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There is a worldwide effort to define a full-service access network. The Broadbandloop project was formed by a European consortium
funded by the European Union with the objective of defining a strategy for evolution from a narrowband voice and data network to a
broadband network The project is defining a system concept based on new innovative PON technology, which enables fiber to cost
effectively penetrate close to the customer, and VDSL technology for transmission over twisted copper pairs. The system concept is validated in field trials in Denmark, Portugal, and Poland. The article describes the different requirements for a full-service access network,
the system concept, and technologies developed. Results from modeling of broadband traffic and the corresponding bandwidth are
given The cost effectiveness of using new optical fiber vs. reusing existing telephone copper plant has been evaluated, and results from
these studies are presented.

Niels Engell Andersen, DSC Communications AIS

Paul0 M . N, Nordeste, Portugal Telecom-CET
A. Manuel de Oliveira Duarte, Universidade de Aveiro
Hans Erik Lassen, TeleDanmark
Anders Ekblad, Telia
Andrzej R. Pach, University of Krakow
Krzysztof Amborski, Telekomunikacja Polska (TPSA)
Lars Dittmann, EM1

o support economica rlevelopment across Europe, there is

a need to advance the availability and decrease the cost of

both basic and enhanced telecommunication services. To facilitate this, the European Union (EU) has initiated a process of
deregulation and a general opening up of the public telephony
network. While there are many network design options available, the EUs program for Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) [ 11 in cooperation with other
organizations has funded a project to evaluate and recommend
strategies for access network deployment, designs of a full-service access network, and the economic balance between deployment of new fiber in the access network and reuse of the
existing copper infrastructure. This project started in September 1995 and is planned to conclude by the end of 1998.
The Broadbandloop (BBL) project1 will define and demonstrate, in live field trials, a concept for a full-service access
network which migrates fiber gracefully into the local loop
when bandwidth demand increases. The services offered will
target two customer groups: small t o medium-sized businesses
and residential customers. BBL supports the needs of network
operators to provide both narrowband and broadband serPartners in the Broadbandloop project are DSC Communications, Portugal Telecom-CET, Universidade de Aveiro, TeleDanmark, Telia, University of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow, and Telekomunikacja Polska.


0163-6804/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE

vices, such as high-speed Internet access and video on

demand, which are economically justified in a competitive
environment. The field trial sites, located in Denmark, Portugal, and Poland, have been purposely selected to enable analysis of typical problems which may be encountered when
legacy networks, such as those using existing copper andlor
coax for broadband access or those with little or old telephony
infrastructures, are expanded for new service.
BBL is a near-term project with the aim of developing and
testing technologies which will be ready for mass deployment
within the next three years. The system scheduled for deployment uses a hybrid fiber-copper concept based on a combination of a passive optical network (PON) and very high-rate
digital subscriber line (VDSL) technology. The PON provides
the low-cost fiber acccss, while VDSL providcs the high-speed
transmission to the customer over a final short length of
unshielded twisted pair copper or coax. PONs have until now
not been widely accepted for commercial deployment. BBL is
addressing some of the key issues to promote the use of
PONs such as integration into the standardized synchronous
digital hierarchy (SDH) network, operational stability, upgrading of bandwidth, and flexibility to provide protected routing
and allow multiple services.
This article will present the BBL system concept, traffic
modeling and bandwidth requirements, optical design, technical and economic evaluations, and plans for the field trials.

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December 1997

.. ..




Single business customer


OLT: Optical line terminal

ONU: Optical network unit
SIM: Subscriber interface module


2 Mb/s


NT: Network termination

ODN: Optical distribution network

Multiple residentiallsmall business customers
(reuse of existing copper in customer drop)


multiple VDSL cards

SDH ring (STM-1 or STM-4)



Multiple residentiaVsmall business customers

(new network)


El, POTS, ATM-25,


n x 5 1 Mbl;
n x 51 Mbls


Ethernet cards

. ..

.. -.


W Figure 1. The BBL system concept.

egacy network operators in western Europe will require a
broadband system which provides services as an overlay to
the existing telephony or cable television (CATV) network. If
the existing copper resources need replacement or are insufficient, narrowband services should also be made available
through the new broadband system.
Network operators without a copper network or with a network with low penetration will require a system for both narrowband and broadband services from the outset. An example
of such a network with low penetration is Poland. In general,
the existing copper access network plant in Poland has a low
penetration of about 20 percent with higher penetration found
only in large cities. The services required initially are plain old
telephony service (POTS), Internet access, and local area network (LAN)-to-LAN interconnections with evolution to
broadband services. Therefore, the new access network must
provide basic narrowband services at low cost and be upgradable to provide full broadband services in the future. Since the
new infrastructure must be established for both narrowband
and broadband service, it favors deployment of fiber deeper
into the access network.
A common requirement for both applications of the system
is that it must integrate synchronous and asynchronous services. For economy the system must be designed for sharing
of resources in an environment where customer penetration is
low. Active electronics in the field must be kept at a minimum. This favors the PON with long feeder length and wide
coverage. Some customers require protected routing which
the system must therefore be able to provide on an individual
basis according to demand.
The BBL network topology is shown in Fig. 1. This system is
based on a single fiber PON architecture [2] with a splitting
ratio of up to 16. The bandwidth capacity of the PON is 155

IEEE Communications Magazine

Mbls bidirectionally in the basic version which can be gracefully

extended to provide 1 Gb/s in the downstream direction and
576 Mb/s in the upstream direction. The PON consists of the
optical line terminal (OLT), a single fiber optical distribution
network (ODN), and up to 16 optical network units (ONUs) per
link. Multiple links are connected to a single subrack system. Customers are connected directly to the ONUs or use a VDSL
modem in the final drop, depending on the application.
The BBL PON effectively integrates transport of synchronous and asynchronous traffic in the access network.
The switched network will continue to be a separate narrowband and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) based broadband infrastructure for many years to come. Therefore,
separation and grooming of t h e synchronous and asynchronous traffic is performed at the OLT at the access node.
In its simplest form, the OLT is a single module forming an
integrated part of the SDH network. Standard SDH virtual
containers with a 2 Mbls payload (VC12) a r e dropped
through the PON to the ONU. The ONU provides International Telecommunication Union (1TU)-compliant
G.703/G.704 connections to a primary rate multiplexer with
narrowband service interfaces such as POTS or data line
cards. When cell-based broadband services arc required, an
ATM crossconnect module is installed in the OLT and ATM
service modules are installed in the ONUs.
An important factor in addition to the requirements for low
initial installation and operational cost is the graceful migration
of the network as bandwidth demand increases. The BBL project is pioneering subcarrier multiplexing technology applied
to PONs. This technology provides for a selective upgrade
path for customers requesting the upgrade and a robust, simple, bandwidth-efficient system which meets the requirements
for future commercial PONs. The subcarrier multiplexing concept is explained in more detail in the fourth section.
The design and physical location of the ONU is of key

December 1997

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fic simulations to determine the

importance in obtaining a costprojected g r a d e of service
effective network. The different
ONU designs depicted in Fig. 1
are all compact and versatile. The
ONUS illustrated are optimized for
A computer model based on the
the three scenarios of: new netATM network depicted in Fig. 1
works for business customer offices
was used to estimate the bandwhere fiber is extended to the cuswidth demand to serve an area
tomer premises; for broadband
with up to 500 residential cusupgrade of copper networks with
tomers. The initial assumption
VDSL modems; and for new netabout services was that residenworks where installation in a
tial customers in the area would
building is preferred. The ONU
receive V O D and high-speed
provides a combination of interInternet access. The V O D serfaces and is shared by many cusvice is assumed to be variable bit
tomers. The ONU design for
rate and the Internet service to
outdoor applications is made such
be unspecified bit rate where no
that expensive installation of new
service guarantee is given. Trafstreet cabinets can be avoided if
fic for residential customers will
buildings are not available. The
mainly occur in the downstream
field trials have beeg designed to
direction from network to cusdemonstrate the features of these
Figure 2 . Bandwidth related tograde of service.
tomer. Upstream traffic consists
mainly of commands from t h e
VDSL modems a r e used to
users ( e . g . , to reauest a film or
connect t h e customers to t h e
download a file). Bandwidth requGementsL[5] of the new
O N U via existing copper twisted pairs o r coax used for
downstream services are expected to be megabits per secCATV distribution. The bandwidth from the ONU to the
ond. In the downstream direction the VOD peak bit rate
customer varies between 12 Mbls and 51 Mb/s depending on
and mean bit rate used are 6 and 4 Mbls. Internet access bit
transmission distances, which range from 300 to 1500 m. In
rates used are 2 and 0.128 Mb/s. The VOD bandwidth valt h e opposite direction of transmission; capacity varies
ues assume t h a t Motion Picture Experts G r o u p type 2
between 1.6 Mbls and 26 Mbls. Therefore, customers
(MPEG-2) coding is used. The allocation of upstream bandrequesting high bandwidth have the ONU located close to or
width is assumed to be 128 kbls for the peak and mean rates
at their premises, while customers requesting lower bandfor both residential services.
width are connected through an ONU located more centrally
in the network where the cost of the ONU is shared by more
The global bandwidth was estimated for the BBL network
The frequency spectrum for VDSL [3] is designed such
with calculations based on varying values for service penetrathat POTS or basic rate integrated services digital network
tion (SP) (i.e., the population of users with access to the ser(BR-ISDN) may be provided on t h e same copper pair.
POTS or BR-ISDN users may be connected via passive filvices), as well as varying grade of service which quantifies the
ters between the ONU and customer. The initial version of
probability that a given connection request finds all the netVDSL used in BBL is based on carrierless amplitude and
work resources occupied and therefore does not succeed. The
phase (CAP) modulation in the downstream direction and
grade of service was calculated using the Erlang loss formula
[6].The offered traffic for VOD and Internet access services
quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation in the
upstream direction. This technology provides the lowest
is (A = 500*SP*BHCA*HT)based on the pair (BHCA: busy
cost and earliest commercial availability. The VDSL frehour call attempts, HT: holding time) and is chosen to be (0.03,
2 hr) and (0.2, 1 hr), respectively.
quency spectrum is limited to 30 MHz and permits VDSL
to be combined with an analog CATV distribution system
Figure 2 gives the estimated downstream bandwidth for the
on coax.
VOD and Internet services for service penetrations of 5 and
The selected broadband service interfaces for the customer
50 percent (from a maximum Qf 500 potential users in the
are ATM-25 and Ethernet. ATM-25 provides transparent
area). Peak rate allocations only are shown for simplicity reaATM transport to the customer premises equipment and is
sons. The grade of service is varied and shown in a log scale.
recommended by the Full Service Access Network (FSAN)
As an example, the variable Internetjeak (5 percent penetragroup [4] Ethernet is widely available in personal computers
tion) gives the estimated bandwidth for the Internet service in
today and therefore allows for faster take-up of high-speed
the downstream direction for a peak rate allocation and 5 perInternet access.
cent SP. Figure 2 indicates that even for reasonably high service penetrations the bandwidth requirement remains
moderate. The bandwidth variation with varying grade of service is demonstrated to be relatively small.
The results of the model have helped to determine the
estimated bandwidth requirements and grade of service for an
he broa
ONU having a number x (x = 1, ..., 32) of users. An ONU
video on demand ( V O D ) and high-speed I n t e r n e t
providing the VOD service would require, for a grade of seraccess. To accurately estimate the correlation between
vice = 10 percent, between 6 Mbls and 24 Mbls in the downbandwidth demand on the system and the service quality
stream direction. The bandwidth estimation for the ONU is
seen by the residential customers, the BBL project consorbased on the different number of users given above and a
tium has developed a computer model and performed trafpeak rate allocation.


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he optical transport system between the OLT and the

ONUs must be designed to accommodate both narrowband and broadband services, and circuit-based and packet
traffic over a point-to-multipoint PON. Infrastructure cost
must be kept low and closely connected to t h e service
requirements. New network deployments will often b e
based on narrowband POTS with initial low penetration.
The network must be cost-effective in this scenario but
upgradable as t h e demand for services increases. T h e
upgrade must be accomplished with a minimum of, preferably no, disruption to customer service. The bandwidth efficiency, which is the ratio between the bandwidth required
for transportation of the payload (including overheads) and
the available bandwidth, must be high. To keep the installation and maintenance costs low, the system must be simple
and insensitive to the performance of the optical network
in the outside plant.

Year 1










W Figure 3. Illustration of broadband upgrade of an ONU and

insertion of a new ONU in an operating PON.

In BBL, subcarrier multiple access (SCMA) technology [7]
has been chosen as the method to transmit from individual
ONUs to the OLT (multipoint-to-point) direction. With
SCMA one or more electrical subcarriers are assigned to each
ONU. In the OLT the traffic from the individual ONUs is
selected via electrical filters. SCMA has been proven to be
robust and simple in operational field trials [7, 81. It allows
optimization'of the ONU, with respect to processing power
and operational speed, in line with the capacity of the individual subcarrier, not the entire PON bandwidth. Additionally,
SCMA eliminates the ranging issues commonly found in timedivision-multiple-access-based PON systems. This issue is particularly important when protected redundant routing must be
provided. SCMA allows for fast resynchronization in case of
switchover to an alternative route.
The basic optical system provides a total of 9.72 Mb/s of
upstream capacity on a narrowband subcarrier for each ONU.
In addition, a subcarrier-based bandwidth upgrade will be
demonstrated providing extra upstream capacity of 51 Mb/s
on a broadband subcarrier per ONU. In the direction from
the OLT to the ONU, broadcast baseband transmission is
chosen for the basic system with a transmission speed of 155
Mb/s. Upgrade to higher bandwidths will also be possible
through the addition of extra subcarriers, each with a capacity
of 51 Mb/s. This will allow capacity upgrade on a selective
basis without widening the operating window of all ONUs.
Figure 3 illustrates the principle of carriers with different
capacity terminated in either narrowband or broadband
ONUs. Broadband subcarriers can be added on an individual
basis without interrupting service from other ONUs. The
SCMA technology also allows ONUs to be connected and dis-

connected from the optical distribution network without disturbing other ONUs.
ATM has been selected as the key multiplexing technique
for broadband service transmission in the time domain transported within different subcarriers. The use of ATM provides
the flexibility required for full-service integration. It enables
both static time-division multiplexing (TDM), via an emulation protocol, and statistical multiplexing, which will make
low-cost data communication possible for applications such as
residential user connectivity over the Internet.


The BBL PON benefits from single-fiber working. This is

fast becoming a network operator preference, since it saves
on optical fiber outlay and hence simplifies fiber handling.
Loop lengths below 20 km a r e considered, and optical
amplifiers will not be used in the system. Optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) provides a clear separation of downstream and upstream transmissions, which
are carried on 1550 and 1310 nm, respectively. This enables
reuse of electrical frequency bands in both transmission
directions. The required laser modulation bandwidth is
therefore reduced, which enables low-cost laser technology
to be used.
In BBL the key optical component is an integrated optical
transceiver containing a Fabry-Perot laser diode, a PIN photodiode, and an optical WDM to separate 1550 and 1310 nm channels. Furthermore, an additional optical filter is incorporated to
keep optical crosstalk as low as -50 dB. The O N U optotransceiver is a commercially available
component developed for digital applications, enabling the BBL system to
benefit from its low mice.
As indicated in Fig. 4 the BBL sysI
I .......................
. .
tem is based on SCMA. Downstream
every ONU accesses an STM-1 baseband signal on a TDM basis and may
furthermore have access to a broadband subcarrier channel. Upstream a
+ - - .....................
Optics based on
Optics based on
narrowband or broadband subcarrier
discrete elements
is allocated to each ONU. All channels a r e designed, with regard to
power budgets, to meet a bit error
by takrate which is better than
Figure 4. BBL PON based on subcarrier upgrade both up- and downstream


IEEE Communications Magazine

December 1997

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Access point

Flcxiblity point 1 Flexibility point 2


ing into account link losses in the interval

10-25 dB and at the same time obtaining
sufficient signal-to-noise ratios, when considering the relative intensity noise (RIN),
2. PON 1:16)+
shot noise, thermal noise, and optical
(Downstrmm 26 M ~ / s
beat noise (see below). In addition, a 3
dB implementation margin is incorporat3: FON 1:16)+
ed. In order to limit the total bandwidth
(Dowrstieam SI Mb/s
I:?st:?xn 1.6 MWs)
capacity in the system an efficient 1 Hz/l
b/s modulation scheme is used for all sub4: ?ON (1 :i 6 )
carrier channels.
In a multicarrier system, with a total
frequency plan covering more than one
5: PON (~5 4 )
octave, ONU laser nonlinearity must be
kept below a certain level because interAccess point T y p i d y ? OC0 to i O . i j 0 0 hotrie5 pzss.-tl, 1i3CO i r i fr:m i:icLo*:irr
modulation products within information
Flexibility point l : - p
to 200
~ huinrs
~ ~
~ 500
~ in froi:i r.u>.oin?r
Flexibility point 2: Tyypice ~v 4 io 60 homes p e , s d I n n 711iorri CUST071211
bands cannot be avoided. To ensure low
STM: STMI interfacc to core SDH inemul-k
A-'M: ATM ciosrcome3
intermodulation distortion arising from
ADSL: Asymmetric diyital subsciilrr line
laser modulation, the lasers are not modVDSL Veiy high-rat? digiidl 5ubscrii-;dr L!i?
OLM: Optical line inodde
ulated near their threshold currents. This
ONM: Optical network inodul?
ATM25: ATM UN1 with 25 Mb:s trdiistrii>sirin i6Ie
complicates the equalization of the subcarriers at the OLT, but is necessary to
obtain a dense subcarrier frequency plan,
W Figure 5. Life cycle cost scenarios.
limit the total bandwidth, and avoid channel interference. The ONU transmitter is
able to automatically adapt to a differential link loss of 15
dB in the PON. This is achieved through a number of mechDEPLOY
anisms, one of which involves keeping the mean laser optical
output power inversely adjusted to the mean received optical
ife-cycle cost studies in the BBL project have compared the
power. However, the 15 dB dynamic range cannot be covcost for deployment of five different access networks over a
ered solely in the D C domain without modulating the laser
span of 10 years assuming a certain development in service
close to threshold. Consequently, regulation of the modulademand and number of customers connected to the system.
tion index is included in the equalization process to obtain
Customers are predominantly residential. The life-cycle cost
the required dynamic range.
includes accumulated investment and operation, maintenance,
When designing a laser driver, cost and power consumpand administration costs.
tion can be reduced by avoiding the use of Peltier coolers to
The assumption behind the study was that a telephone netmaintain constant laser temperature. Consequently, the design
work with a penetration of 95 percent would be available. It was
of the BBL ONU has allowed for lasers with fluctuating temalso assumed that the number of customers connected to broadperature and hence varying light current characteristics. The
band services would increase linearly from none at the beginning
driver automatically adapts to temperature changes by use of
an onboard temperature sensor.
of year 0 to a penetration of either 20 or 40 percent connected
after 10 years. The five scenarios (Fig. 5) compared were:
In subcarrier multiple access systems the headend receiver
1)Asynchronous DSL (ADSL) from the access point to the
is simultaneously illuminated by n optical signals. The noise
level experienced by an individual channel is affected by the
2) PON with split ratio 1:16 from the access point to flexibility
RIN from all the ONU lasers. This is due to the fact that the
point 1 and VDSL from flexibility point 1 to the customer
RIN level in the OLT receiver depends on the total incoming
light level, and high RIN levels could potentially limit the sys3) PON with split ratio 1:16 from the access point to flexibility
point 2 and VDSL from flexibility point 2 to the customer
tem performance. The laser in the transceiver has been char4)PON with split ratio 1:16 from the access point to the
acterized with respect to RIN to verify that the bit error rate
can be kept below the design level even at worst-case combicustomer
5) PON with split ratio 1: 64 from the access point to the
nation of the link losses.
Subcarrier multiple access PONS potentially suffer from
The ADSL technology has the advantage that existing copoptical beat noise that may degrade the optical transmission
per can be used from the access point to the customer; thereperformance. Optical beat noise arises when the optical
spectra of two or more lasers, illuminating the OLT optical
fore, for initial broadband service deployment fiber is not
required. However, the bandwidth may not be sufficient for
receiver, overlap. The level of optical beat noise depends on
future demand.
the distribution of the optical wavelengths of the O N U
With the assumptions made about relatively low bandwidth
lasers; consequently, the optical beat noise level fluctuates
requirements and customer penetration evolving to 20 perwith time and temperature. This can lead to a momentary
increase of bit error rate. The PON system is designed to be
cent, the most cost-effective method is scenario 1. For this
application, ADSL will require very little new investment in
resilient to this phenomenon. The optical beat noise level is
supervised at the OLT, and in case of an increased level the
infrastructure. If the number of customers connected to the
wavelengths of a number of ONU lasers will be fractionally
network increases to 40 percent, the difference between sceadjusted under the control of embedded software, until an
nario 1 and scenario 2 is .relatively small when viewed over 10
acceptable noise level is reestablished. By this control
years. Scenario 5 showed a marginally lower cost than scemethod the bit error rate is kept below the design level
nario 4. However, a splitting ratio of 1:64 would limit the flexibility of the network design.
given above.



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December 1997

The choice of scenario will depend on expectations for development in services. Providing several TV channels simultaneously, for instance, may require the bandwidth VDSL can provide.
An operator may also, for strategic reasons, want to penetrate
fiber deeper into the access network for future growth.
Civil engineering work and installation of cabinets and
powering contributes the most significant portion of first
installed cost in all cases. It was found that the cost for churn
(connection and disconnection of customers) also contributed
significantly to the cost over 10 years. Centralized management is expected to reduce life-cycle cost in favor of scenario
4 and scenario 5.
A similar study was performed for a residential area in
Poland where little existing telephony infrastructure exists.
The results from this study show that the fiber-intensive scenarios 3 and 4 provide the lowest costs when considering the
increasing broadband service demand assumed for the western European partners.

nstalling and evaluating trials in three different countries Imation
Poland, Denmark, and Portugal -will give important inforabout actual availability of existing network resources
for broadband transmission and design of access networks for
implementation as an overlay to legacy networks and for
installation in green field areas. A field trial installed in
Aveiro, Portugal, in 1995 by the RACE project FIRST [7, 81
demonstrated the design of a simple, low-cost, robust PON
system. This was based on subcarrier multiplexing technology
for upstream transmission between the ONUS and the OLT.
This trial is still in operation, providing 50 users with narrowband services.
The new trials under ACTS will evaluate the trade-off
between the use of optical technologies and of VDSL over coax
or twisted pairs. The objective is to demonstrate that PONs can
provide a low-cost entry solution which evolves as bandwidth
demand increases by evaluating the cost of fiber deployment
versus that of upgrading the existing copper network. Operational issues to be studied are the number of cable pairs that
can be used for broadband transmission, range of VDSL,
influence of cable age, influence of external noise, and the
electromagnetic emission problems VDSL may cause.
Results expected from the trials will generate dimensioning
rules for the access network, information about optimal
design of hybrid access networks, and improved definition and
understanding of usage profiles for broadband services.

this article we discuss what we consider to be the most
issues for evolution to a broadband access network
how the Broadbandloop project is supporting the evolution.
The preliminary conclusions are that upgrade of the old copper
network to provide broadband transmission is a viable strategy
in the near term. The PON is cost effective in greenfield areas
and must provide low-cost telephony and evolution capability
to broadband services. The Broadbandloop project is developing and demonstrating new optical technologies which are
improving reliability and cost effectiveness of PONs.

We would like to acknowledge the ACTS program and the
parent organizations involved in the project for their support
in terms of funding, technologies, infrastructure, network
users, and logistics, which all together make it possible to
carry out the Broadbandloop project.

IEEE Communications Magazine

[I ] European Commission, ACTS 96, Advanced Communications Technologies and Services, Project Summaries, Sept. 1996.
[2] N. E. Andersen, Optimising Access Network Architectures, Comparing
PONS w i t h Alternative Technologies, IIR Conf., London, U.K., July

15-1 6, 1996.
[3] G. T. Hawley, System Considerations for the Use of xDSL Technology for
Data Access, /E Commun., vol. 35, no. 3, Mar. 1997, pp. 56-60.
[41 Full Service Access Network-GX, Network Termination-Home Network,
Functional requirements, 8th Intl. Wksp. OpticaVHybrid Access Networks, Atlanta, CA, Mar. 1997.
[5] E. Jaunart and P. Crahay, ATM Super PON Dimensioning for Future
Residential and Business Demand, Broadband Superhighway, D. W.
Faulkner and A. L. Harmer, Eds., EFOVLAN 1996.
[61 H. Saito, Teletraffic Technologies in A T M Networks, Artech House, 1994.
[7] D. E. A. Clarke, R. Mudhar, and A. Purser, A European Initiative Leading towards a Practical Customer Access Link Using Fibre, BT Tech. J.,
vol. 11, no. 1 Jan. 1993.
[8] P. Woolnough BTetal., RACE R2014 FIRST, del. 1011, Final Studies,
Evaluation and Recommendations (contact Niels Engell Andersen at email address below for a copy).

( received an M.Sc. degree from
Georgia Institute of Technology in 1978. He has worked for different private companies ondevelopment and implementation of advanced control
and communications systems. Since 1989 he has been with DSC Communications A / S (formerly NKT Elektronik), where he is manager for development of access technologies and field trials.
( received an M. Sc. degree from Essex
University in electrical engineering in 1980 and CEPAC from Universite Libre
de Bruxelles in 1989. He has been head of the Traffic Engineering Department
at CET in Aveiro and member of scientific staff in DGXIII-F in the European
Union. He is a member of the board of MEGASIS, president of the General
Assembly of the Portuguese Electrotechnical Institute (IEP), representative of
Portugal Telecom in the General Assembly of Eurescom, and member of the
board of INESCTEL.

( received a Licenciatura degree in electrical engineering from the University of Coimbra in
1976, and M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees i n telecommunications systems and
electrical engineering sciences, respectively, in 1981 and 1984 from the
University of Essex, U.K. He joined the University of Aveiro in 1978 were he
i s n o w an associate professor i n t h e Department of Electronics and
HANSERIK LASSENreceived ( M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the
Electromagnetics Institute at the Technical University of Denmark in 1984
and 1991, respectively. From 1986 t o 1988 he was assistant professor with
the Electromagnetics Institute. From 1988 he has been with Tele Danmark
ANOERSEKBLAO ( received his Masters degree i n
electrical engineering from Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,
Sweden, in 1988. He has been employed at the Networks Division of Telia
AB since 1988.He is now engaged in Telias strategic development of the
broadband access network. In former positions he was engaged i n the
development of optical fiber cables and outside plant in which he holds
several patents.
R. PACH ( received an M.S. degree in electrical
engineering and a Ph.D. degree in telecommunications from the University of
Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland, in 1976 and 1979, respectively, and
a Ph.D. Hab. in telecommunications and computer networks from the Warsaw University of Technology in 1989. In 1979, he joined the Telecommunications Department at the University of Mining and Metallurgy, where he is
currently a professor.
( received an from
Warsaw Technical University i n telecommunication i n 1964, an M.A. in
1971 from the University of Warsaw in mathematics, and a Ph.D. in 1972
from Warsaw Technical University. Since 1965 he has been assistant professor at Warsaw Technical University. In 1994 he w a s appointed expert for
Telekomunikacja Polska S.A.
( (MSc. 1988, Ph.D. 1995) is assistant professor at the Center for Broadband Telecommunications (CBT/EMI) at the Technical University of Denmark w i t h responsibility for ATM switching and
networking activities. His current interest is resource management, and the
implications for network design and requirements for network elements.

December 1997

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