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Self-Service Analytics for Contoso

A solution scenario using Microsoft Business Intelligence

applications, including SQL Server 2008 R2, Microsoft SharePoint
Server 2010, Microsoft Excel 2010, and PowerPivot for Excel.

Michael Blythe
Steve Hord
Frederique Klitgaard
Mary Lingel
Nathaniel Scharer
Heidi Steen
Date published:
June 2010
This business intelligence (BI) solution scenario describes the steps that employees
of the fictional company Contoso take as they analyze sales and promotions data
and share that analysis with others in the company. In the scenario, sales data is
first analyzed in Excel. Additional sales and promotions data is then imported into
PowerPivot for Excel, and the data is further analyzed. After the analysis is
complete, it is published to the PowerPivot Gallery in SharePoint and distributed via
Reporting Services, enabling others in the company to interact with the analysis and

develop additional insights. The accompanying sample data lets you follow along
with this document.

2010 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Microsoft, Excel, SharePoint, SQL Server, and Windows are trademarks of the
Microsoft group of companies.
All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Self-Service Analytics......................................................................................................................
Analyze Data on the Desktop..........................................................................................................
Install Excel 2010 and PowerPivot...........................................................................6
Analyze UK Sales Data in Excel...............................................................................6
Step1: Display data in a PivotTable report............................................................7
Step2: Use slicers to filter PivotTable data...........................................................8
Step3: Analyze PivotTable data............................................................................9
Step4: Calculate values in a PivotTable report...................................................11
Step5: Emphasize data trends........................................................................... 12
Analyze Additional Sales Data in PowerPivot.........................................................12
Step 1: Learn about PowerPivot..........................................................................13
Step 2: Import Data into PowerPivot..................................................................14
Step 3: Review and Create Relationships between Tables..................................15
Step 4: Perform Analysis of Sales Data..............................................................16
Next Steps............................................................................................................. 17
Share Analysis with Others...........................................................................................................
Install and Configure Servers to Share Data..........................................................18
Share Data in a SharePoint PowerPivot Gallery.....................................................19
Add Promotions Data to PowerPivot, and Complete Analysis................................21
Step 1: Import additional data........................................................................... 22
Step 2: Create a PivotTable and Add Measures..................................................23
Step 3: Analyze the PivotTable data...................................................................25
Share Data in a Report.......................................................................................... 27
Step 1: Install, configure, or verify that Reporting Services is installed.............27
Step 2: Open Report Builder from the PowerPivot document.............................28
Step 3: Select the PowerPivot data for this report..............................................29
Step 4: Configure Parameters............................................................................31
Step 5: Create a Report Title.............................................................................. 32
Step 6: Choose a data visualization...................................................................32
Step 7: Add a Legend......................................................................................... 36
Step 8: Save the report to the PowerPivot Gallery.............................................37

Step 9: Make a quick change............................................................................. 38

Step 10: Create a subscription and schedule.....................................................38
Summary............................................................................................................... 39

Self-Service Analytics
Anna works for the UK branch of the global retailer Contoso. Contoso has operations
in North America, Europe, and Asia with brick and mortar, ecommerce, and multichannel retailing components. The company also manufactures several product
lines, with manufacturing operations in Asia.
Anna is known for her Microsoft Excel skills and needs tools that let me efficiently
manipulate and interact with the data so that I can provide actionable data and
data-driven insights for all my stakeholders." Annas manager recently got his hands
on an Excel workbook with sales data and would like her to take a look at it. He is
interested in seeing how laptop sales are faring in some of the stores, but he also
encourages her to dig in and identify any trends that catch her eye.
Navigating the Scenario
This scenario is divided into two sections: analyzing data on the desktop; and
sharing analysis with others. We encourage you to complete the entire tutorial, but
you can choose to focus just on analyzing data. The two sections are each divided
into steps and sub-steps. Each sub-step contains information about a task that you
will complete and includes links to online topics. In some cases, the topics just
provide background information and general guidance, and in other cases they
contain additional step-by-step instructions. After you are done with an online topic,
always return to this document to see whats next.
Audience Assumptions
The scenario assumes some understanding of Excel, including familiarity with
functions, PivotTables, and PivotCharts. If you have limited experience with Excel,
we encourage you to try the scenario, but you might need to do some additional
work to follow along. Many topics in this scenario include links to additional content.
If you want to share analysis with others in the second part of the scenario, you or
someone in your organization should have familiarity with installing server products
like Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. If you have an IT department, check with it
first; it even have the necessary products installed. We provide detailed installation
instructions and a list of settings to verify that any current installations are
configured correctly.
To follow along with this scenario, you will need the Self-Service Analytics Sample
Data. The sample data is from the Contoso SQL Server database and is stored in
Access databases and Excel worksheets. All of the workbooks, databases, and files
that are referenced in this are available from the same page where you downloaded
this document.

This scenario explains how to install all of the products that you will use. For
desktop analysis, the following products are required:

Microsoft Excel 2010

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 PowerPivot for Microsoft Excel 2010

If you also want to share data by using SharePoint Server and reports, the following
products are required:

SharePoint Server 2010

SQL Server 2008 R2 Enterprise Edition

Analyze Data on the Desktop

In this section of the scenario, Anna installs Excel and PowerPivot for Excel, brings in
data from various sources, and analyzes that data by using PivotTables, PivotCharts,
formulas, and new Excel features like Slicers and Sparklines. Because PowerPivot is
an Excel add-in, Anna has access to all of Excels analytic features regardless of
whether she brings data into a standard Excel worksheet or the separate PowerPivot

Install Excel 2010 and PowerPivot

Anna has a new computer and needs to install Microsoft Office and PowerPivot
before she can open the spreadsheet from her manager.
Install Office 2010

Perform a default install of Office (including Word,
Outlook, and so on), or just install Excel and Office
Shared Features. We recommend the 64-bit version of
Excel if your computer supports it.
For more information, see Office Online.

Install PowerPivot for


Install the appropriate version of PowerPivot: if you

installed 32-bit Excel, install 32-bit PowerPivot; and if
you installed 64-bit Excel, install 64-bit PowerPivot.
For more information, see:

Install the PowerPivot Add-In for Excel (video)

Install the PowerPivot Add-In for Excel (text, including
hardware and software requirements)

Analyze UK Sales Data in Excel

After installing Excel and PowerPivot, Anna decides to take a look at the data that is
available in the spreadsheet from her manager. She realizes fairly quickly that the
data is limited to computer and video sales in the UK, but that there is enough
detail for her to analyze laptop sales in several stores. If she wants to look into
broader trends, she will need some additional data.
After Anna opens the workbook that contains the Contoso data she wants to
analyze, she starts by creating a PivotTable, and then steps through the process to
analyze the data for laptop sales. Once completed, the analysis will look like the

Step1: Display data in a PivotTable report

After opening the workbook in Excel, Anna is ready to create a PivotTable that
displays the sales data that she wants to analyze.
Create a PivotTable report

By creating a PivotTable report, you can summarize
data, analyze it, and explore the data to in-depth levels
of detail. PivotTable analysis enables you to make
informed decisions about critical data in your
To follow the scenario:
In Excel, open UK_FilteredSalesData.xlsx, select
all the data and then create a PivotTable report
on a separate worksheet.

Pivot data by changing

the field layout

In the PivotTable field List, select StoreName,

Product Category Name, Product
Subcategory Name, Product Name, Sales
Quantity, and Sales Amount.

For more information, see:

Quick start: Insert a PivotTable report
Create or delete a PivotTable or PivotChart report
After you add fields to your PivotTable, you can pivot
the data by changing its field layout. By using the
PivotTable Field List, you can add, rearrange, or
remove fields to show the exact data you want to
To follow the scenario:
To pivot the data, drag Sales Date to the
Column Labels area of the PivotTable Field
For more information, see Pivot data in a PivotTable or
PivotChart report.

Step2: Use slicers to filter PivotTable data

To focus on the data she wants to analyze, Anna decides to use the new slicer
feature in Excel 2010. She likes the way it lets her filter the data without obscuring
what exactly is and is not displayed in the PivotTable report. Slicers are especially
useful to compare the data of two or more selected items.


Add slicers to filter

PivotTable data

In Excel 2010, you have the option to use slicers to

filter PivotTable data. Slicers provide buttons for quick
filtering and clearly indicate the current filtering state,
which makes it easy to see what exactly is shown in a
filtered PivotTable report.
To follow the scenario:
Create a slicer for StoreName, Product
Category Name, and Product Subcategory
Name by clicking Insert Slicer on the ribbon
(PivotTable Tools, Options tab, Sort & Filter

Apply slicers to show only

areas to be analyzed

For more information, see:

Use slicers to filter PivotTable data
Video: Use slicers to filter PivotTable data
Slicers appear on the worksheet alongside the
PivotTable, in a layered display if you have more than
one slicer. To filter the PivotTable data, you simply click
one or more of the buttons in any of the slicers that are
To follow the scenario:
In the StoreName slicer, click Contoso Baildon
Store, hold down the CTRL key, and then click
Contoso Carlisle Store, Contoso Edinburgh
store, and Contoso Glasgow store.

In the Product Category Name slicer, click


In the Product Subcategory Name slicer, click


For more information, see:

Use slicers to filter PivotTable data
Video: Use slicers to filter PivotTable data

Step3: Analyze PivotTable data

To analyze the data in-depth, Anna understands that she must drill down to different
levels of detail, then group, sort, and filter the data as needed. She turns repeated
labels on so that she can easily see where the values belong, without having to
scroll back to the top.

Expand items to display

To drill down into the data for in-depth analysis, you can
expand or collapse to any level of data detail, and even
for all levels of detail in one operation. You can also
expand or collapse to a level of detail beyond the next
To follow the scenario:

Repeat item labels to

make data easier to scan

Expand the data for the Contoso Baildon Store

by clicking the Plus sign.

For more information, see Show Expand, collapse, or

show details in a PivotTable or PivotChart report.
When a PivotTable has a large amount of numerical
data, repeating item and field labels can be very
helpful. With repeated labels, you will know exactly
what you are looking at without having to scroll back to
a summary row.
To follow the scenario:

Group items

Repeat item labels for laptops by right-clicking

any Laptops field, and then clicking Field
Settings. On the Layout & Print tab, select
Repeat item labels, and then click Show Item
Labels in tabular form.

For more information, see:

Repeat item labels in a PivotTable report
Video: Repeat item labels in a PivotTable report
To isolate a subset of items for more refined analysis of
your data, you can group numeric, date, time, and even
a selection of specific items.
To follow the scenario:

Sort items

Group dates by quarters by right-clicking any

date field (for example cell B1), click Group,
select Quarters, and clear the Months

For more information, see Video: Group items in a

PivotTable report.
If you want to rearrange items so that you can more
easily find them, you can change their sort order.

To follow the scenario:

Filter items

Try sorting the Laptops data from Z to A by rightclicking the Laptops field in the Product Subcategory
slicer,, and then clicking Sort, and then Sort Z to A.

For more information, see Video: Sort items in a

PivotTable report.
When you want to focus your analysis on a subset of
your data while hiding everything else, you can filter
items by specific criteria.
To follow the scenario:

Filter data to show only fourth-quarter data by

clicking the Column Labels filter and then
selecting Qtr 4.

Set filtering to Allow multiple filters per field

(PivotTable Tools, Options tab, PivotTable
group, Options command, Totals & Filters
tab), and then right-click any laptop field to filter
by Label Filters that contain the word Black
(case-sensitive), and then by Value Filters that
show Sum of Sales Amount that is greater than

For more information, see Video: Filter data in a

PivotTable report.
Step4: Calculate values in a PivotTable report
To compare the numbers, and see what is going on, Anna uses the Show Values As
feature to display values in different ways.
Enter additional value

You can add the same value field to a PivotTable more
than once, which is useful when you want to show the
actual value and other calculations, such as a running
total calculation, side by side.
To follow the scenario:

Add another Sales Amount column by dragging

the Sales Amount field from the PivotTable

Field List to the Values area, placing it right

below the first Sales Amount field. In the
PivotTable, change the name of the new column
(Sum of Sales Amount 2) to % of Grand

Display different
calculations in a value

For more information, see Show different calculations in

PivotTable value fields
Instead of writing your own formulas in calculated
fields, you can quickly display different calculations for
a value in any value field, for example, you can
calculate running totals or percentages of other values.
To follow the scenario:

Change the values in the new column so that

they show as a percentage of the grand total
amount by right-clicking any of the values,
clicking Show Values As, and then clicking %
of Grand Total.

For more information, see:

Show different calculations in PivotTable value
Calculate values in a PivotTable report
Video: Use the Show Values As feature in a
PivotTable report

Step5: Emphasize data trends

Finally, Anna applies conditional formatting to highlight the analysis results. This
feature is useful because it shows any trends in the data.
Apply conditional

Conditional formatting uses data bars, color scales, and
icon sets to highlight data so that you can visually
explore and analyze that data, detect critical issues,
and identify patterns and trends.
To follow the scenario:

Apply conditional formatting to the sales

percentages by selecting them (without the
summary values) in the column, and then

clicking a color scales type that you want (Home

tab, Styles group, Conditional Formatting
button, Color Scales command).
For more information, see:
Add, change, find, or clear conditional formats
Quick Start: Apply conditional formatting
Video: Apply conditional formatting

Analyze Additional Sales Data in PowerPivot

The analysis that Anna was able to perform in Excel enabled her to pinpoint some
interesting trends, but the analysis was limited by the amount of data in the
worksheet. One of Annas colleagues, Tim from IT, suggests that Anna use tables
from a local copy of the corporate data warehouse. Anna has seen a PowerPivot
demo and is excited about the idea of importing data into PowerPivot and
continuing her analysis in Excel. She decides to familiarize herself with the basics of
PowerPivot, and then dig right in. The completed analysis will look like the following:

Note: After Step 1 below, all the tasks in this section are covered in the PowerPivot
tutorial, using the same data. You can follow along in this paper, or you can simply
complete that tutorial and then come back to this paper and start on the next
section: Next Steps. In either case, start with the existing UK_FilteredSalesData
workbook that you created in the previous section. If you plan to go directly to the
tutorial, follow these steps before starting the tutorial:
1. Copy the data from the Stores workbook into a new worksheet in the existing
UK_FilteredSalesData workbook.
2. In Excel, rename the worksheet with the stores data to Stores.
3. Rename the workbook ContosoSalesAndPromotionsData.
Step 1: Learn about PowerPivot
When Anna was working in Excel, she noticed the PowerPivot tab on the Excel
ribbon. She is now ready to investigate the tab and the separate PowerPivot
window, in which she can add tables and relationships.


Take a tour of the

PowerPivot UI

In the workbook that you created in the previous

section, click on the PowerPivot tab and walk through
the key areas of the PowerPivot user interface by
performing the following tasks:

Launching the PowerPivot window

Adding data to the PowerPivot window
Exploring the PowerPivot window
Exploring the PowerPivot tab and field list in

To follow the scenario, see Take a Tour of the PowerPivot

Note: You will add some data in this step, but it will not
be used in the rest of the scenario.

Step 2: Import Data into PowerPivot

The data that Anna has already worked with in Excel is a subset of the data that is
available in the corporate data warehouse. The corporate data includes many
tables, whereas the workbook had only one table; and the corporate data has
millions rather than thousands of rows. At first Anna is concerned that she wont be
able to bring all this data into Excel for analysis, but she has read about how
efficient PowerPivot is in storing and working with data.
Add data by selecting
tables to import

PowerPivot includes a Table Import Wizard that helps
you to import data from a large number of sources.
You will import several tables into the Excel workbook
and filter some of the data. For a list of supported data
sources, see Data Sources Supported in PowerPivot
In this step, youll import data from a number of tables
in the ContosoSales Access database. After each step
of importing data, be sure to save the workbook.
Rename the workbook to
To follow the scenario, see Add Data by using the Table
Import Wizard.

Add data by using a

custom query

You can also import data based on a query that you

specify, rather than having PowerPivot generate the
query for you.
In this step, youll use an SQL query to import data
into the PowerPivot workbook. To follow the scenario,
see Add Data by using a Custom Query.

Add data by using copy

and paste

PowerPivot enables you to paste tabular data directly

into the PowerPivot window.
In this step, youll create another table by pasting the
data into your PowerPivot workbook. To follow the
scenario, see Add Data by using Copy and Paste.

Add data by using a linked


A Linked Table is a table that has been created in a

worksheet in the Excel window, but is linked to a table
in the PowerPivot window. The advantage of creating
and maintaining the data in Excel, instead of importing
it or pasting it in, is that you can continue to modify
the values in the Excel worksheet, while you are using
the data for analysis in PowerPivot.
In this step, youll add data to the PowerPivot window
by using a linked table. To follow the scenario, see Add
Data by using an Excel Linked Table.

Step 3: Review and Create Relationships between Tables

The data that Anna has imported is in separate tables, but many of these tables are
related to each other. Consider the ProductCategory, DimProductSubCategory, and
DimProduct tables. A product belongs to a subcategory which in turn belongs to a
category. In a database, these relationships are defined by specifying a column in
one table that relates to a column in another table. PowerPivot can detect many of
these relationships when data is imported and can re-create them in the PowerPivot
window. These relationships enable PowerPivot to support analysis across multiple
tables. For more information, see Understanding Relationships.
Review and create

The PowerPivot window provides access to the
Manage Relationships dialog box that you use to

create, edit, and delete relationships. When you

imported sales and product data from the Access
database, existing relationships were automatically
imported for you together with the data. However, the
tables that were imported separately or copied into the
PowerPivot window do not have any relationships
In this step, you will review existing relationships and
create additional relationships so that all tables can be
used in your analysis. To follow the scenario, see
Create Relationships Between Tables.

Step 4: Perform Analysis of Sales Data

Now that the tables have been imported, Anna has access to over two million rows
of data that she can analyze by using familiar tools in Excel. Contoso Retail sells
across four different channels in eight different product categories. Given the scope
of the data, Anna is initially interested in looking at two areas: sales volume by
channel and profit by category. She would like to start with broader trends and then
filter the data in various ways to get more insight into individual areas.
Create a calculated

The FactSales table contains a lot of data about sales
amounts, costs, and returns, but it does not include
data about the profit realized in each sale. This is
common, because profit is typically calculated based
on other available data.
PowerPivot enables you to add calculated columns to
tables in the PowerPivot window. The formulas in
calculated columns are much like the formulas that you
create in Excel. Unlike in Excel, however, you cannot
create a different formula for different rows in a table;
instead, the formula is automatically applied to the
entire column.
In this step youll add a column that calculates profit
each row in the FactSales table. To follow the scenario,
see Create a Calculated Column.

Create PivotTable reports

Once you've added data to your PowerPivot workbook,

PivotTables help you efficiently analyze your data in

detail. You can make comparisons, detect patterns and

relationships, and discover trends. PivotTables based
on PowerPivot data are created similarly to PivotTables
based on Excel data, but you can now easily perform
analysis across multiple tables with large data sets.
In this step youll create two PivotTables, one that
analyzes sales, and one that analyzes profits. To follow
the scenario, see Create a PivotTable:
Add Slicers to PivotTables

Create PivotChart reports

and Add Slicers

You were introduced to Slicers in Excel earlier in this

Slicers are one-click filtering controls that narrow down
the portion of a data set shown in PivotTables and
PivotCharts. Slicers can be used with Excel data and
PowerPivot data, to interactively filter and analyze
In this step, youll create slicers that help you to dig
deeper into the Profit By Category PivotTable and focus
Profits by channel
Profits by subcategory and country
To follow the scenario, see Add Slicers to PivotTables.
The PivotTables contain some very interesting data that
can be easier to analyze if it is displayed as a
In this step youll create charts that are based on the
data in the two PivotTables, and then add Slicers to see
different visualizations of the data. To follow the
scenario, see Create a PivotChart from PowerPivot data
and Add Slicers to PivotCharts.

Next Steps
As we mentioned earlier, this scenario is divided into two sections: analyzing data
on the desktop; and sharing analysis with others. If you plan to complete the entire
tutorial by sharing data in SharePoint, continuw with the following section (Share
your Analysis with Others). If you do not want to complete the sharing portion, but

would like to continue with analysis on your desktop, go to Add Promotions Data
to PowerPivot, and Complete Analysis. This step is focused on importing and
analyzing data from SQL Server but also includes an option to continue in Access, so
that a server is not necessary.

Share Analysis with Others

Anna has worked through some basic analysis in PowerPivot, and she has some
ideas about how to extend this analysis. But she wants to get some input first, so
she would like to share her workbook with other people in her department. She
knows if she starts e-mailing the file around, some people wont be able to read it
because they dont have Office 2010 installed yet, and others will end up creating
different copies that will quickly diverge from each other. Anna could put the
workbook on a file share, but that doesnt get around the issue of people needing
Office 2010 and some skill with Excel. She asks Tim in the IT Department for advice,
and he tells her about PowerPivot for SharePoint, and Reporting Services.
Anna is now quite familiar with PowerPivot for Excel, but doesnt know much about
SharePoint, and has never heard of PowerPivot for SharePoint or Reporting Services.
Tim explains a little about SQL Server and how it integrates with SharePoint to
provide two features that are helpful in this scenario: data access in a PowerPivot
Gallery, which enables you to filter and slice PowerPivot workbooks in a browser
window; and Reporting Services reports, which offer additional data visualization
features and output formats for PowerPivot and other data. For more information,
see Use PowerPivot Workbooks on SharePoint.

Install and Configure Servers to Share Data

Tim tells Anna that he has the necessary software installed on one of the branch
office servers, but that the software is not yet configured appropriately to share
workbooks. He agrees to install the necessary software on a test server so that
Anna can try it out. He will then look into updating the live server to accommodate
sharing and reporting across the branch office.
Check the configuration of
an existing installation

- OR -

Before you can share anything, you need to have
server components installed and configured correctly.
Check with your IT department to see if they have the
following components installed on a server that you
can use:

SharePoint 2010
PowerPivot for SharePoint
Reporting Services 2008 R2

If these components are already installed, they need to

be configured correctly to support the sharing that is

described in this scenario. Provide the following topics
to someone who can check the configuration of the
Default Configuration for PowerPivot for SharePoint
Default Configuration for SharePoint Integrated Mode
(Reporting Services)
Perform a default

If these components are not installed, we recommend

installing all the components on a single server, as
described in the following topics:
Install PowerPivot for SharePoint on a New SharePoint
Install PowerPivot for SharePoint and Reporting

After the server components are installed and configured, download and restore the
Contoso SQL Server database, which will be used later in this scenario.
Download and extract files
for the Microsoft Contoso
BI Demo Dataset

In this step you will download and extract the
compressed database backup file
(ContosoBIdemoBAK.exe) from the Microsoft
Download Center.
To follow the scenario, follow the instructions on
Microsoft Contoso BI Demo Dataset for Retail Industry.

Restore the database

In this step you will restore the database by using SQL

Server Management Studio.
To follow the scenario:

In Management Studio, connect to the appropriate

instance of the Database Engine and from the
context menu of the Databases folder
select Restore Database.
In the To Database text box, type
and then select From Device and browse to the

file ContosoRetailDW.bak.
Click OK.
For more information, see Backing up and restoring
databases in SQL Server.

Share Data in a SharePoint PowerPivot Gallery

Now that Tim has configured the server correctly, Anna is ready to publish the
workbook to a PowerPivot Gallery. A PowerPivot Gallery is a SharePoint library that
lets you preview PowerPivot workbooks and create new Reporting Services reports
based on workbooks in the same library. After the workbook is shared, Anna asks
several people on her team to try it out.
The shared workbook in the PowerPivot Gallery looks like the following:

Share data in the gallery

Tim emails Anna to let her know that a PowerPivot
Gallery is available on her team site. Anna checks the
site and sees right away that PowerPivot Gallery is
listed just below Shared Documents. She opens her
Excel spreadsheet and on the File Save & Send page,
she clicks Save to SharePoint. Her team site is
already in Recent Locations. Anna clicks that site,
clicks Save As, and then browses to the new
PowerPivot Gallery. She clicks Save to publish her work.
For more information, see the sections Choose a
Location for Your File and Save Your File to
SharePoint in Save to SharePoint.

View a workbook in the


Anna is pleased to see the preview image of her

workbook in the gallery. She clicks on the thumbnail
image of her document and it opens full size in her
browser window. Anna clicks the Monitors category
and verifies that her workbook Slicers and filters work
the same way in the browser as they do in Excel.

Email a workbook

Anna is ready to share this workbook with others. She

opens the Library Tools ribbon and clicks
Documents. Anna clicks Email a Link and sends a
link to the workbook to her manager.

Remove empty pages

Anna notices that her workbooks on PowerPivot Gallery

contain empty pages. After some investigation, Anna
discovers that she can use Excels publish options
button to select just the pages that she wants to
display. She republishes her workbooks to remove the
empty pages.

Change item sort in the


As Anna adds new workbooks to the library, she

notices that the newer workbooks show up at the
bottom of the gallery. Anna wants to change how the
gallery orders the documents, so she asks Tim to
modify library properties. Tim clicks Modify View in
the Library Tools ribbon and changes the sort to
descending order.
For more information, see How to: Create and
Customize PowerPivot Gallery.

Add Promotions Data to PowerPivot, and Complete the

Anna does not have a database background, but she was able to understand how
the various tables in the database were related to each other and was able to
analyze far more data than she had ever been able to. She had started out looking
at sales from a few stores only, and broadened out as she explored the data and the
PowerPivot features, but now she had a pressing problem to solve. Her manager
told her that Bill, the VP, was concerned that the company didnt really understand
how successful its annual promotions had been, and he wanted someone to take a
Given her focus on the laptop segment, Anna decided to keep heading down that
path and take a look at how promotions affected sales. Most people assumed that
sales were strongest during the back to school and holiday promotions, but she

wanted to verify that. With her increased access to data, she decided to take a look
at the entire European market.
The completed analysis looks like the following:

Step 1: Import additional data

Anna first needs to import an additional table (DimPromotion) that contains
promotions data, and then create a relationship between that table and the existing
FactSales table. This will allow her to peform analysis based on which promotion
was in effect at the time of each customer transaction.
Note: This section assumes that you are connecting to SQL Server to import the
DimPromotion table. If you prefer to continue in Access, connect to the
ContosoSales Access database again and import the DimPromotion table from there.
Import additional table

So far you have imported data from Access databases
and Excel workbooks. PowerPivot also supports
importing from several other databases, including SQL
Server. The process is very similar to importing data
from Access; the only real difference is in how you
specify connection information.
To follow the scenario:
In the PowerPivot window, on the Home tab, click
From Database and select From SQL Server.
In the Friendly connection name field, type
ContosoDB from SQL Server.
Type the server name (where you have SQL



Create an additional

Server installed) and select Use Windows

In the Database name field, click the down
arrow to retrieve a list of databases on the server.
Select ContosoRetailDW, test the connection, and
then click Next.
You want to select from a list of tables and views,
so click Next to display a list of all the source tables
within the database.
Select the check box for DimPromotion.
Finish the wizard.

Earlier in the scenario, you created relationships

between tables that you imported separately. You will
now do the same for the DimPromotion table.
To follow the scenario, use the Manage Relationships
dialog box to create the following additional
FactSales [PromotionKey]

Related Lookup Table


For more information, see Create a Relationship

Between Two Tables.

Step 2: Create a PivotTable and Add Measures

Now that Anna has imported all the tables that she needs, she wants to analyze
how effective each promotion has been. She knows that PowerPivot includes a
powerful formula language called DAX (Data Analysis Expressions), which will help
her to answer questions like What is the profit per day for each promotion period?.
She decides to create a PivotTable and DAX measures that will address this
question. A measure is a formula that is created specifically for use in a PivotTable
(or PivotChart) that uses PowerPivot data. For more information about DAX and
measures, see DAX (Data Analysis Expressions) Language and Create a Measure.
Since Anna is an expert in using Excel functions, and Tim is familiar with the
schemas of relational databases, in a short time they are able to create the
measures necessary for this analysis. The first measure (SalesProfit) provides input
to the second measure (SalesProfitPerDay). The results of the SalesProfitPerDay

measure are then displayed in the PivotTable. Anna could have created a single
measure with the same logic, but it is easier to understand this way.
Create a PivotTable

By creating a PivotTable report, you can summarize
data, analyze it, and explore the data to in-depth levels
of detail. PivotTable analysis enables you to make
informed decisions about critical data in your enterprise.
For more information, see Creating Reports, Charts, and
To follow the scenario:
On the PowerPivot tab in the Excel window,
click PivotTable, and then click OK.
In the PowerPivotTable Field List, Drag
CalendarYear (under DimDate) to the Row
Labels area; and drag PromotionName (under
DimPromotion) to the Column Labels area.

Create a measure to
determine the total profit
for each promotion

You now have a blank PivotTable that will display values

by year and promotion. When you add measures to this
table, the measures calculate a value for each cell
based on the context of the cell. For example, when a
measure calculates profit per day for the 2008 European
Spring Promotion, it uses only the sales data from that
time period and promotion. This will become more clear
as you review the individual measures in the next two
steps. For more information about context, see Context
in DAX Formulas.
In this step, you will add the SalesProfit measure:

The SalesProfit measure uses one DAX function: SUM.

The measure calculates the sum of the profit for the
sales in the FactSales table that occur during a specific
promotion. Notice that you dont have to specify
anything about the year or promotion in the formula
because the context of the PivotTable already limits the
result to a particular year and promotion.

To follow the scenario:

1. In the Excel window, on the PowerPivot tab, click
New Measure.
2. Specify FactSales for the table name.
3. Change the Measure Name to SalesProfit
4. In the function area, type the following

5. Press Enter.
6. In the PowerPivotTable Field List, under
FactSales, clear the SalesProfit checkbox. We
want to use this measure as input to the
SalesProfitPerDay measure, but we dont need to
display the results.
Create a measure to
determine the average
profit per day of each

In this step you will add the SalesProfitPerDay measure.

We show two ways to create this measure:
=FactSales[SalesProfit] /



Both measures calculate the profit per day based on the

SalesProfit measure that you already defined. One thing
you might notice is that there is no mention of the
promotions table (DimPromotion) in either measure.
Again, the measures can take advantage of the context
that is provided by the PivotTable. The FactSales table is
related to the DimDate and DimPromotion tables, so the
measure can determine within which promotion period a
particular sales transaction occurred without needing to
include DimPromotion in the expression.

In the first example, the COUNTROWS and DISTINCT

functions are used together to return the number of
days in the period. DISTINCT is required so that the
dates in which multiple transactions occurred are
counted only once.

In the second example, the AVERAGEX function is used

because profit per day is a simple average. The
AVERAGEX function enables you to evaluate expressions
for each row of a table, and then take the resulting set
of values and calculate its average. Therefore, the
function takes a table as its first argument, and an
expression as the second argument.

To follow the scenario:

1. In the Excel window, on the PowerPivot tab, click
New Measure.
2. Click New Measure.
3. Specify FactSales for the table name.
4. Change the Measure Name to SalesProfitPerDay
5. In the function area, type one of the the following
=FactSales[SalesProfit] /



6. Press Enter. Each cell in the PivotTable should now

have a value that represents the amount of profit
during each promotion period, per year.

Step 3: Analyze the PivotTable data

The PivotTable now shows the profit per day for all promotions in 2007, 2008, and
2009. Anna wants to focus on laptop sales during Europena promotions, so she uses
a combination of filters and slicers to get a view of the data that she is interested in.
Filter data to show
European promotions

In this step, you will filter some of the promotions out of
the PivotTable.
To follow the scenario:
1. In the PivotTable, click the arrow next to Column
Labels, and clear the Select All checkbox.
2. Select the checboxes for European Back-to-Scholl
Promotion, European Holiday Promotion, European
Spring Promotion, and No Discount.

Add slicers to the


In this step, you will add slicers to the PivotTable so that

you see only laptop sales in Europe. You will add
additional slicers so that you can see the interaction
between slicers.
To follow the scenario:
1. In the PowerPivot Field List, drag the following
fields from the Geography table to the Slicers
Vertical area:
2. Drag the following fields from the DimProduct table
to the Slicers Horizontal area:

Slice the data

In this step, you will select options in two of the slicers.

To follow the scenario:
1. In the ContinentName slicer, click Europe.
Notice how the European countires are now the
only ones selected in the RegionCountryName
We have already filtered out the other promotions,
but it is necessary to slice by Europe so that the No
Discount column does not include data from other
2. In the ProductSubcategoryName slicer, click
Laptops. Notice how Cpmouters is now the only
category selected in the ProductCategoryName

Through a combination of measures, filters, and slicers in a PivotTable, Anna was

able to determine that the only really effective sale is the European Spring
Promotion, with a daily profit of $108,744.80, compared to an average daily profit of

Share Data in a Report

Annas manager asks her to share the promotional data analysis with the extended
team. Anna considers how best to present the promotional data. She opens a
Report Builder report from the PowerPivot gallery workbook and designs a
presentation that makes it easy to compare how effective promotions have been for

computer sales in the United Kingdom and other European countries. She works
with RD, the report designer, to create a table and embedded databars with custom
colors. She creates a report schedule to deliver the processed report to her team via
e-mail or a file share.
The completed report looks like the following:

Step 1: Install, configure, or verify that Reporting Services is installed

For this scenario, Reporting Services must be SQL Server 2008 R2 running in
SharePoint integrated mode. The report must use only PowerPivot data and be
posted in the same PowerPivot Gallery as the PowerPivot workbook it is based on.
Report Builder 3.0 runs as a ClickOnce application from the PowerPivot Gallery. No
client installation is needed.
Ideally, Reporting Services was configured at the time the PowerPivot Gallery was
configured for SharePoint 2010. Anna verifies whether she can open a report from
the published PowerPivot workbook.
Determine if Reporting
Services has been
installed and configured

From the PowerPivot gallery, find the PowerPivot
workbook, and click the New Report button. If Create
Report Builder Report is an option, then the
Reporting Services components are installed and
For more information, see the section "Verify
PowerPivot and Reporting Services Integration" in:

How to: Install PowerPivot for SharePoint and

Reporting Services

If Report Builder is not available, Anna contacts Tim and asks him to install and
configure Reporting Services integrated with SharePoint 2010.
Install the Reporting
Services add-in for
SharePoint Products

You can install and configure the Reporting Services
add-in for SharePoint 2010 and use SharePoint
administration pages to manage security.
For more information, see:
How to: Install or Uninstall the Reporting
Services Add-in
How to: Configure Report Server Integration in
SharePoint Central Administration
How to: Activate the Report Server File Sync
Feature in SharePoint Central Administration
How to: Add Report Server Content Types to a
Library (Reporting Services in SharePoint
Integrated Mode)
Using Built-in Security in Windows SharePoint
Services for Report Server Items
How to: Set Permissions for Report Server Items
on a SharePoint Site (Reporting Services in
SharePoint Integrated Mode)
How to: Configure Report Builder Access

Step 2: Open Report Builder from the PowerPivot document

From the drop-down menu for a PowerPivot document in the Gallery, Anna opens
Report Builder to create a Reporting Services report. Because creating Reporting
Services reports is not her primary job, she works with RD, the report designer. She
describes how she wants to present the promotion data, and RD provides the
expertise on how to create and configure report tables and charts.
Note: PivotTables, PivotCharts, slicers, and other layout and analytical
features from the PowerPivot workbook are not re-created in a Report Builder
report. The blank report includes a preconfigured data source that points to
the the data in the PowerPivot workbook.
Designing reports based on a PowerPivot workbook can be labor-intensive
and time-consuming depending on the number of slicers, filters, and tables or
charts that you want to re-create in the report. A better approach is to

envision the presentation of the data that you want in a report independently
from the PowerPivot design. The data in a PowerPivot workbook is highly
compressed; data retrieved from the PowerPivot workbook for a report is not
compressed. You must select only the report data that you intend to display
by using the graphical query to filter and parameterize the data before it is
retrieved for the report.
Anna decides to present the sales profit data for computers in the United Kingdom
in the context of computer sales in Europe. She decides that a simple sorted table
with an embedded bar chart is an effective presentation.
Launch Report Builder
from the PowerPivot

Open Report Builder

First, verify that the Report Builder is enabled for the
PowerPivot Gallery.
For more information, see:
How to: Create and Customize PowerPivot
From the PowerPivot Gallery, click the New Report
button and open Report Builder.
For more information, see:

How to: Start Report Builder (Report Builder 3.0)

Step 3: Select the PowerPivot data for this report

To choose which data to include in the report, Anna creates a dataset based on the
pre-configured data source that points to the PowerPivot workbook. In the query
designer, she drags measures and fields to the query pane, set filters, and runs the
query to see sample data results.
Define the data for the

To specify which data to include in a report, create
datasets. A dataset represents the result set from a
command that runs on a data source. Each type of data
source has an associated query designer that helps you
choose which data to include in the dataset.
To follow the scenario:
Create a dataset named PromotionFacts.
Open the query designer and drag the following
fields to the query pane:
o From Measure FactSales:
o From Dimension DimPromotion:

From Dimension
o From Dimension DimDate: CalendarYear
o From Dimension Geography:
For more information, see:
Analysis Services MDX Query Designer User
Interface (Report Builder 3.0)
Getting Data from a PowerPivot Workbook
To limit the data to just what is needed in the report,
create filters in the query designer Filters pane.
To the follow the scenario:
In the Filters pane, create a filter row as defined in
the following list:
o Dimension: Geography
Hierarchy: ContinentName
Operator: Equal
Filter Expression: {Europe}
Parameters: No
o Dimension: Geography
Hierarchy: RegionCountryName
Operator: Equal
Filter Expression:
Netherlands,United Kingdom}
Parameters: Yes
o Dimension: ProductCategory
Hierarchy: ProductCategoryName
Operator: Equal
Filter Expression: {Computers}
Parameters: No
o Dimension: DimProductSubcategory
Hierarchy: ProductSubcategoryName
Operator: Equal
Filter Expression: {{Computers
,Printers,Scanners,& Fax,Projectors &
Parameters: Yes
o Dimension: DimPromotion
Hierarchy: PromotionName

Define filters to limit the


Select the parameter

option for a filter

Verify that the dataset

metadata is correct

Operator: Equal
Filter Expression: {European Back-toScholl Promotion,European Holiday
Promotion,European Spring
Promotion,No Discount}
Parameters: No

Notice that one value for DimPromotion has a spelling

error: European Back-to-Scholl Promotion. You will write
an expression in the report to correct the spelling in a
later step.
For more information, see:
Analysis Services MDX Query Designer User Interface
(Report Builder 3.0)
To enable a user to specify data, select the parameter
option for a filter in the filter pane in the query
designer. A dataset is automatically created to provide
a drop-down of valid values. By default, this dataset
does not appear in the Report Data pane.
For more information, see:
Analysis Services MDX Query Designer User
Interface (Report Builder 3.0)
How to: Show Hidden Datasets for Parameter
Values for Multidimensional Data Sources (Report
Builder 3.0)
When you finish creating the dataset, the metadata
that represents the query results as a field collection
appears in the Report Data pane.
To the follow the scenario:
Expand the Datasets node, expand the
PromotionFacts dataset, and verify that there are
5 fields: CalendarYear, RegionCountryName,
ProductSubcategoryName, PromotionName,
and SalesProfitperDay.

Step 4: Configure Parameters

In the query designer, Anna selected the parameter option for
RegionCountryName and ProductSubcategoryName. In the Report Data pane,
two parameters were automatically created: GeographyregionCountryName and

Configure report

A report parameter is automatically created when a
query contains a query parameter. Report parameters
can also be created manually. By default, report
parameters are single valued and data type Text. You
must manually configure each parameter as needed
after it is created.
To follow the scenario:
Create a new parameter named TopN. Configure
the parameter to have Prompt "Top number of
subcategories?"; Data type Integer; Available
values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; and Default value 3.
For more information, see:
Parameters (Report Builder 3.0)
How to: Add, Change, or Delete Default Values
for a Report Parameter (Report Builder 3.0)
How to: Add, Change, or Delete Available Values
for a Report Parameter (Report Builder 3.0)

Step 5: Create a Report Title

Because the report will be delivered in email, Anna adds a report title and the
parameter values that were used to run the report.
Format the title text

Text formatting can be on a Text Box, on a Placeholder,
or on Text.
To follow the scenario:

Add a text box to the top of the report.

Add the following lines of text:

Most Profitable Promotions

Top [@TopN] Subcategories for Computers

Format the text as needed.

For more information, see:

Formatting Text and Placeholders (Report Builder
Expressions (Report Builder 3.0)

Step 6: Choose a data visualization

Anna chooses a table with an embedded databar to represent the profit by country,
by subcategory, by year, and by promotion type. She decides to assign colors to
each promotion that make it easier to interpret the promotion type: green for spring
promotion, plum for holiday promotion, gold for back-to-school promotion, and silver
for no promotion.
Create a data region with
a wizard

Creating effective data visualizations is a report design
and presentation skill. Choose a data visualization that
makes it easy for the report user to interpret data
comparisons in a meaningful context.
In a Reporting Services report, you display data from a
dataset in a data region. A data region can be a flexible
grid layout (known as a tablix), a chart, or a map. Data
is organized in a data region based on group
expressions, typically dataset fields. Tablix types
include table, matrix, or a list, which is a free-form
layout. Chart types include pie, bar, line, sparkline, and
databars. You can nest charts in a tablix.
To follow the scenario:

Open the Matrix Wizard. Choose the

PromotionFacts dataset, and do the following:

Drag RegionCountryName and

ProductSubcategoryName to Row groups

Drag CalendarYear to Column groups

Drag SalesProfitperDay to Values

On the Layout page, clear the options Show

subtotals and grand totals and
Expand/collapse groups.

Choose the Ocean style.

The matrix is added to the design surface.

For more information, see:
Data Regions and Maps (Report Builder 3.0)
Chart Types (Report Builder 3.0)
Tutorial: Creating a Matrix Report (Report Builder

Group and sort items

Grouping, sorting, and filtering data are all integral
parts of presenting your analysis. Sorting rows,
columns, or chart categories based on an aggregated
value can be a simple, effective way to compare rank.
To follow the scenario:

Format the sum as


Sort the RegionCountryName group by profit.

In the Grouping pane, open the Group
Properties. On the Sorting tab, set Sort by to
[Sum(SalesProfitperDay)] and click Z to A.

Open Group Properties for the

ProductSubcategoryName group, and sort the
group in the same way. On the Filter page, add a
filter. Set Expression to the same expression as
the sort expression, click Float, select operator
TopN, and enter [@TopN] as Value. This
associates the filter with the parameter @TopN.

For more information, see:

Group Expression Examples (Report Builder 3.0)
How to: Sort Data in a Data Region (Report
Builder 3.0)
By default, each text box is a General format. You can
format the text box, each line of text, or each part of a
line of text independently.
To follow the scenario:

Format the cell that contains

[Sum(SalesProfitperDay)] as currency in

For more information, see:

Formatting Text and Placeholders (Report Builder
Tutorial: Formatting Text (Report Builder 3.0)
Color is an important way to make your report more
readable. You can use default colors from the color
palette or specify your own.

Add custom code that

specifies colors.

To follow the scenario:

Add custom code to control colors for the data

bars. By providing custom colors, you can build a

legend to add to the table. Right-click the
background of the report design window outside
the report page, and open Report Properties.
On the Code page, paste the following code:
Private colorPalette As String() = _
{"Gold", "Plum", "LightGreen", "Silver"}
Private count As Integer = 0
Private mapping As New
Public Function GetColor(ByVal
groupingValue As String) _
As String
mapping.ContainsKey(groupingValue) Then
Return mapping(groupingValue)
End If
Dim c As String = _
colorPalette(count Mod
count = count + 1
mapping.Add(groupingValue, c)
Return c
End Function

Add a databar nested in

the matrix

A databar nested in a row associated with a group

value such as a promotion type can display the sum of
profit on a horizontal axis that is synchronized for all
the data in the matrix. By adding promotion type as a
series, this type of display provides an easy way to
compare values for each promotion for each
To follow the scenario:

Add a column by right-clicking the last column,

point to Insert Column, and then click Inside

Group - Right.

Insert a databar by right-clicking the empty cell,

point to Insert, click Databar, and click the first
chart in the Data Bar group. Expand the row
height by about 50%.

From the Report Data pane, drag

SalesProfitperDay over the databar until the
Chart Data pane appears, and drop it in Values.
Configure the series by right-clicking
[Sum(SalesProfitperDay)] in the Values pane, and
open Series Properties. In Tooltip, enter the
following expression:

On the Fill page, set color to the following

expression: =Code.GetColor(Fields!

Filter items

From the Report Data pane, drag

PromotionName to Series Groups in the Chart
Data pane. Open Series Group Properties,
Sort page, and sort by the profit total by using
the same sort expression as before, and select Z
to A.

To filter data after it is retrieved from the data source,

specify filters on a dataset, a data region, or a data
region group.To create a filter, specify criteria in a way
that is similar to writing an equation.
For more information, see:
Filter Equation Examples (Report Builder 3.0)
How to: Add a Filter to a Dataset (Report Builder
How to: Add a Filter (Report Builder 3.0)

Step 7: Add a Legend

Anna adds a custom legend to the corner of the table to provide the information for
her team to interpret the custom color scheme.

Data and report layout are combined when the report
is processed by means of evaluated expressions. Many

Text and Placeholders

Add a legend for the bar
chart to the corner of the

expressions are created for you as you drag fields to

the report layout.
For more information, see:
Expressions (Report Builder 3.0)
Using Expressions (Report Builder 3.0)
Expression Examples (Report Builder 3.0)
By default, the chart wizard adds many parts of a chart
presentation that you can easily remove or change.
The matrix is a form of tablix, a flexible grid layout for
a dataset. You can build a legend matrix outside the
data matrix, merge the corner cells of the data matrix,
and then drag the legend matrix to the corner area of
the data matrix.
To follow the scenario:

Merge the cells in the corner of the profit matrix.

Create a 3 row matrix in the following way:

Add a matrix without using the wizard.

Drag PromotionName to Rows.

Drag PromotionName to Data.

In the Column Groups pane, delete

ColumnGroup, and choose Delete group only.

Delete the first column by right-clicking the

column handle, and then choosing Delete
columns only.

Right-click the column handle and then add a


Right-click the bottom row handle, point to

Insert Row, and then point to Outside Group Below.

You now have a table with 3 rows and 2 columns.

The first row is a header, the last row is a footer,
and the middle row repeats once per promotion

In the header row, merge both columns and type


In the footer row, merge both columns and type

(All amounts in thousands).

Right-click the last cell of the middle row, and

open Text Box Properties. On the Fill page,
enter the following expression for Color:

Format the table as needed.

In the profit matrix, merge the corner cells. Drag

the legend matrix into the corner cell.

Step 8: Save the report to the PowerPivot Gallery

Anna previews the report and is satisfied with the presentation. She saves the
report to the PowerPivot Gallery and runs it.
Save the report

Set a default value

for each parameter

To share a report based on data from a
PowerPivot workbook, publish the report
to the same gallery as the workbook.
For more information:
How to: Save a Report to a
SharePoint Library (Report
Builder 3.0)
Verify that each parameter has a
default value so that the report runs
without prompts. For more information:
How to: Set Parameters on a
Published Report (Reporting
Services in SharePoint Integrated

Step 9: Make a quick change

Anna notices that one of the promotions has a spelling error that is in the data:
"Back-to-Scholl" instead of "Back-to-School". She does not have permission to
update the data source, so she modifies an expression in the report to replace the
error with the correct spelling.

Change the
view of the
Gallery to
Replace the

Switch the view from Gallery to All
Documents and from the drop-down menu,
choose Edit in Report Builder.
For more information:
How to: Create and Customize
PowerPivot Gallery
A simple field expression such as =Fields!
Promotion.Value appears on the design
surface as [Promotion]. Any expression can
be customized to a different value.
To follow the scenario:

Open the report from the PowerPivot


In the legend matrix, replace the

simple expression [Promotion] with
the expression =Replace(Fields!

Save the

For more information, see:

Expressions (Report Builder 3.0)
Using Expressions (Report Builder 3.0)
Expression Examples (Report Builder
Save the report back to the PowerPivot
Gallery. Run the report to verify the changes.

Step 10: Create a subscription and schedule

After Anna publishes the report to the PowerPivot Gallery, she associates the report
with a new report schedule or selects an existing report schedule in SharePoint, and
specifies e-mail delivery to her team.
Create a schedule

You can create a schedule or use an existing shared
For more information:
How to: Schedule Report and Subscription
Processing (Reporting Services in SharePoint
Integrated Mode)

Create a subscription

Verify the format of the

report in e-mail

How to: Create and Manage Shared Schedules

(Reporting Services in SharePoint Integrated

You can create a data-driven subscription to deliver the

report to your team members.
For more information:
Subscription Processing
How to: Create and Manage Subscriptions
(Reporting Services in SharePoint Integrated
Delivering a report in e-mail can affect the report
appearance. It's a good idea to review the report in its
final format before delivering it to the team.
Create a one-time use schedule to send the report to
For more information:
Comparing Interactive Functionality for Different
Report Rendering Extensions (Report Builder 3.0)

This scenario has covered a lot of territory, from analysis in Excel and PowerPivot for
Excel to sharing in PowerPivot for SharePoint to reporting in Reporting Services. We
hope that you have gained some insight into how you can use Microsoft BI software
to design your own solutions. For more information, see the Business Intelligence
Resource Center.