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Power System Studies/Power System Analysis/Engineering

Power System Studies refers to the study of power evacuation from generation to loads,
under control, protection and supervision; and under normal or contingency conditions;
under various expected operation scenarios; capturing the behaviour of the electrical
network, its elements, its control, protection and their response under different time
frames, spanning few a micro seconds to several hours or even years of time.
These studies may also be classified as Static, Dynamic or Transient, depending on
the mathematical models used in analysis and the time frame of examination of the
behavior of the power system under consideration.
The nature of the studies and their objectives may vary for different types of electrical
network [or power systems] and the problems being analyzed, with possible different
criteria. Thus a study for a transmission system , a distribution system or an Industrial
network may not all have identical perspective, even though the type of analysis
modules used in analyzing them are same.
These studies may fulfil the objectives of system planning, system design, system
protection and control, developing system operation strategies, commercial and
technical evaluation and feasibility studies, solutions for problems faced during
system operation.
These studies are pre-requisites for any new system, for any new renovation,
modernization and expansion plans, and also for existing systems for arriving at
solution for problems faced in the operation.
As a rule, it is mandatory to perform the power system studies, where interconnection of
two different systems are proposed. For example, interconnection of a industrial load to
a distribution company, requires that standard set of studies to be performed, typically
covering, the load flow, short circuit, relay coordination, harmonic analysis , motor startig
studies and stability studies as applicable.
List of Power System Studies/Analysis
The power system study group have performed widest possible range of power system
studies as follows. The studies cover planning, engineering, economic aspects of power
system, design, operation, control and protection and uses appropriate static, dynamic
or transient study models for power systems.

Power Flow Studies.

Short Circuit Studies (Conventional/IEC909/ANSI/IEEE/G74).

Contingency Studies [Ranking and Evaluation].

Optimal Power Flow.

Reactive Power Optimization.

Capacitor Locations and Sizing.

Static/Dynamic Voltage Stability Analysis.

Transient Stability Analysis (Large Signal Performance).

Dynamic Stability Analysis (Small Signal Performance).

Power System Stabilizer Applications.

Protection System Studies (Overcurrent phase and earth fault, High set,
Differential, Distance, Frequency, Voltage).

Equipment Protection Applications (Transformers, Transmission lines, Motors,


Generators, Bus Protection).

Harmonic Measurements, Analysis and Filter Design.

Switching Transient Studies.

Insulation Coordination.

Motor Starting Studies.

Evaluation of energy transactions in de-regulated market. Energy pricing,


Wheeling and banking charges, Transmission and Distribution Pricing, Grid
Support charges.

Ground Mat Design.

Energy Audit Services.

Reliability Evaluation.

Long term energy and demand forecast along with associated


system/finance/commercial planning.

EMTP, Line Constants, Parameter Evaluation, Insulation Coordination.

Power quality related studies

Power evacuation studies

Switch Yard and Substation Design

1) Load Flow/Power Flow Studies and Analysis


Power flow analysis/studies is the preliminary step used in any Power Evacuation
Studies.
Power flow calculations provide active and reactive power flows and bus voltage
magnitude and their phase angle at all the buses for a specified power system
configuration and operating condition subject to the generation and/or regulating
capabilities of generators, synchronous condensers, static var compensators, HVDC

controls, FACTS controllers, tap changing under load transformers and specified net
interchange between individual operating systems (utilities). This information is
essential for the continuous evaluation of the current performance of a power system
and for analyzing the effectiveness of alternative plans for system expansion to meet
increased load demand. These analyses require the calculation of numerous power flow
cases for both normal, and emergency (contingency) operating conditions. The output
from power flow studies often provide the initial conditions needed for other analysis,
such as short circuit studies, transient stability, economic dispatch, dynamic stability
studies.
Applications of Power Flow Study and Analysis
Power flow study has the following applications
1. Transmission expansion planning , operation planning
2. Distribution expansion planning , operation planning
3. Industrial/Commercial distribution system planning, operational planning
4. Network interconnection, Grid interconnection studies
5. Evaluation of energy transactions between various stake holders
6. Energy audit to accurately determine network losses and estimate billing losses if
any
7. Sizing of transformers, cables, overhead lines, transformer tap ranges, shunt
capacitors, shunt reactors, reactive power management, FACTS devices, HVDC
operation
8. System security assessment via static contingency studies
9. Decision making tool in operation planning and operation of the system in load
dispatch center
10. Motor starting studies using load flow type analysis, where the starting
impedance of the Induction motor is modeled as constant impedance model with
starting impedance.
11. Evaluation of static voltage stability using load flow technique
The following general criteria of acceptability of design is used in power flow
studies
a. Voltage Drop at all buses should be within +/- 5% of the nominal rating for all
operating conditions considered
b. No over load conditions of any electrical circuits for all operating conditions
considered
c. Reactive power generation/import/export to be within specified limits for all
operating conditions considered

d. Ensuring quality power supply to all loads, under specified contingency

conditions, as per design philosophy adopted.


The following study cases/ power flow outputs are generally considered in power flow
studies
a. Extreme operating conditions of maximum and minimum loading conditions will
be considered to check the adequacy of the network, even though some of these
conditions may not exist during normal operation
b. Contingency conditions such as outage of lines, transformers, generators will be
considered and network adequacy for power evacuation will be assessed
c. Operating solutions such as transformer taps, Generator Excitation, shunt

reactive power compensations will be provided as needed.


d. Recommendations for strengthening and equipment upgradations will be
provided to meet specific operating requirements.
e. Summary of load flow studies and concise reports in tabular formats and single
line diagram formats will be provided, along with the summary of
recommendations
Contingency Ranking and Evaluation - System Security and Adequacy Evaluation
Contingency evaluation studies typically refers to evaluation of network adequacy and
security under credible network element outage conditions. Typically outage of
important transmission lines , transformers, generating units are usually considered in
the evaluation. The evaluation is carried out by using static as well as dynamic
analytical tools such as load flow analysis and transient stability analysis. Real time
control and monitoring solutions in enercy control centers or energy management
systems or load dispatch centers usually use an algorithm called contingency ranking
algorithm to shortlist credible contingencies for real time evaluation and control of power
systems. Often contingency ranking algorithm will use some approximate and fast load
flow type algorithms from a list of contingencies and rank them in the decreasing order
of severity. This ordered or ranked list will be considered for a detailed contingency
evaluation to assess system security.
General Features of PowerApps Power Flow Software
Power Flow is the analysis module of PowerApps dedicated to power flow analysis in
three-phase electric power networks. It is equipped with powerful analytical options and
alternative solution techniques.

Gauss-Seidel.

Newton-Raphson.

Fast-Decoupled.

AC/DC Load Flow, FACTS devices.

Load flow solution of multiple-islanded systems. The solution is available for each
of the islands having a reference (slack) node. The reference node is
automatically identified by the algorithm as the largest generator node in each
island.

Limit violation reports, summary reports.

Unbalalanced 3 phase load flow, including 1 and 2 phase load flow for lines
drawn separately from a 3 phase supply point.

Choice of objectives for the OPF/RPO (Transmission loss minimization, Voltage


Stability improvement, Removal of operating violations, Economic dispatch).

Optimal Load Flow.

OPF/RPO control options are active power injections, reactive power injections,
shunt compensations, series compensations, phase shifters, transformer taps.

OPF/RPO sensitivity calculations with respect to the performance objective


provides information for suitable location of shunt reactive power compensation
and also identifies most effective controllers for optimization.

No limits on the number of study cases and related reports in a single execution
of the program

2) Short Circuit Studies, Fault Calculations


Short circuit calculations provide currents and voltages on a power system during fault
conditions. This information is required to design an adequate protective relaying
system and to determine interrupting requirements for circuit breakers at each switching
location. Fault conditions can be balanced or un-balanced shunt faults or series (open
conductor) faults. Often information about contributions to a fault from rotating machines
such synchronous machines, large motors would be required as a function of time to
determine making and breaking requirements. Fault calculations may consider or ignore
pre-fault power flow conditions. Short Circuit is the PowerApps analysis module
dedicated to simulating fault conditions in three-phase electric power systems. User
friendly data entry, a multitude of reports and flexibility in applying all industry-accepted
standards are features that make it an Indispensable tool for these very common and
important system studies. PowerApps Short Circuit Module adheres to North American
ANSI C37.5, ANSI C37.010, ANSI C37.13 and International IEC-60909 guidelines. It
also supports conventional short-circuit studies without reference to any particular
standards.
Short circuit studies provide post fault bus voltages at different busbars in the network
for a fault at any one of the location in the network. These results are typically given as
fault MVAs, fault currents in kA at different bus bars and fault contributions from
adjacent bus sections to the fault, on a single line diagram for various operating
conditions. Short circuit studies for minimum fault level condition at the main switch
board may be of interest in relay coordination to check, whether relays can distinguish
between the maximum load currents and minimum fault currents. In the event, the

minimum fault currents in the relays are very close to the maximum load currents, it may
be necessary to suggest voltage restraint for relays to ensure that the relays will operate
only for fault conditions and not for healthy full load conditions.
The deliverables from the short circuit studies will include the following
-

Tabular report of conventional short circuit levels at all buses

Tabular reports of Making/Breaking Current levels at all the buses

Report on single line diagrams showing fault levels, fault kA for both conventional
and IEC 60909 type calculations
Recommendations with respect to operating strategy, to limit short circuit levels
where needed
General Features of Short Circuit Study/Calculation Software

Fault levels for asymmetrical and symmetrical faults including bolted faults.

ANSI/IEEE standards.

IEC standards including 363 and 909.

G74 British standard, a computer algorithm based standard for IEC 909
standard. IEC 909 standard specified multiplication factors based on hand
calculation procedures and simplifying assumptions.

Short circuit analysis of multiple-islanded systems with solution for each of the
islands.

Default flat 1.0 pu positive sequence bus voltage based calculations.

Option to consider pre-fault bus voltages from load flow along with the sequence
impedances for loads.

Automatic one line diagram creation.

Multiple case studies in single execution of the program for different network
configurations and/or different source impedances or ratings.

Automatic generation of reports for all the specified study cases on the single line
diagram.

Induction motor models.

Fault calculations for network with multiple islands with sources in each island.

Detailed system wide post fault bus voltages and flows for specified bus faults
along with impedance seen at each relay locations.

Output contains, detailed phase quantities, sequence quantities of voltages,


currents, driving point impedances, transfer impedances, contribution from
sources, and contribution from adjacent buses.

Results of fault calculations with mutual coupling matches perfectly with


published examples.

Reactive Power Optimization[RPO], Optimal Power Flow [OPF], Economic


Dispatch[ED], Available Transfer Capability [ATC] Calculations
The power flow solution calculates power flows and determines bus voltages at an
operating point for a given network configuration and generation and load specifications.
However, it is left to the engineering judgement of the system planner to determine
optimum way of system operation considering
- Operating objectives
- Operating constraints [Commercial and Security Constraints] and
- Equipment capability constraints.
Such an exercise using load flow tool is very tedious and time consuming for a practical
power system with large number of operating controls and constraints.

A properly designed optimal power flow [OPF] solution provides the best and most
optimum practical solution to achieve improvement in a single or multiple hierarchical
objectives while respecting various constraints on the system operation. An OPF can
determine the most effective subset of controls and their solution for a given operating
condition to improve the specified objectives. OPF can consider different objectives for
improvement such as transmission loss minimization, voltage stability improvement and
minimization
of
system
operating
cost.
OPF/RPO analysis module of PowerApps is based on the Primal-dual LP programming
approach and has the following features:

Newton-Raphson load flow for solution at an operating point.

OPF/RPO solution of multiple-islanded systems. The solution is available for


each of the islands having a reference (slack) node. The reference node is
automatically identified by the algorithm as the largest generator node in each
island.

Choice of objectives for the OPF/RPO (Transmission loss minimization, Voltage


Stability improvement, Removal of operating violations, Economic dispatch, ATC
calculations).

Optimal load flow as per selected objectives and specified constraints

OPF/RPO control options are active power injections, reactive power injections,
shunt compensations, series compensations, phase shifters, transformer taps.

OPF/RPO sensitivity calculations with respect to the performance objective


provides information for suitable location of shunt reactive power compensation
and also identifies most effective controllers for optimization.

No limits on the number of study cases and related reports in a single execution
of the program.

3) Static Voltage Stability


This is a stability phenomenon, where the power system looses its ability to control load
bus voltage due to various reasons. This phenomenon can lead to failure of the total or
partial power system due to interventions of various control and protection actions.
The reasons for voltage instability could be
-

Failure to provide necessary power support to the loads as a consequence of


power transfer limit. The power transfer limit is determined not only by the bus
voltage phase angle, but also by bus voltage magnitude

Failure to meet power requirements due to equipments reaching their control


and operating limits. Examples are transformer tap limits, generator reactive
power supply capabilities.
Inconsistency in the load power requirements as function of bus voltage and
power supply characteristics.

PowerApps provides various analytical tools for assessment of static voltage stability
using load flow solution or output from static state estimation. Further the reactive power
optimization algorithm provides a method of improving static voltage stability. The
analytical tools are
1. V-P (nose) curves or PV curves
2. Sensitivity Indices. Sensitivity of bus voltage magnitude for active (P) and
reactive (Q) injection at a bus.
3. Sensitivity of net reactive power generation for a given bus reactive power
injection.
4. Minimum Singular Value Decomposition of the complete load flow Jacobian as
well us reduced Jacobian formulations. [ P.A.Lof, T.Smed, G.Andersson, D.J.Hill
Two IEEE Transaction publications, 1992, 1993]. Further, identification of
critical buses based on left and right singular vectors are also implemented in
PowerApps.
5. Voltage Stability Index L proposed by P.Kessel and H.Glavitsch. [ IEEE
Transactions on Power Delivery, 1986].
6. Static Voltage Stability Evaluation using relative bus voltage phasors at an
operating point given by load flow solution or static state estimation.. [A New and
Fast Technique for Voltage Stability Analysis of a Grid Network Using System
Voltage Space", Published in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy
Systems, Elsevier Science Ltd. UK .]
7. Improvements in static voltage stability using a reactive power optimization tool.
[Optimal Static Voltage Stability Improvement Using a Numerically Stable SLP
Algorithm, for Real Time Applications", Published in International Journal of
Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Elsevier Science Ltd. UK ]

4) Transient Stability Analysis (Large Signal Performance)


The recovery of a power system subjected to a severe large disturbance is of interest to
system planners and operators. Typically the system must be designed and operated in
such a way that a specified number of credible contingencies do not result in failure of
quality and continuity of power supply to the loads. This calls for accurate calculation of
the system dynamic behavior, which includes the electro-mechanical dynamic
characteristics of the rotating machines, generator controls, static var compensators,
loads, protective systems and other controls. Transient stability analysis can be used for
dynamic analysis over time periods from few seconds to few minutes depending on the
time constants of the dynamic phenomenon modeled. Transient Stability Analysis is the

PowerApps simulation module dedicated to simulating electromechanical transients in


three phase electric power systems. It features an extensive library of equipment and
controller models, the capability to include user-defined controls, a very flexible userinterface and powerful graphics. Transient Stability Analysis module utilizes the
simultaneous implicit trapezoidal integration solution technique for network, machine
and controller equations. The program supports the capability to test the step response
of controllers and User Defined Modeling for system equipment and controllers.
General Features of Transient Stability Analysis

Transient models of excitation systems, turbine governors, static-var


compensators, power system stabilizers and HVDC controllers.

Load shedding / islanded operation.

Transient stability analysis of multiple-islanded systems with solution for each of


the islands.

Choice of generator models. From simple classical generators with constant


voltage behind transient reactance to modelling detailed synchronous machines
with variable voltages behind sub-transient reactances.

Standard IEEE excitation system models and turbine and governor models.

Commercial excitation models and governor models.

Models for power system stabilizers and different stabilizing signals.

Modelling load characteristics similar to that in the load flow analysis.

Modelling load characteristics as function of frequency.

Dynamic models of Induction motor and its load.

Motor starting studies. Motor modelling by their equivalent circuits or by the


measured response during starting along with mathematical model for load
torque as function of speed.

Under frequency/Under Voltage relay operation simulation.

Load shedding.

Islanded operation.

Element opening/closing.

Loss of generators.

Multiple transient stability disturbance scenarios for each base case load flow
study. Note that, multiple load flow case studies can be performed followed by
multiple transient stability simulations for each load flow study case.

Plots of selected bus frequencies and bus voltages. Note bus frequencies are
different from generator frequencies.

Reports and Recommendations from Transient Stability Studies


1. Plots of Dynamic response of Generator rotor angles, frequencies, power
outputs, voltages, excitation system outputs, governor-prime mover outputs
2. Plots of Line Flows, transformer flows, bus voltages, bus frequencies
3. Plots of Motor dynamic variables where required
4. Plots of the system variables that are of interest from protection point of view
[example frequencies, distances seen from distance relays, fault currents seen
from overcurrent relays etc]
5. Recommendation related to protection and control, operating strategy, Control
settings of equipments [for example power system stabilizer, relay settings, load
shedding schmes etc], based on various study cases considered

5) Dynamic Stability Analysis (Small Signal Performance)

The dynamic behaviour of power systems subjected normal power impacts is influenced
by the following factors:

The system load level.

The network characteristics.

The Generator and its controller characteristics.

The load characteristics.

The system is dynamically stable if the oscillatory response following a perturbation


quickly settles down to a new stable operating point without sustained oscillations.
These studies are typically carried out using linearized model of the system.
General Features of Dynamic Stability Analysis

Component modelling similar to Transient Stability Studies.

Linearized model of network algebraic equations and first order differential


equations used at an operating point.

Eigen values analysis used for the evaluation of the system stability.

Option for time domain simulation with the linearized model and with specified
perturbation.

Transfer function approach with single machine, infinite bus models.

Can be executed for multiple islanded systems and for multiple load flow study
cases.

Options for root locus plots, Bode plots for simple single machine infinite bus
models.

6) Power System Stabilizer Applications


The dynamic stability of a system can be improved by providing suitably tuned power
system stabilizers on selected generators to provide damping to critical oscillatory
modes. Suitably tuned Power System Stabilizers (PSS), will introduce a component of
electrical torque in phase with generator rotor speed deviations resulting in damping of
low frequency power oscillations in which the generators are participating. The input to
stabilizer signal may be one of the locally available signal such as changes in rotor
speed, rotor frequency, accelerating power or any other suitable signal. This stabilizing
signal is compensated for phase and gain to result in adequate component of electrical
torque that results in damping of rotor oscillations and thereby enhance power
transmission and generation capabilities. State-space techniques described under
Dynamic Stability Studies or classical control theory such as Bode plots, root locus

techniques can be used to determine suitable parameters for power system


stabilizers.The design can then be verified with a transient stability analysis for practical
system disturbances.
A Typical Control Schematic Diagram of Power System Stabilizer

7) Power System Protection Studies and Relay Coordination


CASE STUDY : Protection Co-ordination Study
In any power system netowrk, protection should be designed such that protective
relays isolate the faulted portion of the network at the earliest, to prevent equipment
damage, injury to operators and to ensure minimum system disruption enabling
continuity of service to healthy portion of the network.
When relays meant to protect specific equipments, transmission/distribution
lines/feeders or primary zone protective relays, do not operate and clear the fault in their
primary protection zone, backup relays located in the backup zone, must operate to
isolate the fault, after providing sufficient time discrimination for the operation of the
primary zone relays.
The protective relays must also be able to discriminate between faulted conditions,
normal operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions and function only
for the specific protection for which they are designed, without operating for any normal
and short term acceptable abnormal events for which they are not intended to act and
provide protection.
The
term
or phrase relay
coordination therefore
covers
the
concept
of discrimination, Selectivity and backup protection as explained in the foregoing
discussion. Further the coordination is not confined only to relays and equipment
operating characteristics, but also includes other protective device characteristics such
as Fuse, MCB's, Circuit Breakers as applicable.
Relay coordination calculation module must consider the operating characteristics of the
relays, normal operating and thermal or mechanical withstand characteristics of the

equipments and must determine the optimum relay settings to achieve the objectives
stated to protect the equipments and to ensure continuity of power supply to healthy
part of network.
Apart from the fault or short circuit conditions, protection system must also be designed
to provide protection against thermal-withstand limits, motor stalling, negative sequence
current with-stand limits, protection against abnormal frequencies, and protection
against unbalance operating conditions as applicable to various equipments and
operating situations.
Frequency relay settings can be determined by using a dynamic simulation tool, such as
transient stability analysis.Frequency Control Engineering ; Transient Stability Analysis
Overcurrent Phase/Earth Fault Relays

Overcurrent phase fault relays.

Overcurrent earth fault relays.

High set relay settings to ensure protection against primary zone faults.

Coordination with maximum load current.

Coordination with fuse characteristics.

Coordination with maximum motor starting current and time.

Coordination with transformer inrush current.

Coordination with primary-back up pairs.

Coordination with thermal withstand capabilities ([I-square]t = K characteristics).

Coordination with safe stall limits for Motors.

Automatic generation of TCCs showing all relevant coordination.

Automatic identification of primary and back up relay pairs.

Provision for user defined back up relays for specific primary relays.

Solution for multiple island networks.

Multiple study cases for different network and source configurations in a single
execution of the program.

Built in libraries of commercial relays, IEEE and IEC characteristics.

Distance Relay Settings

Zone setting calculations for zone 1 and 2.

Zone 3 setting calculations based on inbuilt short circuit calculations.

Settings for different commercially available relays.

Different relay characteristics MHO , Polygonal , Lens , Circle , R/X Blinder,


Offset characteristic.

R/X diagrams.

Solution for multiple islanded network in a single execution of the program.

Solution for multiple study cases with different network configurations in a single
execution of program.

8) Harmonic Measurements, Analysis and Filter Design


Harmonics in power systems can result in undesirable influence such as Capacitor
heating/failure, Telephone interference, Rotating equipment heating, Relay
misoperation, Transformer heating, Switchgear failure, Fuse blowing. The main sources
of harmonics in power system are static power converters, arc furnaces, discharge
lighting and any other load that requires non-sinusoidal current. In order to limit the
harmonic current propagation in to the network, harmonic filters are placed close to the
source of the harmonic currents. Harmonic filters provide low impedance paths to
harmonic currents and thus prevent them from flowing into the power network.
Harmonic analysis program computes indices such as total voltage harmonic distortion
factor at system buses to evaluate the effect of the harmonic sources and to evaluate
the effectiveness of the harmonic filters. Also, driving point impedance plots of the
buses of interest are generated to identify whether series or parallel resonance
phenomenon occurs at any harmonic frequency of interest.
Our Approach to Harmonic Analysis
We use 4 step approach as described in this section.
-

In the first step for existing and functional networks harmonic current
measurements is performed at selected points to identify the harmonic currents

injected into the network by the harmonic sources. These measurements reflect
harmonic currents for one operating configuration and the loads prevailing at the
time of measurements only. These may not represent conservative estimates of
harmonic currents available.
In the second step, the measurement information of the first step will be used
along with design data of harmonics where available from non-linear loads,
generating harmonic currents. A computer network model will be prepared as per
IEEE standards and the effect of various harmonic sources at various harmonic
orders will be examined. Various harmonic distortion factors will be computed as
outlined in relevant IEEE standards. The advantage of computer model and
simulation is that it can take care of large number of operating configurations and
conservative estimates of harmonic currents, which cannot be covered by field
measurements. Field measurements of the first step, can however be used to
validate the computer model developed.
In the third step, harmonic driving point impedances of all buses of interest will
be generated at various harmonic orders and plots of the driving point
impedances will be generated with respect to a range of harmonic orders [orders
1 through 50]. These plots indicate series and parallel resonance conditions in
network.
In the fourth step, analysis of results of the first 3 steps will be carried out and
solutions needed to solve any harmonic related problems will be obtained. These
solutions are verified by using the computer model developed. The problems that
might arise could be excessive harmonic distortion factors beyond relevant IEEE
specified standards, existence of resonance conditions close to an exciting
harmonic frequency. Where these problems are encountered, solutions will be
provided by introduction of harmonic filters and its design will be verified again by
using the computer model developed. Recommendations include specifications
on sizing of individual components of the harmonic filters.

Our Guide Lines for Harmonic Measurements


1. Case 1: In this case the power supply to individual loads are supplied by
dedicated panels, with no other loads other than the specific non-linear load. The
load size is significantly large enough to warrant a specic dedicated harmonic
filter. The measurements will be taken for this load feeder
2. Case 2: A single supply switch board supplies several non-linear loads. All loads
are sufficiently small and nearly similar to each other. In this case dedicated
harmonic filters for individual loads may not be necessary. A common filter may
be provided at the incomer, provided the outgoing feeder loads are reasonably
constant. The measurement will be done on the incomer of the switch board only.
3. Case 3: A single switch board supplies several non-linear loads. The nature of
the loads are significantly different from each other. The net switch board load is
not constant or uniform making it difficult to arrive at a common filter at the
incomer. In this case we take harmonic measurements at each outgoing feeder
and design individual load filters.

Apart from the above cases for harmonic measurements for purpose of filter design, it
may be necessary to carryout measurements at point of common power coupling at HV
levels to ensure that statutory requirements are satisfied.
From the guidelines provided, it is fairly straightforward to examine the electrical
network and to determine the number of measurement points. Measurements may have
to be performed at different short circuit levels at the point of grid coupling as the
electrical network characteristics changes with fault levels.
General Features of Harmonic Measurements, Filter Design and Analysis

Distortion Factor Calculations as per IEEE 519 Standard.

Impedance Frequency Scans to identify parallel and series resonance points and
bus locations.

Modelling of harmonic sources and filters.

Modelling of all electric circuits as function of frequency.

Analysis using design data or Field measurements.

Analysis for various network configurations, fault levels.

Simultaneous solution of multiple islanded network.

Single execution and report generation for multiple study cases.

Calculation of harmonic current flows in specified circuit elements.

Display of computed harmonic distortion factors, harmonic bus voltages,


harmonic currents on single line diagram for all study cases.

Evaluation of adequacy of filter design.

Design of filters considering the harmonic currents to be filtered and reactive


power compensation needed at fundamental frequency.

Field measurements of power flows, harmonics and reports on the same.

Harmonic Analysis Related Documents


ValidationDocument_HarmonicAnalysis_IEEEStd399_1997
Typical Harmonic and Power Quality Measurements Report Extract
Sample Single Line Diagram and Driving Point Impedance Plot for Harmonic
Analysis

9) EMTP and Line Constants (LC)


The features of EMTP and Line Constants Program given below are similar to a
program developed by M/s Microtran Power System Analysis Corporation, with the
exception that available software will not handle Power Electronics Circuits, ideal
transformers and rotating machines. Details of EMTP and Line constant features, the
technical documents, user documents and a free student limited edition of the Microtran
software can be down loaded from the web site http://www.microtran.com.
General Features of EMTP and LC

Lumped R, L, C elements.

Multiphase pi-circuits.

Single and three-phase n-winding transformers.

Transposed and untransposed distributed parameter transmission lines with


constant or frequency dependent parameters.

Nonlinear resistances and surge arrester models (including metal oxide


arresters), as well as nonlinear inductances with user-defined residual flux.

Switches with any number of opening/closing sequences, and other switching


control criteria to simulate circuit breakers with multiple closing- opening
sequences, spark gaps, etc.

Diodes, thyristors, and anti-parallel thyristor models with either fixed, or userdefined firing controls.

Voltage and current sources. In addition to standard mathematical functions


(sinusoids, surge functions, steps, ramps), the user may specify sources point by
point as functions of time, or calculate them inside the user-supplied subroutine
SOURCE.

Synchronous machines with armature, field, and damper windings. The model
also includes a shaft- mass system representation for the simulation of torsional
oscillations.

Initial conditions can be determined automatically by the program or they can be


supplied by the user. The program can also be used to obtain steady-state
phasor solutions at a given frequency or over a user-defined frequency range.
The "frequency scan" capability is particularly useful for harmonics, resonance
and subsynchronous resonance studies.

User-supplied linear or nonlinear models using the entry point routine CONNEC.
The procedure is quite simple: the user compiles his version of CONNEC with
any compiler capable of creating a DLL. A sample version of CONNEC and
detailed interface information is available to would-be developers.

10) Switching Transient Studies


These studies are generally performed to assess the transients associated with:

Energization of overhead transmission lines and study of associated transients,


surge arrester ratings, transient mitigation methods.

Energization of capacitor banks / reactors in industrial or public utility facilities.

Transients associated with various switching actions such as fault application and
clearance.

Insulation Coordination
Insulation Coordination is the process of determining the proper insulation levels of
various components in a power system as well as their arrangements. It is the selection
of an insulation structure that will withstand voltage stresses to which the system or
equipment will be subjected to, together with the proper surge arrester. The process is
determined from the known characteristics of voltage surges and the characteristics of
surge
arresters.
The following standards are used by the consultants, while performing the insulation
coordination:

Insulation Co-ordination, Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules IEC 71-1,


standard.

Insulation Co-ordination, Part 2: Application guide IEC 71-2, standard.

IEEE Guide for the Application of Insulation Coordination. IEEE Std 1313-2-1999.

Summary of Application of EMTP Studies*


EMTP is used world-wide for switching and lightning surge analysis, insulation
coordination and shaft torsional oscillation studies, protective relay modeling, harmonic
and power quality studies, HVDC and FACTS modeling. Typical EMTP studies are:

Lightning overvoltage studies

Switching transients and faults

Statistical and systematic overvoltage studies

Very fast transients in GIS and groundings

Machine modeling

Transient stability, motor startup

Shaft torsional oscillations

Transformer and shunt reactor/capacitor switching

Ferroresonance

Power electronic applications

Circuit breaker duty (electric arc), current chopping

FACTS devices: STATCOM, SVC, UPFC, TCSC modeling

Harmonic analysis, network resonances

Protection device testing

Insulation Coordination Studies for a 132 kV Submarine Cable Interconnection


A Case Study Description Implemented in the Middle East Region

AbstractThe concept of insulation coordination is well known, however, the


exact and detailed method performing these studies are not practiced to the same
extent as regular power system analysis and studies. A study case is presented
in this paper, where power frequency temporary over voltage, switching
frequency and lightning over voltage studies [fast and very fast front over voltage
studies] are performed strictly in accordance with the IEC standards 60071 parts
1 and 2. The power frequency over voltage studies were performed using
standard power system analysis tools such as load flow, short circuit and
transient stability studies. The statistical switching and lightning over voltage
studies were performed using the EMTP software. The details of the studies are
presented in this paper.
Keywords-Insulation coordination, Power Frequency Overvoltage Studies,
Switching Frequency Overvoltage studies, Lightning overvoltage studies,

Selection of withstand levels, Surge arrester applications.


A.

Introduction
The utility operating company in a middle east country region has been operating the
offshore oilfield in island U for over 40 years. Over the years, various installations were
upgraded / added to the existing complex consuming significant amount of spare power
generation capacity. The facilities in the island U is now facing up-grades for new
process installation as the utility envisages various business opportunities in and around
its facilities in the island. Consequently, the electrical local load growth demands
additional power generation. Therefore, upgrades of the existing power generating
system are envisaged to meet these demands.
In relation to the above, the operating utility in the island U intends to meet the
additional load demand at the island, by means of providing a sub-sea cable link, of
approximately 40 KMs, from D Island power system to the U island power system. In
respect of this proposed tie-in various engineering studies, power system studies and
insulation coordination studies were performed. This paper outlines the insulation
coordination studies performed and presents the summary of the studies.
B.

Description of the system.


The islands of U and D both have gas turbine generators with the island D having the
surplus generation. The 132 kV sub-sea cable link is initially planned to operate at 33 kV
level and later to be upgraded to 132 kV operating voltage level. The studies were
performed considering that the initial operating voltage will be at 33 kV level. Though the
proposed sub-sea cable is adequately sized, the initial proposed operating conditions
envisaged a maximum export of about 8 MW power from the island D to U, which is
lower than the cable capacity. The single line diagram of the system considered for the
analysis is shown in the figure 1.
C.

Insulation Coordination Study


Insulation co-ordination procedure consists of the selection of the highest voltage for
the equipment together with a corresponding set of standard rated withstand voltages
which characterize the insulation of the equipment needed for the application. The
optimization of the selected set of withstand voltages Uw may require reconsideration of
some input data and repetition of part of the procedure till satisfactory results are
obtained.
The first step in the insulation coordination is the determination of the representative
over voltages in the system [Urp] to which the electrical circuit is subjected to , under
various operating conditions and switching phenomena. IEC standard 60071 classifies
these over voltages as
a.

Low frequency continuous over voltages. Power Frequency Load flow analysis
used to determine these over voltages.

b.

Low frequency temporary over voltages. These are determined by transient


stability analysis and unbalanced short circuit studies involving ground faults.

c.

Transient slow front overvoltages. These are determined by statistical switching


, line energization studies with or without pre-insertion resistors or other means of

over voltage control.


d.

Transient fast front switching overvoltages. These are determined by statistical


switching studies, with unbalanced faults, fault removal, and switch reclose with or
without fault removal on energized lines.
e.

Transient very fast front lightning over voltages. These are determined from the
lightning over voltage studies.

D.

Power Frequency Overvoltage Studies


The objective of load flow studies is to examine the power frequency over voltages in
the system under all possible operating conditions. These operating conditions involved
no load cases or complete loss of load conditions as well, to assess the extent of over
voltages under no load conditions. A list of sample study cases considered for load flow,
short circuit and Transient stability studies is as follows
1.
2.

Two generators of island U in operation along with all D island generators at


Peak Load
All generators of both islands in operation at peak load, sharing loads

3.

Two U generators in operation at peak load with loss connection between D


island and U island.

4.

Two U island generators in operation along with all D island generators at


No Load

5.

All D island generators along with two U island generators in operation with
reduced output at Peak Load such that there is maximum flow in Sub-Sea
cable from island D to U

6.

All U island generators in operation along with all D island generators except
one gas turbine at peak Load such that there is maximum flow in Sub-Sea
cable from U to D

For each of the network configurations, the short circuit studies were also performed
to compute the over voltages on healthy phases during ground fault conditions. Further
transient stability studies were performed for the following disturbance scenarios and
events
-

3 Phase faults and fault removal by isolating the faulted circuit , to determine
the over voltages , their duration , upon fault removal.
Loss of load conditions resulting in over voltages.

E.
Switching Frequency, Fast Front, Very Fast Front Overvoltages
Statistical switching studies were performed using the ATP-EMTP software for the
following switching scenarios with and without proposed surge arresters. These studies
involved
a.

Line Energization studies with receiving end open ended

b.

Single phase fault, with single phase reclosing after fault clearance

c.

Single phase fault, with single phase reclosing after unsuccessful fault
clearance

d.

Single phase fault, with 3 phase reclosing after fault clearance

e.

Single phase fault, with 3 phase reclosing after unsuccessful fault clearance

f.

3 phase fault, with 3 phase reclosing after fault clearance

g.

3 phase fault, with 3 phase reclosing after unsuccessful fault clearance

Apart from the above lightning over voltage studies of a typical 33 kV overhead line
was also considered for the insulation coordination calculations to arrive at the
conservative values , as the lightning was not applicable for the sub-sea cable system.
F.
Modeling of Sub-sea cable for EMTP studies
In electromagnetic transient simulations there are basically two ways to represent
transmission lines/cables:
i.
Lumped parameter models: Nominal and exact PI-models
ii.
Distributed parameter models/traveling wave models: Bergeron and
frequency-dependent models

Nominal PI-model: The nominal PI-model is one of the simplest representations that can
be done of a cable line. It includes the cable's total inductance, capacitance, resistance
and conductance (usually not considered) modeled as lumped parameters.
Exact PI-model: The exact PI-model, sometimes also called the equivalent pi-model, is
a more advanced version of the nominal pi-model that considers the distributed nature
of the impedance and admittance. This model is accurate when used in the frequency
domain for a single frequency and is normally used to validate other models.
Bergeron model: The Bergeron model is a constant-frequency model based on traveling
wave theory. The cable is considered to be lossless and its distributed resistance is
added as a series lumped resistance. Typically, the model is divided into two sections, it
can be divided in more sections, but the differences in the results are minor. This model
is a constant-frequency model and its use is only recommended for the cases when
only one frequency is considered.
Frequency Dependent (FD) models: As the name indicates, FD-models are models that
have frequency-dependent cable parameters. When compared with the previous
models, the use of the frequency domain increases the results accuracy. In FD-models
all calculations are performed in the frequency domain and the solutions converted to
time domain by the using transformations such as Fourier-transform or Z-transform.
For this study Exact PI model was considered.
G.

Sample Simulation Results and Plots

H.

Conclusions/Recommendations
The lightning, switching overvoltage and insulation co-ordination studies were carried
out for the 33kV sub-sea cable system. The model representing the 33kV system is
carried out as recommended in IEC 60071-2, and in accordance with the next extend as
required by EMTP. All studies were based on the relevant international standard, i.e. IEC
60071-2.

11) Motor Starting Studies


The starting current of most ac motors is several times normal full load current when
starting them directly on line at full rated voltage. The starting torque varies directly as
the square of the applied voltage. Excessive starting current results in drop in terminal
voltage and may result in the following:
Failure of motor starting due to low starting torques.
Unnecessary operation of under voltage relays.
Stalling of other running motors connected to the network.
Voltage dips at the power sources and consequent flicker in the lighting system.
Motor starting studies can help in the selection of best method of starting, the proper
motor design, and the proper system design for minimizing the impact of the motor
starting.
Analysis of motor starting methods can be performed by both static and dynamic
simulation techniques as follows. These techniques have their own conveniences,
advantages and drawbacks. We believe mainly in transient (dynamic) motor starting
studies that reproduce observed (measured) motor starting conditions.
Load flow type solution with the perceived starting impedance of the motor
modeled as part of network modeling

Short circuit method type of calculations considering pre-fault short circuit


conditions and using voltage drop calculations considering motor starting currents.
Alternatively
Where accurate dynamic model of the motor electric circuit and load torque
characteristics are available, dynamic model of the motor can be used in traditional
transient stability algorithm to assess the impact of the motor starting.
In the absence of accurate model information, transient stability studies can be
used where the observed (measured) starting current can be used as nodal injection at
the motor bus as a dynamic event and the system response to this dynamic event can
be evaluated.
The various methods described above can take into account all types of motor starting
such as
-

Direct on line

With compensation

Auto transformers

Soft Starters

Start Delta Start

Performance curves supplied from manufacturer

Variable frequency drives

12) Power Quality

To us Power Quality is characterized by


1.Stable AC voltages at near nominal values and at near rated frequency subject
to acceptable minor variations, free from annoying voltage flicker, voltage sags,
frequency fluctuations.
2.Near sinusoidal current and voltage wave forms free from higher order
harmonics

All electrical equipments are rated to operate at near rated voltage and rated frequency.
Hence the first point is one of the criteria of for assessing the power quality.
As indicated in http://www.powerapps.org/Harmonic Measurements, Analysis and Filter
Design.aspx , harmonics in power supply can result in the following
-

Capacitor heating/failure

Telephone interference

Rotating equipment heating

Relay misoperation

Transformer heating

Switchgear failure

Fuse blowing

To address the issues of power quality - we undertake detailed field measurements,


monitor electrical parameters at various PCCs, feeders to assess the operating
conditions in terms of power quality. If problems are found, we perform detailed studies
using a computer model. The accuracy of computer model is first built to the degree
where the observed simulation values matches with those of the field measurement
values. This provides us with a reliable computer model using which we workout
remedial measures. For the purpose of the analysis we may use load flow studies,
dynamic simulations, EMTP simulations, harmonic analysis depending on the objectives
of the studies.
We also evaluate the effectiveness of harmonic filters through the computer model built,
paying due attention to any reactive power compensation that these filters may provide
at fundamental frequency for normal system operating conditions. Additionally the
equipment ratings will also be addressed to account for harmonic current flows and
consequent over heating.

13) Power Evacuation Studies


The phrase Power Evacuation Studies is a generic term associated with plans for
evacuating power generated from a generating source to a load centre. In the simplest
form, it may mean only load flow studies with proposed transmission and distribution
plans. When complete engineering is involved, the entire spectrum of power system
analysis/studies may have to be performed.

Power Evacuation Studies may mean, studies related to new generation facility and its
connectivity to the grid for evacuation of the power or may mean studies related to
existing facilities to study alternative plans of power evacuation for operational
purposes.
The objective of the studies is usually the checking feasibility of the various technical
and economic aspects and therefore may encompass various other studies as follows.
Load Flow or Power Flow Studies using standard load flow analysis techniques.
Static and Dynamic Contingency studies, using load flow analysis, transient
stability analysis, small signal stability analysis, voltage stability analysis
techniques. This is done to check the adequacy of the evacuation design or plan
to withstand credible contingencies and to assess the reliability aspects of power
evacuation.
Reactive Power Compensation Studies for capacitor locations, sizing, optimum
settings for generator excitations, transformer taps. These studies are carried out
using reactive power optimization techniques based typically on linear
programming methods. The objective is to ensure that power is supplied to load
centers at acceptable voltage levels and with minimum transmission losses.
Optimal Power Flow Studies. For economic dispatch or other suitable
objectives. The other suitable objective may contain, scheduled power exchange,
removal of operational infeasibilities, improving stability margin.
Engineering studies, such as site survey, plant and equipment locations,
various engineering plans and specifications [civil, structural, mechanical,
instrumentation, piping, electrical etc], transmission routes, substation layout,
circuit breaker sizing, ground mat design, insulation coordination, protection and
coordination to complete the designed Power Evacuation arrangement.

14) Switch Yard and Substation Design


We cover the following aspects of electrical engineering with respect to switch yard and
substation design
Detailed single line diagrams
Electrical layout drawings
Busbar design
Breaker, isolator, switching arrangements, disconnector and earthing switches,
sizing calculations, specifications
Substation automation design, PLCC system design and implementation
Instrument transformers. CTs and PTs selection and specifications
Lightning (surge) Arrester specifications
Neutral grounding resistors calculations and specifications
Shunt reactor, series reactor, shunt capacitor requirements depending on
reactive power control needed, power transmission requirements, short circuit
current limitation requirements

Power transformer, distribution transformer, sizing, tap range requirement


calculations and specifications
Earthing and ground mat design
Lighting calculations and related specifications
Insulation coordination studies
Power cable selection, routing, schedules
Auxiliary standby power design