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Data Collection Methods:

Data may be collected by two ways. It may either primary data or secondary data.
Researcher usually starts their investigation by examining secondary data to see
whether the problem can be partly or wholly solved without collecting costly
primary data.
Primary Data: The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the
first time and thus happen to be original in nature. We can obtain primary data
either through observation or through direct communication with respondents in
one form or another or through personal interviews.
Primary data can be collected with following ways:





Observation Method: This method implies the collection of information by

way of investigators own observation, without interviewing the respondents.
Observation are of two types, direct and indirect. In Direct observation ,
purpose of the study is disclosed to the people being investigated. In indirect
observation, the purpose of the study is not reveled and observer observes as
a stranger. This method is no doubt an expensive method and the information
provided by this method is also very limited.
Through Personal Interview: The investigator follows a rigid procedure and
seeks answer to a set of pre conceived questions through personal
interviews. This methods of collecting data is usually carried out in a
structured way where output depends upon the ability of the interviewer to a
large extent.
Through Telephone interview: This method of collecting information involves
contacting the respondents on telephone. This is not a very widely used
method but it plays an important role in industrial surveys, particularly, when
the survey has to be accomplished in a very limited time.
By mailing the Questionnaires: In this method questionnaire are mailed to the
respondents with a request to return after completing the same. it is the most
extensively used method in various economic and business surveys.
Questionnaire must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be
effective in collecting the relevant information.
Through schedule: under this method the enumerators are appointed and
given training. they are provided with schedules containing relevant
questions. These enumerators go to respondents with these schedules. Data
are collected by filling up the schedules by enumerators on the basis of
replies given by respondents.

Secondary Data: Secondary data are those data which have already been
collected and analysis by some earlier agency for its own use and later the same
data are used by some different agency.
Sources of collecting Secondary data:
1. Internal Sources: These are within the organization.
2. External Sources: These are outside the organization.
1. Internal Sources of Secondary Data:
a) Sales Data:
b) Financial Data:
c) Transportation Data:

d) Human Resource Data:

e) Storage Data:
2. External Sources of Secondary Data: external secondary data are
data generated by a sourc other than the firm. Major types includes:
a) Periodicals: one of the first places to look for secondary data is a
library. Periodicals (magazines, journals and newspapers) are materials
that are published at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, daily etc).
b) Government Data: Government data is available in inexpensive
publications issued by local, state, national or international
government for further analysis. Most of it is in computer form and
ready for further analysis.
Government data generally considered to be reliable and includes
laws, regulations, statistics, consumer information and much more.
There are number of government agencies generating data are as
Registrar general of india: ( Demographic data it includes details
of age, gender, occupation etc)
Director General of Commercial Intelligence: ( gives information
about foreign trade i.e. import and export)
Ministry of commerce and Industries: ( information on wholesale
price index)
Planning commission: ( basic statistic of Indian economy)
c) Private Research Organization: Many private research
organization, advertising agencies, newspapers and magazines
regularly compile and published data. Some also published magazines
that focus on important topics in the industry. Eg. Yellow apages, it can
be a big help in estimating how much competition there is in certain
lines of business and where it is located.
d) Internet Search Engines: people search the internet using a variety
of search engines such as yahoo, google etc. these are accessible
through browser, where you can search for other websites that contain
specific topic keyword. You simply type the topic what you are looking
for and the search engine will provide websites that have information
related to that topic.