rheostat is kept in minimum position?
10. Why armature rheostat is kept in maximum position?
11. What is meant by derating factor?
12. What is stiffness factor?

13. What is the dependency of stiffness on load angle??

14. What is 100% protection of generator? Why 100% is not used but 95% is generally
15. What is the difference between a Verilog task and Verilog function?
16. What is the unit of magnetic flux density?
17. Why increase in current leads to increase in conductor temperature?
18. How can a equal potential zone be carried out in conductors?
19. What is essential to prove safe isolation of electrical circuit?
20. What is the ratio of true power to apparent power in an AC circuit?
21. What is power relay?
22. Differentiate between power relay and reverse power relay.
23. What is the suitable transmission voltage?
24. What is the maximum operating temperature for a thermoplastic insulated cable?
25. Explain the working of variable frequency transformer?
26. Which oil can be used in transformer?
27. What is excitation in case of DC motor?
28. Why is the starting current high in DC motor?
29. What is rotary phase converter?
30. Differentiate between digital phase converter and ordinary phase converter.
31. What is knee point voltage?
32. List the advantages of star-delta starter with induction motor?
33. Which type of transformer is used for lighting loads?
34. What is star-delta transformer?

Why is star delta starter preferred with induction motor?

Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor because it reduces the starting current about 3-4 times of
the direct current which causes the voltage to drop and hence it causes less damages and losses. Also, it
increases the starting torque and hence prevents from the damaging of the motor winding.

What are the differences between an alternator and a generator?

Alternator and generator, both devices have the same basic functionality. They both convert mechanical
energy into electrical energy and they both have the same principal of electromagnetic induction. The main
and only difference between these two devices lies in the construction. Alternator has a stationary armature
and a rotating magnetic field for high voltages, while generator uses stationary magnetic field and rotating
conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings.
Other than these two questions, three more important electrical engineering interview questions and
answers are as follows:

Why AC systems are more used or preferred over DC systems?

The reasons why AC systems are more widely used and more preferable than DC systems are as follows:
1. It is comparably easy to maintain and modify the voltage of AC electricity for
transmission and distribution than it is for DC electricity.
2. The entire plant cost, ie, circuit breakers, isolators, transformers, etc is much lower in
comparison to that of DC transmission.
3. All the power stations produce AC electricity, and hence it is advantageous and also
easy to use AC rather than converting it and using DC.
4. AC is practically a sine wave current, and hence in case of a large fault in the network,
the sine wave will naturally tend to zero at some point and hence it is very easy to
interrupt it in an AC system rather than in a DC system.

Why is negative feedback more preferable in control system?

The role of feedback system in control system is to check deviation from the desired result, that is, it takes
the sample output back to the input and compares the output signal with the input signal for any kinds of
error. Negative feedback results in a better stability for the system. It rejects any kind of disturbance signal
and is less sensitive to any kind of parameter variations.

What is reverse power relay?

Reverse power relay are used for the protection of the generating stations. The generating stations feed
power to the grid and in case when the generating stations are off, there is no generation in the plants and it
pulls off power from the grid. To stop this power flow from the grid to the generating stations, reverse power
relays are used.