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Mechanical Springs

Flexibility is sometimes needed and is often provided by metal bodies with cleverly

controlled geometry

Such flexibility can be linear or nonlinear in relating deflection to load.

These devices allow controlled application of force or torque; the storing and release of

energy can be another purpose

In general, spring may be classified as:

1. Wire springs such as helical springs of round or square wire, made to resist and

deflect under tensile, compressive, and torsional loads.

2. Flat springs which includes cantilever and elliptical types, wound motor-or clocktype power springs, a flat spring washers, usually called Belleville springs.

3. Special-shaped springs

A round-wire helical compression spring loaded by the axial force F is shown in figure

10-1a.

101

1. The mean coil diameter D

2. The wire diameter d.

If the spring is cut at some point, the effect of the removed portion replaced by the net

internal reactions. See figure 10-1b.

Using the equation of equilibrium, the cut portion would contain a direct shear force F

and a torsion T=FD/2

The maximum stress in the wire may be computed by superposition of the direct shear

stress and the torsional shear stress

max =

Tr F

+

J

A

=

8 FD 4 F

+

d 3 d 2

(10-1)

D

d

(10-2)

C=

Equation (10-2) measures the coil curvature.

Substitute equation (10-2) into equation (10-1), we have:

= KS

8 FD

d 3

(10-3)

KS =

2C + 1

2C

(10-4)

Note that equation (10-3) is a general formula and is applied for both static and fatigue

loads.

102

Equation (10-1) is based on the wire being straight. But, the wire has a curvature.

The curvature of the wire increases the stress on the inside of the spring but decreases it

only slightly on the outside.

In static load: these stresses can normally be neglected because it will be relieved by local

yielding with first application of a load.

In fatigue load: It is important to include the curvature stress because of its high

localized.

To include the curvature in equation (10-3), the factor KS is need to be modified.

Two different curvature factors known as:

Wahl factor:

KW =

4C 1 0.615

+

4C 4

C

(10-5)

4C + 2

4C 3

(10-6)

Bergstrasser factor:

KB =

The different between the two equations is less than one percent which makes equation

(10-6) is preferred to used

The curvature correction factor can now be obtained by canceling out the effect of the

direct shear form KB, thus

KC =

KB

2C (4C + 2)

=

K S (4C 3)(2C + 1)

(10-7)

= KB

8 FD

d 3

Using the strain energy method to include both the torsional and shear components, thus

103

U=

T 2l

F 2l

+

2GJ 2 AG

4 F 2 D 3 N 2 F 2 DN

U=

+

d 4G

d 2G

where N =Na = number of active coils

The total deflection y can now be calculated by:

U 8FD 3 N 4 FDN

y=

=

+ 2

F

d 4G

d G

Since, C=D/d, the deflection y becomes:

8 FD 3 N

d 4G

(10-8)

F

d 4G

=

y 8D 3 N

(10-9)

y

The spring rate can be calculated by

k=

There are four standard types on helical compression springs. They are plain end, squared

end, plain-ground end, and squared-ground as illustrated in figure 10-2.

104

A spring with plain ends has a noninterrupted helicoids; the ends are the same as if a long

spring had been cut into sections.

A spring with plain ends that are squared or closed is obtained by deforming the ends to a

zero-degree helix angle.

Springs should always be both squared and ground for important applications, because a

better transfer of the load is obtained.

A spring with squared and ground ends compressed between rigid plates can be

considered to have fixed ends.

The type of end used affects the number of active coils Na and the solid height of the

spring.

Square ends effectively decrease the number of total coils Nt by approximately two:

Nt = Na+2

Table 10-1 shows how the type of end used affects the number of coils and the spring length.

Types of Springs Ends

Squared or

Closed

2

Squared and

Ground

2

Na

Na+1

Na+2

Na+2

Free length, L0

pNa+d

p(Na+1)

pNa+3d

pNa+2d

Solid length, Ls

d(Nt+1)

dNt

d(Nt+1)

dNt

Pitch, p

(L0-d)/ Na

L0/ (Na+1)

(L0-3d)/ Na

(L0-2d)/ Na

Term

Plain

End coils, Ne

Total coils, Nt

Forys gives an expression for calculating the solid length of squared and ground ends

Ls=(Nt - a)d

Where a varies, with an average of 0.75 which means in this case that the entry dNt in

table 10-1may be overstated.

The way to check these variations is to take a spring and count the wire diameters in the

solid stack

105

A process used to induce (make) useful residual stresses.

It is done by making the spring longer than needed and then compressing it to its solid

height Ls.

This operation sets the spring to the required final free length L0 and, since the torsional

yield strength has been exceeded, induces (makes) residual stresses opposite in the

direction to those induced in service.

Set removed increases the strength of the spring and so is especially useful when the

spring is used for energy-storage purposes. But, set removal should not be used when

springs are subjects to fatigue

10.5 Stability

Compression coil springs may buckle when the deflection becomes too large.

The critical deflection is given by the equation:

C'

y cr = L0 C 1 1 22

eff

'

1

1/ 2

(10-10)

where

ycr is the deflection corresponding to the onest of instability

eff is the effective slenderness ratio and is given by:

eff =

the end condition constant

L0

D

(10-11)

C1' =

C 2' =

E

2(E G )

2 2 (E G )

2G + E

The end condition constant depends upon how the ends of the spring are support.

106

End condition

Spring supported between flat parallel surfaces (fixed ends)

One end supported by flat surface perpendicular to spring axis (fixed);

other end pivoted (hinged)

Both ends pivoted (hinged)

One end clamped; other end free

Constant

0.5

0.707

1

2

Absolute stability occurs when equation the term C 2' / 2eff in equation (10-10) is greater

than unity. Thus, for stability we have:

L0 <

D 2(E G )

2G + E

1/ 2

(10-12)

For squared and ground ends =0.5 and L0 < 5.26D

10.6 Spring Materials

A great variety of spring materials are available to the designer, including plain carbon

steels, alloy steels, and corrosion-resisting steels, as well as nonferrous materials such as

spring brass, and various nickel alloys.

Most common used steels are found in table 10-3

The UNS steel listed in appendix A should be used in designing hot-worked, heavy-coil

springs, as well as flat springs, leaf springs, and torsion bars.

Spring materials may be compared by an examination of their tensile strength; these vary

so much with wire size that they cannot be specified until the wire size is known

The graph of tensile strength versus wire diameter is almost a straight line for some

materials

This can be expressed as a linear function which can be written as:

S ut =

A

dm

(10-14)

Note:

If d measured in mm, then the unit of A is MPa.mmm.

If d measured in inches, then the unit of A is kpsi.inm.

107

A very rough estimate of the torsional yield strength can be obtained by assuming that the

tensile yield strength is between 60 and 90 percent of the tensile strength.

0.6 S ut < S y < 0.9 S ut

Then, the torsional yield strength can be found by Sys=0.577Sy. Therefore, for steel:

0.577(0.6) S ut < S ys < 0.577(0.9) S ut

0.35S ut < S ys < 0.52 S ut

(10-15)

For wires listed in table 10-5, the maximum allowable shear stress in a spring can be seen

in column 3.

Joerres uses the maximum allowable torsional stress for static applications and it is given

in table 10-6.

Samonov shows that Ssy=all = 0.56Sut for high-tensile spring steels, which is close to the

value given by Joerres for hardened alloy steels.

Example

A helical compression spring is made of hard drawn carbon A227 steel has a wire

diameter of 0.94mm. The outside diameter of the spring is 11.11mm. The ends are

squared and the there are 12.5 total turns.

a) Estimate the torsional yield strength of the wire.

b) Estimate the static load corresponding to the yield strength.

c) Estimate the scale of the spring (the spring constant).

d) Estimate the deflection that would be caused by the load in part (b)

e) Estimate the solid length of the spring

f) What length should the spring be to ensure that when it is compressed solid and

then released, there will be no permanent change in the free length?

g) Given the length found in part (f), is buckling a possibility?

h) What is the pitch of the body coil?

Solution

a) The torsional yield strength of the wire:

d = 0.94mm

From table 10-4, A=1783MPa.mmm and m=0.19

From equation 10-14: Sut = A/dm = 1783/(0.94)0.19 =1804MPa

From table 10-6: Ssy = 0.50Sut = 902MPa

b) The static load corresponding to the yield strength:

The main spring coil diameter is D=Dout-d=11.11-0.94=10.17mm

Thus, the spring index is: C = D/d = 10.17/0.94 =10.82

Therefore, from equation 10-3 replacing Ks and with KB and Ssy, Thus:

108

= S sy = K B

F=

8 FD

d 3

d 3 S sy

8K B D

; KB =

4C + 2 4(10.82) + 2

=

= 1.124

4C 3 4(10.82) 3

F = 25.734 N

c) the scale of the spring:

d 4G

k=

8D 3 N a

From table 10-5, d = 0.94mm = 0.037in G=80GPa

Na for both ends squared: Nt = Na +2 Na = 12.5-2=10.5 turns

d 4G

k=

= 707 N / m

8D 3 N a

d) The deflection that would be caused by the load in part (b):

F 25.734

y= =

= 0.0364m = 36.4mm

k

707

e) The solid length of the spring, from table 10-1:

Ls = d ( N t + 1) = 0.94(12.5 + 1) = 12.69mm

f) The free length of the spring suppose to have to be sure when it is compressed and

then released, there will be no permanent change in it is free length:

L0 = Ls + y = 12.69 + 36.4 = 49.09mm

g) To Check if buckling is possible:

For steel and squared ground: L0 < 5.26D L0 < 53.94mm, since L0 = 49.9mm,

therefore there will be no buckling.

h) The pitch of the body coil is:

(L 3d ) (49.09 3(0.94)

p= 0

=

= 4.41

Na

10.5

The design of a new spring involves the following considerations:

Values of working forces and deflections

Accuracy and reliability needed

Tolerances and permissible variations in specifications

109

atmosphere

Cost and quantities needed

Designers use these factors to select a material and specify suitable values for wire size,

the number of turns, the diameter and free length, the type of ends, and the spring rate

needed to satisfy the working force-deflection requirements.

Some important limits:

The range index is 4 C 12, Lower indexes being more difficult to form (because

of the danger of surface cracking). Higher indexes tending to tangle (knot) often

enough to require individual packing.

gradual touching of coils.

The characteristic of the force-deflection for the helical coil spring is nearly linear.

The spring force is not reproducible for very small deflections and near closure,

nonlinear behavior begins as the number of active turns diminishes as coils begin to

touch.

The designer confines (limits) the springs operating point to the central 75% of the

curve between no load F=0 and closure (end) F=FS

Fmax

7

FS

8

FS = (1 + )Fmax

(10-17)

FS

7

FS

1+ 8

Solve for gets:

1

7

110

4 C 12

(10-18)

3 N a 15

(10-19)

1

7

n s 1.2

(10-20)

(10-21)

Figure of merit:

1. The cost of wire from which the spring is wound (coiled)

2. Help in making the decision for the optimal spring design.

2 d 2 N t D

3. Formula:

fom = (RMC )

4

(10-22)

There are many decisions to be made, and may possible solution paths as well as

solutions.

One possible approach for design spring coil:

1. Make a priori decisions, with hard-drawn steel wire the first choice (relative

material cost =1)

2. Choose a wire size d

3. generate a column of parameters: d, D, OD or ID, Na, Ls, Lo, (Lo)cr, ns, and fom

By incrementing wire sizes available, a table of parameters will be generated. Then, the

design recommendation conditions are applied to choose the good design.

After wire sizes are eliminated, choose the spring design with the highest figure of merit.

This will give the optimal design despite the presence of a discrete design variable d and

aggregation of equality and inequality constraints.

The column vector of information can be generated by using the flowchart displayed in

figure 10-3.

111

112

As wound and set-removed springs, operating over a rod, or in a hole free of rod or hole.

In as-wound springs the controlling equation must be solved for the spring index as

follows:

From equation 10-3, with: =Ssy/ns, C = D/d, KB

S sy

= KB

ns

With

KB =

8 FS D

d 3

4C + 2

and FS = (1 + )Fmax

4C 3

Therefore:

S sy 4C + 2 8(1 + )Fmax C

=

4C 3

ns

d 2

Let

=

S sy

ns

& =

8(1 + )Fmax

d 2

Substituting and into the torsion equation and simplifying yields a quadratic

equations in C. The larger of the two solutions will yield the spring index

2 2

C=

+

4

4

3

4

1/ 2

(10-23)

Example

An A228 wire helical compression spring is needed to support a 20-Ibf load after being

compressed 2 in. Because of assembly considerations the solid height cannot exceed 1 in

and the free length cannot be more than 4 in. Design the spring.

Solution:

For A228 wire helical spring: From table, A = 201 kpsi-inm and m = 0.145

From table 10-5, E = 28.5Mpsi, G =11.75Mpsi (choosing d > 0.064 in)

Ends squared and ground

Function: Fmax=20 Ibf, ymax=2 in

Safety: use design factor at solid height of (ns)d = 1.2

Select robust linearity: = 0.15

Use as wound spring, Ssy=0.45Sut from table 10-6

Decision variable: d = 0.08 in.

From fig. 10-3 and table 10-6

113

S sy = 0.45

=

=

S sy

ns

A

= 130.46kpsi

dm

= 108.713kpsi

8(1 + )Fmax

= 9.15kpsi

d 2

2

2 2

3

+

C=

4

4

4

D = Cd = 0.8424

K B = (4C + 2) /( 4C 3) = 1.128

1/ 2

= 10.53

n s = S sy / s = 1.2

OD = D + d = 0.923in

N a = Gd 4 y max /(8 D 3 Fmax ) = 10.05turns

N t = 10.05 + 2 = 12.05turns

Ls = dN t = 0.964in

Lo = Ls + y s = Ls + (1 + ) y max = 3.264in

(Lo )cr

= 2.63D / = 4.43in

Repeat the above analysis for other diameters and form a table to select the best spring

design:

d

0.063

0.067

0.071

0.075

0.08

0.085

0.09

0.095

0.391

0.479

0.578

0.688

0.843

1.017

1.211

1.427

D

6.205

7.153

8.143

9.178

10.53

11.96

13.46

15.02

C

0.454

0.546

0.649

0.763

0.923

1.102

1.301

1.522

OD

39.1

26.9

19.3

14.2

10.1

7.3

5.4

4.1

Na

2.587

1.936

1.513

1.219

0.964

0.790

0.668

0.581

Ls

4.887

4.236

3.813

3.519

3.264

3.090

2.968

2.881

Lo

2.06

2.52

3.04

3.62

4.43

5.35

6.37

7.51

(Lo)cr

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

ns

-0.409

-0.399

-0.398

-0.404

-0.417

-0.438

-0.467

-0.505

fom

Examine the table and perform the adequacy assessment.

The constraint 3 Na 15 cancel wire diameters less than 0.08 in

The constraint 4 C 12 cancel diameters larger than 0.085 in.

The constraint Ls > 1 in cancel diameters less than 0.080 in.

The constraint Lo > 4 in cancel diameters less than 0.071 in.

The buckling criterion cancel free length longer than (Lo)cr, which cancel diameters less

than0.075in.

114

The result is that there are only two springs in the feasible domain.

The figure of merit decides that the wire diameter is 0.08in.

When helical springs are used in applications requiring a rapid reciprocating motion, the

designer must be certain that the physical dimensions of the spring are not such as to

create a natural vibratory frequency close to the frequency of the applied force; otherwise

resonance may occur, resulting in damaging stresses.

The governing equation for the translational vibration of a spring is the wave equation:

2u

W 2u

=

x 2 kgl 2 t 2

(10-24)

where

k = spring rate

g = acceleration due to gravity

l = length of spring

W= weight of spring

x = coordinate along length of spring

u = motion of any particle at distance x

Equation (10-24) has a harmonic solution and it depends on:

1. Given physical properties

2. End conditions of the spring

The natural frequencies for a spring placed between two flat and parallel plates:

kg

W

m = 1,2,3,...

1 kg

2m W

m = 1,2,3,...

= m

Since =2f, thus

f =

f =

1 kg

2 W

(10-25)

115

For spring has one end against a flat plate and other end free, the frequency is

f =

1 kg

4 W

(10-26)

W = AL =

d 2

(DN a ) = 1 2 d 2 DN a

4

4

To avoid resonance with the harmonic it is required that the fundamental critical

frequency is 15~20 the frequency of the force or motion of the spring.

If it is not enough, the spring should be redesign to increase k or decrease W

Helical springs are never used as both compression and extension springs. This is because

they are usually assembled with a preload so that the working load is additional. Thus,

the spring application fall under the condition of fluctuating loads. Thus,

Fmax Fmin

2

(10-31)

Fmax + Fmin

Fm =

= Fmin + Fa

2

Fa =

Therefore, the amplitude and midrange shear stresses respectively can be written as:

8 Fa D

d 3

8F D

m = K B m3

d

a = KB

(10-32,33)

Endurance limits for infinite life were found to be for unpeened and peened springs:

Unpeened:

Peened:

Ssa=57.5 kpsi (398MPa)

Ssm=55.0kpsi (379MPa)

Ssm=77.5kpsi (534MPa)

116

S sa

S se =

where Ssu=0.67Sut

1 (S sm / S su )

Example

A helical compression spring, made of A228 wire, has a wire size of 0.092 in, an outside

diameter of 0.5625 in, a free length of 4.125 in, 21 active coils, and both ends squared

and ground. The spring is to be assembled with a preload of 5 lb and will operate to a

maximum load of 35 lb during use. Knowing that the spring is unpeened type.

1. Find the factor of safety guarding against a fatigue failure.

2. Find the critical operating frequency

Solution

Given OD=0.5625 in, d=0.092 in, Na=21

A228 spring type material, G=11.75GPsi

Fmax=35lb, Fmin=5lb

Both ends squared and ground, and unpeened.

1. The fatigue factor of safety:

D = OD d = 0.4705in

C = D / d = 5.11

K B = (4C + 2) /( 4C 3) = 1.287

Fa = (35 5) / 2 = 15lb

Fm = (35 + 5) / 2 = 20lb

8Fa D

= 29.7 kpsi

d 3

8F D

m = K B m 3 = 33.8kpsi

d

a = KB

A

= 284.1kpsi

dm

= 0.67 S ut = 190.347 kpsi

S ut =

S su

S sa = 35kpsi

S se =

S sm = 55kpsi

S sa

= 49.22kpsi

1 (S sm / S su )

117

a m

S se S su

1

+

=

nf =

= 1.28

S se S su n f

a S su + m S se

2. The critical frequency:

d 4G

k=

= 48.1lb / in

8D 3 N a

1

W = 2 d 2 DN a ; = 0.284lb / in 3

4

W = 0.0586lbf

f =

1 kg 1 48.1(386)

=

= 281Hz

0.586

2 W

2

f

f

For good design

20 f op

f op 14.1

f op

20

Example

A helical compression spring, made of A228 wire, with infinite life is needed to resist a

dynamic load that varies from 5 to 20 lbf at 5 Hz while the end deflection varies from 0.5

to 2 in. Because of assembly considerations, the solid height cannot exceed 1.2 in and the

free length cannot be more than 4 in. The springmaker has the following wire sizes in

stock: 0.069, 0.071, 0.080, 0.085, 0.090, 0.095, 0.105, and 0.112 in.

Solution

From table 10-4 for A228: A=201 kpsi.inm, m=0.145, G =11.75Mpsi, relative cost of

wire=2.6

Surface treatment: unpeended

End treatment: squqred and ground

Select robust linearity: = 0.15 and fop = 5Hz

Fatigue safety: nf =1.5 using the Sines-Zimmerli fatigue-failure criterion

Use as wound spring, Ssy = 0.45Sut from table 10-6

Fmin = 5lbf, Fmax= 20lbf, ymin= 0.5 in, ymax = 2 in, spring operates free ( no rod or hole)

Decision variable: wire size d

For d = 0.112 in

118

20 5

20 + 5

Fm =

= 7.5lbf

= 12.5lbf

2

2

F

20

k = max =

= 10lbf / in

y max

2

Fa =

201

= 276.1kpsi

0.112 0.145

= 0.67 S ut = 185.0kpsi

S ut =

S su

S sy = 0.45S ut = 124.2kpsi

For Unpeened spring form equation (10-28): Ssa=35.0 kpsi Ssm=55.0kpsi

In Sines failure criterion, the terms Ssm ignores, thus

S sa

35

S se =

=

= 35kpsi

1 (S sm / S su ) 1 0

To find C, we replace Ssy by Sse, ns by nf, and (1+)Fmax by Fa, thus:

S

= se = 23.333kpsi

nf

=

8Fa

= 1.523kpsi

d 2

2 2

C=

+

4

4

D = Cd = 1.569in

Fs = (1 + )Fmax = 23lbf

3

4

1/ 2

= 14.005

N a = Gd 4 /(8D 3 k ) = 5.98turns

N t = 5.98 + 2 = 7.98turns

Ls = dN t = 0.894in

Lo = Ls + y s = Ls + (Fs / k ) = 3.194in

ID = D d = 1.457in

OD = D + d = 1.681in

y s = Lo Ls = 2.3in

(Lo )cr

= 2.63D / = 8.253in

2 d 2 DN a

= 0.0825lbf

4

386k

f n = 0.5

= 108Hz

W

W=

119

K B = (4C + 2) /( 4C 3) = 1.094

8 Fa D

= 23.334kpsi

d 3

8F D

m = K B m 3 = 38.89kpsi

d

8F D

s = K B s 3 = 71.56kpsi

d

n f = S sa / a = 1.5

a = KB

n s = S sy / s = 1.74

fom = 2.6 2 d 2 N t D / 4 = 1.01

Repeat the above analysis for other wire diameters and form a table to select the best

spring design:

d

0.069

0.071

0.080

0.085

0.090

0.095

0.105

0.112

0.297

0.332

0.512

0.632

0.767

0.919

1.274

1.569

D

0.228

0.261

0.432

0.547

0.677

0.824

1.169

1.457

ID

0.366

0.403

0.592

0.717

0.857

1.014

1.379

1.681

OD

14.00

4.33

4.67

6.40

7.44

8.53

9.67

12.14

C

127.2

102.4

44.8

30.5

21.3

15.4

8.63

6.0

Na

8.916

7.414

3.74

2.75

2.10

1.655

1.116

0.895

Ls

11.216

9.714

6.040

5.05

4.40

3.955

3.416

3.195

Lo

1.562

1.744

2.964

3.325

4.036

4.833

6.703

8.25

(Lo)cr

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

nf

1.86

1.85

1.82

1.81

1.79

1.78

1.75

1.74

ns

87.5

89.7

96.9

99.7

101.9

103.8

106.6

108

fn

-1.17

-1.12

-0.983

-0.948

-0.930

-0.927

-0.958

-1.01

fom

Examine the table and perform the adequacy assessment.

General Constraints:

o The constraint 3 Na 15 cancel wire diameters less than 0.105 in

o The constraint 4 C 12 cancel diameters larger than 0.105 in.

Problem Constraints:

o The constraint Ls 1.2 in cancel diameters less than 0.1050 in

o The constraint Lo 4 in cancel diameters less than 0.095 in

o fn 20fop fn 100Hz cancel diameters less than 0.090 in

o The buckling criterion cancel free length longer than (Lo)cr, which cancel

diameters less than0.075in.

120

Most of the preceding discussion of compression springs applied equally to helical

extension springs

The natural frequency of a helical extension spring with both ends fixed against axial

deflection is the same as that for a helical spring in compression

But, In extension spring, the coils are usually close wound so that there is an initial

tension or so termed preload F. Therefore, no deflection occurs until the initial tension

built into the spring is overcome. That is: the applied load F becomes larger than initial

tension (F > Fi)

The load transfer can be done with: a threaded plug or a swivel hook

Figure 10-6 shows types of ends used on extension springs

Stresses in the body of the extension spring are handled the same as compression springs.

In designing a spring with a hook end, bending and torsion in the hook must be included

in the analysis.

Figure 10-7 shows two common used method of designing the end. c and d shows an

improved design due to a reduced coil diameter, not to elimination of stress

concentration. The reduced coil diameter results in a lower stress because of the shorter

moment arm.

No stress-concentration factor is needed for the axial component of the load

121

The maximum tensile stress at A, due to bending and axial loading, is given by:

16 D

4

A = F ( K ) A

+ 2

3

d

d

(10-34)

Where (K)A is a bending stress correction factor for curvature, given by:

(K ) A =

4C12 C1 1

4C1 (C1 1)

C1 =

2r1

d

(10-35)

B = (K ) B

8 FD

d 3

(10-36)

where (K)B is the stress correction factor for curvature and it is given by:

(K )B

4C 2 1

4C 2 4

C2 =

2r2

d

(10-37)

122

To have a more accurate free length, it is preferred that some initial tension in close

wound springs.

Figure 10-8a shows the load-deflection curve, where y is the extension beyond the free

length Lo and Fi is the initial tension in the spring that must be exceeded before the spring

deflects

Thus, the load-deflection relation can be written as:

F=Fi+ky

Where k is the spring rate

The free length Lo of a spring measured inside the end loops or hooks as shown in figure

10-8b can be expressed as

Lo= 2(D-d) + (Nb+1)d = (2C-1+Nb)d

D mean coil diameter

Nb number of body coils

C the spring index

The equivalent number of active helical turns Na for use in equation 10-9 is

Na = Nb + G/E

where G and E are the shear the tensile modulus of elasticity

123

The amount of initial tension that a springmaker can routinely incorporate is as shown in

figure 10-8c

The preferred range can be expressed in terms of the uncorrected torsional stress i as

i =

33500

C 3

1000 4

psi

exp(0.105C )

6.5

(10-41)

The maximum allowable corrected stresses (KW or KB) for static applications of extension

springs are given in table 10-7

Percent of Tensile Strength

Materials

Patented, cold-drawn or hardened and tempered

carbon and low-alloy steels

Austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous alloys

In Torsion

body

end

45-50

40

35

30

In Bending

end

75

55

124

Example

A hard drawn steel wire extension spring has a wire diameter of 0.035 in, an outside coil

diameter of 0.248 in, hook radii of r1= 0.106 in and r2 = 0.089in, and an initial tension of

1.19 lbf. The number of body turns is 12.17. From the given information:

1. Determine the physical parameters of the spring(D, C, KB, Na, k, Lo, ymax)

2. Check the initial preload stress conditions

3. Find the factors of safety under a static 5.25 lbf load.

Solution

d = 0.035 in, OD = 0.248 in, r1 = 0.106 in, r2 = 0.089 in, Nb = 12.17

Fi = 1.19 lbf, Fmax=5.25

HD steel

Form table 10-5, with 0.033 < d < 0.063 E = 28.7Mpsi, G = 11.6Mpsi

From table 10-4, A = 140kpsi-inm, m = 0.19

1. The physical parameters

D = OD d = 0.248 0.035 = 0.213

C = D / d = 6.086

4C + 2

KB =

= 1.234

4C 3

N a = N B + G / E = 12.17 + 11.6 / 28.7 = 12.57turns

k=

d 4G

= 17.76lbf / in

8D 3 N a

Lo = (2C 1 + N b )d = 0.817in

The deflection under the service load is:

(F Fi ) = 5.25 1.19 = 0.229in

y max = max

k

17.76

Therefore the maximum spring length is:

L = Lo + ymax =0.817+0.229 = 1.046 in

2. Initial preload stress condition:

The uncorrected initial stress is given by equation (10-3) without the correction factor:

( i )uncorr = 8Fi D3 = 15.1kpsi

d

The preferred range is given by equation (10-41):

( i ) pref = 33500 1000 4 C 3 = 17681 3525 = 14.2kpsi or

exp(0.105C )

6.5

21.2kpsi

125

We need to check three positions:

The bending at the end hook which is represented by point A

The torsion at the end hook which is represented by point B

S sy

8F D

; S sy = 0.45S ut & max = K B max3

n=

max

d

140

A

= 264.7 kpsi

S ut = m =

0.035 0.19

d

8(5.25)(0.213)

= 82kpsi

max = 1.234

0.035 3

0.45(264.7 )

= 1.45

n=

82

Sy

; S y = 0.75S ut = 0.75(264.7 ) = 198.5kpsi

nA =

A

16 D

4

+ 2 ;

A = Fmax (K ) A

3

d

d

(K ) A = 1.14 A = 156.9kpsi

nA =

C1 1

4C1 (C1 1)

2

(K ) A = 4C1

C1 = 2r1 / d = 6.057

198.5

= 1.27

156.9

S sy

nB =

; S sy = 0.4 S ut = 0.4(264.7 ) = 105.88kpsi

B

8Fmax D

4C 2 1

; ( K )B =

3

4C 2 4

d

= 1.18 B = 78.4kpsi

B = (K ) B

(K )B

nA =

C 2 = 2r2 / d = 5.086

105.88

= 1.35

78.4

Note that Ssy=0.4Sut from table 10-7 under torsion for the end part.

From all three calculations, the yield will first occur due to the bending of the end hook.

126

Example: Fatigue

The helical extension spring of the pervious example is subjected to a dynamic loading

from 1.5 lbf to 5 lbf. Estimate the factors of safety using Goodman failure criterion for

1. The coil fatigue

2. The coil yield

3. The end hook bending fatigue at point A

4. The end hook torsion fatigue at point B

Solution

d = 0.035 in, D = 0.213 in, r1= 0.106 in, r2 = 0.089 in, Nb = 12.17

Fi = 1.19 lbf, Fmin=1.5, Fmax=5,

From the pervious example we have:

C=6.086, Lo=0.817, k=17.76 lbf/in

KB=1.234, (K)A=1.14, (K)B=1.18, (i)uncorr=15.1 kpsi

Sut = 264.7kpsi, Ssu = 0.67Sut= 177.3 kpsi, Sy =198.5 kpsi, Ssy =119.1 kpsi (shear in body)

1. The fatigue in the body coil:

Fa = (5 1.5) / 2 = 1.75lbf

Fm = (5 + 1.5) / 2 = 3.25lbf

8Fa D

= 27.3kpsi

d 3

8F D

m = K B m 3 = 50.7kpsi

d

a = KB

S sa = 35kpsi

S sm = 55kpsi

S se =

S sa

= 50.74kpsi

1 (S sm / S su )

a m

S se S su

1

+

=

nf =

= 1.214

S se S su n f

a S su + m S se

2. The coil yield:

S

n y = sa

a

To find the values of Ssa:

The load line:

a

r=

(1)

m i

S sa S sm

+

= 1 (2)

S sy S sy

Ssy

S sa S sm

+

=1

S sy S sy

r

Ssa

Ssm

Ssy

127

r

(S sy i )

S sa =

r +1

Therefore:

F

i a

1.19

=

i = i a =

27.3 = 18.6kpsi

Fi Fa

1.75

Fa

27.3

= 0.85

r=

50.7 18.6

S sa = 46.2kpsi

Thus :

46.2

= 1.69

ny =

27.3

3. The end hook bending fatigue at point A

n f = 1 / ( a / S e + m / S ut ) ;

16 D

4

a = Fa (K ) A

+ 2 = 52.3kpsi ;

3

d

d

F

m = m a = 97.1kpsi

Fa

S se

= 67.1kpsi

0.577

(n f )A = 0.87

Se =

n f = 1 / ( sa / S se + sm / S su )

8 Fa D

= 26.1kpsi

d 3

( m )B = (K )B 8Fm 3D = 48.5kpsi

d

(n f )B = 1.27

( a )B = (K )B

128

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