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Transient Stability

9.1 TRANSIENT STABILITYEQUAL AREA CRITERION

transient stability of the system. This method is only

applicable to a single machine connected to an infinite bus

system or a two-machine system. The concept of EAC is

derived from the fact that the stored kinetic energy in the

rotating mass tries to substantiate the imbalance between the

machine output and input. A single machine connected to a

large system such as an infinite bus is considered to explain

the EAC concept.

9.1.1 Mathematical Approach to EAC

Neglecting the damping effect, the swing equation is rewritten

below.

between mechanical input and electrical power output. From

the above equation,

we get

or

or

rotor speed (or

i.e

It is a graph indicating the variations in with time t.

Fig 9.1 Swing Curve for Stable and Unstable Power Systems

accelerate or decelerate when there exists an imbalance

between mechanical input and electrical power output. Due to

this, the rotor may run above or below the synchronous speed,

indicating system instability as shown in Figure 9.1.

Stability/Instability Conditions

Consider the power-angle curve of an alternator as shown

in Figure 9.2

Initially the machine is operating at the equilibrium point A,

where Pe0 = Pm0 and =0 as shown in Figure 9.2. Now, the

mechanical input to the machine is suddenly increased

from Pm0 to Pm1. As Pm1 > Pc0, the value of accelerating

power Pa is positive and hence the rotor starts accelerating.

Due to this acceleration of the rotor, increases as shown

in Fig 9.3.

point B), the accelerating power Pa becomes zero as Pe = Pm1. At

to inertia it continues to move forward beyond point B.

For > 1, Pe> Pm1, and PA is negative. Hence the rotor starts

decelerating. Beyond point B, the rotor speed is decreases due

to deceleration.

The rotor speed reaches Ns at point D. At this point, as Pe > Pm1,

the rotor continues to decelerate and starts decreasing as

shown in Fig 9.4.

hence Pa becomes zero. However, due to inertia the rotor

begins.

The result is that the rotor swings from A to D via B, and

from D back to A.

Considering losses (which give damping effect to the rotor),

the rotor finally settles down at a new equilibrium

point B after performing the swing as explained.

It can be observed that the rotor accelerates when it moves

from A to B and decelerates when it is moves from B to D.

From the laws of mechanics the machine swings stably when

the excess energy stored in the rotating mass while it

accelerates is equal to the energy it gives up during

deceleration.

Mathematically,

|area A1| = |area A2|

From EAC, the condition for stability can be stated as follows:

The accelerating area (positive) under the P curve must

be equal to decelerating (negative) area.

9.1.2 Application of Equal Area Criterion

machine connected to an infinite bus (SMIB) system and

analyse its stability by using the EAC criterion.

Case-1: Mechanical input to the rotor is suddenly

increased

Consider the SMIB system shown in Figure 9.5

shown in Figure 9.6.

Increase in Mechanical Input to the Generator

to pm1 from pm0 by opening the steam valve. Consequent to this

change, the following sequence of changes takes place.

Stage-1: At point A

The system is under steady-state with perfect balance

between Pm0 and Pe0 and Pa =Pm0 Pc0 = 0. The speed of the

rotor equals to the synchronous speed NS . Now, the

mechanical input to is raised suddenly to Pm1 from Pm0.

Stage-2:Movement from point A to B

Though the mechanical input to the rotor is increased, the

generator cannot generate extra electrical power,

since cannot change instantly due to rotor inertia. Hence,

the extra mechanical input Pm1 Pm0 is stored as kinetic energy

within the rotor and therefore the rotor starts accelerating.

The speed of the rotor is now above NS and hence Pe now starts

imbalance between Pm and Pe starts reducing due to an

increase in the Pe value.

Stage-3:Reaching point B

On reaching point B, value equals to 1 and the electrical

power output Pe is raised and made equal to Pm1. The rotor now

stops accelerating as Pa value is zero. At this point it should be

remembered the speed of the rotor is

above NS . Though Pa value is zero, continues to increase

beyond 1 as the forward movement of rotor continues due to

inertia of the rotor.

Stage-4:From point B to C

On leaving point B, increases beyond 1. Due to this, the

machine now generates electrical power output more than Pe1.

The Pa value is now negative as Pe > Pm1. Due to this the rotor

now starts decelerating. It should be noted that though the

rotor is decelerating, it still moves in the forward direction

( increasing) as the speed is more than NS .

Stage-5:Reaching Point C

rotor is equal to NS.

As 2 > 1, the electrical power output is more than the

mechanical input and hence the Pa value is negative. The rotor

now decelerates in the reverse direction (decreasing) and the

negative value of Pa begins to reduce.

Stage-6:From point C to B

On leaving point C, Pe value begins to reduce as value is

decreasing. This is because the rotor is moving in the

backward direction. The decelerating power Pa begins to

reduce. However the rotor speed is now lesser than NS, as the

rotor is moving in backward direction.

Stage-7:Reaching point B

On reaching point B, the Pe value becomes equal to Pm1 and

hence Pa value is zero. The rotor speed is still less than Ns and

the rotor continues to move in the backward direction

( decreasing) due to inertia.

Stage-8:From point B to A

consequently, Pe value is less than Pm1. Now the Pa value is

positive and the rotor begins to accelerate with the rotor speed

again starting to increase.

Stage-9:Reaching point A

When the rotor reaches point A, value is equal to 0 and the

rotor speed rises to NS.It should be understood that while the

rotor is moving from point B to A, though its movement is

backward it is actually accelerating. Once it reaches the

point A, the movement in the backward direction stops and it

begins moving in the forward (increasing) direction.

This completes one cycle of operation and Stages 1 to 9 are

repeated again. If the system damping is considered, these

oscillations gradually die out and the machine will settle to the

new equilibrium point B

where Pm1 = Pe = Pmax sin 1

The steps related to the swinging of the rotor are depicted

in Table 9.1.

The areas A1 and A2 are given by

From the steady-state stability point of view, the system

reaches the critical stable point when = 90. However, the

system can maintain transient stability beyond = 90, as

this.

Limitation to increase in Pm value

Consider the swing curve shown in Figure 9.7.

For the given value of 0, an increased value of Pm is such that,

if goes beyond mthe system loses transient stability. At

point B, Pe1 = Pm1 = Pmax sin 1. At point C, Pc1= Pm1 = Pmax sin max.

It can be easily verified that the above equations are valid only

when max = 1. Considering the P curve shown

in Figure 9.7, if Pm value is increased beyond Pm1 as shown,

then the rotor swings beyond m. However, if becomes

greater than max, then the power transfer will be lesser

than Pm and the rotor will experience further acceleration.

This will further increase and the generator will be out of

synchronism (See Figure 9.8).

Fig 9.7 The System has Transient Stability when the Rotor

Swings beyond = 90

computed by the condition.

where

Accelerating area

Decelerating area

= pm1(2 - 0). Substituting pm1 = pe1 = pmaxsin 1 in the above

equation,

Therefore,

directly. Equation (9.13) can only solved by the iteration

process.

Case-2: Three-Phase Fault on Feeder

Consider Figure 9.9(a) where a generator is connected to an

infinite bus bar through a radial feeder.

The p- curve is shown in Figure 9.9(b).

Let the system shown in Figure 9.9(a) be operating at point A,

where the rotor speed is equal to NS and = 0.

feeders. Since the fault is closer to the generator and as

resistance is being neglected, Pe instantly becomes zero. In

other words, no electrical power is transferred to the infinite

bus.

System

Now, the entire Pm becomes equal to Pa, and the rotor starts

accelerating. Since Pe = 0, the operating point shifts

immediately to point B and due to rotor acceleration, starts

increasing. In time tcr (critical clearing time) when the rotor

angle reaches tocr (critical clearing angle), the circuit-breaker

installed at point F clears the fault by isolating the faulted line.

Upon removal of faulted line, the generator once again starts

transmitting power to the infinite bus. Therefore, the

operating point shifts from C to D instantly. At point D,

since Pe > Pm, the rotor now begins to decelerate and the

decelerating area A2 begins as the operating point moves

along DE.

System is stable as long as A1 A2

9.1.3 Determination of Critical Clearing Angle

angle, known as critical clearing angle (cr) for stability to be

maintained. If the actual clearing angle 1 is smaller than cr,

be noted that when 1 = cr, the rotor swings up to max, a

permitted threshold value. Beyond max, the stability of the

system is lost. The circuit-breaker fault clearing time

corresponding to cr is known as the critical clearing time

(tcr). If the actual fault clearing time is less than tcr, the system

is stable, otherwise it is unstable.

The formulas for cr and tcr can be easily derived only for the

case when Pe = 0. For other cases it is hard to establish the

formulas.

Angle cr

shown in Figure 9.10

Since Pe is zero,

Decelerating area

relation

By substituting max = 0 and Pe = Pm = Pmaxsin 0 in Equation

(9.16),

We get,

machine. In other words depends on the initial value of 0.

9.1.4 Determination of Critical Clearing Time [tcr]

Therefore,

Substituting

Consider the power system shown in Figure 9.11. The

generator is connected to the infinite bus system through two

parallel lines.

Parallel Line of the SMIB System

ends on one parallel line as shown in Figure 9.11.

9.1.5 Determination of Transfer Reactance Before, During and After Fault

Conditions

Before fault

During fault

Let the transfer reactance during fault be Xdu. Its value can be

obtained by converting star reactances X'd, X1 and X21 into

delta. This is explained in the following figure.

Post fault:

After some duration, the faulty parallel line is removed by

circuit-breakers connected at both ends. The transfer

reactance for this condition Xpo is:

below.

1. Before fault

2. During fault

3. Post fault

Assume that the input power Pm is constant and that the

machine is operating steadily, delivering power to the infinite

bus at = 0. The p- curve for the pre-fault condition is

marked as a in the figure. During fault condition, equivalent

transfer reactance between bus bars is increased, lowering the

steady-state power limit. For this condition the p- curve is

represented by the curve B. Finally curve C represents the

post-fault p- curve.

The following sequence of operations takes place.

1. The system is steadily operating at point a

in Figure 9.11. The operating point shifts down to point b on

curve B. Due to excess mechanical input, the rotor starts

accelerating towards point C.

3. By the time when reaches cr, the faulted line is removed from

both ends.

4. Now the operating point shifts up from c to e on curve C. Now the

rotor begins to decelerate.

= A2 (decelerating)

Applying EAC, for this case e can be obtained as follows,

where

or

Considering the fault as temporary, circuit breakers in the

faulted line are re-closed after some time. As the fault is

cleared, the line is restored into service again.

For this case, p- curves for before the fault and after reclosure are the same.

i.e.,

The stability of the system improves, as the re-closure unit of

the circuit breaker restores the second line back into service

for transfer of electrical power.

1. Initially the system is operating stably at Point a.

point shifts down to Point b. Due to higher value of Pm, the rotor

begins to accelerate and increases.

3. After some time, the circuit breaker isolates the faulted line. The

rotor angle reaches to c. The operating point shifts from c to e,

on the post-fault curve C. Since Pe > Pm, the rotor now begins to

decelerate.

4. On reaching Point f, when = r, the re-closure unit restores the

second line back to service. Due to this the operating point shifts

from f to g on the pre-faultp- curve.

The accelerating area (A1) and the decelerating area are (A2) are

swings is 2 and is less thanm (maximum permissible rotor

angle). Hence, the system is stable for the condition shown on

the p- curve.

Example 9.1

capable of generating. If the mechanical input to the

generator is increased by 250% of the previous value,

calculate the maximum value of during the swing of rotor

around the new equilibrium point.

Solution:

The p- curve is shown in Figure 9.14

At Point a,

At Point b,

For the system to be stable,

Accelerating area A1 = Decelerating area A2

the trial and error process. Here 2 determined by the trial and

error process.

From the condition 2 > 0.5235, the starting value of 2 is

guessed as 0.55

X = 0.5 2 + cos 2

X - 1.08 = error

0.55

1.1275

0.04752

0.57

1.1269

0.0469

0.6

1.12533

0.04533

0.7

1.1484

0.0348

0.75

1.10668

0.02668

0.77

1.1029

0.0229

0.78

1.10483

0.0248

0.79

1.10091

0.0209

0.8

1.0967

0.016

0.85

1.0849

0.0049

0.86

1.08243

0.00243

0.87

1.0789

0.0001734

Example 9.2

three-phase fault occurs at the middle point of Line-2. The

generator is delivering 1.0 p. u. power at the instant

preceding to fault. By the use of equal area criterion,

determine the critical clearing angle.

Solution:

Before fault condition:

For a fault at the middle of Line-2 the equivalent circuit is as

shown in Figure 9.16below.

Converting star reactances of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.2 p.u into delta,

the transfer reactance can be obtained from this equivalent

circuit.

Post-fault condition:

at both ends. The transfer reactance for this case is:

Line-2

given value of 0 is:

Accelerating area

Decelerating area

For the system to be stable,

By integration,

Example 9.3

three-phase fault occurs on Line-2, close to the generator.

Solution:

In this

Example 9.4

of Pm = 1.4 p.u. Now, one of the lines is suddenly switched off.

1. Comment on the stability of the system

swinging of the rotor.

Solution:

1. The p curve for this case is as shown in Figure 9.19.

Before Line-2 is switched off:

Transfer reactance = 0.1 + (0.6||0.6) = 0.4 p.u

Transfer reactance = 0.1 + 0.6 = 0.7 p.u.

As the mechanical input is constant before and after Line2 is switched off, the generator generates the same

amount of electrical power output. The initial

equilibrium point is a and the final equilibrium point

is c as shown in the figure.

i.e.,

Or, 1 = 54.77

If stability is of interest, the rotor can swing to a

maximum of max (up to pointf).

At point c and f, the Pe generated is same.

The accelerating area A1 is:

sufficient decelerating areaA2 available. In other words,

for the system to stable the condition is A1 A2

as:

2. The actual value of rotor swing i.e., 2 can be found by the

condition

Iterative methods are required to obtain 2. An

approximate value 2 is obtained by the trial and error

process. The value of 2 is such that 1 < 2 < max.

i.e.,

middle point)

9.2 II SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION: POINT-BY-POINT METHOD

of time in order to know the critical clearing time by the

numerical technique. The equal-area approach enables us to

calculate the critical clearing angle alone.

The evaluation of power system stability can be made effective

by solving the swing equation for critical clearing time. This

data is used in the design and selection of circuit breakers.

There are various methods available for solving swing

equation, including the powerful Range-Kutta method.

However, we shall illustrate the conventional and

approximate method known as the point-by-point method,

which is well-tried and prevalent.

connected to the infinite bus bar. The procedure is however

general, and can be applied to every machine in a multimachine system.

Consider the swing equation

where,

The solution of (t) is obtained at discrete intervals of time

with the interval spread of t remaining uniform throughout.

The change in accelerating power which is a continuous

function of time is described as follows:

1. The accelerating power Pa calculated at the beginning is assumed

to remain constant from the middle of the preceding interval to

the middle of the interval under study (see Figure 9.20(a))

2. The angular rotor velocity (

over and above the synchronous

velocity s, is calculated at the middle of the interval under

study, (see Figure 9.20(b)).

acceleration power is

Point-by-Point Method

The change in velocity (

constant over t from

is given as

using Equation (9.25), we get

n+1 and n+1.

The time solution in discrete form is worked out for the

required length of time, which is normally 0.5 seconds. The

solution for the continuous form is obtained by drawing a

smooth curve through discrete values as shown in Figure

reducing the time duration of intervals.

The occurrence or removal of a fault or the initiation of any

switching event causes a discontinuity in the accelerating

power Pa. If such a discontinuity occurs at the beginning of an

interval, then the average of the values of Pa before and after

the discontinuity must be used. Thus, for calculating the

increment angle occurring during the first interval after a fault

is applied, at t = 0 Equation (9.26) becomes,

occurrence of the fault. The system is in steady state just

before the occurrence of the fault so that Pao = 0 and0 is a

known value. If the fault is cleared at the beginning of

the nth interval, for calculating this interval, one has to use

for Pa(n1) the value

is the

procedure is required.

The increment of angle during such an interval is calculated,

as usual, from the value of Pa at the beginning of the interval.

The procedure of calculating the solution of a swing equation

is illustrated in following example.

Example 9.5

power to an infinite bus via two transmission lines. Now, a

three-phase symmetrical fault occurs at the middle of Line-2.

1. Plot the swing curve if the fault is sustained for 0.5 second.

2. Plot the swing curve if the fault is cleared in 0.1 second by both

end circuit breakers.

3. Find the critical clearing angle and the critical clearing time.

Solution:

Taking the rating of the equipment as base, for base MVA =

50, G = 1.0 p.u

Before fault:

Transfer reactance X = 0.4 p.u

Under steady-state:

During fault:

Transfer reactance X = 1.0 p.u

Post-fault:

Transfer reactance X = 0.6 p.u

A discontinuity exists at t = 0. Therefore, the average value

of Pa used at

Sample calculation:

The swing curve is plotted as in Figure 9.22.

second

(b) Fault cleared in 0.1 second:

The swing curve till 0.05 second is the same as that for a

sustained fault. As the fault is cleared, Pm changes from 1.05

p.u at t = 0.10 to 1.75 p.u at t = 0.10+. Since the discontinuity

occurs at the beginning of an interval, it is required to

value in computing at this time. The procedure for

computing the values remains the same as before.

is stable.

(c)

stability:

1. Increase of system voltage:

limit is always higher than the transient stability limit.

Systems having higher steady-state stability limits are

generally guaranteed for better transient stability.

However, though inertia of the machine plays a vital

role in transient stability, the converse is not true. By

improving steady-state power limit, it can be seen in

the p- curve that the rotor can swing in such a way that

it can attain higher accelerating and decelerating areas.

With this, transient stability can be improved. The

value of Pmax in the p-curve is directly proportional to

voltage increases the stability limit.

stable than a light-weight machine. This can be verified

through the swing equation as:

during the transient period the rotor cannot swing for

higher values. Generally a salient pole machine

swings for lower load angles and is preferred over

cylindrical rotor generators. The present practice of

generating higher power with larger number of small

machines is not recommended from the stability point

of view.

3. Quick-acting governors:

kinetic energy stored in the rotating mass during

disturbance. The problem can be avoided if the prime

mover (turbine) output is quickly adjusted. This

requires quick valve opening and closing action of the

speed-governing system. This method is quite difficult

to be implemented with conventional mechanical

governors since they are too slow to respond on account

of their high time constants. Electronically operated

governors may be suggested for this purpose.

4. Quick-responding excitation systems:

demand increases while there is a reduction in active

power generation. Reduction in active power is mainly

due to a rapid dip in terminal voltage as the generator

experiences demagnetization armature reaction. Fastfield excitation systems quickly respond to the situation

and improve the electric power output of generator,

reducing the acceleration of the rotor during the

disturbance period. Thus exciters help to improve the

stability of the system.

stability margins are guaranteed for better transient

stability limits. By reducing transfer reactance, steadystate power limit can be improved. Reduction in

transfer reactance can be achieved by:

using bundled conductors

using conductors with larger diameter

using series capacitors.

2. Use of high-speed circuit breakers:

fault before the critical clearing time, the system can

maintain transient stability.

3. Use of auto re-closing circuit breakers:

in nature. Auto re-closing circuit breakers connect the

faulted lines back into service after the fault

has disappeared in the system. This improves the power

transfer capability, and thereby the stability of the

system.

4. Single-pole switching circuit breakers:

single-line to ground type. If the circuit breaker is

equipped with single-pole switching facility, the faulted

single phase can be isolated and switched off. Power

generation cannot be zero in this case and hence the

generator with less number of phases is not advisable.

Necessary precautions should be taken to counter this

problem.

are automatically inserted across the generator

terminals. The generator continues to generate power

treating these resistors as load. The imbalance between

mechanical input and power output is reduced, and

hence the system shall be able to maintain stability.

Questions from Previous Question Papers

techniques.

2. What is the swing equation? Derive the expression for swing

equation?

3. Device and explain the concept of equal area criterion for stability

analysis of a power system.

4. What are the factors that affect transient stability?

5. What is equal area criterion? Explain how it can be used to study

stability?

6. Draw a diagram to illustrate the application of equal area

criterion to study transient stability when there is a sudden

increase in the input of generator.

7. Discuss the limitations of equal area criterion of method of

stability study.

8. Draw the diagrams to illustrate the application of equal area

criterion to study transient stability for the following cases:

of one of the circuits of a double circuit line

feeding an infinite bus.

b. A fault on one of the parallel circuits of a twocircuit line feeding an infinite bus. The fault is

subsequently cleared by the opening of the

faulted line.

2. What are the methods used to improve the transient stability

limit?

3. Discuss the methods to improve steady state and transient state

stability margins.

4. Discuss why?

system stability.

5. A generator is delivering 1 p.u. power to infinite bus system

through a purely reactive network. A fault occurs on the system

and reduces the output is zero. The maximum power that could

be delivered is 2.5 p.u. When the fault is cleared, the original

network conditions exist again. Compute the critical clearing

angle.

6. (a) A generator operating at 50Hz delivers 1 p.u. power to an

infinite bus through a transmission circuit in which resistance is

ignored. A fault takes place reducing the maximum power

transferable to 0.5 p.u. whereas before the fault this power was

2.0 p.u., and after the clearance of the fault it is 1.5 p.u. By the

use of equal area criterion determine the critical clearing angle.

determining the critical clearing angle.

8. A generator operating at 50Hz delivers 1 p.u. power to an infinite

bus through a transmission circuit in which resistance is

neglected. A fault takes place reducing the maximum power

transferable to 0.3 p.u., whereas before the fault this power was

2.0. p.u. and after the clearance of the fault it is 1.5. p.u. By the

use of equal area criterion determine the critical clearing angle.

9. Exaplain the point-by-point method for solving the swing

equation.

through the system shown in figure. Following a fault at F, circuit

breakers B3 and B4 open simultaneously. The P relationships

in per unit are given by

During fault condition: When B3, B4 remain closed: p =

0.2 sin After B3, B4open: p = 1.5 sin

Calculate the critical angle before which

breakers B3 and B4 must open so that synchronism is

not lost. Also show this on a P diagram.

[GATE 1991 Q.No. 8]

improved by

a. excitation control

b. phase shifting transformer

c. single pole switching of circuit breakers

d. increasing the turbine valve opening

[GATE 1993 Q.No. 3]

swings from A to B before finally settling down to a steady state

at point C on the power angle curve. The speed of the machine

during oscillation is synchronous at point(s)

a.

A and B

b. A and C

c. B and C

d. only at C

[GATE 1995 Q.No. 1]

bus through a lossless network. A three-phase fault under this

condition reduces Pmax to 0 per unit. The value of Pmax before fault

is 2.0 per unit and 1.5 per unit after fault clearing. If the fault is

cleared in 0.05 seconds, calculate rotor angles at intervals of 0.05

seconds from t = 0 seconds to 0.1 seconds. Assume H = 7.5

HJ/MVA and frequency to be Hz.

3. A 100 MVA,11 kV, 3-phase, 50 Hz, 8-pole synchronous generator

has an inertia constant H equal to 4 seconds. The stored energy

in the rotor of the generator at synchronous speed will be H

= E/G.

a.

100 MJ

b. 400 MJ

c. 800 MJ

d. 12.5 MJ

[GATE 1997 Q.No. 4]

a.

b. Improve system stability

c. Decrease system stability

d. Increase the short circuit current

[GATE 1997 Q.No. 5]

of ratings 250 MVA and 500 MVA with inertia 1.6 p.u. and 1 p.u.,

respectively on their own base MVA ratings. The equivalent p.u.

inertia constant for the system on 100 MVA common base is:

a. 2.6

b. 0.615

c. 1.625

d. 9.0

[GATE 1998 Q.No. 7]

2. An alternator is connected to an infinite bus as shown in figure. It

delivers 1.0 p.u. current at 0.8 pf lagging at V = 1.0 p.u. The

reactance Xd of the alternator is 1.2 p.u. Determine the active

power output and the steady state power limit. Keeping the active

power fixed, if the excitation is reduced, find the critical

excitation corresponding to operation at stability limit.

connected to an infinite bus through two identical parallel

transmission lines having reactance of 0.3 p.u. each. In steady

state, the generator is delivering 1 p.u. power to the infinite bus.

For a three-phase fault at the receiving end of one line, calculate

the rotor angle at the end of first time step of 0.05 seconds.

Assume the voltage behind transient reactance for the generator

as 1.1 p.u. and infinite bus voltage as 1.0 p.u. Also indicate how

the accelerating powers will be evaluated for the next time step if

the breaker clears the fault

b. at the middle of an interval

[GATE 2000 Q.No. 14]

2. A synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus through

a lossless double circuit transmission line. The generator is

delivering 1.0 per unit power at a load angle of 30 when a

sudden fault reduces the peak power that can be transmitted to

0.5 per unit. After clearance of fault, the peak power that can be

transmitted becomes 1.5 per unit. Find the critical clearing angle.

3. A synchronous generator is to be connected to an infinite bus

through a transmission line of reactance X=0.2 pu, as shown in

figure. The generator data is as follows:

power Pm = 0.0p.u, B = 2 50 rad/sec. All quantities

are expressed on a common base.

[GATE 2002 Q.No. 10]

the frequency of the open circuit voltage slightly higher

than that of the infinite bus. If at the instant of switch

closure = 0 and = d/dt = init, compute the

maximum value of initso that the generator pulls into

synchronism.

Hint: Use the equation

purely reactive network. The maximum power that could be

delivered by the generator is 2.0 p.u. A three-phase fault occurs

at the terminals of the generator which reduces the generator

output to zero. The fault is cleared after tc second. The original

network is then restored. The maximum swing of the rotor angle

is found to bemax = 110 electrical degree. Then the rotor angle in

electrical degrees at t = tc is

a. 55

b. 70

c. 69.14

d. 72.4

[GATE 2003 Q.No. 15]

2. A 50 Hz, 4-pole, 500 MVA, 22 kV turbo-generator is delivering

rated megavolt amperes at 0.8 power factor. Suddenly a fault

occurs reducing is electric power output by 40%. Neglect losses

and assume constant power input to the shaft. The accelerating

torque in the generator in MNm at the time of the fault will be

a. 1.528

b. 1.018

c. 0.848

d. 0.509

[GATE 2004 Q.No. 14]

2. A generator feeds power to an infinite bus through a double

circuit transmission line. A 3-phase fault occurs at the middle

point of one of the lines. The infinite bus voltage is 1 pu, the

transient internal voltage of the generator is 1.1 pu and the

equivalent transfer admittance during fault is 0.8 pu. The 100

MVA generator has an inertia constant of 5 MJ/MVA and it was

delivering 1.0 pu power prior to the fault with rotor power angle

of 30. The system frequency is 50 Hz.

a. 1.0

b. 0.6

c. 0.56

d. 0.4

[GATE 2006 Q.No. 13]

2. If the initial accelerating power is X p.u, the initial acceleration in

elect deg/sec , and the inertia constant in MJ-sec/elect deg

respectively will be

2

a. 31.4X, 18

b. 1800X, 0.056

c. X/1800, 0.056

d. X/31.4, 18

2. A lossless single machine infinite bus power system is shown

below

power to the infinite bus. Critical clearing time of circuit

breaker is 0.28 s. If another identical synchronous

generator is connected in parallel to the existing

generator and each generator is scheduled to supply 0.5

per unit of power. Then the critical clearing time of the

circuit breaker will

a. reduce to 0.14 s

b. reduce but will be more than 0.14 s

c. remain constant at 0.28 s

d. increase beyond 0.28 s

[GATE 2008 Q.No. 53]