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G & L Plastic Molders spent $1,200 last week repairing a

machine. This week the company is trying to decide if the


machine could be better utilized if they assigned it a proposed
project. When analyzing the proposed project, the $1,200
should be treated as which type of cost?
A.opportunity
B.Fixed
C. Sunk
D. Erosion
E. Incremental
Sunk Cost

Samuelson Electronics has a required payback period of three


years for all of its projects. Currently, the firm is analyzing two
independent projects. Project A has an expected payback period
of 2.8 years and a net present value of $6,800. Project B has an
expected payback period of 3.1 years with a net present value of
$28,400. Which projects should be accepted based on the
payback decision rule?
A. Project A only
B. Neither A nor B
C. Both A and B
D. Answer cannot be determined based on the information
given.
E. Project B only
Project A only

What has serious problems and should not be used?


A. Internal rate of return
B. Discounted payback
C. Average accounting rate of return
D. Payback
E. Net present value
Average accounting rate of return

The discount rate that makes the net present value of an


investment exactly equal to zero is called the:
A. average accounting return
B. profitability index
C. external rate of return
D. equalizer
E. internal rate of return
Internal rate of return

Project cash flows should:


A. Be pre-tax
B. Include all sunk costs
C. Include all incremental costs
D. Include all financing costs
E. Include all of the above
Include all incremental costs

Bell Weather Goods has several proposed independent projects


that have positive NPVs. However, the firm cannot initiate any
of the projects due to a lack of financing. This situation is
referred to as:
A. financial rejection.
B. project rejection.
C. soft rationing.
D. capital rationing.
E. marginal rationing.
Capital rationing

Steve is fairly cautious when analyzing a new project and thus


he projects the most optimistic, the most realistic, and the most
pessimistic outcome that can reasonably be expected. Which
type of analysis is Steve using?
A. simulation testing
B. sensitivity analysis
C. rationing analysis
D. scenario analysis
E. break-even analysis
Scenario Analysis

Which of the following variables will be at their highest


expected level under a worst case scenario?
I. fixed cost
II. sales price
III. variable cost
IV. sales quantity
I and III

Which one of the following is the formula that explains the


relationship between the expected return on a security and the
level of that security's systematic risk?
A. expected risk formula
B. time value of money equation
C. capital asset pricing model
D. unsystematic risk equation
E. market performance equation

Capital asset pricing model

Which one of the following risks is irrelevant to a welldiversified investor?


A. systematic portion of a surprise
B. market risk
C. systematic risk
D. nondiversifiable risk
E. unsystematic risk
unsystematic risk

Which of the following are examples of diversifiable risk?


I. earthquake damages an entire town
II. federal government imposes a $100 fee on all business
entities
III. employment taxes increase nationally
IV. toymakers are required to improve their safety standards
A. I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I, III, and IV only
D. I and III only
E. II and IV only
I and IV

The length of time a firm must wait to recoup the money it has
invested in a project is called the:
A. internal return period.
B. valuation period.
C. profitability period.
D. discounted cash period.
E. payback period
payback period

The length of time a firm must wait to recoup, in present value


terms, the money it has in invested in a project is referred to as
the:
A. net present value period.
B. discounted payback period.
C. internal return period.
D. payback period.
E. discounted profitability period.
Discounted payback period

Which of the following are advantages of the payback method of


project analysis?

I. works well for research and development projects


II. liquidity bias
III. ease of use
IV. arbitrary cutoff point
A. II and III only
B. I and III only
C. II, III, and IV only
D. II and IV only
E. I and II only
II and III

The IRR for the following set of cash flows is what percent?
0 $9,868
1 3,400
2 5,300
3 6,900
23.64%

A project's average net income divided by its average book value


is referred to as the project's average:
A. accounting return.
B. internal rate of return.
C. net present value.
D. profitability index.
E. payback period.
Accounting return

The internal rate of return is defined as the:


A. maximum rate of return a firm expects to earn on a project.
B. discount rate that equates the net cash inflows of a project to
zero.
C. rate of return a project will generate if the project in financed
solely with internal funds.
D. discount rate which causes the net present value of a project
to equal zero.
E. discount rate that causes the profitability index for a project
to equal zero.
Discount rate which causes the net present value of a project to
equal zero

Which of the following are considered weaknesses in the


average accounting return method of project analysis?
I. exclusion of time value of money considerations

II. need of a cutoff rate


III. easily obtainable information for computation
IV. based on accounting values
A. II and III only
B. I only
C. I and IV only
D. I, II, and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV
I, II, and IV

Southern Chicken is considering two projects. Project A consists


of creating an outdoor eating area on the unused portion of the
restaurant's property. Project B would use that outdoor space
for creating a drive-thru service window. When trying to decide
which project to accept, the firm should rely most heavily on
which one of the following analytical methods?
A. accounting rate of return
B. net present value
C. profitability index
D. payback
E. internal rate of return
Net present value

Which two methods of project analysis are the most biased


towards short-term projects?
A. discounted payback and profitability index
B. payback and discounted payback
C. net present value and internal rate of return
D. net present value and discounted payback
E. internal rate of return and profitability index
Payback and discounted payback

An analysis of the change in a project's NPV when a single


variable is changed is called _____ analysis.
A. sensitivity
B. break-even
C. simulation
D. scenario
E. forecasting
Sensitivity

Which one of the following is a risk that applies to most


securities?

A. unsystematic
B. asset-specific
C. diversifiable
D. total
E. systematic
Systematic

A news flash just appeared that caused about a dozen stocks to


suddenly drop in value by about 20 percent. What type of risk
does this news flash represent?
A. market
B. nondiversifiable
C. total
D. portfolio
E. unsystematic
Unsystematic

The principle of diversification tells us that:


A. concentrating an investment in three companies all within
the same industry will greatly reduce the systematic risk.
B. spreading an investment across many diverse assets will
eliminate all of the systematic risk.
C. spreading an investment across many diverse assets will
eliminate some of the total risk.
D. concentrating an investment in two or three large stocks will
eliminate all of the unsystematic risk.
E. spreading an investment across five diverse companies will
not lower the total risk
Spreading an investment across many diverse sets will eliminate
some of the total risk

Unsystematic risk:
A. is compensated for by the risk premium.
B. is related to the overall economy.
C. can be effectively eliminated by portfolio diversification.
D. is measured by beta.
E. is measured by standard deviation.
Can be effectively eliminated by portfolio diversification

Which one of the following measures the amount of systematic


risk present in a particular risky asset relative to the systematic
risk present in an average risky asset?
A. standard deviation
B. reward-to-risk ratio

C. beta
D. price-earnings ratio
E. risk ratio
Beta

Which one of the following is an example of systematic risk?


A. corn prices increase due to increased demand for alternative
fuels
B. a city imposes an additional one percent sales tax on all
products
C. a flood washes away a firm's warehouse
D. investors panic causing security prices around the globe to
fall precipitously
E. a toymaker has to recall its top-selling toy
Investors panic causing security prices around the globe to fall
precipitously

The primary goal of financial management?


A. Avoid financial distress
B. Maximize dividends per share
C. Maximize the current value per share of the existing stock
D.Maximize firm efficiency
Maximize the current value per share of the existing stock

As the Yield to maturity increases the:


A. Value of the bond decreases
B. Longer the time to Maturity
C. Lower the Desired coupon
D. Value of the bond increases
Value of the bond decreases

The financial statement summarizing a firm's performance over


a period of time
A. Income statement
B. statement of cash flows
C. Balance sheet
D. Shareholders' Equity sheet
Income statement

An analysis of what happened to NPV when you change only


one variable is?

A. Break-even
B. Simulation
C. Scenario
D. Sensitivity
Sensitivity

Do NPV and IRR always lead to the same decision?


A. yes
B. No
no

What are the three financial management decisions?


Capital budgeting, capital structure and working capital

What is the agency problem?


Conflicts between management and stockholders

Financial planning model ingredients


1)Sales forecast
2)Asset requirements
3)Financial requirements
4)Economic assumptions

The cash flows of a new project that come at the expense of a


firm's existing projects are:
A. Salvage value expenses.
B. Net working capital expenses.
C. Sunk costs.
D. Opportunity costs.
E. Erosion costs.
Erosion costs

A firm is considering a project which would increase accounts


receivable by $10,000, accounts payable by $35,000, and
inventory by $30,000. Which of the following is true?
A. Net working capital has increased.
B. Sales will increase.
C. Payments to creditors will slow.
D. Net working capital has decreased.
E. This is a net source of cash.
Net working capital had increased

Which of the following would be considered a use of funds?


I. An increase in receivables
II. An increase in payables
III. An increase in inventory
IV. An increase in sales
A) I and III only
B) I and IV only
C) II and III only
D) II and IV only
E) I, III, and IV only
I and III only

The tax rate applicable to the next dollar of taxable income is


called the _____ tax rate.
a. next
b. absolute
c. total
D. marginal
e. average
Marginal

16. Which of the following correctly describe a dealer market?


I. Dealers match buyers with sellers.
II. Dealers buy and sell for themselves at their own risk.
III. Dealer trading occurs over-the-counter.
IV. Dealer transactions occur on a trading floor.
a. I and IV only
b. I and III only
c. II and IV only
d. I, II, and III only
E. II and III only
II and III only

A series of equal cash flows that occur at the beginning of each


time period for a limited number of time periods is called a(n):
a. perpetuity due.
b. perpetuity.
c. beginning annuity.
D. annuity due.
e. ordinary annuity.
Annuity due

Which one of the following is a breakdown of the ROE into its


three component parts?
a. equity analysis
b. sustainable growth
C. Du Pont identity
d. profitability ratios
e. efficiency breakout
Du Pont Identity

A real rate of return has been adjusted for:


A. default risk.
B. market risk.
C. interest rate risk.
D. taxes.
E. inflation.
Inflation

An analysis which combines scenario analysis with sensitivity


analysis is called _____ analysis.
a. forecasting
b. scenario
c. sensitivity
d. simulation
e. break-even
Simulation

7. What is the yield-to-maturity of a bond?


A bondholder's required rate of return for holding a bond

18. What kind of issues do I get to vote on as a common


shareholder
Directors, mergers, auditors

Which of the following questions are appropriate to address


during the financial planning process?
I. Should the firm merge with a competitor?
II. Should additional shares of stock be sold?
III. Should a particular division be sold?
IV. Should a new product be introduced?
II, III, and IV only

The cash flow of a firm which is available for distribution to the


firm's creditors and stockholders is called the
A. net working capital.
B. operating cash flow.
C. cash flow to stockholders.
D. net capital spending.
E. cash flow from assets.
Cash Flow from Assets

For a tax-paying firm, an increase in _____ will cause the cash


flow from assets to increase.
A. depreciation
B. change in net working capital
C. net capital spending
D. taxes
E. production costs
Deprecation

You want to have $1 million in your savings account when you


retire. You plan on investing a single lump sum today to fund
this goal. You are planning on investing in an account which
will pay 7.5 percent annual interest. Which of the following will
reduce the amount that you must deposit today if you are to
have your desired $1 million on the day you retire?
I. Invest in a different account paying a higher rate of interest.
II. Invest in a different account paying a lower rate of interest.
III. Retire later.
IV. Retire sooner.
A. I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I and III only
D. II only
E. I only
I and III only

Which of these important relationships are true?


I: For a given interest rate - the longer the time period, the
higher the future value
II: For a given interest rate - the longer the time period, the
higher the present value
III: For a given time period - the higher the interest rate, the
lower the future value
IV: For a given time period - the higher the interest rate, the
lower the present value

A. I, II, III, and IV


B. II and IV only
C. II and III only
D. I and III only
E. I and IV only
I and IV only

All else constant, a bond will sell at _____ when the coupon
rate is _____ the yield to maturity.
A. a discount; less than
B. a discount; higher than
C. par; less than
D. a premium; less than
E. a premium; equal to
a discount; less than

The Walthers Company has a semi-annual coupon bond


outstanding. An increase in the market rate of interest will have
which one of the following effects on this bond?
A. decrease the market price
B. increase the market price
C. increase the coupon rate
D. decrease the coupon rate
E. increase the time period
decrease the market price

The mixture of debt and equity used by a firm to finance its


operations is called:
A. agency cost analysis.
B. financial depreciation.
C. capital budgeting.
D. capital structure.
E. working capital management.
Capital Structure

Which one of the following is a capital budgeting decision?


A. determining how many shares of stock to issue
B. deciding how to refinance a debt issue that is maturing
C. determining how much inventory to keep on hand
D. determining how much money should be kept in the
checking account
E. deciding whether or not to purchase a new machine for the
production line
deciding whether or not to purchase a new machine for the
production line

Which one of the following is a capital structure decision?


A. determining which one of two projects to accept
B. determining how much debt should be assumed to fund a
project
C. determining how much inventory will be needed to support a
project
D. determining how to allocate investment funds to multiple
projects
E. determining the amount of funds needed to finance customer
purchases of a new product
determining how much debt should be assumed to fund a project

Which one of the following is a working capital management


decision?
A. determining the amount of long-term debt required to
complete a project
B. determining the number of shares of stock to issue to fund an
acquisition
C. determining whether to pay cash for a purchase or use the
credit offered by the supplier
D. determining the amount of equipment needed to complete a
job
E. determining whether or not a project should be accepted
determining whether to pay cash for a purchase or use the credit
offered by the supplier

The primary goal of a publicly-owned firm interested in serving


its stockholders should be to:
A. maximize share price.
B. minimize expected EPS.
C. minimize the chances of losses.
D. minimize shareholder wealth.
E. maximize expected total corporate profit.
Maximize share price

Which term relates to the cash flow which results from a firm's
ongoing, normal business activities?
A. cash flow from assets
B. operating cash flow
C. net working capital
D. capital spending
E. cash flow to creditors
Operating cash flow

An increase in which of the following will increase the return on


equity, all else constant?
I. sales
II. net income
III. depreciation
IV. total equity
A. I, II, and III only
B. II and III only
C. I and II only
D. I only
E. II and IV only
I and II only

A bond has a market price that exceeds its face value. Which of
the following features currently apply to this bond?
I. discounted price
II. premium price
III. yield-to-maturity that exceeds the coupon rate
IV. yield-to-maturity that is less than the coupon rate
A. III only
B. I and III only
C. I and IV only
D. II and III only
E. II and IV only
II and IV

Which one of the following is a type of equity security that has a


fixed dividend and a priority status over other equity securities?
A. warrant
B. debenture
C. common stock
D. preferred stock
E. senior bond
Preferred stock

National Trucking has paid an annual dividend of $1.00 per


share on its common stock for the past fifteen years and is
expected to continue paying a dollar a share long into the
future. Given this, one share of the firm's stock is:
A. equal in value to the present value of $1 paid one year from
today.
B. worth $1 a share in the current market.
C. basically worthless as it offers no growth potential.

D. valued at an assumed growth rate of one percent.


E. priced the same as a $1 perpetuity
Priced the same as a $1 perpetuity

The average of a firm's cost of equity and aftertax cost of debt


that is weighted based on the firm's capital structure is called
the:
A. structured cost of capital.
B. subjective cost of capital.
C. weighted capital gains rate.
D. reward to risk ratio.
E. weighted average cost of capital.
weighted average cost of capital.

The capital structure weights used in computing the weighted


average cost of capital:
A. remain constant over time unless the firm issues new
securities.
B. are based on the market value of the firm's debt and equity
securities.
C. are computed using the book value of the long-term debt and
the book value of equity.
D. are restricted to the firm's debt and common stock.
E. are based on the book values of total debt and total equity.
are based on the market value of the firm's debt and equity
securities.

Most loans are a form of a(n)


annuity

Decreasing the required rate of return will ________ the net


present value of a project.
A. increase
B. Decrease
Increase

A decision to issue additional shares of stock is what kind of


decision?
Capital structure decision

For a given time period, the higher the interest rate, the smaller
the _________
present value

For a given interest rate, the higher the ______, the lower the
present value
future value

What is a bond call option?


it gives the company the right to call or purchase the bonds at a
specified price from bondholders

What is the yield-to-maturity of a bond?


a bondholders required rate of return for holding a bond. it is the
current required market rate.

If the coupon is higher than the YTM then it is a ____ bond


Discount

What is a common shareholder entitled to?


voting, share in profits, residual assets in a liquidation

Advantages of payback
liquidity basis, ease of use, adjusts for uncertainty of later cash
flows

Disadvantages of payback
requires cut off point, biased against long term projects, and
ignores time value money

Advantages of discounted payback


includes time value money, easy to understand, biased towards
liquidity

Disadvantages of discounted payback


requires cut off point, ignores cash flows beyond cut off point and
may reject positive NPV investments.

Advantages of Account rate of return


easy to calculate, and needed information will usually be
available

Disadvantages of Account rate of return


exclusion of time value of money, need a cut off rate and based on
accounting values

Advantages of Profitability index


easy to understand and communicate, useful when investment
funds are limited

Disadvantages of Profitability index


leads to incorrect decisions in comparison of mutually exclusive
investments

Side effects (positive and negative)


positive: benefits to other projects
Negative: costs to other projects

should operating cash flows be pre tax or after tax?


after tax

What is the capital asset pricing model and what does it


measure?
it defines the relationship between risk and return. We can use
the CAPM to determine its expected return, and expected equity
on return.

What two models can estimate the cots of equity?


Capital asset pricing model and dividend growth model

What are the two ways to estimate the growth in dividends?


historical growth and analysts' forecast

How do you measure the cost of debt? is it equal to the coupon


outstanding company debt?
yield to maturity // not the coupon rate

Which components of the capital structure is adjusted for taxes


and why?
Debt is adjusted for taxes because, only interest is tax deductible.
Companies are not allowed to adjust dividends.

In calculating the weighted average cost of capital do you use


the market value or the book value?
Market value

If you one of the models and compare a cost of equity to be less


than the cost of debt does this make sense?

No, because equity should have a higher return and debt since, it
carries more risk to the holder.

What are you trying to minimize/maximize when you select a


debt- equity ratio?
you want to minimize the cost of capital

As the firms risk increases, the cost of capital _______ and the
NPV of projects __________
cost of capital INCREASES and the NPV of projects DECREASE

What does beta measure?


beta measures the systematic risk of market risk which cannot be
divorced away. The risk you can't get rid of such as things that
impact all companies or economic downturns

If you were calculating a worst case scenario would you use high
or low costs?
In calculating the worst case scenario you would use high costs
and low revenue and vise versa for best case scenario.

The amount of systematic risk present in a particular risky asset


relative to that in an average risky asset is called the:
a. mean.
B. beta coefficient.
c. risk premium.
d. standard deviation.
e. variance.
Beta Coeffiecient

The return on a risky asset that is anticipated in the future is


called the:
a. real return.
b. risk premium.
c. systematic return.
D. expected return.
e. beta.
Expected Return

Which of the following will increase the sustainable growth rate


of a firm?
I. eliminating all dividends
II. increasing the target debt-equity ratio
III. increasing the profit margin

IV. increasing the total asset turnover rate


a. I, III, and IV only
B. I, II, III, and IV
c. I, II, and III only
d. I and II only
e. II, III, and IV only
I, II, III and IV

Which one of the following is the preferred method of analyzing


a proposed investment?
a. payback
B. net present value
c. internal rate of return
d. profitability index
e. accounting rate of return
Net present value

A net present value of zero implies that an investment:


A. is earning a return that exactly matches the requirement.
b. has no initial cost.
c. never pays back its initial cost.
d. should be rejected even if the discount rate is lowered.
e. has an expected return that is less than the required return.
Is earning a return that exactly matches the requirement

Systematic risk is:


a. also called diversifiable risk.
b. unique to an individual firm.
c. also called asset-specific risk.
d. the total risk inherent in an individual security.
E. a risk that affects a large number of assets.
A risk that affects a large number of assets

The discount rate that causes the net present value of a project
to equal zero is called the:
a. average accounting return.
b. market rate.
C. internal rate of return.
d. yield to maturity.
e. required return.
Internal rate of return

The concept of investing in a variety of diverse assets to reduce


risk is referred to as:
A. the principle of diversification.

b. beta measuring.
c. the systematic risk principle.
d. the principle of elimination.
e. split investing.
The principle of diversification

The change in a firm's future cash flows that results from


adding a new project are referred to as _____ cash flows.
a. direct
b. deviated
C. incremental
d. eroded
e. residual
Incremental

Which of the following will increase the net income of a


profitable firm?
I. decreasing the depreciation
II. increasing the variable cost per unit
III. decreasing fixed costs
IV. increasing revenue
a. III and IV only
b. I, II, and III only
C. I, III, and IV only
d. I and IV only
e. II, III, and IV only
I, III, and IV

A situation in which taking one investment prevents the taking


of another is called:
A. Net present value profiling.
B. Operational ambiguity.
C. Mutually exclusive investment decisions.
D. Issues of scale.
E. Multiple rates of return.
Mutually exclusive investment decisions

A conventional cash flow is defined as a series of cash flows


where:
A. The total of the cash flows is positive.
B. All of the cash flows are positive.
C. The sum of the cash flows is equal to zero.
D. The present value of the cash flows is equal to zero.
E. Only the initial cash flow is negative.
Only the initial cash flow is negative

Which of the following decision rules has the advantage that the
information needed for the computation is readily available?
A. Net present value
B. Internal rate of return
C. Payback period
D. Average accounting return
E. Discounted payback
Average Accounting Return

Which of the following calculations takes the time value of


money into account?
I. Payback
II. Average accounting return
III. Profitability index
III only

The payback rule can be best stated as:


A. An investment is acceptable if its calculated payback period
is less than some prespecified number of years.
B. An investment should be accepted if the payback is positive
and rejected if it is negative.
C. An investment should be rejected if the payback is positive
and accepted if it is negative.
D. An investment is acceptable if its calculated payback period
is greater than some pre-specified number of years.
An investment is acceptable if its calculated payback period is
less than some prespecified number of years.

Diversification works because:


I. Unsystematic risk exists.
II. Forming stocks into portfolios reduces the standard
deviation of returns for each stock.
III. Firm-specific risk can be dramatically reduced if not
eliminated
A. I only
B. I and III only
C. I and II only
D. III only
E. I, II, and III
I and III

The CAPM shows that the expected return for a particular asset
depends on:

I. The amount of unsystematic risk.


II. The reward for bearing systematic risk.
III. The pure time value of money.
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. III only
D. I, II, and III
E. II and III only
II and III

Which of the following does NOT describe the risk that exists in
a well-diversified portfolio?
A. Asset-specific risk
B. Market risk
C. Non-diversifiable risk
D. Systematic risk
Asset-specific risk
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