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Medical Synonym Lists

from Medieval Provence:


Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa,
Sefer ha-Shimmush, Book 29

tudes sur
le Judasme Mdival
Fondes par

Georges Vajda
Diriges par

Paul B. Fenton

TOME XXXVII

Medical Synonym Lists


from Medieval Provence:
Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa,
Sefer ha-Shimmush, Book 29
Part 1: Edition and Commentary of List 1
(Hebrew Arabic Romance/Latin)

By

Gerrit Bos
Martina Hussein
Guido Mensching
Frank Savelsberg

LEIDEN BOSTON
2011

This book is printed on acid-free paper.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Shem Tov ben Isaac, of Tortosa, 13th cent.
Medical synonym lists from medieval Provence : Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa, Sefer
ha-Shimmush, Book 29.
p. cm. (tudes sur le judasme mdival ; t. 37)
Contains lists of terms in Hebrew, Aramaic and Provenal, with their equivalents in Arabic,
Latin and Provenal transliterated into Hebrew; commentary in English.
These supplementary lists were appended by Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa to his Sefer
ha-Shimush, a translation into Hebrew of Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-ta'lif by Abu al-Qasim
Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zahrawi.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-90-04-16764-3 (hard cover : alk. paper)
1. Medicine, MedievalTerminology. 2. Plants in the BibleTerminology. 3. Plants in
rabbinical literatureTerminology. 4. Hebrew language, MedievalGlossaries, vocabularies, etc.
5. Aramaic languageGlossaries, vocabularies, etc. 6. Provenal languageGlossaries,
vocabularies, etc. 7. Arabic languageTransliteration into Hebrew. 8. Latin language, Medieval
and modernTransliteration into Hebrew. 9. Provenal languageTransliteration into Hebrew.
10. Shem Tov ben Isaac, of Tortosa. Sefer ha-Shimmush. Book 29. I. Bos, Gerrit, 1948- II. Abu
al-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zahrawi, d. 1013? Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-ta'lif. III. Title. IV.
Series.
R128.S54 2010
610.1'4dc22
2009032747

ISSN: 0169-815X
ISBN: 978 90 04 16764 3
Copyright 2011 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing,
IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
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Fees are subject to change.

CONTENTS

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
General Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Source Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Hebrew Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. General Overview and Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Aims and Organisation of this Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Transcription System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Medieval Synonym Lists in Hebrew Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Shem Tovs Synonym Lists in the Sefer ha-Shimmush . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Biographical and Historical Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Background and Motivation of the Sefer ha-Shimmush and
the Two Synonym Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. How Shem Tovs Synonym Lists Were Compiled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Sources for Hebrew and Arabic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Sources for Romance and Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Creation of New Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. The Vernacular Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Jewish-Romance Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. The Old Occitan Language and How It Is Reflected in the
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Dialectal Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Catalan, French and Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. The Edition and the Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Notes on the Manuscript Filiation and Choice of Base
Manuscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Norms Used in the Edition and Organisation of the
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1
1
4
5
10
10
12
16
16
22
27
32
32
34
41
44
47
52
52
60
64

vi

contents

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Texts and Dictionaries . . . . . . . . 67
Other Texts Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

edition of sefer ha-shimmush,


book , synonym list
Alef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gimel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dalet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zayin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Het
. .....................................................................
Tet
. ......................................................................
Yod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lamed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Samekh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ayin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sade
....................................................................
.
Qof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91
129
147
167
181
195
197
209
239
249
263
285
303
335
353
377
401
429
447
479
495
529

Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539

ABBREVIATIONS

General Abbreviations
abbr.
ad loc.
add.
adj.
Akk.
a.o.
Arab.
Aram.
art.
bibl.
bk.
c.
Cat.
cf.
ch.
col.
corr.
doc.
ed.
eds
e.g.
em.
esp.
f./ff.
fem.
fol.
fols
Fr.
Gr.
Hebr.
ibid.
i.e.
imp.
inf.
It.
l.

abbreviation
ad locum
addidit
adjective
Akkadian
amongst others
Arabic
Aramaic
article
biblical
book
century
Catalan
confer
chapter
column
correction
documentation
editor / edition
editors
exempli gratia
emendavit
especially
and the following
feminine
folio
folios
French
Greek
Hebrew
ibidem
id est
imperfect
infinitive
Italian
line

Lat.
lit.
loc. cit.
masc.
M. Fr.
M.l.
M. Lat.
Med. Lat.
mod.
Mod. Fr.
Mod. Occ.
MS
MSS
n.
n.d.
Nif.
no.
O
O. Cat.
Occ.
O. Fr.
O. Sp.
o.l.
om.
O. Occ.
P
p./pp.
part.
pass.
Pers.
plur.
R.
rabbin.
repr.
rev.
Sept.

Latin
literally
loco citato
masculine
Middle French
Mishnaic language
Middle Latin
Medieval Latin
modern
Modern French
Modern Occitan
manuscript
manuscripts
note
no date
Nif al
number
MS Oxford
Old Catalan
Occitan
Old French
Old Spanish
other language
omisit
Old Occitan
MS Paris
page/pages
participle passive
passive
Persian
plural
Rabbi
rabbinic
reprint
revised
Septuagint

viii
sing.
Suppl.
s.v.
Syr.
trad.
transl.

abbreviations
singular
Supplement
sub voce
Syriac
tradition
translation

V
VLat.
vol.
vols
Vulg.

MS Vatican
Vulgar Latin
volume
volumes
Vulgate

Source Abbreviations
Biblical Sources
Am
Chron
Dan
Deut
Ea
Ec
Es
Ex
Ez
Gen
Hb
Hg
Hos
Is
Jer
Jon
Jl
Job
Js
Ju
Kings
Lam
Lev
Mal
Mi
Na
Neh
Num
Ob
Prov
Ps
Rt
Sam
Song
Zech
Zp

Amos
Chronicles
Daniel
Deuteronomy
Ezra
Ecclesiastes
Esther
Exodus
Ezekiel
Genesis
Habakkuk
Haggai
Hosea
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Jonah
Joel
Job
Joshua
Judges
Kings
Lamentations
Leviticus
Malachi
Micah
Nahum
Nehemiah
Numbers
Obadiah
Proverbs
Psalms
Ruth
Samuel
Song of Songs
Zechariah
Zephania

Rabbinic Sources
b
Babylonian Talmud
m
Mishnah
y
Jerusalem Talmud
Gen. R.
Genesis Rabbah
Ex. R.
Exodus Rabbah
Targ.
Targum
Targ. O.
Targum Onkolos
Tos.
Tosefta
Tractates of the Mishnah and the
Talmud
Ab
Abot
Arakh
Arakhin
AZ
Abodah Zarah
BB
Baba Batra
Bekh
Bekhorot
Ber
Berakhot
Bez.
Bezah
.
Bik
Bikkurim
BM
Baba Mezia
.
BQ
Baba Qamma
Dem
Demai
Eduy
Eduyyot
Erub
Eruvin
Git
Gittin
Hag
Hagigah
.
.
Hal
Hallah
.
.
Hor
Horayot
Hul
Hullin
.
.
Kel
Kelim
Ker
Keritot
Ket
Ketubbot
Kil
Kilayim
Kin
Kinnim
Maas
Ma#aserot
MaasrSheni Ma#aser Sheni

abbreviations
Mak
Makhsh
Me
Meg
Men
Mid
Miqw
MQ
Naz
Ned
Neg
Nid
Ohol
Orl
Par
Peah
Pes
Qid
RH

Makkot
Makhshirin
Me#ilah
Megillah
Menahot
.
Middot
Miqwa"ot
Mo#ed Qatan
Nazir
Nedarim
Nega#im
Niddah
Oholot
Orlah
Parah
Pe"ah
Pesahim
.
Qiddushin
Rosh Ha-Shanah

Sanh
Shab
Sheb
Shebi
Sheq
Sot
Suk
Taan
Tam
Tem
Ter
Tevul
Toh
Uqz
Yad
Yeb
Yom
Zab
Zeb

ix
Sanhedrin
Shabbat
Shebu#ot
Shebi#it
Sheqalim
Sotah
Sukkah
Ta#anit
Tamid
Temurah
Terumot
Tevul Yom
Tohorot
Uqzin
.
Yadayim
Yebamot
Yoma
Zabim
Zebahim
.

Hebrew Abbreviations

INTRODUCTION

. General Overview and Preliminaries


.. Aims and Organisation of this Edition
This is the first volume of a three volume publication dedicated to the
commented critical edition of the two synonym lists that appear in
book twenty-nine of the Sefer ha-Shimmush by Shem Tov ben Isaac de
Tortosa.1 The Sefer ha-Shimmush is itself a translation of the Kitab attas. rf li-man #ajiza #an at-ta"lf (The Arrangement of Medical Knowledge
1 This publication is the result of two projects funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) from to . We would like to express our thanks to the
DFG and, in addition, to Julia Zwink, Jessica Kley, Judit Mock, Jan Thiele and Richard
Praetorius, who helped us with our lexical research and various other aspects of this
edition. Several other articles have been published as part of our research on the synonym lists edited in this and the following volumes and have been partially integrated
into this introduction, in particular (see the bibliography for a list of abbreviations):
HebMedSyn, MTerMed, TermMedOc, and, in addition: G. Bos / L. Ferre / G. Mensching,
Textos mdicos hebreos medievales con elementos romances y latinos: Edicin y anlisis del Sefer ha-Shimmush y otras listas de sinnimos, in IANUA (), pp.
; G. Bos and G. Mensching, Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms,
Nos. , in Jewish Quarterly Review (), pp. ; M. Hussein, Ein Beitrag
zur Erforschung der mittelalterlichen hebrischen Fachsprache der Medizin: Die Edition des . Buches des Sefer ha-Shimmush des Shem Tov ben Isaak von Tortosa,
in A. Kuyt and G. Necker (eds), Orient als Grenzbereich? Rabbinisches und auerrabbinisches Judentum, Wiesbaden (Abhandlungen fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes,
vol. ), pp. ; G. Bos, Medizinische Synonymliteratur in hebrischen Quellen
zwischen Rezeption und Innovation: Shem Tov Ben Isaac von Tortosa und seine bersetzung des Kitab al-tasrif von al-Zahrawi, in D. Boschung and S. Wittekind (eds),
Persistenz und Rezeption. Weiterverwendung, Wiederverwendung und Neuinterpretation
antiker Werke im Mittelalter, Wiesbaden , pp. ; G. Bos, The Creation and
Innovation of Medieval Hebrew medical terminology: Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Sefer haShimmush, in A. Akasoy and W. Raven (eds), Islamic Thought in the Middle Ages. Studies
in Text, Transmission and Translation, in Honour of Hans Daiber, Leiden / Boston ,
pp. ; G. Bos, Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition: Shem Tov Ben
Isaac, Sefer ha-Shimmush, book , in Journal of Semitic Studies LV/ (), pp.
.

introduction

for One Who Is Not Able to Compile a Book for Himself ) by the Andalusian physician Abu l-Qasim Halaf ibn Abbas az-Zahraw, known in the

Western world as Abulcasis. Shem


Tov omitted the original Arabic, Syrian, Persian, and Ibero-Romance indices in his translation and substituted them instead with the two lists that are at issue here. The first
list, which is edited in this volume, starts with the Hebrew or Aramaic
term, followed by the Arabic synonym, and thenin about seventy percent of the entriesby the vernacular term, which is usually Old Occitan, and / or by a Latin synonym. As will be explained in detail in section ., this list was intended to help the reader identify and clarify
the Hebrew terminology used by the author in his translation of the
Kitab at-tas. rf. The second list, which is to be edited in volume two,
starts with the Old Occitan or Latin term followed by its Arabic synonym and, in some cases, with its Hebrew or Aramaic equivalent, and
was intended to be used and consulted independently of the Sefer haShimmush.
The use of Romance languages was a standard procedure in Hebrew
glossaries and synonym lists of this type, as they were mainly compiled
in Southern France and on the Iberian Peninsula. The literature on
this subject has therefore usually identified these languages as Spanish,
French, and sometimes Italian.2 Our work on the synonym lists by Shem
Tov quickly showed that the Romance variety employed in this case
is Occitan, the autochthonous language of Southern France. For this
reason, a major part of the present publication will be dedicated to
this language, especially in the commentaries on the individual medicobotanical terms.
Our critical edition is based on the three manuscripts known to contain the synonym lists of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, MSS Paris, BN hb.
, Vatican Ebr. , and Oxford, Hunt Donat .3 Apart from creating a critical edition, our main aim is to provide a commentary on the
terminology found in these lists, in particular medieval Hebrew and Occitan medico-botanical terminology, both of which have remained largely
unknown until now. Our edition thus makes a contribution towards an
understanding of these terminologies. One essential task has been to
clarify the meaning of the individual Hebrew and Occitan terms, which
often has to be deduced from the meaning of the corresponding, much
2

Cf. HebMedSyn, in particular pp. .


Cf. . for details. In the following, we shall use the abbreviations P (Paris), V
(Vatican) and O (Oxford) to refer to these manuscripts.
3

introduction

more well-known Arabic and Latin terms. It should also be noted that
a Hebrew medico-botanical terminology had not yet been established at
the time when Shem Tov was compiling these synonym lists. Thus, as will
be shown later in this introduction, the two lists we have edited here can
be viewed as an attempt to create such a terminology. We have therefore
also tried to retrieve the sources used by the author when deciding on
which Hebrew term to use.
As stated above, the first volume of this publication is dedicated to the
first synonym list (Hebrew-Arabic-Occitan / Latin) contained in the Sefer
ha-Shimmush. The second list, which is ordered according to the Occitan
or Latin terms, will be published in volume two. These two volumes will
then be supplemented by a third one containing indices for all of the
languages that appear in the edition and our commentaries.
This introduction is intended to serve as a general introduction to all
three volumes and is structured as follows. Section provides a brief
introduction to literature on medieval medico-botanical synonyms. We
then focus on the Jewish physician Shem Tov ben Isaac de Tortosa and
his Sefer ha-Shimmush (section ), paying particular attention both to
the biographical and historical contexts in which he worked as well as
to the background to and the motivation for his writing the Sefer haShimmush and compiling the two synonym lists. In section , we carry
out a detailed examination of the lexicographic practice adopted by Shem
Tov, addressing the issue of how his synonymies were established. We
then provide an overview of the most important sources used by Shem
Tov as well as the methods he employed to create his own Hebrew
medico-botanical terminology. The last part of this section summarises
the effects and influence of the terminology created by Shem Tov. Section
is dedicated to the Romance languages, with a particular focus on
Occitan. This section is to some extent aimed at scholars from outside
the field of Romance philology and provides some basic information
on Occitan, a Romance language that was of great literary importance
in the Middle Ages and is still spoken today as a minority language
in Southern France as well as in small areas of Italy and Spain. The
information provided in this section is essential for the reader to be able
to follow the commentaries on the Romance medico-botanical terms.
Since the Romance terms in our synonym lists are written in Hebrew
characters rather than in the standard Latin alphabet, we also address
some of the problems arising from this fact which had to be taken into
consideration when we were identifying and interpreting the Romance
material. Section is dedicated to more technical matters. In ., we

introduction

describe the three manuscripts from which the text was obtained, while
in ., we describe the norms and procedures used in our edition and
commentary.
.. Transcription System
In the course of the following sections, the form of the synonym lists,
their origin and the lexical material used in them, which consists of a
great number of Hebrew, Arabic, Latin and Romance medico-botanical
terms, shall all be discussed extensively. We would therefore like to
begin by providing a summary of the transcription system to be used
throughout the three volumes.
Our transcription of the Hebrew, Arabic, Latin and Romance terms
which are expressed using Hebrew letters in the manuscripts mostly
follow modern, well-established transliteration standards, such as those
suggested by the Encyclopaedia Judaica (E.J.). Our decision to use a transcription system based on Latin characters for the Hebrew alphabet is
motivated by the fact that the Latin, Romance and Arabic terminology is
also expressed in Hebrew characters in our manuscripts. This transcription makes the terms in these languages accessible to both scholars of
the corresponding disciplines as well as to readers from the history of
medicine and other fields. It also enables the reader to follow our argumentation for the interpretation of each term.
The transliteration aims to establish, whenever possible, a one-to-one
correspondence between Hebrew consonants and Latin based transliteration signs, thus maintaining the full range of interpretational content
contained in the original Hebrew character based version. This means
that our particular interpretation is not reflected in the transliteration.
For example, when a word is written with Bet, we spell it with an uppercase B, even if our interpretation implies that its phonetic value was fricative and not occlusive. We proceed in a similar way with the Hebrew consonant character Shin: even if our lexical interpretation sees it as a Sin, or
as a non-palatal sibilant of Romance or Arabic, we still use an upper-case
S for the transliteration. In cases where vowel signs have been added to
the Hebrew consonant text, the vowels are transliterated using lower-case
transcription signs.

introduction

The following table illustrates our transcription system:


Hebrew Name
letter

Alef
Bet
Gimel
Gimel
Dalet
He
Ta" marbut.a
Waw
Zayin
Het
.
Tet
.
Yod
Kaf
Lamed
Mem
Nun
Samekh
Ayin
Pe
Sade
.
Qof
Resh
Shin
Tav

Transcription
sign
"
B
G
G
D
H
H
W
Z
H
.
T.
Y
K
L
M
N
S
#
P
S.
Q
R
S
T

The second variant of the letter Gimel shows a diacritic (Rafe), which the
scribes used to indicate a palatal pronunciation, such as [] in Romance
and Arabic. In MS P, the Arabic Ta" marbut.a () is represented by the letter
He with two diacritical points above the letter, which we have transcribed
as .

. Medieval Synonym Lists in Hebrew Characters


It is not our intention here to provide an exhaustive discussion of
the history of medieval synonym lists.4 Broadly speaking, as MacKin4 The reader is referred to the following books and articles: M. Steinschneider, Zur
Literatur der Synonyma , in J.L. Pagel, Die Chirurgie des Heinrich von Mondeville, Berlin

introduction

ney5 points out, medical synonym lists form part of a sub-category of


medieval writings characterised by their alphabetical arrangement. Apart
from rare cases of general medical treatises arranged in alphabetical
order and handbooks of materia medica, the majority of such alphabetically structured medical writings comprised medical glossaries and lexicons. According to MacKinney,6
[t]hese appear under the titles glossaria, hermeneumata, synonyma, vocabularia, index, expositio nominum, etc., and are usually characterized by
the id est formula; that is, each entry is followed by id est (or a variation
thereof) and the explanatory material. Such works are clearly distinguishable from concordances and pharmaceutical handbooks in that their chief
purpose was philological (i.e., the clarification of word meanings) and not
the presentation of purely medical information.

MacKinney7 distinguishes between three different phases of evolution


within the Western world: ) Latin lists of Greek terms in the early
Middle Ages (glossaria, hermeneumata), ) Latin lists of Greek and
Arabic terms, due to the influence of Arabic medicine during the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries, ) polylingual lexicons, in which Latin, Arabic
and Greek terms were provided with equivalents in European vernacular
languages. The synonyma appear to be typical for the second phase;
they can be distinguished from the hermeneumata and early glossaria
in that they contain a larger proportion of non-herbals and of threeto four-line descriptions.8 These lists often accompanied Latin versions
of Arabic authorities, such as the Index to the translation of Ibn Snas
Kitab al-Qanun attributed to Gerald of Cremona, or were of independent
(Western) origin such as the famous Alphita.9
, pp. ; M. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und
die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin , repr. Graz ; L.C. MacKinney, Medieval Medical Dictionaries and Glossaries, in J.L. Cate and E.N. Anderson (eds), Medieval and
Historiographical Essays in Honor of James Westfall Thompson, Chicago , pp.
; M. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, Leiden / Kln (Handbuch der Orientalistik I, Ergnzungsband VI,); G. Endress, Die Entwicklung der Fachsprache and Die
wissenschaftliche Literatur: Medizin, both published in W. Fischer (ed.), Grundriss der
Arabischen Philologie, Band III: Supplement, Wiesbaden , pp. and ;
B.M. Gutirrez Rodilla: La esforzada reelaboracin del saber. Repertorios mdicos de inters
lexicogrfico anteriores a la imprenta, San Milln de la Cogolla .
5 Op. cit., p. ff.
6 Op. cit., pp. .
7 Op. cit., p. .
8 MacKinney, op. cit., p. .
9 MacKinney, op. cit., pp. . For the Alphita, see I. Mandrin, Griechische und
griechisch vermittelte Elemente in der Synonymenliste Alphita, Bern et al. , and the

introduction

A similar tradition also existed in Arabic medical writing: one of the


ways in which the Arabs tried to solve the problems created by the
fusion of Greek, Syriac, Indian, Persian, Berber, and Ibero-Romance
plant and drug names was to establish corresponding synonyms. Thus,
all major pharmaceutical handbooks had special sections or chapters
dealing extensively with synonyms, such as in Ibn al-Bayt.ars Kitab alJami# and in the Kitab al-Musta#n by Ibn Biklaris. In addition to the
synonym discussions that were integrated into such major works, the
Arabs also compiled stand-alone lists of synonyms compiled separately,
which can be considered a special branch of lexicographical literature
and were closely related to the Syriac Pussaq smahe.10
The Jewish synonym list tradition (including the two lists compiled
by Shem Tov) seems, in general, to fit into the typology and chronology
outlined above, whilst crucially anticipating (by the thirteenth century
already) the subsequent polylingual lexicon phase by including vernacular synonyms in a systematic fashion. The practical use of these lists
should be taken into account in future research on the history of Jewish synonym lists, which has yet to be carried out in a comprehensive
manner.11 During the Middle Ages, when there was no uniform system
for identifying plants and herbs, there was a genuine risk of a doctor
administering the wrong drug to a patient. This risk was particularly
acute given the fact that doctors frequently moved to and settled in different countries at this time, thus meaning they were often faced with
an entirely different linguistic environment. Jewish doctors in particular
were faced with this problem when, in the wake of the Berber invasions
of the Almohads and Almoravids in the eleventh and twelfth centuries,
many of them emigrated from Southern Spain to the Northern, Christian part of Spain and to Southern France. They thus moved from a society where Jews used and understood Arabic in addition to Hebrew and
Romance to a society where their knowledge of Arabic was soon lost. This
shift in languages led to an urgent need for lexica or glossaries in which
technical-medical expressions were listed alphabetically, especially the
recent edition by A. Garca Gonzlez, Alphita. Edicin crtica y comentario, Florence .
Since our work on list one published in the present volume was completed in early ,
Garca Gonzlezs edition has not been quoted in our commentary. Instead, we used
the older edition by S. Renzi (RAlph), the Spanish version contained in the Sinonima
delos nonbres delas medeinas griegos e latynos e arauigos (abbr. Sin; the critical apparatus
mostly includes material from the Latin version) and the commentary by R. Creutz (CA).
10 Cf. M. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, pp. and .
11 For what follows, cf. G. Bos, Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition.

introduction

names of simple medicines.12 As will be shown in section , it was these


practical aspects that formed the driving force for Shem Tov to compile
the two synonym lists.
In the field of Jewish studies, the medical genre of synonym lists has
been sorely neglected by modern research in spite of the comprehensive
bibliographical surveys carried out by Moritz Steinschneider in the nineteenth century. Steinschneiders work highlighted the importance of this
particular genre for deciphering individual plant names in pharmacological fragments, recommending in particular the edition of the glossary compiled by Shem Tov ben Isaak and the one extant in MS Florence,
Mediceo Laurenziana Or. .13 The only notable exceptions are a recent
concise survey of Hebrew medical glossaries in manuscripts by J.P. Rothschild that forms an appendix to an article on the manuscript tradition of
the Hebrew-Italian glossary of Maimonides Guide of the Perplexed prepared by Moses of Salerno,14 and the synonym list with Catalan elements
edited by Magdalena Nom de Du (GHAT). The apparent lack of interest shown by Jewish studies scholars for this particular area stands in
stark contrast to the interest that this area has enjoyed in the fields of
Latin and of Arabic studies. The latter can boast of a recent bibliographical survey by Ullmann,15 while one of its best known glossaries, namely
the one compiled by Maimonides under the title Sharh. asma" al-#uqqar,
is available both in a critical edition and in French, Hebrew, and English
translations.16

12 Definition by M. Steinschneider, Zur Literatur der Synonyma , p. (English


translation: Bos). Some of the following issues are discussed in Shem Tov Ben Isaac,
Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos. and in HebMedSyn .
13 Cf. M. Steinschneider, Donnolo. Pharmakologische Fragmente aus dem . Jahrhundert, in Virchows Archiv, vols and (; vol. , pp. ; vol. ,
pp. ; vol. , pp. ; vol. , pp. ), vol. (), pp. ; idem,
Zur Literatur der Synonyma , pp. ; idem, Glossar zu den Synonymen Cap.
IX des Antidotarius, in J.L. Pagel, Chirurgie des Heinrich von Mondeville, Berlin ,
pp. ; and his Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als
Dolmetscher, pp. .
14 J.P. Rothschild, Remarques sur la tradition manuscrite du glossaire hbreu-italien
du Commentaire de Mose de Salerne au Guide des gars (en appendice, note sur les
glossaires medicaux hbreux; liste de manuscrits hbreux contenant des glossaires), in
Lexiques bilingues dans les domaines philosophique et scientifique (Moyen geRenaissance), Actes du Colloque international organis par lcole Pratique des Hautes tudes
IVe Section et lInstitut Suprieur de Philosophie de lUniversit de Louvain (Paris,
juin ), dits par J. Hamesse et D. Jacquart, Turnhout , pp. .
15 Cf. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, pp. .
16 See Me in the list of abbreviations in the bibliography for the reference.

introduction

In the course of our projects concerning this type of lists, we have


reviewed a considerable number of lists other than those by Shem Tov.17
It could be shown that most of them were composed in Southern France
or in Catalonia. In contrast, synonym lists of possible Northern French,
Spanish or Italian origin seem to be quite rare. We have also established
an initial typology of medico-botanical synonym lists written in Hebrew
characters:18
A. Lists without lexical material in Hebrew but written in the Hebrew
alphabet, such as Latin-Arabic-Romance synonym lists.
B. Lists that contain lexical material in Hebrew, but no Hebrew lemmata, e.g. Arabic-Hebrew-Romance-Latin lists.
C. Lists arranged according to Hebrew lemmata, with synonyms in
other languages (such as Arabic, Latin and / or Romance).
We can assume that the type A lists in particular are often transcriptions
of Arabic or Latin lists, such as the version of the Alphita that is extant in
MS Parma .19 The type B lists may, to some extent at least, have originated in a similar fashion through the addition of Hebrew synonyms,
whereas the type C lists have to be regarded as original compilations or
rearrangements according to the Hebrew lemmata. As far as Shem Tovs
lists are concerned, the first oneedited in this volume and described in
section of this introductionis a type C list. The second one is a type
B list (Occitan-Hebrew-Arabic) and will be presented and edited in the
second volume.
At this point, it cannot be said whether and to which degree the
Latin and Arabic medical synonym tradition provided a model for Shem
Tov or whether he even used the Alphita or similar lists in the Latin
tradition as a source. Some of the Latin terms and a few of the ArabicLatin / Romance synonymies featured in Shem Tovs lists can also be
found in the Alphita. It also seems probable (maybe even highly so) that
Shem Tov possessed a copy of another well-known word list, namely the
Arabic-Latin index of the Latin translation of the Qanun by Ibn Sna
compiled by Gerald of Cremona ().20 At least as far as the
Hebrew-Arabic correspondences are concerned however, it is rather the
Jewish rabbinic tradition (not including the Bible) that Shem Tov drew
17
18
19
20

See HebMedSyn.
See HebMedSyn .
See HebMedSyn ff.
See Sin for this index, in particular pp. .

introduction

upon in order to establish his synonymies. We shall return to this subject


in section , which covers the production of the two synonym lists. In
this section, it should become clear that the two lists edited by us in this
and the forthcoming volume form a quite exceptional case within the
genre of medical synonym lists: whereas most of the lists known to us
from both the Western and Jewish traditions are anonymous, Shem Tov,
on the other hand, is an individual author whose writings also provide
us with information concerning the background of his lists as well as the
methods he used to compile them.

. Shem Tovs Synonym Lists in the Sefer ha-Shimmush


.. Biographical and Historical Context
Shem Tov ben Isaac was born in in the Catalan city of Tortosa.
He traveled to the Near East for business before, at the age of thirty,
beginning to study in Barcelona at some point after under R. Isaac
ben Meshullam. He subsequently spent some time in Montpellier, and
was later active as a physician and translator in Marseille.21 Although
Marseille had previously been an independent and sovereign city, it was
forced to recognise the sovereignty of Charles of Anjou in . In return,
Anjou provided the inhabitants with a constitution (Les Statuts de Marseille), which regarded Jews and Christians as equal citizens.22 Anjou even
protected and intervened on behalf of the Jews when necessary, such as
in , when he issued a special decree against the inquisitors who were
attempting to introduce even more stringent measures against the Jews
than those that had been decided both at the Fourth Lateran Council in

21

On Shem Tov ben Isaac, his life and literary activity, see E. Renan, Les Rabbins
franais du commencement du quatorzime sicle, Paris , repr. Farnborough ,
p. ; M. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden
als Dolmetscher, pp. ; H. Gross, Gallia Judaica. Dictionnaire gographique de la
France daprs les sources Rabbiniques, Paris , pp. ; S. Muntner, R. Shem Tov
Ben Isaac of Tortosa about the life of the European Jewish doctor and his ethics, in Sinai
Jubilee Volume, Jerusalem , pp. ; G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of
Science, vols, New York , vol. ., pp. ; J. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, Berkeley / Los Angeles / London, , pp. ; G. Bos, The Creation
and Innovation of Medieval Hebrew medical terminology, pp. .
22 Cf. A. Crmieux, Les Juifs de Marseille au Moyen Age, in Revue des tudes Juives
(), pp. and , here pp. .

introduction

and at subsequent Councils.23 The Jewish doctors in Marseille found


themselves in a particularly privileged position, enjoying as they did special rights both with regard to their colleagues in the rest of Provence and
their fellow citizens. As Marseille suffered from frequent epidemics and
there were only few Christian physicians, they were tolerated in the city
by sheer necessity and sometimes even employed by the municipality, in
contrast to the Jewish doctors in the rest of Provence.24 It was in the city
of Marseille that Shem Tov translated az-Zahraws Kitab at-tas. rf.25 Calling it Sefer ha-Shimmush, Shem Tov started his translation in the year
and completed it at an unknown date.26 In addition to the Kitab
at-tas. rf, Shem Tov also translated Abu Wald Muhammad
ibn Rushds
.
Middle Commentary on Aristotles De Anima,27 Abu Bakr Muhammad
.
ibn Zakariyya ar-Razs medical encyclopaedia Kitab al-Mans. u r,28 and
Hippocrates Aphorisms with Palladius commentary.29

23

Cf. Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. .


Cf. Crmieux, Les Juifs de Marseille au Moyen Age, p. ; I. Alteras, Jewish
Physicians in Southern France during the th and th Centuries, in Jewish Quarterly
Review (/), pp. , in particular p. .
25 On the Kit
ab at-tas. rf, see D. Jacquart and F. Micheau, La mdecine arabe et loccident
medival, Paris , pp. and passim.
26 The year is derived from the introduction to the translation (cf. Muntner, R.
Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa, p. , paragraph []). In the same introduction, Shem
Tov relates an incident that occurred in Marseille in the year (cf. Muntner, op. cit.,
p. , paragraph []). From this, it can be concluded that Shem Tov either wrote the
introduction after compiling the lists and that the year marks its completion, or
that he completed the work at an earlier date and then subsequently revised it, inserting
the incident mentioned above in the process. The first assumption seems to be that
of M. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek
in Mnchen, nd rev. enl. ed., Munich p. , no. : (). The second
assumption seems to be that of Renan, Les Rabbins franais du commencement du
quatorzime sicle, p. , who, however, draws on an unknown source to assert that Shem
Tov completed the work in and then revised it in . This is also the opinion of
Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, p. , and Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, p. . Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters
und die Juden als Dolmetscher, p. , remarks that he completed the translation between
(= Muntner, R. Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa, p. ).
27 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden
als Dolmetscher, p. ; Averros, Middle Commentary on Aristotles De Anima. A Critical Edition of the Arabic Text with English Translation, Notes, and Introduction by
Alfred L. Ivry, Provo , pp. xxviiixxix, . n. .
28 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als
Dolmetscher, pp. .
29 His commentary is no longer extant in Greek, but it has recently been rediscovered
by Hinrich Biesterfeldt and Y. Tzvi Langermann, who hope to publish a preliminary study
of Palladius commentary soon, to be followed by a full edition and analysis.
24

introduction
.. Background and Motivation of the
Sefer ha-Shimmush and the Two Synonym Lists

Shem Tovs translation of az-Zahraws Kitab at-tas. rf is especially


important, as it represents an attempt to create a new Hebrew medical
terminology based on the terminology of the Bible, Mishnah and Talmud, as well as on medieval commentaries and translations.30 In some
cases, he also uses loan-translation or semantic borrowing as a method
for translating terms not attested in any Hebrew source. Shem Tovs main
reason for translating the Kitab at-tas. rf was to provide Jews with easier access to medical knowledge, meaning they would no longer have to
depend on non-Jewish doctors.31 With regards to his method of translation, he remarks that he uses names from the Bible, rabbinic literature or
Romance as far as possible in his translation. He uses the Arabic term for
any diseases, organs, drugs, wild and domestic animals, insects and vermin whose names he is unable to obtain from these sources, remarking
that the lengthy period of exile suffered by the Jews has led to reduced
knowledge of Hebrew within their numbers.32 In order to emphasise the
intention behind his translation once more, Shem Tov extols its qualities,
remarking that it can be put to use for individuals and crowds, for the wise
and the foolish, for kings and paupers and at any time and any place. He
goes on to warn physicians emphatically against substituting one remedy
for another similar one or buying an unfamiliar remedy from a pharmacist, as that might lead to their receiving an entirely different remedy,
whether intentionally or not.33 Shem Tov adds that, in some countries,
those who make mistakes regarding the names of herbs, seeds and plants
30 S. Muntner (art. medicine, in E.J. :) remarks that the translation of azZahraws Kitab at-tas. rf by Abraham Shem Tov [sic] is of particular importance because
he introduced a new Hebrew terminology based mainly on terms used in the Talmud.
31 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters, p. . See
paragraphs [][] of Shem Tovs Introduction to the Sefer ha-Shimmush, edited by
Muntner in R. Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa, pp. ; the relevant passages are on
pp. . See also the Catalan translation in E. Feliu and J. Arrizabalaga, El prleg
de Semtov ben Issac, el Tortos, a la seva traducci hebrea del Tas. rf dAbu al-Zahraw,
in Tamid (), pp. , especially pp. .
32 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. ; Steinschneider (op. cit., p. ) summarises the text as
follows: Alle Krankheiten, Glieder, Mittel etc., fr welche er einen Ausdruck in der Bibel,
in der Sprache der Weisen oder in der Landessprache gefunden, habe er danach benannt,
sonst den arabischen Terminus beibehalten, da sich durch das Exil die Kenntnis der hebr.
Sprache vermindert habe.
33 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraphs [], [][], see Muntner,
op. cit., p. ; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .

introduction

then also end up misleading others.34 As an example, he talks about four


different species of the same plant, one of which was called fangankust
(chaste-tree, Vitex agnus castus L.) by Persian doctors,35 meaning five
leaves, while Christians referred to it as pentaphyllon (cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans L.),36 which also means five leaves.37 This was a source of
confusion for many physicians according to Shem Tov. Some physicians
thought that fangankust was a fragrant tree as large as a man (or even
large enough for a man to hide under) with fruits called agnus castus
and that pentaphyllon was a plant without a stem consisting of five leaves
growing directly from the earth. Other physicians, however, thought that
fangankust was a plant that could be used to get rid of sexual lust38 rather
than a tree, and that pentaphyllon was a plant with a stem.39
Another example of a possible mix-up of remedies is taken from
Maimonides, who warns against prescribing the wrong species of black
nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.).40 Many physicians prescribe one species for internal diseases, and another, similar species, which can be
easily distinguished from the previous one when it has been dried and
its fruits become black, when it is still fresh, for external diseases, as it is
poisonous. If the second species is mistaken for the first one and its juice
is ingested, it causes severe suffocation, hiccups, and nausea accompanied
by yawning and vomiting of blood.41 Shem Tov also stresses how the
34 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. .
35 Cf. Maimonides, Sharh asm
a" al-#uqqar, Me (English translation: Rosner, abbr.
.
M); A. Dietrich, Dioscurides Triumphans (abbr. DT), :. The actual meaning of the
Persian term is not five leaves, but five fingers (panfi angust); cf. VL :: quinque
digiti.
36 Cf. Maimonides, Sharh asm
a" al-#uqqar (Me); M ; DT :.
.
37 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .
38 For the effect of the chaste tree as an antiaphrodisiac, cf. Ibn al-Jazz
ar, On Sexual
Diseases: A critical edition, English translation and introduction of Bk. of Zad almusafir wa-qut al-h
. adir
. (Provisions for the Traveller and the Nourishment of the Settled).
Translation and study by Gerrit Bos, London , p. : Galen maintained that the
women of the inhabitants of Athens used to spread chaste-tree and then sleep upon it
during their high festivals so that the lust for coitus would leave them (= Galen, De simpl.
med. temp. et fac., VI, (C.G. Khn, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia, vols, Leipzig
, repr. Hildesheim , vol. , p. ).
39 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .
40 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., pp.
; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .
41 Shem Tovs quotation is taken from Maimonides On Poisons (BMP ): To the
[substances] taken by mistake belongs the soporific type of black nightshade (Solanum

introduction

area where a species is grown can influence how it looks by quoting


Maimonides statement in the Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im, which states
that a species can take on many [different] forms depending on where it
is grown and in what type of soil and that such forms of the same species
can differ from one another to such an extent that they can look like
entirely different species.42 Shem Tov invokes Maimonides once again
to remark that the opposite can also happen, namely that two different
species can look so similar to one another that they appear to be the
same. He also quotes from the same source in order to provide a range
of different examples of this, such as garden lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and
wild lettuce (Lactuca scariola), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wild
chicory (Cichorium pumilum), garden leek (Allium porrum) and field
leek (Allium ampeloprasum), garden coriander (Coriandrum sativum)
and wild coriander (Smyrnium conatum Boiss.).43 Shem Tov concludes
his extensive quotation from Maimonides by exclaiming that if, in the
case of crops, the Torah is very strict and makes it obligatory to know
the different forms of plants and trees and their fruits because of the
prohibition of Kil"ayim (mixing together of different species), how much
more so should this be the case for remedies when human life is at stake.44
Shem Tov then gives an example of how administering the wrong drug
can have fatal consequences by relating an incident that happened around
the year in Marseille, whereby two Christian doctors gave a patient
a purgative of half a drachm of white hellebore, which led to the patient

nigrum and var.), for we often prescribe black nightshade juice among the ingredients
to be taken for diseases of the internal organs. One of its varieties that has black seeds
and that is soporific is [sometimes taken] by mistake when [the seeds] are [still] green
before they turn black. Upon drinking, it immediately causes severe dryness, hiccups and
vomiting of blood. Its treatment: hasten to let him vomit by means of the general emetics
which have been described before. Then let him vomit for the last time by means of water
and honey. Then let him drink a large quantity of water and honey. When he has digested
something of it, he should take another drink of water and honey. He should do so for
a day and a night. And then he should feed himself as usual [. . .]. Instead of dryness
Shem Tov has suffocation, which is similar to the variant reading in MS P (Paris, BN,
hb. ):  and Moses ibn Tibbons Hebrew translation: (angina).
42 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. ; Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im, Hilkhot
Kil"ayim III, .
43 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraphs [][], see Muntner, op. cit.,
p. ; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. ; Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im,
Hilkhot Kil"ayim III, .
44 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .

introduction

dying of suffocation.45 He adds that if it is a Jewish doctor that applies


the wrong treatment, it may not just be the life of the patient that is
endangered, but the lives of the whole Jewish community, too.46 Jewish
doctors needed to excercise great care in their work, having to think twice
before treating a Christian patient, a fact borne out by the Sefer ha-Yosher,
a medical treatise composed at the end of the Middle Ages.47
To minimise the risk of confusing medicinal herbs and drugs due
to ignorance or a lack of proper terminology in the vernacular of the
time and to provide both Jewish doctors and patients with the proper
medico-botanical terminology, Shem Tov compiled a list of roots and
herbs in the language of the Bible and of the Sages, of blessed memory,
according to the interpretation most commentators agreed upon, in the
vernacular language and in Arabic, alphabetically arranged.48 This list,
which actually consists of two separate lists of synonyms, is part of book
twenty-nine of his translation of Kitab at-tas. rf. Shem Tov only modified
the first two chapters of the five chapters originally contained in the
Arabic text of book twenty-nine for his intended purpose, since, as the
author states, the Jews would neither need nor benefit from a translation
of the first two chapters, which deal with foreign or differing names for
plants in Greek, Syriac and Persian.49 In the introduction to the first list,
which is the one edited in the present volume, the author specifies the
scope of this particular list by explaining that it not only covers roots and
herbs, but also instruments, bodily parts and other items.50 With regards
45

Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit.,
pp. ; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. ; Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, p. .
46 Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;
Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. ; translation Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society, pp. ; but see as well Crmieux, Les Juifs de Marseille, p. who
states that complaints were never filed against the Jewish community of Marseille as a
whole following individual misdemeanours due both to the protection the Jews enjoyed
based on the Statuts de Marseille and to the spirit of tolerance predominant in the city.
47 Cf. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society, p. ; M. Gdemann, Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden in Italien whrend des Mittelalters,
Vienna , repr. Amsterdam (Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur
der abendlndischen Juden whrend des Mittelalters und der neueren Zeit II), p. .
48 Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, R. Shem Tov
Ben Isaac of Tortosa, p. :

. ; Feliu-Arrizabalaga, ibid., p. , .
49 MS Paris, BN hb. , fol. a:
.
50 MS Paris, BN hb. , ibid.: .

introduction

to the second list (see vol. two, forthcoming) he remarks: I have also
composed an explanation of the drugs and herbs in the vernacular and
Arabic so that someone who goes on a distant journey will know their
names in both languages. And I have arranged them alphabetically.51

. How Shem Tovs Synonym Lists Were Compiled


.. Sources for Hebrew and Arabic
Shem Tov consulted the work of both Sa#adya ben Yosef al-Fayyum, better known as Sa#adya Ga"on52 (), and Abu l-Wald ibn Merwan,
i.e. Jonah ibn Janah. (died after ), as sources for the proper Biblical Hebrew synonyms for Arabic terms.53 Research has shown that Ibn
Janah. in turn relied heavily upon Sa#adyas biblical translations and commentaries for identifying botanical terms included in the Bible.54 Shem
Tov remarks that he chose these two authors in particular because he
agreed with how they identified the relevant Hebrew and Arabic terminology. Sa#adya Ga"ons Arabic translations and / or commentaries to the
Torah, Isaiah, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job often provided Shem Tov with
the Hebrew equivalent required for a specific Arabic term.55 The entry
51 MS Paris, BN hb. , ibid.:
. Note that

the alphabetisation is only to one letter, as was still usual in Shem Tovs time.
52 For Sa#adya Ga"on, philosopher and exegete, poet and polemicist, legist and communal leader, see H. Malter, Saadia Gaon. His life and works, Philadelphia . For a
fundamental study of the language comparisons in his linguistic works and for his Bible
translations, which served as a source for subsequent scholars, see A. Maman, Comparative Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages. From Sa#adiah to Ibn Barun (tenthtwelfth C.),
abbr. MCS, esp. pp. . The diffusion of Sa#adyas works in Provence was otherwise
ascertained from the Sefer Dores resumot, which quotes from Sa#adyas long commentary
on Genesis in Hebrew (cf. Y.T. Langermann, A Citation from Saadias King Commentary to Genesis in Hebrew Translation, Aleph. Historical Studies in Science & Judaism
(), pp. ).
53 For Jonah ibn Jan
ah,
. the undisputed master of Sephardic linguistics who lived in
the first half of the eleventh century, see the article by D. Tenne in E.J. :, s.v.
ibn Janah,
. Jonah. For the language comparisons in his works see MCS .
54 Cf. LF : and E.J. :.
55 Sa#adya also allegedly composed a translation of the Five Scrolls and of Ezra. Of the
edition of the Five Scrolls with Sa#adyas translation by Kafih. (Jerusalem , abbr. SH),
only Esther is considered to be authentic. In our edition of Shem Tovs glossary, we have
included the edition by Kafih,
. leaving the question of its authenticity open. For Sa#adyas
commentaries on and / or translations of the Bible see RT and M. Polliack, The
Karaite Tradition of Arabic Bible Translation. A Linguistic and Exegetical Study of Karaite

introduction

Alef provides an example of this, where the Arabic synonym


to be read as #awsag) is given for the Hebrew lemma (" TD).
(#WSG,
.
Whereas modern literature identifies the Biblical Hebrew term either as
the European boxthorn, Lycium europaeum, or the buckthorn (such as
Rhamnus lycioides or Rhamnus palaestinus), Arabic #awsag56 is known
to have designated different kinds of lycium which were often confused.
Although we are unable to establish the intended meaning,57 the identification of both terms can be traced back to Sa#adya on Gen :, which
reads (When they came to Goren ha-Atad58). The place
name literally means boxthorns threshing floor and is translated into
Arabic as (S ) by Sa#adya.
With regard to Jonah Ibn Janah,
. Shem Tov certainly used the Kitab alus. u l, a dictionary of Biblical Hebrew,59 as can be demonstrated by the
entry He : Hebrew (HBNYM) as well as Arabic ("BNWS
= abanus) mean ebony. The fact that the Hebrew and Arabic words
are considered synonyms goes back to Ibn Janah,
. who explicitly refers
to Rav Hai Gaon: 
  (HBNYM is alabanus according to the translation of Rav Hai Gaon; IJ ). We see
here that although Shem Tov consulted Ibn Janah. for this Biblical term,
the ultimate source of the synonym is Hai Gaon.
In addition to the Kitab al-us. u l, Shem Tov consulted Ibn Janahs
. Kitab
at-Talkhs. , a book on simple drugs, measures and weights which provides synonyms for the drugs in Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Berber,
Spanish, and Latin, among others.60 Unfortunately we could not consult
this text as we, conform to the general opinion, considered the work
to be lost.61 Thus we could only consult secondary sources, namely, a
Translations of the Pentateuch from the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries C.E., Leiden / New
York / Cologne , pp. .
56 Unlike Hebrew, we transcribe Arabic terms with their vowels, as there is a standard
vocalisation for Arabic botanical terminology.
57 The Romance synonym refers to another plant of the Rhamnaceae family.
58 The English translation is that of the Jewish Publication Society (Tanakh. A New
Translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the Traditional Hebrew Text. Philadelphia / New York / Jerusalem ).
59 Ed. A. Neubauer (= IJ).
60 See Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, p. ; Tenne (in E.J. :); AS .
61 However, Fabian Ks has identified a unique copy in Istanbul, MS Aya Sofya ,
fols. vv. See Fabian Ks, Die Mineralien in der arabischen Pharmakognosie. Eine
Konkordanz zur mineralischen Materia medica der klassischen arabischen Heilmittelkunde nebst berlieferungsgeschichtlichen Studien (Akademie der Wissenschaften
und der Literatur. Mainz. Verffentlichungen der Orientalischen Kommission). Band ,
vols, Wiesbaden , vol. , p. .

introduction

number of quotations from the Kitab at-Talkhs. made by subsequent


authors, such as al-Idrs (d. ), who was active at the court of King
Roger II of Sicily and compiled the Kitab al-jami# li-sifat astat an-nabat
wa-dur
. ub anwa# al-mufradat (Compendium of the Properties of Diverse
Plants and Various Kinds of Simple Drugs).62
This work has survived as an incomplete manuscript in Istanbul (Fatih
Library, no. ) and as a complete manuscript in Teheran (Kitabkhanai Majlis-i Sana, ). These manuscripts actually represent two different versions of the original text, with the Istanbul manuscript preserving the synonyms for the names of plants and drugs, while the
Teheran manuscript omits them.63 An example of a quotation from
Ibn Janahs
. Kitab at-Talkhs. by al-Idrs is the entry Alef : here, two
Arabic synonyms are given for Hebrew ("LMWG), namely

(MRG"N)
and (BSD). The word "LMWG as a biblical term indicates a precious wood unable to be clearly identified. In rabbinic literature it is identified, amongst other things, as coral. Marjan is the
Arabic equivalent for "LMWG as coral, whereas bussad is the Persian
term and is often used as a synonym, although, strictly speaking, it
refers to the root of the coral as well as to the subsoil to which it is
stuck. The identification of marjan as bussad goes back to Ibn Janahs
.
Kitab at-Talkhs. as quoted by al-Idrs (IJS :):  
 :  
 (Ibn Janah. says that the marjan is the bussad).64 Another author
whose writings served to preserve material from Ibn Janahs
. Kitab atTalkhs. is Se#adyah ibn Danan from Granada (fifteenth century), who
composed the Sefer ha-Shorashim, a dictionary of Biblical Hebrew which
draws heavily on Ibn Janahs
. work, explicitly quoting him no less than
times. In entry Het
,
Arabic ("ZRQ) is used as a synonym
.

for the Hebrew lemma (H


with the additional explana. SMLY),
tion (i.e., like the sky). The Hebrew word is an adjectival

which means glitterform derived from Biblical Hebrew (H


. SML),
ing substance, amber. However, Arabic "azraq means blue, sky-coloured
(L ). The identification of both terms goes back to Ibn Janah,
. as can
be read in Se#adyah ibn Danan, Sefer ha-Shorashim (SID ): :

(H
is blue light according to Abu l-Wald [ibn
. SML
Janah]).
.

62
63
64

Facs. ed. in vols by F. Sezgin, abbreviation SID.


SID VIIVIII.
Cf. AS .

introduction

We only have Shem Tovs general reference to medieval commentators when it comes to the sources he consulted to identify Arabic
synonyms with Rabbinic Hebrew or Aramaic terminology. Identifying
these medieval commentators has proven to be especially problematic.
One prominent medieval commentator to whom Shem Tov probably
had recourse was Sa#adya Ga"on, who was not only an important Bible
commentator and translator but also a prominent linguist, who dealt
extensively with the explanation of difficult terms in the Mishnah within
the genre known as Alfas. al-Mishnah, several examples of which exist
in the Genizah. These writings consist, as Brody remarks, of a series of
short glosses in Arabic on Hebrew words and expressions, according to
the order of the Mishnaic text.65 Unfortunately, these lexical explanations have only survived in incomplete form and are, moreover, still in
manuscript for the most part.66 An example of a derivation that possibly goes back to Sa#adyas Alfas. al-Mishnah is the entry Gimel :67 The
Hebrew lemma (GWPNN) features in rabbinic literature and means
) fennel, Foeniculum vulgare MILL., and ) the fruit of the sebestentree, Cordia Myxa L. The Arabic synonym (SBST"N) is sibistan or
sabistan, which designates the fruit of the sebesten-tree. The identification of the two terms can be found in Sa#adya (SAM :).68
Another medieval commentator consulted by Shem Tov was Maimonides, whose commentary on the Mishnah contains a wealth of medico-botanical synonym terminology.69 Maimonides relied in turn on
earlier sources, possibly Sa#adyas explanatory lists and certainly the
65 R. Brody, The Geonim of Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, New
Haven / London , pp. . While Allony attributed these lexical explanations to
Sa#adya Ga"on, Abramson (Millon ha-Mishnah le-Rav Sa#adya Ga"on, in Leshonenu
(), pp. ) and subsequently Maman (MCS , n. ) argued that they are not
Sa#adyas at all. According to Brody (The Geonim of Babylonia, p. ), Allonys identification was correct, as confirmed by further manuscript discoveries in the Genizah, along
with a comparison of citations in Se#adyahs name and interpretations contained in his
other works.
66 Three of the fragments were published by N. Allony (SAM). A large Geonic
fragment covering the commentary of nearly half the Mishnah is being prepared for
publication by the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud but has not been published
so far.
67 As virtually all identifications featured in Sa#adyas Alf
as. al-Mishnah can also be
found in Maimonides Commentary on the Mishnah, we cannot be sure whether Shem
Tov consulted these lists directly or only indirectly via Maimonides.
68 See also Maimonides on mDemai .: :
(i.e., GWPNN is a plant similar to aneth and according to others to sebesten) (MK :).
69 Abbr. MK. For this commentary see I.M. Ta-Shma, Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit laTalmud, nd rev. ed., vols, Jerusalem , vol. , p. ff.

introduction

works of Ibn Janahs,


. a fact which he states explicitly in the introduction to his Glossary of Drug Names.70 As we have seen above, Shem
Tov was familiar with Maimonides commentary, clearly had access to
it and therefore consulted it as necessary. There are a few cases where
it is beyond any doubt that Shem Tov derived his terminology directly
from that of Maimonides, as he occasionally includes direct quotations
from Maimonides commentary on the Mishnah, such as in the entry

smoothing, plastering, which reads:


Shin for (SW#)

(SW#,
i.e.,
71
"LTLBYD, because he rubs the surface of something [to be] mended
and Targum Onkelos has for (i.e., the house shall be scraped72))
. Shem Tov explains this by means of a direct quote from
Maimonides on the mentioned Mishnah (MK :).73
The medieval commentary and responsa literature composed by the
Geonim, i.e., the heads of the Jewish academies in Babylonia, proved
to be an important source for Shem Tov with regards to the remaining
terms. These commentaries and responsa contain a wealth of botanical
material and are a valuable source of information for technical scientific
terminology in Arabic and Hebrew.74 However, with a few exceptions,75
consulting this particular source is problematic, as some texts have been
edited without proper indices, others are still in manuscript and yet
others have to be considered as lost.76 An example of a quotation from
Geonic sources is the entry Dalet , in which Aramaic (DRS. YN,
cinnamon) is explained by the Arabic synonym (DRS. YNY), to
be read as dar s.n, Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum ceylanicum Nees.
70

Maimonides Glossary of Drug Names (translation by Rosner, abbreviation M), p. .


Arabic talbd means ) forming, pressing, felting, making ones hair stick together;
) lining, covering, mending (WKAS :).
72 Lev :.
73 Other examples are: Ayin ; Qof , ; Shin ; Tav .
74 For instance, the responsa composed by Sherira and Hai Gaon contain, as S.W.
Baron (A social and religious history of the Jews, nd rev. and enl. ed., vols , and
Index, vols , New York , vol. , p. ) remarks, so many attempts at
correct identification of names [of plants] and their relation to the previously known
species.
75 A major exception is the Osar ha-Ge"onim, Thesaurus of the Gaonic Responsa and
.
Commentaries (LO), the momumental collection of Geonic responsa and commentaries
in the order of the Talmud tractates (to Baba Mes. ia), edited by B. Lewin.
76 An example of a text still largely in manuscript is the Kit
ab al-Haw, a dictionary
of Biblical and Rabbinic Hebrew written in Judaeo-Arabic and composed by Hai Gaon,
of which substantial portions have survived in the Genizah; cf. R. Brody, The Geonim of
Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, pp. , and MCS .
71

introduction

The identification of these phytonyms goes back to a Geonic responsum


(cf. LO Teshuvot on Shab a, p. , where it is stated that (DRS. YN)
is a sharp and dry spice hailing from China that is called dar s.n in
Arabic).
In some cases, we were only able to retrieve the Geonic source indirectly based on it having been quoted in the Arukh, a lexicon on the
Talmud and Midrashim composed by Nathan ben Jehiel
. of Rome and
completed in . Most of the Arabic plant names quoted in the Arukh
are derived from Geonic sources, as Lw pointed out in his monumental Flora und Fauna der Juden.77 An example of such a quotation from
the Arukh is the entry for (DBDBNYWT) in Dalet , which
includes both the Arabic synonym (QR"SY", qarasiya cherries)
and another Arabic term, (HB
. "LMLWK). The Hebrew term
features in rabbinic literature and means both lumps of dripping grapes
and overripe grapes moistened by their own juice. The term is also used
in the Middle Ages to refer to the fruit cherry, Prunus cerasus. Thus,
we find both identifications, grapes and cherries, in the Arukh (KA :),
al-muluk
and also the Arabic equivalent (HB
. "LMLWK), habb
.
(berries of kings), which was used in Spain and the Maghreb for both
the cherry and the sebesten-tree, Cordia myxa L. (DT :; M and
).
Shem Tov consulted the work of one final author, Tanhum
ben Josef
.
ha-Yerushalmi, whose work also served to preserve material from earlier
sources now lost. This author was active in Jerusalem in the thirteenth
century and composed a dictionary of difficult terms occuring in Maiconsulted
monides Mishneh Torah entitled Kitab al-murshid.78 Tanhum
.
a variety of sources in his lexicographical explanations of these terms,
including a range of different Geonic authors, including both Sa#adya and
Sherira/Hai, whilst taking Nathans Arukh, Ibn Janahs
. works and Maimonides commentary on the Mishnah as his main sources. An example of a quotation preserved only by Tanhum
is Gimel , where
.
(GYHWQ) is explained using Arabic (TMTY).
Hebrew GYHWQ
.
usually meant belching, but Rashi provides a second explanation,
77 LF :: Die arabischen Pflanzennamen des Aruch stammen mittelbar oder
unmittelbar aus gaonischen Quellen; see as well idem, entry Plants, in Jewish Encyclopaedia, vol. , pp. .
78 The Kit
ab al-murshid was edited by B. Toledano, Tel Aviv (letters AlefKaf), by J. Dana, MA thesis, Jerusalem (letter Tav), and by H. Shy, Diss., Jerusalem
(letters Lamed-Tav). For a study of this dictionary and excerpts from it, see TB. An
anonymous summary of this work can be found in Qis. s. ur al-Kafi, MS Berlin .

introduction

namely to raise and stretch ones body upwards (cf. BM , n. ).


Arabic tamat. t. a (M") does, in fact, mean he stretched himself . The
identification of GYHWQ as tamat. t. a can be found in Tanhum
ben Josef
.
ha-Yerushalmi (TB ), who remarks that (PYHQ), to yawn, is
an abbreviation of (PYW HQYM, to stretch ones mouth), in
the same way that (GYHQ, to belch, properly to stretch oneself
(= Arab. tamat. t. a)) is an abbreviation of (GWYTW HQYM, to
stretch ones body).
.. Sources for Romance and Latin
Some of the sources mentioned above may also have served for finding Romance and Latin synonyms. In many cases however, the Romance
and Latin words in question refer to fairly common names for plants,
minerals and animals; we should also keep in mind that Shem Tov was
born in Catalonia and thus a native speaker of Catalan. We may suppose that once Shem Tov had established an Arabic equivalent to a
Hebrew or Aramaic term, he was usually able to translate the term into
Catalan and its sister language Occitan without any problem. Similarities to other authors may therefore be coincidental: on a few occasions,
namely when the synonym is identical in Italian or Latin and Occitan / Catalan, we find matching material in the Arukh and Shem Tovs
writings, such as for (MLB") (malva, mallow; He and KA :,
:). In some cases, it seems that the Arukh itself uses Occitan or
Catalan forms, which then appear in a similar or even identical form
in Shem Tovs glossary, for example: (PYLTR",
KA :) and
.
(PYLTRY,
He
),
both
corresponding
to
O.
Occ.
/
O. Cat. pelitre
.
(Anacyclus Pyrethrum L.) as a synonym for Aramaic (HRZP");
(TR
KA :) and (TR
O. Occ. / O. Cat
. TWG",
.
. TWGH,
.
tartuga, Samekh ), that is tortoise, are used as an explanation for
Hebrew (SWLTNYT), which is equated with Arabic silahf
. ah
79
(tortoise).
79 In other cases, the correspondences are very vague or indirect. For example, the
Hebrew word in Resh , (RGYLH), meaning portulaca, purslane, Portulaca oleracea L., is explained in the Arukh by means of the Latin synonym (PWRQQL"),
corresponding to porcacla, one of the many Vulgar Latin derivations of portulaca that
can be found in medieval Latin medical texts (NPRA , quotes portacla, porcacla, and porclaca; also cf. Sin b with respect to the use of such forms in the Alphita
manuscripts). However, in this case, the Arukh might just have provided inspiration
for Shem Tov, since he used the corresponding Romance (O. Occ. or O. Cat.) variant

introduction

The situation is different with some highly specific synonymies, which,


strikingly, cannot be found in the Arukh but rather in Moses ibn Tibbons
translations of Maimonides. Moses ben Samuel ibn Tibbon was active
between and in Naples, Marseille and later in Montpellier,
where he settled at some time between and 80 and translated
Maimonides F tadbr as. -s. ih. ha
. in under the title Al Hanhagat haBeri"ut prior to Shem Tovs own translation.81 Working at the same time
as Shem Tov, he also translated ar-Razs antidotarium Kitab al-aqrabadn
al-kabr under the title Aqrabadin in , Maimonides Commentary
on Hippocrates Aphorisms in the same year or in the year , Ibn alJazzars medical encyclopaedia Zad al-musafir82 under the title S. edat haderakhim in ,83 and Ibn Snas poetical summary of the Kitab alQanun in ,84 entitled al-Urjuza f l-t. ibb.85 His translations of Maimonides treatises On Poisons86 and On Hemorrhoids are not dated.87 As
none of these works, with the exception of the antidotarium, is a pharmaceutical handbook that Shem Tov would have been able to consult easily
and as most of these translations were being written at the same time
when Shem Tov was translating the Kitab at-tas. rf, it seems unlikely that
Shem Tov was actually able to draw upon Moses ibn Tibbons translations. A final verdict with regard to this matter will only become possible

verdolaga. Similarly, the words ("PYW = Italian apio or Latin apium, KA :; for
the omission of Latin -M, see below, section .) and ("WRPYMYNTW
. = Lat.
auripi(g)mentum, KA :) appear as ("PY = O. Occ or O. Cat. api) and
("WRPYMNT. = O. Occ. or O. Cat. aurpi(g)men(t), O. Cat. orpiment) in Shem Tovs synonym list (Kaf and Samekh ). For yet another case, see Pe .
80 For Moses ibn Tibbon and his translation activity, see J.T. Robinson and U. Melammed, entry Ibn Tibbon (Tibbonids), in E.J.2:, p. ; O. Fraisse, Moses
ibn Tibbons Kommentar zum Hohelied und sein poetologisch-philosophisches Programm.
Synoptische Edition, bersetzung und Analyse. Berlin / New York (Studia Judaica.
Forschungen zur Wissenschaft des Judentums. Hrsg. von E.L. Ehrlich und G. Stemberger.
Band XXV), pp. ; G. Bos, Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition: Moses Ben
Samuel Ibn Tibbon (forthcoming).
81 A critical edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations by G. Bos is forthcoming.
82 For this encyclopaedia, see Ibn al-Jazz
ar, On Sexual Diseases (ed. Bos), pp. .
83 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als
Dolmetscher, p. .
84 Cf. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, p. .
85 Cf. Steinschneider, op. cit., p. .
86 See Steinschneider, op. cit., p. . Edition by G. Bos (abbr. BMP).
87 See Steinschneider, op. cit., p. . While Steinschneider rejected the ascription to
Moses ibn Tibbon, there is new evidence confirming his authorship; cf. the forthcoming
critical edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations (abbr. BMH).

introduction

once these translations have been analysed with respect to their medicobotanical terminology. Since Moses ibn Tibbon was born and worked in
Southern France, he mostly used Occitan for vernacular synonyms and
explanations. One of the passages where Shem Tov shares fairly technical vocabulary with Ibn Tibbon is Gimel , where we find the Arabic
"LM#") corresponding to sah
term (SHWG
.
. g al-am#a" meaning dysentery, attended by abrasion or excoriation of the colon (L ;
SN ). The Arabic term is accompanied by a Romance synonym spelt
(PWNTS),
. which we identified as O. Cat. pons dysentery. In Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ), we find the expression
#$%& '() (i.e., and in some cases it causes abrasion), which is translated
as by Moses ibn Tibbon, where abrasion corresponds to (PWNS. ). Another case is entry Lamed : Hebrew
(LBYBH) means heart-shaped pastry, but is equated with Arabic
(" TRYH)
and Romance (MNWDTS).
Arabic it. riya designated a
.
.
certain food, like threads, made of flour, noodles and features in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (BMR I, ) where it is translated by
Moses ibn Tibbon using the same Romance term (MNWDT. S. ).
This Romance term represents the plural of O. Occ. menudet, meaning
fairly fine, fairly small, but could also mean a kind of dough in certain
situations. With respect to plant names, many Occitan terms commonly
used in Shem Tovs writings can be found in the S. edat ha-derakhim.88
Although these are again mostly common words familiar to any Occitan
speaker, the mutual occurrence of the more technical vocabulary mentioned above does not seem coincidental. Instead of indicating a direct
relationship between the two translators, however, it seems more likely
that Shem Tov and Ibn Tibbon shared some common sources. These may
have included existing synonym lists, such as several anonymous synonym lists that we have already been able to identify as containing Old
Occitan terms.89 Although they are of a later date (fourteenth-fifteenth

88

This text is currently being edited and analysed in a project funded by the DFG run
by Gerrit Bos, Guido Mensching and Julia Zwink. The results obtained so far show that
the vast majority of the Arabic terminology that appears in the Zad al-musafir was not
actually translated into Hebrew but rather into Romance and occasionally Latin, also see
section ..
89 These lists are discussed in HebMedSyn, in particular: MS Mich. Add , fols. v
r and MS Parma Bibl. Palat. , the latter list contains both Occitan and Catalan
vocabulary. See A. Neubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library
and in the College Libraries of Oxford, Oxford , n ; I.B. De Rossi, Mss Codices
Hebraici Biblioth. I.B. de-Rossi accurate ab eodem descripti et illustrati, vols, Parma, ,

introduction

century), it seems probable that they are copies of earlier lists. The
relationship between these lists and the works of Shem Tov and Ibn
Tibbon cannot be properly determined before the lists in questions
receive full critical attention.
As far as Latin terminology is concerned, Shem Tov might have had
access to various Latin treatises and translations which were in circulation at the time he was writing. However, it is not possible to determine which exact sources these might have been, because the Latin
terminology in question was that used by the Salernitan School and
elsewhere at the time. This kind of terminology was transmitted via
Latin synonym lists. The most famous of these, the Alphita, may already
have existed when Shem Tov was writing90 and actually existed in a
Hebrew version (although the known copy dates from the fourteenth
century).91 Although this might be coincidental, some of Shem Tovs
TH,
Latin terms can be found in the Alphita, such as (BLSMY
.

balsamita, Alef ), ("QWLWS QWNSYLYS, oculus con camedreos, Bet ),


sulis, Alef ), (K"MYDRYWS,

(GWRGRYSMW,
gargarismum, Gimel ), (BL"WSTY",
. balaustia, Nun ).
Since the Alphita only contains a small number of Arabisms, it was
not a valuable source of Latin-Arabic equivalences. A better candidate
for this purpose was the Latin translation of Ibn Snas Kitab al-Qanun
traditionally attributed to Gerard of Cremona (c. ). This translation contains an index consisting of a glossary of mostly Latinised
Arabic terms arranged alphabetically, thus providing Arabic-Latin correspondences. Thus nux indica is, for example, identified as nargil (Sin
:; i.e., the Arabic nargl, coconut), while the same correspondence

o.l. NWZ
can be found in entry Alef ( : N"RGYL,
"YNDY"H), where the Latin term was translated into O. Occ. as *nos

n ; B. Richler, Hebrew Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. Catalogue.


Palaeographical and codicological descriptions: Malachi Beit-Ari, Jerusalem , n
.
90 Cf. Garca Gonzlez, op. cit., p. , who fixes the terminus post quem at the end of
the twelfth century.
91 Cf. HebMedSyn . The Hebrew version of the Alphita can be found in a
fourteenth century manuscript (Parma Bibl. Palat. , fols. rv; cf. De Rossi, op.
cit., n , Richler, op. cit., n ; both authors had not identified this list). It cannot
be said at the moment whether it is a copy of a version that might have been available
to Shem Tov. Strikingly, this version of the Alphita is also of Southern French origin and
includes many adaptations of the Latin terminology to O. Occ.

introduction

(or notz) india.92 A fairly striking parallel between the index and the
Latin translation of the Kitab al-Qanun and Shem Tovs glossaries can be
found in entry Ayin , which details the identification of Arabic
TR
as a word spelt (Q"BSY").

(SY
Although the Arabic term
. G)
is easy to interpret as st. arag (peppergrass, cress, Lepidium latifolium
L.), the supposed Latin correspondence is unclear; the identification of
both can, however, be found in the index as Setaragi, i. capsia (cf. Sin
b).93
As for Romance, it is difficult to show that any medical writings in
Occitan or Catalan served as sources for Shem Tov. The first author who
wrote medical works in Romance (Catalan) was Ramon Llull (
),94 with another series of works from the same period, i.e., the last
quarter of the thirteenth century, being attributed to Arnau de Vilanova
(). The famous Occitan encylopedic poem Breviari dAmor by
Matfre Ermengau dates from the same period and contains, as has been
repeatedly pointed out by P. Ricketts,95 a great deal of medico-botanical
terminology. Old Occitan medical translations and writings are mostly
documented from the fourteenth century onwards. There are some exceptions, however, such as an Occitan translation of Roger of Parmas
Surgery in verse form from around ,96 which has some vocabulary
in common with Shem Tovs synonym lists, such as festula fistula,
suppurating wound (vv. , , among others; cf. PYSTWL"
.
),
in Gimel ), cranc crab, cancer (v. , cf. QRNQ in Sade
.
92

Any simple and compound terms that cannot be found in the existing Romance or
Latin sources are marked with an asterisk both here and in the commentary itself.
93 See entries Gimel , Het , Mem , Pe , Qof , Resh for further examples.
.
94 Cf. his Comenaments de medicina (around ), see K.-H. Rntgen, Geschichte
der technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Fachsprachen in der Romania: Iberische
Halbinsel, in G. Ernst / M.D. Glegen / C. Schmitt / W. Schweickard (eds), Romanische
Sprachgeschichte. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Geschichte der romanischen Sprachen,
vol. II, Berlin / New York , pp. ; L. Cifuentes i Comamala, La cincia en
catal a lEdat Mitjana i el Renaixement, a. ed., revisada i ampliada, Barcelona ,
pp. , .
95 P. Ricketts, Plantes et recettes mdicales dans le Breviari dAmor de Matfre Ermengaud de Bziers, Mlanges pour Robert Lafont, Montpellier, , pp. ; idem, Le
lexique des plantes mdicinales en occitan mdival, M.S. Corradini Bozzi and B. Perin (eds), Atti del convegno Il linguaggio scientifico e tecnico (medico, botanico, farmaceutico e nautico) fra Medioevo e Rinascimento, Pisa novembre , Pisa , pp.
.
96 First studied by A. Thomas, La chirurgie de Roger de Parme en vers provenaux.
Notice sur un ms. de la Bibliothque de Bologne, Romania (), pp. and ;
A. Thomas, La versification de la chirurgie provenale de Raimon dAvignon, Romania
(), pp. .

introduction

enguent ointment (v. , cf. "YNGNT,


. Resh ), and caus viva
calcium oxide which has not been in contact with water (v. ,
cf. Q"LS WYW", Samekh , representing the variant calz
viva). These do, however, represent common terms likely to have been
familiar to Shem Tov or which may have been taken from other sources.97
With respect to Hebrew sources that contain Occitan words, Shem Tov
may have been familiar with the Hebrew translation of the Medieval
Latin medical poem commonly known as Macer Floridus.98 Some terms
used by Shem Tov in his synomyn lists do, in fact, appear there: Cf.
() ("Y(Q)TRY
Yod
. S. Y"H, MF )() ("YQTRYSY"H,
.
) for Latin or Romance ictericia icterus; (SL MWNT"NW,
.

MF ) (SYLMWN
T"NWM,
Kaf ) for Latin sil montanum
.
mountain cumin; (PWDRG", MF ) (PWDGR", Pe )
for Romance podagra, gout in the feet.
.. Creation of New Terms
Some of the terms featured in the list compiled by Shem Tov cannot be
retrieved from either biblical or rabbinic literature, nor from the standard lexica or medical and botanical literature. In such cases, it seems
that Shem Tov resorted to semantic borrowing. An example of this is
(HWG)
in Het
.
. , which means (to make a) circle in the Bible (e.g.
Job :) and rabbinic literature (bHag
. b). The Arabic synonym
(DW"R) is duwar, meaning circle, and, as a medical term, vertigo, giddiness in the head. This meaning also features in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms99 (XV, ) as () () (al-duwar wal-sadar, vertigo and
dizziness). Similar cases can be found, e.g. in Nun and Shin , but
these are quite rare. More frequently, we find what appear to be genuine loan-translations of compound terms. An example of such a botan
HS. PWR) in Lamed , literally meaning
ical term is (LSWN
sparrows tongue. Arabic (LS"N "LS. PWR) is lisan al-#us. fur,
with the same literal meaning, but which is used to designate the fruit

97 Such as Daude de Pradas treatise on falconry (cf. A.H. Schutz, The romance of
Daude de Pradas, called Dels Auzels Cassadors, Columbus Ohio ), but also from the
troubadour literature, in which many plant names appear.
98 Only a fragmentary copy of this translation from the beginning of the fifteenth
century still exists, but it seems that the original (full?) translation was made around .
Cf. MF .
99 See BMMa, BMMb.

introduction

of the ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior L.100 This is the earliest record of this
Hebrew term, at least as far as we currently know. It subsequently features
in the Hebrew translations of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, )
by Zerahyah
ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen
.
. and Nathan ha-Me"ati, who use

the same Hebrew term (LSWN


HS. PWR) for Arabic lisan al#us. fur. Shem Tov did not just use the method of loan-translation in the
field of botany and pharmaceutics101 but also in that of pathology, such
as in the following case: (B#LT HS. D) in Bet literally means
something like possessor of the side, which is similar to the literal mean
ing of the Arabic term indicated by Shem Tov, (DT "LGNB,
dat

al-ganb) but which is also used to designate costal pleurisy. This medical
meaning is confirmed by the Romance-Latin synonym plevesin non vera,
which designates the same disease. The Hebrew term neither features in
Ben Yehuda,102 nor in Even-Shoshan.103 Nathan ha-Me"ati uses this term
in his Hebrew translation of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VI, ),
while his colleague Zerahyah
ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen
.
. uses the term
(HWLY
HS. D, illness of the side).
.
The creation of a new special terminology is especially striking with
respect to different kinds of inflammations or tumors. Most of these
appear in combination with the Hebrew term (S. MH),
. which already features in rabbinic literature with the special meaning of morbid
growth, swelling, ulcer. We thus find (S. MH
. BYN
HS. L#WT) in Sade

as
an
alternative
term
for
the
Arabic
term
dat al.

ganb (costal pleurisy) just mentioned, in contrast to (S. MH


.
in Sade
BTRP
for Arabic saws. a (the real pleurisy, as confirmed
. SH)
.
by the Romance equivalent plevesin vera). Other examples are
(S. MH
) for Arabic sirsam (phrenitis);
. HMWH,
. Sade
.
(S. MH
) for Arabic zurqa (glaucoma);
. BLWBN H#YN, Sade
.
(S. MH
) for Arabic falgamun (inflamed tumor);
. "DMDM, Sade
.
) for Arabic mahba" (an ulcer
(S. MH
. GDWL W#MWQ, Sade
.
(SMH
affecting the flesh, not the bones or tendons);
. .
100 In many cases, we find this type of correspondences in different languages, e.g.
for the term in question herelingua avis in Latin, which may itself have been a loantranslation from Arabic. It cannot be definitively ascertained as to whether Arabic, Latin
or another language was the direct model for this kind of correspondence (often crosslinguistically well established metaphors). Our considerations are thus to be viewed in
light of this reservation.
101 See Sade for another case of a botanical term.
.
102 Millon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, abbr. BM.
103 Ha-Millon he-hadash, abbr. EM.
.

introduction

BS. PRWN H" S. B#, Sade


) for Arabic dahis
. (whitlow);
.

(S. MH
MT
HT
HL
SWN,
Sade
)
for
Arabic
dafda#
(ranula), and finally:
.
.
.
.
(S. MHYM
DQYM BKL H#WR, Sade
) for Arabic
.
.
butur (pimples; small pustules).
The method of creating new terms, in particular by literal translation,
can sometimes also be observed with respect to the Romance terms,
some of which cannot be found either in existing Occitan or Catalan
documentation. An interesting example is (P"YRY "YGNS
PYL, Alef , MS P), which, despite being somewhat corrupt in all three
manuscripts, can be identified without any doubt as the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
expression peire enans fil(h) / paire enans fill literally meaning father
before son. This phrase is an inverted translation of the Latin term filius ante patrem, which is a kind of extended version of the plant name
antipater, the meaning of which is difficult to determine (see our commentary to entry Alef on this matter). Another example is
(NWZ "YNDY"H, nos india) for coconut in Alef , which has been modeled after Arabic gawz hind or its Hebrew or Latin equivalent ( ,
"GWZ HWDY, nux indica). In particular, it seems that Shem Tov attempts
to apply the Latin or Arabic binary nomenclature in a systematic way
when it is necessary to distinguish between a wild and a domestic variant, such as in the use of the adjectives *monta mountainous, salva(t)je
wild and fer wild in (PWLYYG MWNT",
. *pol(i)eg monta) in
Yod , modelled after Arabic fudang gabal (possibly meaning catnip),
SLW"GY
S,
cardel(h)s salvajes), wild chicory
(QRDYLS
in Ayin , literally field endives, according to the Arabic model hindaba"
GY,
carvi salva(t)ge) in Ayin for basbarr, (K"RWY SLB"
tard cumin, coined after Arabic karawiya gabal (Ayin ),104 and
(LYTWG"
P"R", laytuga fera, wild lettuce) for Arabic hass barr
.

(Het
. ). Shem Tov uses the epithet *ortolan for the domestic variety,
which is not documented anywhere else in the language as an adjective:

(SPR"N
"WRTWL"N,
*safran ortolan garden safflower) in
.
Het
. .
The occurrence of these Hebrew and Romance terms in the list raises
the question of their originality. Are they the product of translation
activity undertaken by earlier translators, translators working during
the same period or medical authors whose works Shem Tov had access
to or was he the first one to coin these new terms in order to fill the

104

As well as the Hebrew (QYRBS HRYM).

introduction

gaps in the Hebrew (and partially Occitan) technical lexicon? Answering this question involves establishing which Hebrew translators were
working before Shem Tov or at the same time to ascertain whether he
might have been able to consult their translations of medical works, and
pharmaceutical ones in particular, for their medical-pharmaceutical terminology. The only major translator who meets this criterion is Moses
ben Samuel ibn Tibbon, who was already mentioned in section ., where
we also expressed reservations about a direct connection to Shem Tovs
work. Two other major thirteenth century translators of medical works
ben
from Arabic into Hebrew, namely Nathan ha-Me"ati105 and Zerahyah
.
106
mentioned above, were both active in Rome
Isaac ben She"altiel Hen,
.
after Shem Tov, as Nathan worked between and and Zerahyah
.
between and . Therefore, the occurrence of a similar botanical terminology in their translations of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(see above) can be ascribed to the influence of Shem Tov on their translation work, unless they drew on other, hitherto unknown sources. As we
already mentioned, the question of whether Shem Tov consulted other
synonym lists compiled by earlier authors cannot be answered definitively, as most of these lists are undated and unpublished, with research
into such lists still in its infancy. Initial selective investigations into some
of the lists in question point to a negative answer to this question, at
least with regard to Hebrew. The same applies for Arabic compendia containing alphabetical lists of plants with synonyms in different languages,
amongst them Hebrew, such as al-Idrss Kitab al-jami# li-sifat astat annabat. Research on this compendium showed that the novel Hebrew
terminology used by Shem Tov does not feature in this medical compendium. The final sources that could have been consulted by Shem Tov
are original medical compositions in Hebrew with synonym terminology
compiled at an earlier date than his glossary. The only surviving examples of such compositions are the Sefer Asaph, also called Sefer Refu"ot,
105 For Nathan ha-Me"ati (of Cento), see H. Vogelstein and P. Rieger, Geschichte
der Juden in Rom, vols, Berlin , vol. , pp. , M. Steinschneider,
Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, p. ;
G. Freudenthal, Les sciences dans les communauts juives mdivales de Provence:
Leur appropriation, leur rle, in Revue des tudes juives (), pp. , pp.
.
106 On Zerahyah see Vogelstein-Rieger, op. cit., vol. , pp. , ; Stein.
schneider, loc. cit.; A. Ravitzky, Mishnato shel R. Zerahyah
b. Isaac b. She"altiel Hen
. (Doct.
.
diss.), Jerusalem , pp. ; G. Bos, Aristotles De Anima. Translated into Hebrew by
Zerahyah
ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen.
A Critical Edition with an Introduction & Index,
.
.
Leiden , pp. ; Freudenthal, op. cit., pp. .

introduction

a book known in Southern Italy in the tenth century which was reedited (or possibly even rewritten) by the Southern Italian doctor Shabbetai
Donnolo107 and the Sefer ha-Yakar, also called Sefer Merkahot,
. which was
also written by Shabbetai Donnolo ().108 However, after consulting these works whilst editing Shem Tovs first list, it became clear to us
that the terminology featured in them is very different from that used by
Shem Tov.
In summary, Shem Tov ben Isaac mainly employed two procedures to
create a Hebrew medical terminology. He consulted the works of Sa#adya
Ga"on, Jonah ibn Janah"
. and the Geonim on the one hand in order to find
Hebrew-Aramaic equivalents to the Arabic terms in question, whilst, on
the other hand, he was compelled to employ new terminology created
via loan-translation or semantic borrowing due to gaps in the existing
Hebrew medical-botanical lexicon. As far as we know at the moment,
several of these terms are attested for the first time in Shem Tovs list,
having been coined by him from Arabic and subsequently adopted by
other translators such as Nathan ha-Me"ati and Zerahyah
ben Isaac ben
.
109
She"altiel Hen.
.
107

Cf. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society, p. . For a recent discussion of the academic work contained in this book, see E. Lieber, Asaf s Book of
Medicines: A Hebrew Encyclopaedia of Greek and Jewish Medicine, possibly compiled in Byzantium according to an Indian model, in J. Scarborough (ed.), Symposium on Byzantine Medicine, Cambridge Mass., (Dumbarton Oaks Papers, ),
pp. . For the materia medica in the Sefer Asaph see especially L. Venetianer,
Asaf Judaeus. Der aelteste medizinische Schriftsteller in hebraeischer Sprache, abbr.
AV.
108 Cf. Shatzmiller, op. cit.; H.J. Zimmels, Science, in C. Roth (ed.), The Dark Ages. Jews
in Christian Europe , New Brunswick (The World History of the Jewish
People. Second Series: Medieval Period. Volume Two), chapter XII: Aspects of Jewish
Culture, pp. . The Sefer ha-Mirkahot
. was edited by S. Muntner, in R. Shabbetai
Donnolo. Kitvei ha-Refu"ah, Jerusalem , pp. . For a new edition see L. Ferre,

Donnolos Sefer ha-yaqar: New Edition with English Translation, Sabbe


tay Donnolo.

Scienza e cultura ebraica nellItalia del secolo X. A cura di Giancarlo Lacerenza,


Naples
(Universit degli Studi di Napoli LOrientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, Series
Minor LXVI), pp. .
109 Some of these terms are: ("GWDWT BSR,
ganglions, Alef );

(B#LT HS. D, pleurisy, Bet ); (HTPT


HSTN,
dribbling of urine = strangury,
.
He ); (HM#DT HM#YM, Dysenteria spuria, He ); (ZNB H#YN,
the exterior angle of the eye, Zayin ); (HWG,
vertigo, Het
.
. ); (HLY
.
H"PR, ophthalmia, Het
. ); (LPYTT H#S. B, strained nerves, Lamed );
(MZRQ, syringe, Mem ); (#WQS. HHW
end, extremity of the nose =
. TM,
.
the wing of the nose, Ayin ); (PRGWD, curtain = diaphragm, Pe );

(RPPWT, twitching, palpitation, Resh ); (SRPT


HSTN,
dysuria, Shin );

(SYPWT,
dentifrice, Shin ).

introduction
. The Vernacular Element
.. Jewish-Romance Literature

It is commonly known that the use of Hebrew characters for nonHebrew purposes is not exceptional. There are many texts in Hebrew
characters from a range of Romance languages such as Spanish, Catalan,
Occitan, Italian and French, particularly texts from the Middle Ages.110
An important distinction has to be made between the Judeo-Spanish
that became commonplace in the diaspora following the expulsion of
the Jews from Spain and the medieval documentation of Romance
languages in Hebrew characters in Spain and in other Romance speaking
territories. Whereas Judeo-Spanish, which underwent a clear historical
development, can be classified as a special group of Spanish varieties or
even as a language of its own, the medieval manifestations of Romance
in Hebrew characters largely correspond to the Romance languages and
dialects as they were spoken by both Jews and Christians at that time. This
is in accordance with the fact that the idea of special Jewish-Romance
varieties originally posed by Blondheim111 cannot be maintained from
a modern point of view, as has been shown, for example, by Banitt,112
and, for Spanish in particular, by Minervini.113 As far as O. Occ. is
concerned, the same has been shown by Aslanov,114 who also notes

110

Cf. J. Kramer and S. Kowallik, Einfhrung in die hebrische Schrift, Hamburg,


, p. XIV; M. Sala, Die romanischen Judensprachen, in LRL , pp. , see
p. for a detailed discussion; H.V. Sephiha, Problmatique du judo-espagnol, in
Bulletin de la Socit de Linguistique de Paris (), pp. ; W. Busse, Zur
Problematik des Judenspanischen, in Neue Romania (), pp. . For Catalan,
see, e.g., the Cants de noces (J. Riera i Sans, Cants de noces dels jueus catalans, Barcelona
). For Old Spanish, see L. Minervini, Testi giudeospagnoli medievali (Castiglia e
Aragona), vols, Naples . French texts in Hebrew characters are less common; cf. the
overviews in J. Zwink, Etude lexicographique du trait anonyme Fevres: une compilation
mdicale en ancien franais, crite en caractres hbraques, in Panace@ VII / (),
pp. and G. Bos / G. Mensching / J. Zwink, A late medieval Hebrew-French
glossary of biblical animal names, in Romance Philology (), pp. . Also
cf. BF.
111 D.S. Blondheim, Les parlers judo-romans et la Vetus Latina. Etude sur les rapports
entre les traductions bibliques en langue romane des Juifs au Moyen Age et les anciennes
versions, Paris .
112 M. Banitt, Une langue fantme: le judo-franais, in Revue de Linguistique Romane
(), pp. ; also cf. Sala, op. cit., p. .
113 Op. cit.
114 ShK .

introduction

that we have to distinguish between the Shuadit or Judeo-Comtadine


(spoken until nearly the end of the twentieth century in the modern
French departement of Vaucluse), a real Judeo-Romance variety which
developed later, and such medieval texts.115
Examples of important O. Occ. texts transmitted in the Hebrew alphabet include a fragment of the Esther Poem and a collection of prayers
(Rituel),116 with both texts written entirely in Hebrew characters.
Whereas the latter represents a rather literal word-by-word translation
from Hebrew, the Esther Poem reflects the O. Occ. language of the time
perfectly. Other poetic texts in which Hebrew and Occitan are combined
also exist, as well as short passages, single words and numerous glosses
in Hebrew texts.117 On the lexicographic side, important documents are
sot ha-Kesef (ShK) by Joseph Caspi, a dictionary of Hebrew word
the Sar
roots with their Occitan correspondences, and a similar, older work by
118 The reader is referred to Aslanovs seminal edition of
David Kimhi.
.

the Sarsot ha-Kesef for more extensive documentation and discussion of


Hebrew-Occitan literature.
O. Occ. medical texts and terms in Hebrew characters have not traditionally received any research attention, to some extent because the
Romance language in such texts had not even been identified as Occitan.119 Several synonym lists as well as medical prose texts that contain
115 [. . . E]n Provence, avant que les Juifs ne soient reclus dans leurs carrires, la langue
parle par les Juifs ne devait gure diffrer de celle qui tait en usage chez les Gentils
).
(ShK
116 A. Neubauer and P. Meyer, Le roman provenal dEsther par Crescas de Caylar,
mdecin juif du XIV sicle, in Romania (), pp. ; S.M. Silberstein, The
Provenal Esther poem written in Hebrew Characters c. by Crescas de Caylar, Critical
Edition, PhD Diss., Philadelphia ; M. Lazar, La traduction hbraco-provenale du
Rituel (Manuscrit indit du XVe sicle), in Mlanges de langue et littrature du Moyen
ge et de la Renaissance offerts Jean Frappier, vols, Geneva , vol. , pp.
.
117 M. Lazar, pithalames bilingues hbraco-romans dans deux manuscrits du XV
sicle, in I. Cluzel and F. Pirot (eds), Mlanges de philologie romane ddis la mmoire de
Jean Butire, vols, Lige , vol. , pp. ; M. Schwab, Un acte de vente hbreu
du XIVe sicle, in Revue des tudes Juives (), pp. ; idem, Livre de Comptes
de Mardoch Joseph (manuscrit hbro-provenal), in Notes et extraits des manuscrits
de la Bibliothque Nationale et dautres bibliothques (), pp. ; A. Thomas,
Gloses provenales de source juive, in Ann. du Midi (), pp. ; G. Vajda,
Quelques mots propos du manuscrit hbreu de la Bibliothque Nationale de
Paris, in Revue des tudes Juives (), pp. .
118 D. Kimhi, Sefer ha-Shorashim, ed. J.H. Biesenthal and F. Lebrecht, Berlin , repr.
.
Jerusalem .
119 See Bos / Mensching, Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos.
and HebMedSyn; outside the field of medicine, ShK .

introduction

O. Occ. glosses have been identified within the context of various projects
by the authors of this edition.120 One example of the latter is the Hebrew
fragment of the Latin-versed Macer Floridus (MF), from which we were
able to isolate around O. Occ. words. A great deal more material can be
found in Moses ibn Tibbons translation of Ibn al-Jazzars Zad al-musafir
wa-qut al-h
. adir (Provisions for the Traveller and the Nourishment for
the Sedentary), book VII, chapters , where the translator mostly uses
Occitan rather than Hebrew for translating Arabic terms.121
In our text, as in other Hebrew texts with Romance elements, the
Romance languages are usually referred to as (La#az). This word122
was already used in the Mishnah to designate barbarous, i.e., nonHebrew languages, and for Greek in particular. In the Middle Ages, the
term La#az also began to be used to refer to Romance languages. An early
documentation of this extended meaning to refer to a Romance language
can be found in Rashi, who used the term La#az to designate the French
dialect of the Southern Champagne.123
.. The Old Occitan Language and How It Is Reflected in the Text
In this and the following four subsections, we focus on the Romance
material found in the synonym list edited in this volume. We shall see
that the three manuscripts sometimes show different dialectal forms of
Occitan and, to a varying degree, some elements from Catalan. Since
the exact filiation of the three manuscripts (cf. section .) remains
rather obscure, we are unable to ascertain definitively which elements
stem originally from Shem Tov and which represent changes introduced
by later copyists. In addition, we do not even know which Romance
linguistic variety Shem Tov employed in his lists. Due to the relatively
120

See HebMedSyn.
There are some other publications of medical texts in Hebrew that contain Catalan
material. See GHAT, OLD and PJP, as well as L. Ferre / M. McVaugh (eds), The Tabula
Antidotarii of Armengaud Blaise and its Hebrew Translation, Philadelphia (=
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. ,); L. Ferre, La terminologa
mdica en las versiones hebreas de textos latinos, in Miscelnea de estudios rabes y
hebraicos (), pp. ; C. Caballero-Navas, The Book of Womens Love and
Jewish Medical Literature on Women. Sefer Ahavat Nashim, London .
122 Cf. the occurrence of the root in the Bible (Ps :), where it has the meaning
to talk in an unintellegible language.
123 Cf. Bos / Mensching / Zwink, op. cit. For a detailed discussion of the history, meaning and connotations of this term, cf. ShK and M. Banitt, art. La"az, in E.J.
: ff. In our edition, we translate La#az as other language (abbr. o.l.)
121

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small proportion of words clearly identifiable as Catalan (cf. section .),


it seems probable that Shem Tov, who compiled the list in Southern
France, used Occitan and not his native language Catalan. Since the Sefer
ha-Shimmush was written during Shem Tovs stay in Marseille, it may also
be conjectured that he used the Provenal dialect. This would conform
to a small number of Provenal characteristics that can be found in all
manuscripts (cf. section .). On the other hand, the time he previously
spent in Montpellier, which is in the Eastern Languedocian dialect
zone, could also explain some occasional Languedocian features in his
writings. Such considerations must, however, be treated as conjecture for
the time being; we are only able to analyse the evidence provided by the
three manuscripts in the following.
Among the linguistic varieties that had arisen from Vulgar Latin by the
end of the first millennium ad, those spoken in France have traditionally
been divided into two major groups: the so-called ol-varieties in the
North and the oc-varieties in the South. This nomenclature, which has
its origin in the Middle Ages, stems from the particles meaning yes
in the respective varieties. In a simplified manner, it can be said that
the Northern varieties are representatives of the langue de ol or French,
whereas the Southern varieties correspond to a different language, the
langue doc or Occitan. The latter has survived until today as a minority
language in Southern France, but was a prestigious and highly influential
literary language during the Middle Ages, especially via the poetry of the
troubadours. The need to differentiate between Old Occitan (c.
) and Middle Occitan (c. )124 is not generally accepted; we
shall follow the Dictionnaire de lOccitan Mdieval (DOM) by referring to
the Occitan language during the Middle Ages as Old Occitan. This issue is
not of relevance for Shem Tov himself, since his glossaries were compiled
in the thirteenth century. However, the manuscripts that we are editing
here stem from the fourteenth century (cf. .), and thus probably from
the beginning of the so-called Middle Occitan period.
Roughly speaking, the Occitan territory comprises the modern political regions of Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrnes, Provence-AlpesCte dAzur, and parts of the regions of Auvergne, Rhne-Alpes and
Languedoc Roussillon.125 It seems that the Occitan linguistic territory
124

Cf. POc and P. Bec, La langue occitane, Paris (Que sais-je? n ), p. .


Catalan is spoken in the historical Roussillon part. Outside the boundaries of
modern France, Occitan is spoken in the North-Western corner of Catalonia in Spain
and in some valleys in Piemont and Liguria, Italy.
125

introduction

was roughly the same in the Middle Ages, maybe extending slightly
further to the North to reach the River Loire.126 Occitan has always
consisted of various dialects, whereas the literary language used in the
poetry of the troubadours in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries appears
fairly uniform.127 In other domains, such as the language used in legal
documents, Romance philology scholars have been able to distinguish
between different regionally determined writing traditions (scriptae).128
For our purposes, such issues are largely irrelevant for two reasons: firstly,
the question of scriptae or koin formation has never been addressed
for medical texts,129 and, secondly, Hebrew-Romance writing traditions
developed separately from scriptae based on the Latin alphabet and thus
have to be studied within the Sephardic writing traditions. We shall
return to the issue of which dialects are reflected in our manuscripts
below. In the following, we briefly sketch some of the characteristics of
O. Occ., which are illustrated using examples from our text. This section
is intended to enable readers from outside the field of Romance philology to follow our argumentation. The main purpose of this section is thus
to illustrate why the Romance vocabulary in our synonym list has to be
considered as Occitan.
Determining the status of Occitan as either a Gallo-Romance or an
Ibero-Romance language is both difficult and highly controversial. It
resembles Catalan more than French with respect to numerous features, particularly in the Middle Ages. Some features, on the other
hand, may equally justify grouping Occitan together with French, such
as the two case inflection common to both Old French and O. Occ.,
which differentiated between a nominative or rectus and an oblique
case. These oblique forms began to be generalised over the course of

126

Cf. Bec, op. cit., p. ; G. Kremnitz, Das Okzitanische: Sprachgeschichte und Soziologie, Tbingen , p. ; POc .
127 The literary language has traditionally been considered as a koin. Cf. M.-D. Glegen and M. Pfister, Okzitanische Koine. La koin occitane, in LRL vol. ,, pp.
.
128 Cf. the articles nos. in LRL ,: M.-D. Glegen and M. Pfister, Okzitanische Scriptaformen I. Limousin, Prigord, pp. ; A. Lodge, Okzitanische
Scriptaformen II. Auvergne, pp. ; M.-D. Glegen and J. West, Okzitanische Scriptaformen III. Provence, Dauphinois, pp. ; J. West, Okzitanische
Scriptaformen IV. Languedoc, pp. ; J. Allires, Okzitanische Scriptaformen V.
Gascogne, Barn, pp. .
129 The language used in Occitan medical texts has been studied by M.S. Corradini
Bozzi (CB); it appears that they are written in individual dialects (partially reflecting those
of the copyists).

introduction

time, and we can suppose that this case system was already instable
at the time when Shem Tov was working130 and had vanished altogether by the fourteenth century when the copies of our manuscripts
were made. Since the old nominative singular forms are in many cases
homophonous with the oblique plural forms, they cannot be identified
in a text such as ours, where the words occur in isolation without any
syntactic context.131
There are several clear sound shift phenomena that separate Occitan
from French, or, more precisely, the ol-varieties of Northern France,132
which can also be seen more or less clearly in Shem Tovs synonym lists.
We shall only mention a few here:
) The voiceless stops of Latin in intervocalic position, which had
become voiced in Western Proto-Romance,133 vanished in French in the
case of -T- and -C- (VITA > vie, AMICA > amie), whereas -P- became
a fricative (RIPA > rive).134 The Western Proto-Romance voiced stops
are preserved in Occitan (as in Ibero-Romance) (RIPA > riba, VITA
> vida, AMICA > amiga). In our text, we find (RWD") for garden rue (Pe ), which could represent Occitan ruda (< lat. RUTA), but
not French rue with the loss of the intervocalic stop. Similarly, Western Proto-Romance /g/ from Latin /k/ is preserved in (NWGYR),
noguer, walnut tree (Alef ) and (LYTWG"),
laytuga, lettuce
.
(Het
,
),
in
contrast
to
French
noyer
and
laitue
(<
Latin
LACTUCA,
.
Vulgar Latin *nucarium). ) In French, stressed Latin E and O became
diphthongised in open syllables, but remained intact in Occitan (note
that diphthongs are represented in our text, cf. section .). Therefore,
(PLWR, Sade
and Pe ) or (MYL, Kaf , MSS O and V)
.
should be read as Occitan flor and mel and not as Old French miel and
flour. ) In French, as in almost all Romance languages, the Latin diphthong AU was monophthongised, usually to o, while in Occitan the diphthong remained au, as in Lat. AURUM > Occ. aur (in contrast to or in

130

POc .
For some words in our text, a rectus reading may be more or less probable, for
cauls, cabbage (Kaf ). However, in all cases, these kinds of forms
example Q(")WLS,
can be read as the plural form. In most cases, the plural hypothesis can be confirmed by
the Arabic and Hebrew synonyms.
132 Cf. A.C. Di Girolamo / C. Lee, Avviamento alla filologia provenzale, Rome ,
p. .
133 All Romance varieties except for Central and Southern Italian and Romanian.
134 Only originally voiced intervocalic plosives disappeared in Occitan and Catalan
(e.g., SUDOREM > suor).
131

introduction

French).135 Thus, in Gimel , we find (DWR, MS P) and


(DBR, MS O, V) with the meaning of gold, which most probably represents Occ. daur.136
Like French, Occitan belongs to the Western Romance language
group,137 which can be easily distinguished from the Eastern group (Central and Southern Italian and Romanian) based on the voicing of stops
that is described in () above, which is absent from the latter (i.e., the
stops remain voiceless). This criterion as well as, to some extent at least,
the one mentioned in () also apply to other members of the Western group. However, Occitan behaves differently from most other Western Romance languages. For example, all varieties of the Iberian Peninsula with the exception of Catalan, which will be discussed below, have
retained the vowel that developed from the Latin ending -um, usually
/o/. Thus, from Latin APIUM, FRISCUM, OLEUM, and PINUM we
obtain Spanish apio, fresco, olio and pino, which contrast with Occitan api, fresc, oli and pin. The latter are represented exactly in our syn Tet ), ("WLY,
onym lists as ("PY, Kaf ), (PRYSQ,
Shin , , ) and (PYN, Alef ). This feature is shared by Catalan, as are most of the other characteristics mentioned above for Occitan. In fact, many of the Romance elements in our synonym lists can
be interpreted either as Occitan or as Catalan, and in some cases, it is
only these two languages that would even come into consideration. For
example, the variant brufol for buffalo, clearly represented in Mem
as (BRWPWL), cannot be found in any other Romance language,
with Occitan and Catalan being the only two Romance languages that
demonstrate a parasitic r in this word, which is derived from Late Latin
bufalus.
The question of whether the Romance material in Shem Tovs synonym lists is Catalan rather than Occitan or whether it contains at least
some elements of Catalan is an important one, because, although Shem
Tov worked in the Occitan-speaking city of Marseille, he was born in
135 Catalan generally behaves like French in this respect, but note that the variant aur
existed alongside or in the case at issue.
136 At least word-initially, ("W) could represent either au or o, but the alternative spelling ("B) unequivocously represents au, e.g., in ("BRPWMYNT,
.
Samekh ) for O. Occ. aurpiment (MS V) alongside () ("WRPYM(Y)NT)
. in the
other manuscripts. See . for further discussion.
137 The Western Romance territory extends roughly to the North and the West of a
line connecting the Italian cities of La Spezia and Rimini up to the Portuguese Atlantic
coast.

introduction

Tortosa, meaning his native language was Catalan. The problem is that
these two languages share many more properties than those just mentioned and were even more similar in the Middle Ages than they are
today. It is often relatively easy to differentiate between the two languages
in texts written in Latin characters, as they each employ different spelling
conventions. Thus, the last syllable of the word for chestnut contains a
palatal n ([]) in both languages but was typically spelled castanha in
Occitan and castanya in Catalan.138 However, the Hebrew spelling follows the pronunciation instead, so that forms such as (QSTNY")
.
or (QST"NYY",
Ayin ) are unable to provide any help when
.
it comes to distinguishing between the two languages. There are, however, some differences that do indicate that the language of our text is,
for the most part at least, Occitan and not Catalan:139 ) The [dz] sound,
which is derived from (Vulgar) Latin intervocalic [k], was lost in Catalan
but preserved in Occitan,140 such as in O. Occ. cozen(t) versus O. Cat.
coent for cooking. Taking into account the fact that the sound represented by the letter z in Occitan is often represented by Dalet (see section . below), the variant (QWDYNT)
. in Bet cannot be interpreted as Catalan but rather exclusively as Occitan. ) Similarly, Latin
intervocalic -d- was lost in Catalan in most cases, but was often preserved in Occitan, hence coda versus coa tail.141 Our manuscripts uniformly show the Occitan form, (QWD") (Zayin ). ) Conversely,
for the Latin LEGUMEN, the -g- was lost in Occitan (lium) but preserved in Catalan (llegum); the former is reflected in the plural forms
in our text (Zayin ). ) As we have seen above,
(e.g. LYWMNS)
diphthongs derived from stressed Latin E and O are absent from Occitan, with diphthongs developing in other cases however, primarily when

Note, however, that there were many different spelling variants for the sound [] in
both languages.
139 Some distinguishing properties are only apparent because they are the result of later
developments. Thus, e.g., the shift of word final /ts/ to the semivowel [w] is not reflected
in texts from before the fifteenth century, although the sound shift is supposed to have
happened earlier (cf. our commentary to entry Alef ). Thus, (NWS) or (NWZ) in
Alef and reflects O. Occ. notz or nos, nut but also an early O. Cat. form, in contrast
to the modern nou.
140 Cf. MollGram , POc .
141 Cf. MollGram , POc . When it is not lost, it was usually transformed to
[z]. For the word in question, coa is documented both for Occ. and Cat., whereas Occ.
also had the forms coda and coza (RL :a; FEW :b). Since, as stated above,
intervocalic Dalet often represents [z] (also cf. .), the form could also represent
coza, which would still be exclusively Occitan.
138

introduction

these vowels were open and followed by a Yod.142 Thus, from Latin BISCOCTUM, where the nexus [kt] changed into [jt] in Proto-Western
Romance, we get bescueit in Occitan. In Catalan, this vowel was reduced
to i,143 so that the corresponding result is bescuit. Our text shows the

Occitan variant, () (B(Y)SQWYY


T,
. Kaf ); note that the diphthong is represented by YY.144 ) Another example where O. Occ. demonstrates a diphthong where O. Cat. has a monophthong instead is provided by words whose suffixes stem from Latin -ARIUS, which appears
as -ier in O. Occ. and -er in Cat.,145 such as fornier vs. forner baker,
where the diphthong is clearly visible in all three manuscripts (,
PWRNYYR, Pe ).146 ) One particular characteristic of Occitan is the
so-called n-mobile, a single N in Latin that became final through loss
of the last syllable.147 This n was lost in many Occitan dialects as it was in
Catalan;148 in writing, it was sometimes included and sometimes omitted in O. Occ., at least in Latin script based writing traditions.149 In our
synonym list, the n-mobile is always almost spelt out, such as in ()
(DR(")GWN, dragon, dragon, Dalet ), which thus represents O. Occ.
dragon dragon and not O. Cat. drago. We shall return to the n-mobile
in section ..
Apart from such uniform results of sound shift phenomena, the two
languages can sometimes be distinguished due to differences in their
respective vocabularies. Thus, for example, the verb esterilhar to stretch
in Gimel ) does not seem to exist in any other
(, " STRYLY"R
.
Romance language apart from Occitan and is thus absent from Catalan too. A similar case is ("NWN") in Dalet , which represents

142

POc .
Cf. MollGram , for the general monophthongation rule in Catalan.
144 Also see the feminine participle form (QWYYT") cooked in Dalet , repre.
senting Occitan cueita but not Catalan cuita.
145 Cf. MollGram , POc .
146 In other cases, we find diverging forms in the different manuscripts. E.g., in Bet ,
the spelling of the somewhat corrupt form ("DYYGYYR) reflects the ending -ier
of O. Occ., aiguier drain for water, whereas MS P has ("YGYR). In the latter case, we
are, of course, unable to tell whether the Catalan variant aiguer is meant or whether the
diphthong was just not represented.
147 POc . This is different from the Latin NT, which produced a stable n, also cf. POc
.
148 According to A. Griera i Gaja, Gramtica histrica del catal antic, Barcelona ,
p. , and MollGram , the -n appears sporadically in Catalan texts written no later than
the thirteenth century.
149 Cf. POc loc. cit.
143

introduction

O. Occ. an(n)on(n)a, wheat, cereal, a word which does not seem to have
existed in O. Cat., as is the case with malviscle marshmallow (,

MLWYSQLY,
Het
. ). Sometimes, irregular sound shift phenomena or
different Vulgar Latin traditions led to different results in both languages.
Some examples are:
O. Occ aisens or eisens for absinth vs. O. Cat. donzell, see

S. ) in Alef . The Catalan variant


("YSNS)
/ () ("Y(Y)SYN
(DWNZYL) can be found in a MS from the Iberian Peninsula.150
The form nerta for myrtle is exclusively Occitan, whereas murta
is both Occitan and Catalan. All three manuscripts contain nerta
(, NYRT"
. / , NYRTH
. in Alef ).
O. Occ. limas(s)a vs. O. Cat. llimac (snail, slug), see (LMS") /
(LYMS. ") in Het
. .
O. Occ. sorba for fruit of the service tree. Catalan has forms with e
instead of o, serba / serva. The variant with o can be seen particularly

Ayin ).
well in the plural form () (SWRB(")
S,
O. Occ. romeze / ronse, (RWMZY) in Qof , vs. O. Cat. romeguera, blackberry, which appears in Hebrew transcription as
(RWMGYRH) in a synonym list of Catalan origin (GHAT).
O. Occ. ili iris; O. Cat. has forms with l- or ll-, such as lliri. Our text
contains the Occ. variant: ("YLY) (Shin ).

in Gimel , gypsum. O. Cat. had forms


O. Occ. gip, (GYP)
ending in -s, such as gibs, giss, among others.
()()() (P(Y)L(")NY(Y)") in Alef seems to be O. Occ. pelonha or a non-documented O. Occ. form *pelanha (cf. Mod. Occ.
pelagno), whereas only pelaina is documented for Catalan.
Examples of this type are clearly more frequent than counterexamples,
i.e., typically Catalan forms, of which there seem to be very few. We
will discuss this matter further in section . once the issue of dialectal
variation within Occitan has been addressed.
.. Dialectal Variation
Occitan is divided into several dialects, the exact characteristics of which
we are unable to discuss in any great detail here. Determining the dialect
or dialects of the three manuscripts in an exact manner is equally not our

150

Cf. HebMedSyn .

introduction

primary concern here. Such a task is not an easy one anyway, since not
all the features necessary for determining the provenance of an O. Occ.
text are reflected in the Hebrew graphic system. We shall, nevertheless,
attempt to address at least some aspects of this issue.
A major distinction is usually made between Northern and Southern
varieties. One characteristic property of the former is that velar plosives
before [a] became palatalised, see examples such as chastel, brancha, plaja
compared to castel, branca, plaga in the South.151 Since our manuscripts
contain no trace of this palatalisation, we can restrict our discussion
to the Southern varieties, namely Languedocian, which covers the area
between the rivers Garonne and Rhne, and Provenal, which comprises
the ancient county of Provence, the county of Venaissin and the cities
of Avignon, Marseille, and Nice.152 We can narrow down the territory
further based on the occurrence of the n-mobile (cf. .), which regularly appears spelt out in our text, cf. (BRWN, brun, brown, dark,
Gimel , Tet
talon, heel, Qof ), (PYN, pin, pine. ), (TLWN,
.
tree, Alef ), () (DR(")GWN, dragon, dragon, Dalet ), (P"N,

"WRTWL(")N,
*safran
pan, bread, Lamed ), () (SPR"N
.
153 This feature, which is common
ortolan, garden safflower, in Het
).
.
to all three manuscripts, indicates that they stem from a zone where the
final n had not disappeared. Such a feature is typical of the zone east of
the Rhne and around Nmes,154 which leads us to exclude the Languedocian territory and restrict the language primarily to the Provenal
dialect, excluding the Western part of the Rhodanien subdialect. It is
sot
worth noting that another list of Hebrew-Romance glosses, the Sar
ha-Kesef by Joseph Caspi (ShK, see .), which was identified as being
essentially Rhodanien by its editor Cyril Aslanov, consequently omits the
n-mobile.155 The Provenal dialect zone east of the Rhne to where the
Romance variety used in our synonym list can be localised also corresponds to the main region in which the word nerta for myrtle (cf. .)
is found. According to Von Wartburg, this form actually originated in
151

According to Di Girolamo / Lee, op. cit., pp. .


Ibidem.
153 There is only one striking exception, namely (PWLYYG MWNT",
.
*pol(i)eg monta) in Yod .
154 Cf. R. Sampson, Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford / New York , p. ;
K. Kutscha, Das sogenannte n-mobile im Alt- und Neuprovenzalischen, Halle (Saale)
(= Romanistische Arbeiten ).
155 ShK, p. . The editor remarks that the situation is similar in the case of the Esther
poem (cf. Neubauer and Meyer, op. cit.; Silberstein, op. cit.)
152

introduction

Marseille and spread in a mostly Northern direction along the Rhne


and towards the East.156 Although all this would seem to tie in with
the fact that Shem Tov wrote the synonym lists in Marseille and was
therefore likely to have used the local linguistic variety in doing so, the
picture is not actually as uniform as it might seem at first glance. For
example, the word QWGWRL", cogorla, for pumpkin used in
Dalet is an Eastern Languedocian157 word. The -it- resulting from Latin
-CT- mentioned in . is also typically found in the Languedoc variety,158
whereas in Provenal it is palatalised to form [t] (usually spelled ch). Our
synonym list contains the -it- forms, aside from a few exceptions in one
of the manuscripts.159
In addition to the features already discussed, which are common
to all three manuscripts, we also find differences that are specific to
each individual manuscript, which can most likely be put down to the
different linguistic varieties used by the copyists. It thus appears that V
and P contain some more typically Languedocian elements. Thus,
T,
(L" SYR
. for lizard), which is used in manuscript V in Kaf , has
to be interpreted as lazert, a variant type (including forms without -t)
that can be classified as Western Provenal and Eastern Languedocian,
encompassing the Montpellier variety, whereas manuscript P shows the
variant (LDBYRT).
. If our interpretation is correct, this variant
represents an incorrect spelling of lauzert, which has been documented
in an Old Languedocian text from the fifteenth century; judging from its
modern distribution, it seems to be an essentially Western Languedocian
and Gascon form.160 However, some other forms in this manuscript

156

Cf. W. v. Wartburg, Von Sprache und Mensch. Gesammelte Aufstze. Bern ,


pp. ; FEW :b; G. Mensching and G. Bos, Une liste de synonymes mdicobotaniques en caractres hbraques avec des lments occitans et catalans, A. Rieger
(ed.), Actes du neuvime Congrs International de lAIEO, Aix-la-Chapelle, aot
, Aachen, in press.
157 And Northern Occitan, Auvergnat in particular, but for the reasons already mentioned we do not consider this here.
158 Cf. M.R. Harris, The Occitan Translations of John XII and XIIIXVII from a Fourteenth-Century Franciscan Codex, Philadelphia , pp. .
159 E.g., (QWYYT", cueita, cooked) in Dalet , () (LY(Y)TWG", leituga,
.
.

lettuce), in Het
T,
. , () (B(Y)SQWYY
. bescueit, biscuit) in Kaf , ()()
faita(s)) in Mem . The situation is rather more complicated, since the -it(P"Y(Y)T"(
. S),
forms also existed in the koin, although the koin was not a point of reference for the
Jewish authors and scribes.
160 Another possibility is that (LDBYRT) represents the modern Gascon variant
.
ladert.

introduction

which might be interpreted as Gascon161 could also be Catalan: see for

example the variants (" SQRB


T),
. escaravat beetle (Het
. ) and

(PRYSGS), pressex, peeches in Pe .


MS O is the only manuscript whose origin we know about (cf. ..):
it was copied in Trets (Provence), which is located on the border of the
modern departments of Var and Bouches du Rhne between Mount
Sainte-Victoire and the Monts Aurliens. This localisation can, in fact,
be confirmed by some specific dialectal features of the manuscript: the
variant (L"YNBYRT;
. for lizard, Kaf ) is clearly identifiable
as lambert, documented in a text from Provence from the fifteenth
century (FEW :a); in modern times, it can still be found in a territory
South of the Loire River, while similar forms can be found all over the
Provenal dialect area.162 We sometimes find typical palatalised results
of Latin -CT- in the same manuscript, which would also indicate a
Nun
Provenal provenance for this manuscript: (QWNTR"YYG,
.
), representing contrach rather than the Languedocian style ()
(QWNTR(")YY
T,
.
. contrait) in the other two manuscripts; the same pala
Het
talisation phenomenon can be observed in (" SQR"BYG,
. ),
probably to be read escaravaig (pronounced [eskaraat]), beetle.
.. Catalan, French and Latin
In spite of the clear Occitan character of the Romance material in Shem
Tovs synonym lists, some Catalan elements can still be found. In Ayin ,

which corresponds to O. Cat. salze, willow (< Lat.


we find (SLZY),
SALICEM). O. Occ. shows the Galloromance shift from l to u after back
vowels and thus has forms such as sauz(e). The same phenomenon can
also be found in () (P(")NYQ"LD, Ayin , MSS P and O), representing Catalan panicalt for Eryngium campestre L.; note, however, that
MS V contains the Occitan form panicaut spelt (P"NYQ"BT).
.
for warts in Yod , manuscript
Another example is (BWRWGS)
P, which seems to be the plural of the Catalan variant borruga very fre
quent in the Pyrenees, whereas the other MSS have () (BRG(")S),

161

ALF maps and .


Cf. MTerMed and M. Pfister, Review of Maria Sofia Corradini / Blanca Perin
(edd.), Giornate di Studio di Lessicografia Romanza. Il linguaggio scientifico e tecnico
(medico, botanico, farmaceutico e nautico) fra Medioevo e Rinascimento, Pisa, , in
ZrP (), pp. .
162

introduction

allowing an Occitan reading berrugas; two possible further Catalan


variants in the same manuscript (escaravat and pressex) have already
been discussed in section ..
Latin word initial L changed to a palatal [] in Catalan, but remained
[l] in Occitan (see also section . below). There are only two cases in
which the Catalan forms are clearly shown, both of which are exclusive to
MS O. One is (LYYTW"RY),
reflecting O. Cat. lletuari, electuary
.
for plates of
in Nun , MS O, while the other is (LYNDYS)
metal in Pe , which also shows the Catalan plural ending -es, thus
corresponding to O. Cat. llandes. A final clear example found in all three
S,
Alef
manuscripts is Catalan anprssecs, peaches, ("NPRYSG
), which is clearly visible in MS P, with the other MSS showing corrupt
or undocumented variants.163
Finding a suitable interpretation for these elements is not easy. The
only cases for which all three manuscripts have Catalan forms are those
mentioned for Ayin and Alef , salze and anprssecs. It might be that
these represent Catalanisms introduced accidentally by Shem Tov from
his mother tongue into the glossary that he had conceived as essentially
Occitan. All other cases are restricted to manuscripts P and O. Are these
Catalan relicts from Shem Tovs original manuscript that the copyist of
MS V substituted for the Occitan variants? Or were they introduced
by the copyists of MSS P and O from a shared ancestor manuscript of
both?164 Note that, since the evidence presented in section . suggests
that manuscript P was copied in the Western Languedocian zone, the
copyist might have come from a place adjacent to the Catalan speaking
territories, or from Catalonia itself. In MS O however, which quite clearly
belongs to the Provenal dialect area, the Catalan features can hardly be
explained by the mother tongue of the copyist. These questions cannot
ultimately be answered in any definitive manner. It also should be kept
in mind that both languages were in close contact with one another and
frequently show mutual influences, particularly in scientific texts.165
Unlike many O. Occ. medical texts, the manuscripts exhibit extremely
few influences from French, or possibly none at all. Most of the elements
which could possibly be interpreted as French are found in MS V. In

163 Some other cases of possible Catalan words or variants, such as those mentioned in
Lamed and Ayin , are less clear.
164 See section . for evidence against a common ancestor manuscript of both P and
O (excluding V).
165 For the field of medicine, cf. CB.

introduction

Bet , ("YYBYR) resembles Old or Middle French aiver, big vase


for serving water at table rather than the Occitan forms of the other
two manuscripts. In Qof , (BLYG"N), resembling Middle French
blingne, egg-plant, is an addition of MS V; the other MSS show no
Romance synonyms in this entry. Finally, in Mem , both MSS V and P
which resembles O. Fr.
contain an unusual form () (P(Y)RYWS),
parevis for paradise; MS O has a variant that can be clearly read as
O. Occ. or O. Cat. paradis.
A considerable part of the non-Hebrew and non-Arabic synonyms are
Latin instead of Romance, although these elements are rarely labeled as
(LTYN),
being instead usually classified as , La#az in the same
.
way as the Romance words (cf. .). This is probably due to the fact
that the O. Occ. medico-botanical language itself had adopted a great
number of Latin terms in their original form, such as camedreos (mostly
designating different types of germander), or blacta bizancia (operculum
of diverse shells),166 which can be found in O. Occ. medico-botanical
texts. These often appear in the genitive case, such as feniculi, xilobalsami,
or papaveris,167 a fact that can be explained by the high frequency of
the genitivus quantitatis in Latin recipe literature.168 We can assume that
these and other words were already in established use in O. Occ. medical
contexts at the time Shem Tov was writing; see section . for some more
specific vocabulary and its possible sources. As the main characteristics
of Latin medico-botanical terms in Hebrew texts have already been
studied by Lola Ferre,169 we shall not go into any great detail on this issue.
We therefore only mention some of the details relevant to understanding
the text. Firstly, as we already pointed out on another occasion,170 the
ending -um is often represented in abbreviated form as - (-W). Some

examples are: (QRPWBLSMW,


carpobalsamum, fruit of the

balsam tree, Gimel ), (GWRGRYSMW,


gargarismum, gargling,

Bet ), ("BL"QTY
See (K"MYDRYWS,
).
. BZ"NTY,
. Sade
.
From f(o)eniculum fennel, xylobalsamum wood of the balsam tree, and papaver

BLSMY,
Ayin ),
poppy. Cf. (PNYQWLY, Zayin ), (SYLW
Pe , MS V).
(P"P"WYRYS,
168 Note that, in compound terms with such genitive forms, there is not always agree
ment between the two forms. See, e.g. (PYTRW
SLYNY
MSD.
WNYKWM, petroselini macedonicum) in Kaf and (PWLYWM MWNTNY,
.
polium montani) in Samekh .
169 See, among others, L. Ferre, La terminologa mdica en las versiones hebreas de
textos latinos.
170 MF .
166
167

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Gimel ), (SNMWMW, cinnamumum, cinnamon, Dalet and


Sade
). A second property worthy of mention is the fact that a hiatus is
.
sometimes marked by using the letter Alef between the two vowels, e.g.
in ("LQTYRY"WM)
for elacterium juice from the squirting
.
cucumber in Samekh .
.. Spelling
In the following, we provide an outline of the spelling system used for
Romance and Latin in the synonym lists of the Sefer ha-Shimmush. It
is largely identical to the one reconstructed by Neubauer and Meyer171
for the Esther Poem and the one described in great detail by Aslanov
sot ha-Kesef (ShK),172 to which the reader is referred for more
for the Sar
information.
The original text in the three manuscripts was unvocalised. All vocalisations which do occasionally appear and are represented in the critical
apparatus are later additions. Romance and Latin vowels are frequently
presented by means of matres lectionis, where Yod represents i and e, Waw
stands for o and u, and Alef for a. In the final position, the vowel a can be
represented either by Alef or by He or by combining both. The marking
of vowels is far from uniform across the three manuscripts, which can be
seen in examples such as lana carpenada plucked wool, represented in
Sade
as (LN" QRPYN" TH,
. MS P), (LN"
.
QRPYN"DH, MS O) and (LN" Q"RPYN"DH, MS V).
As is the case here, MS V often shows the tendency to maximally spell
out the vowels. As for Yod, which usually represents i or e, some of the
spellings which deviate from this norm might be explained by the fact
was most probably pronounced [y] in O. Occ.
that the result of Latin U
as it is today (note that this is not the case for Catalan).173 Thus, the
word for plum was probably pronounced ['pryna] in O. Occ., usually
spelt pruna in Latin characters. MSS P and V show the spelling
pl.) in Alef . Like Latin, the
(PRYN") in Alef , but (PRWNS,
Hebrew alphabet also has no grapheme for the sound [y], which might

171

Op. cit., pp. .


ShK .
173 Cf. POc : The change of /u/ to [y] must have begun after the eigth century,
when Occitan and Catalan started to become distinct, since this change did not occur in
Catalan. Some scholars hold that it was completed by the tenth or eleventh century, while
others claim that it was not completed until the thirteenth.
172

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therefore have led to the author or two of the copyists feeling that Yod
would be a better representation of this sound.174 Another case is
(LYPY", MS P) vs. (LWPYY", MSS O and V) for lupia, epidermal
cist (Alef ).
Diphthongs and triphthongs are often represented, for example:175
[aw] as ("W) or ("B) or (B): (BL"WSTY",
Nun ,
.
MS
V),
balaustia
blossom
of
the
wild
MS P), (BLBSTY",
.
pomegranate tree; (QBQYLY", cauquilha, shell, Nun ,
MS O); ("BRPWMYNT,
. Samekh , aurpiment, MS V);
[je] as (YY): (NWGYYR), nogier, walnut tree (Alef , MSS
O and V); (PWRNYYR), fornier, baker (Pe );

[wei] as (WYY): () (B(Y)SQWYY


T,
. bescueit, biscuit, Kaf
).
All of the Hebrew consonants are regularly used for transcribing Romance, except for the letters Het,
Ayin, Kaf and Tav. The first two are
.
completely absent because the Romance languages in question as well
as Latin do not contain the equivalent sounds. The sounds [k] and [t]
appear as Qof and Tet
. with a very high level of consistency, while a
tendency to use Kaf in some Latin words can also be oberved. Pe is
used for [p] and [f], cf. (PYN, pin, pine-tree, Alef ) versus
(PWQ, foc, fire, Alef , MS O). The letter Gimel represents both [g]
and the palatal affricate []; a diacritic (rafe) is often used in the latter
Thus, O. Occ. gip,
case,176 which we represent as and transcribe as G.

pronounced [ip], is spelt , (GYP,


Gimel ). The same representation
is used for words for which this sound is written using j in Latin script,

probably O. Occ. majorana in Shin . This


see  (MGWR"NH),
grapheme can also represent a voiceless fricative [t]. As already observed
), this sound appears
by Neubauer / Meyer (p. ) and Aslanov (ShK
Nun
as - (-YYG) in word final position, as in (QWNTR"YYG,
.
), contrach. Apart from its usage to denote a plosive, the letter Bet can
also be used to represent the Latin or Occitan v, usually pronounced

174 Cf. ShK , for similar cases. As mentioned in POc , the same alternation
between u and i can be found in O. Occ. words in Latin script, such as onchira and onchura
seasoning and cominal and comunal common.
175 See Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. , and ShK

, for other diphthongs and


examples from other texts.
176 Cf. Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. ; ShK .

introduction

as a bilabial fricative [] in Occitan, e.g. (LNG" BWBYN",


lenga / linga bovina, bugloss, Lamed ). Alternatively, the fricative sound
could also be spelled with Waw, cf. (WYW", viva), the feminine form
of the adjective living, in Gimel , MS P, alongside the plural form
in MS O.
(WYBS),
In Occitan and Catalan, the phoneme /s/ is usually unvoiced in word
initial and final positions as well as in contact with most consonants.
/s/ usually appears as Shin in such environments, as can be seen in

S,
many of the examples already introduced, such as () (SWRB(")
cauls, Kaf , MSS P, O);
sorbas Ayin ); () (Q(")WLS,

(QST"NYY",
castanha / castanya, Ayin , MS V); (" STRYLY"R,
.
.
esterilhar, Gimel , MS P). /s/ is sometimes written using Sade
in word
.
final position in manuscripts O and V, but usually only following Mem,
Nun, Lamed, or Tav: cf. ("LS. , alhs / alls, garlic, plural, Bet , MS O);
(QDYLS. , cadel(l)s, little dogs, Gimel , MSS O and V);177
(QWLWMS. , coloms, pidgeons, MS O in Dalet ); (QWDWNS. ,
codons, quinces, Het
. , MSS V and O); (BLYT. S. , blets, blites, Yod
, MSS O, V);178 (BWLYT. S. , bolets, mushrooms, Kaf , MS O; Pe
, MSS O and V); (MNWDYT. S. , menudets, kind of pastry, pl.,
Lamed , MS O). MS P often has Samekh for the latter cases, i.e. after
179
final Tet,
. bolets, Kaf ).
. see (BWLYTS,
The Occitan and Catalan -s- is voiced when intervocalic and can, as
such, occasionally be found as -z- andin Hebrew spellingas Zayin,
O. Occ. estafizagra for lice-bane, Sade
). The
cf. (" STPYZQR",
.
.
same letter can also represent the affricates [dz] or [ts], cf. (SLZY
for sal(t)ze willow in Ayin ), (BRZYL for brazil or brezil(h),
brazil wood, in Alef ) or (NWZ for notz, nut, in Alef , MS P, and
Alef , MS V). It therefore usually represents spellings with z in Latin
script, independently of its position in the word.180 Intervocalic [z] and
[dz] are frequently represented by Dalet, however:181 O. Occ. cozent (lit.:

177

See He and Lamed for further examples: budel(l)s, armol(h)s.


MS P has BLYDZ without final devoicing instead of BLYT. S. .
179 For other examples, see the spellings of brotz (Lamed ) and menudets (Lamed ).
Note that, in these cases, Latin based Romance script allowed the spelling -(t)z alongside
-ts.
180 Also cf. ("BL"QTY BZ"NTY, Sade ) a drug prepared from the
.
.
.
opercula of gastropods, called in Latin blatta Bisancia, but found as blacta bizancia in
O. Occ. texts.
181 This was already observed by Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. . See ShK

for a
more extensive discussion.
178

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cooking) is spelt (QWDYNT,


. Bet ); O. Occ. mesel / mezel leprous: (MYDYL, Gimel ); O. Occ. / O. Cat. brasas, pl., living
Gimel , MS O). The letter Samekh
embers of coal: (BR"DS,
almost regulary represents the sound that originated from Latin C before
e and i and was then simplified from [ts] to [s] during the thirteenth
century; these words were therefore also spelt with s(s) as well as c or
in Latin characters: / (SYBH / SYB") for ceba or seba (Bet ,);
() (WYS(")) for vea or ves(s)a, Vicia sativa (Kaf ); ()()
for cire(i)ras cherries (Dalet , MSS P and O).182 Samekh
(SYR(YY)R(")S)
also represents Latin C before e and i: (SNMWMW) for cinnamumum (Dalet ); (KRWSY) for croci saffron, nominative plural or genitive singular (Kaf , MS P), (SYPRWM) for cyperum,
root of a type of rush (Samekh ). Note that MSS O and V sometimes
Dalet , MS V) and
have Sade:
see the variants (S. RYYRS,
.
(QRWS. Y, Kaf , MSS O and V) for the words cireiras and croci mentioned above; also cf. (LYMS. ", MS V), alongside (LMS", MSS
P, O) for limas(s)a, slug (Het
. ).
Romance intervocalic -d- is sometimes written using Tet.
. Some examples are (LYQYTH)
for
liquida
liquid
(fem.
adj.)
(
Het
.
. );
(QRMYT"),
. caramida, magnetic stone (Alef ); (QRPYN" TH),
.
carpenada, picked into pieces (Sade
), MS P.
.
As the result of their historical development, both Occitan and Catalan show final devoicing of voiced obstruents after the loss of final vowels. The original Western Romance voiced obstruent still shows up in
the feminine form, see, for example, O. Occ. word pairs such as lop / loba
wolf or lonc / longa long. Our manuscripts often do reflect final devoicing (e.g. (LWP) in Zayin and (LWNQ) in Pe , MSS V,
O), but not across the board: see examples such as (LWNG) in Pe
, MS P, and () (P(")NYQ"LD) for Cat. panicalt, Eryngium
campestre (Samekh , MSS P and O). MS V shows the O. Occ. variant panicaut for the latter case and represents the final consonant as Tet
.
182 Other Romance examples are () ("Q(")SY, acacia, Alef , ), and the
variants belonging to Latin or Romance centonica in Bet . See also Het
. and Lamed
: (QS. YD", cassida, defluxion of the eyes), Ayin : O. Occ. *lentilhassa or O. Cat
lentillassa, prob. duck weed, water lentil: (LYNTYLY"SH),
MS P, similarly
.
with Samekh in O, whereas V has Shin. Note that the spelling with Samekh is also
visible in final position for the result of Latin C before e and i: see (Q(")LS,
calz/cal, chalk) in Samekh and also the representation of laz, latz or the O. Cat.
lla, loop, in Ayin , as well as the variant (NWS for notz, nut), in Alef ,
MS V.

introduction

(P"NYQ"BT).
. Another example is the O. Occ. adjective rosat,

T)
written as () (RWS(")D)
in P and O and (RWS"
. in V (Kaf
, ).
As far as Latin based manuscripts are concerned, the most typical
spellings in modern times for palatal n and l, pronounced [] and []
respectively, are ny and ll in Catalan and nh and lh in Occitan, although
many alternative spellings are documented in the Middle Ages,183 including the simple spelling with l and n respectively. Like Latin, the Hebrew
alphabet also had no characters for these sounds, meaning we cannot
be sure whether [] and [] are always treated as distinct from their
non-palatal versions. In some cases, in fact, no special marking seems
for O. Occ. pinhons pineto have been used, such as (PYNWNS)
cone kernels (Gimel , MS O), (WYRMYLWN), vermelhon a
bontype of (cosmetic) paint (Samekh , MS O); and (BWNYT. S),
hetas / bonyetas, cake(s)), Samekh , MS V. If, however, the Yod is not
interpreted as a vowel in these cases, it could be regarded as a device for
transcribing the palatal sounds. It thus seems the letter Yod is used most
frequently as a means of distinguishing between palatal and non-palatal
sounds for these letters. Thus, palatal n is represented as (NY) in
pinhas / pinyas, pine cones (Alef ) or (PYLNY"), O. Occ.
(PNYS),
*pelanha bark, in Alef (MS P). The last example shows (NYY)
in MSS O and V, () (PYL(")NYY"), also cf. (PWG"NYY",
foganha / foganya, kitchen, fireplace, Bet , O).184 An example of palatal
n in word final position is (" STNYY)
for O. Occ estanh or O. Cat.
.
estany, pond, lake (Lamed ), where MS O shows an isolated examPalatal l is represented
ple of the sequence (YNY): (" ST"YNY).
.
esterilhar,
to stretch (Gimel
as (LY), e.g. in (" STRYLY"R),
.
) or (QWQYLYH, Nun , MS P) / (QBQYLY", MS O),
cauquilha, shell. Here, too, MSS O and V often use two Yods, (LYY),
such as in (WYRMYLYYWN) for vermelhon in MS V, see above,
Samekh , MS V; also cf. (BWTYLYY")
for botelha bottle (Sade
.
.
, MS V), and (P"LYY") for palha / palla, straw (Tav , MSS O,
V). Final [] is often spelled (YYL), as in (QRYST"YYL),
.
representing O. Occ. crestalh or O. Cat. crestall, crystal, glass (Shin ,

183

See Shin and Bet and for examples.


When followed by e or i, the second Y in the spelling (NYY) may also indicate
Samekh , MS P) and (BWNYYT",
the vowel, as in (BWNYYT. S,
. ibidem,
MS V), representing O. Occ. bonheta(s), O. Cat. bonyeta(s). Note, that in this case, MS O

has only one Yod, making the interpretation more difficult: (BWNYT
. S).
184

introduction

MS O) or () (P(Y)NWYYL), fenolh / fenoll, fennel), Shin , MS O,


although it should be noted that the spelling one might expect (LYY)
can also be found: () (P(Y)NWLYY, MSS P and V). A single Yod
only appears rarely, as is the case for ("YL) alh / all, garlic (Bet , MS
P; as opposed to "YYL in MSS O and V). The word for garlic shows
a particularly broad range of different spellings, such as ("LYY) in
Shin , MS P, ("YLY, ibidem, MS V), ("LY, Bet , MS P), ("L,
ibidem, MS O).185
Finally, it is worth mentioning that we often find an epenthetic vowel
(identical to the vowel of the stem) inserted between a sequence of a stop
for prunas plums (Alef , MS
and a liquid, such as (PWRWNS)
O), (BWRWN) for brun brown, dark (Gimel , MS V, Tet
. , MS
O), (PWLWR) for flor (Pe , MSS V, O).

. The Edition and the Commentary


.. Manuscripts
The following subsections provide a brief description of the three manuscripts that form the basis of our edition. A complete codicological and
palaeographic description of the manuscripts is, of course, beyond the
scope of our edition. We therefore simply mention the main information
contained in the relevant catalogues and additional descriptions before
adding some important observations of our own,186 without aiming for
completeness in the process.
... MS Paris, BN hb. (P)
The manuscript is briefly mentioned in the catalogue by Zotenberg,187
which indicates the fourteenth century as the date of the copy. This
manuscript is composed of a large vellum (calfskin parchment) codex
185

Unless the variants with final (Y)Y represent the Latin genitive singular (alii).
We would like to thank Julia Zwink for her help with describing the manuscripts.
We have employed the palaeographical identification method for Hebrew manuscripts
developed by Malachi Beit-Ari as a point of reference and orientation for our observations. M. Beit-Ari, The Makings of the Medieval Hebrew Book. Studies in Palaeography
and Codicology, Jerusalem , pp. .
187 H. Zotenberg, Catalogues des manuscrits hbreux et samaritains de la BN, Paris ,
p. .
186

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containing books to 188 of the Sefer ha-Shimmush. Each page has


two columns normally consisting of lines. The size of the letters varies,
meaning that to letters are written per line, which corresponds to
five to ten words. The text in question, i.e., the first synonym list which
we are editing here, can be found under the title Book on fols a
a (see the reproductions of some pages in the plates section at the end
of this volume).189 The text begins with the author explaining his reasons
forcompiling this kind of synonym list (cf. section .). This is followed by
the synonym list itself, which consists of different sections for each letter
of the Hebrew alphabet presented in alphabetical order. The list is written
as a continuous text, i.e., the terms are not presented separately according
to language in a table or columns, but they are written consecutively with
one word following another. The start of a new entry (i.e., a sequence
of HebrewArabicRomance / Latin synonyms) is marked by a single
point above the line.
There is an even margin on both the left and right hand side of the
text.190 We can observe two different techniques that were used to obtain
this margin, which are also sometimes combined: when there was not
enough space at the end of a line to write the next word in its entirety,
the copyist often filled the line by writing just the first few letters of the
word, which was then written again ab initio at the start of the next line,
with the first letters thus being repeated. This practice was common in
all regions where Hebrew manuscripts were produced.191 However, only
the first two letters of the next word were written in this way in MS P, in
contrast to other manuscripts. When this procedure was not sufficient for
maintaining the even margin, the scribe simply left an empty space before
188

The Bibliothque Nationale in Paris also has book and the beginning of book (MS
hb. ) in its keeping, as well as books to , which were separated from another
copy (on paper, MS hb. ).
189 The pagination appears on the recto of each folio in the upper left corner of the page.
It is written in Arabic numerals and was apparently added by a later hand, possibly when
the codex was bound, since the characteristics and the size of the pen used for writing
differ from the main Hebrew text.
190 Cf. M. Beit-Ari, Hebrew Codicology, Paris , p. . Hebrew scribes would make
use of different methods in order to achieve this aim and avoid leaving a ragged margin
at the end of the written line. The expanding of one of the letters of the last word in a
line was very common, but was only really feasible when writing in a square script (cf.
Beit-Ari, loc. cit.), which is not the case here, where we have a semi-cursive (cf. below).
Another possibility was the insertion of graphical fillers (mostly letters or parts of letters)
at the end of the line (cf. Beit-Ari, loc. cit.); this practice was not used either by the scribe
of the Paris MS.
191 Cf. Beit-Ari, Hebrew Codicology, p. .

introduction

the last word or the anticipating letter(s) described above, a method also
popular among Hebrew copyists.
The extant folios of the Sefer ha-Shimmush in MS P were clearly
produced by one hand (except for the vocalisation; cf. below). The main
body of the text is written in a Sephardic semi-cursive script, with the
headings indicating the beginning of the next letter section written in red
ink in a larger book hand in bold with serifs. Striking similarities to other
Sephardic manuscripts dating from approximately the same time can be
seen concerning the script style of the main body of text.192 The letters
of the Paris MS, which are also decorated with serifs, are comparable
to the ones used in a manuscript from Villaln (from ), which is
reproduced in Yardenis book of Hebrew script.193 The script style used in
this manuscript is a Sephardic semi-cursive script, the so-called rabbinic
style or Rashi script.194 It has a rounded appearance due to the curved
strokes (especially in the case of Bet, Lamed, and Mem). Alef has a sort of
roof instead of the former diagonal stroke195 and is only distinguishable
from Het
. by the small, thin extra stroke on the top of the letter; its left
downstroke ends under the line. The left stroke of Gimel begins at the
bottom of the long right downstroke and becomes a horizontal line. It
has a long left downstroke that ends under the line. The top of the vertical
stroke of Lamed starts very high up, often protruding over the bottom of
the line above; the curved stroke resembles a concave, reclined bowl. The
medial stroke of Shin becomes a nearly horizontal line, beginning slightly
below the top of the left downstroke.

192

The letters used for the headings show some striking characteristic features: Gimel
resembles Nun; only a small part of the vertical right downstroke protrudes over the lower
cross to allow the two letters to be distinguished from one another. He and Het
. are also
quite similar: the left downstroke of He comes very close to the upper cross, so that only a
tiny space separates the two lines, leading to a very close resemblance between the He and
the Het.
. Yod resembles a right angle inclined to its reverse. The top of medial Mem and Pe
appear very convex; the left stroke of medial Mem leans sharply backwards. Final Mem
resembles Samekh. The space between the upper cross of Qof and its left downstroke
is very small, meaning that they almost touch each other. All these characteristics can
also be found in two manuscripts from Toledo, dating from and , which are
both reproduced and described by Yardeni (A. Yardeni, Book of Hebrew Script: History,
Palaeography, Script Style, Calligraphy, and Design, Jerusalem ), pp. . These
manuscripts are classified by Yardeni as written in a typical Sephardic book hand of the
thirteenth century
193 Op. cit., p. .
194 Because it served as the model for the letter-types in which Rashis commentary to
the Bible and Talmud was printed in (ibidem, p. ).
195 Ibidem, p. .

introduction

The strong similarities between the semi-cursive Sephardic script style


of the text in the Paris MS and the style of the manuscript from Villaln
described by Yardeni196 suggest that the two manuscripts originate from
the same region and epoch, namely the medieval Sephardic area. The relevant catalogue at the Bibliothque Nationale dates the copy to the fourteenth century. This corresponds perfectly to the characteristic features
of the square, semi-cursive script style of the letters, which Yardeni sees
as typical for that epoch (thirteenthfifteenth century).197
Some of the entries for Hebrew, Arabic and Romance / Latin words
appear in partially vocalised form. It seems that the vocalisation was
either added at a later date by the same scribe ormore probablyby
another hand. This assertion is based on the fact that the vocalisations
appear only sporadically and that the pen used for making the punctuation marks had a smaller diameter. It might well be that the punctuation marks were made by a reader or corrector, who wanted to make
reading the manuscript easier by indicating the vowel quality of these
entries.198
In summary, we can state that the Paris manuscript was written by one
scribe in a medieval Sephardic script style and was thus produced in all
probability in Spain or Southern France. Based on the catalogue, we can
also confirm when MS P was actually created: the fourteenth century. The
punctuation, occasional notes in the margin and the pagination were all
added by other hands.
... MS Vatican Ebr. (V)
Richler describes the manuscript as a parchment codex containing
folios of . . cm in dimension, which are written on both sides
within a type area of . . cm. The folios are bound in quaternions.199
The manuscript contains two different paginations, both of which were

196

Op. cit., pp. .


A specific feature of this manuscript is a ligature representing the nexus of Alef and
Lamed, which shows the long vertical downstroke of Lamed and the two right crosses of
Alef beginning at the bottom of the vertical line. The ligature appears only at the beginning of a synonym and mainly in Arabic words, where it is used as the definite article. We
also find it in Hebrew words (e.g., entry Alef ), but never in Romance / Latin ones.
198 Some notes were made in the margin on fols b, a, a, a, b, and a,
which were penned by different later hands.
199 B. Richler, Hebrew Manuscripts in the Vatican Library. Palaeographical and codicological descriptions by M. Beit-Ari, Vatican , p. .
197

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added by other hands at a later date in the upper left hand corner. The
paginations are written in (carbon) pencil, in contrast to the main text,
which is written in ink, and differ from each other in their characteristic script style. They both indicate folios (not pages), with the upper
pagination always one number higher than the second pagination system beneath it. Following Richler,200 we use the lower pagination as our
point of reference.
The synonym list appears on fols aa. Following a richly decorated panel containing the title and an indication that the section for
Alef begins here, the text then begins directly with the synonyms; the
explanatory introduction is missing. The terms are arranged in a kind of
table, i.e., every entry fills one horizontal line, with the Arabic, Hebrew
and Romance / Latin synonyms arranged in the vertical columns. Each
page nearly always contains lines, except for the pages where a new
letter section begins. On these pages, the scribe painted an ornamented
panel with the relevant title, which is often additionally decorated with
figures of birds, animals and hybrid creatures.
The text margin is even on the right hand but not on the left hand side,
which is due to the method of representing the synonyms in columns:
the words in a particular language are organised in such a way that they
always start at the same point, one below the other. The copyist of the
Vatican MS therefore did not follow the ideal of a uniform left margin
(cf. above), deciding instead in favour of a clearer text arrangement.201
When the synonyms of one entry are too long or when there are several
variants, which is often the case for the Romance / Latin synonyms, the
text either continues into the left margin at the end of the line in a vertical,
upward way (if only a few words are concerned), or, in the case of a longer
passage, is continued on the line below.
The pages of the codex are ruled using barely visible pencil lines, which
mark the lines as well as the text margin on the right and the left hand
side. The horizontal ruled lines do not extend beyond the vertical margin lines, and the margin lines do not extend beyond the horizontal
lines, resulting in a kind of ruled rectangle on each page. This type of
medieval ruling schema has been categorised by Dukan202 as type C,

200

Loc. cit.
In some cases, the scribe expands the final letter, if one entry perfectly fits one line
(e.g., entry Gimel ).
202 M. Dukan, La rglure des manuscrits hbreux au Moyen-Age, Paris , p. .
201

introduction

sub-category c).203 Dukan observes that this kind of pattern is characteristic of manuscripts originating in the Sephardic region.204
The script style of the MS V is uniform and shows that the text was
produced by a single scribe. The titles indicating the beginning of a new
letter section are incorporated into the main text like in MS P (cf. above).
These titles are written, just like the ones in the Paris manuscript, in a
square book hand, which can be characterized, following Yardeni,205 as a
typical medieval Sephardic script style.206
Concerning the main body of text, the script style can also be clearly
characterised as a medieval Sephardic semi-cursive or rabbinic script
(cf. ..). Similarities to the script in the Paris MS and the example
manuscript presented in Yardeni207 are clearly visible and can be exemplified by looking at the following letters: Alef resembles Het,
. like in MS P,
i.e., the former diagonal stroke has become horizontal and is bent down
at the right end; the small right stroke is perched like a thin flag on top
of it. Gimel has the same form as in MS P, i.e., the former diagonal left
base stroke has become horizontal and lies on the baseline. Medial Mem
shows no base stroke; its right downstroke is curved only slightly to the
left. Final Pe has a striking additional vertical stroke on the left side of the
top. There is a certain amount of space left between the roof and the left
downstroke of Taw; the left downstroke itself is very long and bent to the
left at the end.
Summarising the results of the analysis of the ruling schema and the
characteristics of the script styles, we can state that the features of MS V
correspond to the typical features of Sephardic manuscripts from the
Middle Ages in the same way as those in MS P do (cf. ..). The dating
established by Richler (fourteenth century)208 can also be confirmed by
the observations we have made here.
Notes in the margin can be found on fols a, a, a, a, a,
b, and a. Since they show the same characteristics with respect to
203

Type C-c) has rectrices courtes, verticals courtes, cf. ibidem.


Of some manuscripts which demonstrate this ruling schema, were written
in the Sephardic region (cf. Dukan, op. cit., p. ).
205 Op. cit., p. ff.
206 The following letters support this observation: the left leg of Gimel is long and nearly
horizontal; it starts shortly above the bottom of the vertical downstroke. There is a striking
resemblance to the one in MS P (cf. above). Lamed has a kind of flag at the top, whose
mast (Yardeni, op. cit., p. ), i.e., the vertical stroke, curves to the left. The base-stroke
of Sade
is short and drifts in a downwards slant to the left.
.
207 Op. cit., p. .
208 Cf. Richler, loc. cit.
204

introduction

the script style and the thickness of the writing pen as the main body of
the text, it is probable that they were added by the same scribe, probably
while revising the text.
The Vatican manuscript lacks several entries featured in the Paris
manuscript, but also contains some additional ones (cf. .). In a few
cases, these relate to explanatory terms probably added by the copyist.
... MS Oxford, Hunt Donat (O)
The Oxford manuscript is mentioned in Neubauers Catalogue and in
Beit-Aris and Mays Supplement.209 It is a watermarked paper manuscript copied in the year in a Sephardic cursive script by Asher ben
Abraham ha-Kohen in the city of Trets (Provence). The colophon is erroneous concerning the date of compilation, omitting the notation for ,
which means the Jewish date should be read as [] = (and
not ). This mistake was noted and corrected in the Addenda and Corrigenda to Neubauers catalogue.210 As is generally known, watermarks
are attested only since (Bologna) and, in addition, the colophon
says that the copy was completed on Thursday the th of Shevat; this
date actually fell on a Thursday in (cf. loc. cit.).
The folios of the manuscript, which contains books seven to twentynine of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, have been numbered twice, by folio on the
upper left-hand corner and by page in the middle of the upper margin.
Book twenty-nine features on fol. v to fol. r of the manuscript,
which corresponds to pages to . Following Neubauer, we also
refer to the pagination by folios.
The type area is arranged in two columns each containing or
lines. The synonym list entries start at the top of fol. r. The beginning
of a new letter is indicated by a kind of a centered title, which, in contrast
to the MSS P and V, is neither highlighted by means of another typeface
nor by the use of ornaments. The script is probably the same as the one
used for the main text and is only slightly bigger. On fols r, r, v,
r, r, r, v, r, and v, the title is repeated by means of a
heading line on the top of a column.

209 Op. cit. and M. Beit-Ari / R.A. May, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in
the Bodleian Library: Supplement of Addenda and Corrigenda to Vol. (A. Neubauers
Catalogue), Oxford .
210 Cf. Beit-Ari / May, op. cit., p. .

introduction

The terms are presented in a similar way to MS V, i.e., in a sort of


table. Here too, one line is filled by one entry, and the Arabic, Hebrew
and Romance / Latin synonyms are organised one below the other respectively. As a result, the ideal of an even left text margin was not followed, just like in MS V. The copyist used different methods for very long
entries, which were mostly due to several variants of a synonym existing.
Firstly, he tried to scale down the size of the letters (e.g., fol. r, column b, line ). Secondly and most frequently, the alternative synonyms
are interlined in a smaller character size directly under the main synonym, often introduced by , or (e.g., entry Bet ). Thirdly, in the case
of a very long entry or several alternative Romance or Latin synonyms,
the Romance / Latin part of one entry is continued in an interline in a
smaller character size.
The text is written by a single hand in a medieval Sephardic cursive
script. It bears many resemblances to the Sephardic cursives from the
twelfth to fifteenth century presented and described by Yardeni (e.g.,
the manuscript from Qala#at Aiyub dating from ).211 The script
shows extreme cursive forms with conjoint and merged letter strokes.
The appearance of the characters, which are written with a thin calamus,
is very regular and rhythmical,212 and might show the influence of
Arabic calligraphy (cf. loc. cit.). Some striking characteristic lineaments
of the letters, which can also be observed in the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript
mentioned above, are presented in what follows.
The three strokes of Alef have been merged into a continuously cambered single stroke, which somewhat resembles the shape of a right curly
brace. It also consists of one single curled stroke, which is the result of
the merger of the three strokes, which look like a sickle open to the
left side. The right downstroke of Het
. becomes shorter and inflected
to the left; it is joined to the horizontal roof by a single curved line.
The basic stroke of Tet
. has risen and merged with the right stroke to
form a sort of horseshoe open at the top and is, so to speak, added to
the left vertical stroke. Lamed consists of two strokes: a long vertical
stroke which meets a slightly curved stroke sloping from top right to
down left in the centre. The former horn of medial Mem is pressed
down to the right, so to speak, but is still recognisable as a loop in contrast to the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript, where this part of the letter has
been nearly reduced to a single stroke. Final Mem has become a circle.
211
212

Op. cit., pp. .


Op. cit., p. .

introduction

The roof , the right downstroke, and the basic stroke of Samekh have
been merged into one loop, joined to the left downstroke, which protrudes from the letter like a pillar; the whole letter is reminiscent of a
Latin P. Medial Pe is a long curved downstroke with a short vertical left
stroke. The right arm of Sade
is not made to slope down to the left, but
.
rather joins the top of the left arm in the form of a concave line. The form
of Shin resembles the ones in MSS P and V: the middle stroke joins the
left vertical downstroke at the top; the right dowstroke forms an oblique
base.
The similarities between the script of MS O and the exemplary scripts
in Yardeni unambiguously point to the MS being a clear example of a typical medieval Sephardic cursive. However, in contrast to the calligraphic
character described by Yardeni213 for the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript, the
script in MS O has rather the appearance of a vademecum, intended for
everyday use. This impression is augmented by its lack of ornament, the
headlines and the table-like representation, which also gives it a scientific character. Hence, the cursive script used in the text was not used for
calligraphic purposes but rather for practical reasons due to the fact that
it can be written quickly.
.. Notes on the Manuscript Filiation
and Choice of Base Manuscript
In this section, we shall make some observations on the possible manuscript filiation. These observations cannot be regarded as definitive and
will have to be reconsidered on the evidence of the second synonym lists
(forthcoming), and, ultimately, on the critical edition of the Sefer haShimmush itself.
To begin with, it can be observed that MS P represents the most
complete version of the list: all the entries contained in MSS V and O
can also be found in P, with the exception of two entries unique to MS
O.214 In addition, both MS O and MS V lack around twenty to twenty-five
entries each:
First of all, there is a series of entries present in P but omitted both in
O and V: Bet (BHRMG, last entry of Bet), He (
HDRQWN, penultimate entry of He), Het
Het
. (HPYPH),
.
.
213

Op. cit., p. .
S,
liquorice) is added after Shin , and another one after Shin
One entry (SW

(SZPYN).
214

introduction

TRDYN), Lamed ( L#WNYN


( HLYPWT
.
YMYYM), Sade

S
and Resh ( RMWN
.
.
. PHT)

Shin
HRYM, last entry of Resh), Shin ( SS MSZR),

(SBR"). All of these are repetitions of entries already included in


the respective alphabetic sections,215 usually in slightly modified form.
We can sometimes reconstruct the reasons for these repetitions. For
example, the Romance synonym was left out in entry Lamed , leading to
the whole entry being repeated in complete form as Lamed . In Resh ,
the Arabic term is misspelt. It seems the copyist noticed this and therefore
rewrote the entry correctly, thus forming Resh . It therefore seems that
these entries are either additions to MS P or a corresponding thread of
filiation.
MS V lacks entries that are present in P and O.216 Most of these
seem to be accidental omissions of entries which we may suppose to
have belonged to the original version compiled by Shem Tov, since
they contain vocabulary that can be retrieved in the sources mentioned
in section ., such as the Arukh or Maimonides.217 One exception is
the entry Bet ( BRY DTUMY, cloves of garlic), which
represents the plural of Bet . Note that it is unusual that an entry is
repeated for the plural forms within the text as a whole. Another case is
Yod ( YW#ZR NHRYY), in which the Hebrew lemma seems
to designate water mint, although the Romance term is not equivalent to
this meaning; note also that there is no Arabic equivalent included in
this entry. The preceding entry, Yod (YW#ZR kind of mint),
partially repeats Yod . Similarly, Alef ( "GWZ HWDYY,
last entry of Alef) is a repetition of Alef . It may well be that these
entries do not originally stem from Shem Tov and thus may be additions
originally made to an ancestor manuscript of P and O. An alternative
hypothesis is that they could have belonged to a common ancestor of all
three manuscripts and were omitted either accidentally or consciously by
the copyist of MS V, as they show some incongruities compared with the
rest of the text.218
215

Bet , He , Het
, Resh , Shin , Shin .
. , Het
. , Lamed , Sade
.
Alef , , ; Bet , ; Gimel ; Het
. ; Yod , ; Kaf , ; Ayin ; Qof ,
, ; Shin ; Tav .
217 Qof : the Arabic synonym is that of , which means that entries Qof , and
the beginning of Qof were omitted by error. These entries therefore cannot be additions
of P and O and must have belonged to an ancestor manuscript of all three copies.
218 Note that in Yod it is said that there are six varieties of mint. However, only two of
them are mentioned. It is thus probable that the original entry was much longer, naming
216

introduction

MS O lacks entries that are present in P and V.219 Here too, some
seem to be accidental omissions of substantial entries, i.e., entries that are
based on standard sources. In three cases, however, the last entry of an
alphabetical section is missing, namely in Ayin (#DL), Resh
220
( RWH
In the latter case,
. W#YM), and Tet
. (TRY).
.
the entry is repeated from Tet
,
where,
however,
the
Romance
synonym
.

(PRYSQ, fresc) is missing both in V and in P. One explanation for


this might be that the copyist of MS O had already added the Romance
synonym to Tet
. and thus saw no need to copy Tet
. . Another
hypothesis would, of course, be that V and P had a common ancestor
which corrected the incomplete entry Tet
. by adding the complete entry
at the end of the manuscript. As for the other two, Ayin and Resh ,
it should be noted that these are regular entries that can be retrieved in
relevant sources, and the fact that both are at the end of an alphabetic
section is rather difficult to explain as accidental. This is supported by
the observation that the last four entries in the Shin section (,
SYM;

SR
, SBR;
, SPWLY
H" S. TWMK";
,
.
HR
S
HWR)
are
missing
in
O.
With
the
exception
of
Shin
,
. .
probably an addition of P (see above), the most reasonable explanation
is that these entries were present in a common ancestor of MSS V and P
but not in the version from which MS O was copied.221
The idea that MSS V and P belong to a common tradition different
from that of MS O is corroborated by some observations that concern
the internal structure of the entries and the lexical material itself:
MTPY,
non extinct) is incomplete in MSS
Gimel : (GYR
.
P and V; the original entry is supposed to be (KBRYT
MTPY,
GYR
non extinct sulphur), as in O.
.
other mint varieties. The copyist of a later version may have copied only part of Yod by
mistake, becoming aware of his error when revising the manuscript and leading him to
add the missing parts later, thus giving rise to entries and .
219 Bet , Zayin , Het , Tet , Lamed , Ayin , Qof , , Resh , Shin ,
.
.
, Shin .
220 As mentioned above, Resh , the last entry of Resh in our edition, was added in
MS P.
221 This might not hold for three other cases: Qof ( QTRY HRSYH, the
.
. .
penultimate entry of Qof) is a repetition of Qof . In Bet (BLH) there is no
Romance synonym and the Arabic synonym is a homograph of the Hebrew one; it is
possible that MS O consciously skipped this entry because it seemed self-evident to the
copyist. Lamed (LPWTY), the penultimate entry of Lamed, is a short entry
without Romance that could not be retrieved in the sources, and, in addition, resembles
the entry in Lamed to some extent.

introduction

in Gimel cor The Arabic translation of Hebrew (GYHR)


.
responds to ahmar
red
in
MS
O
and
(probably
by error) asmar
.
brown in MSS P and V.
In Het
. , MSS P and V add the (correct) variant (HLMYT)
.
to the lemma (HLMY).
.
In Alef , P and V have (B"RS. MS. RYM, in the land of
Egypt), but O has (HMS. RYM, the Egyptians).
In Alef , the Romance synonym in P and V is pentafilon, whereas
it is agnus castus in O.
In Gimel , (GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM) the kernels
of the fruits of the chaste tree or Abrahams tree, all manuscripts
display the Romance-Latin synonym grana de agnus castus. It seems
that this entry is an elaboration on Alef , where the plant name
("YLN "BRHM) is first introduced. Here, however, only
MS O shows the Latin agnus castus, whereas P and V have forms
corresponding to the Latin pentaphyllon. It can be supposed that
agnus castus was the original synonym in Alef , which was
changed in the tradition of P and V without adapting the entry
Gimel correspondingly.
P and V sometimes show deviant Romance forms. Thus, in entry Pe
identified as O. Occ. or O. Cat. balays
, MS O has (BLYYS),
which seems
for a kind of ruby, but MSS P and V show (BLS),
to be an error. Another example is Tet
,
where
MS
O shows the
.
S),

plural of the O. Occ. plant name gieissa, spelled as (G"YYS"


whereas P and V have strange, undocumented forms beginning
with Lamed. In the same entry, O has the expected Arabic equiv
corresponding to al-gulubban, whereas P
alent, ("LGLB"N),
and V skip some letters ("LB"N). For similar cases, see Dalet
and Shin .
Although in some of these cases MS O has the more correct and probably
original forms, there are also many cases in which O is more corrupt than
P and V;222 it also lacks a certain number of entries in addition. The same

222 E.g., wrong Arabic word or spelling form: in Alef , , , Het , , Mem ;
.
deviant or defective Hebrew form: Het
. , Kaf . The lemma of Mem is missing, so
that Mem and were contracted to form one entry, Qof and show a similar
contraction; Samekh is mutilated (i.e. it only consists of the Hebrew lemma), Samekh
idem; Samekh , Ayin : the Arabic synonym is defective. Resh : the Hebrew
Lemma is mising; Shin : the Arabic synonym is missing.

introduction

is also true of MS V, as we have seen. MS V has also some deficiencies223


and many additions, which were added at the end of some entries, usually
after the Romance or Latin synonym.224 We therefore decided that our
edition should be based on MS P.225
.. Norms Used in the Edition and
Organisation of the Commentary
The edition and the commentary are presented in integrated form, i.e.
each entry is edited and subsequently commented upon. Each entry
begins with an entry number added by us followed by its edition. We
usually follow manuscript P and list all divergences contained in the
other two manuscripts in the critical apparatus.226 We only changed
words or phrases from P based on either conjecture or material from
MSS O and V on a few occasions and in very clear cases of error or
corruption, which are then mentioned in the critical apparatus. In some
cases, manuscript P has vowelised forms, where the vowel signs were,
however, added by a later hand. In this case, we copied the respective
strings without vowels and reproduced the vowelised form in the critical
apparatus. We use standard conventions for the critical apparatus; see
the list of general abbreviations at the beginning of this volume for the
abbreviations used. After editing each line, it is translated into English;
both the lemmas as well as the synonyms are transliterated here by means
of the transliteration system presented in section . that has been in use
throughout this introduction.
We then proceed to the commentary, which is dedicated to the explanation of the Hebrew and / or Aramaic, Arabic and Romance and / or

223

E.g.: The Romance synonym of Het


. (mosclars fish hooks) is erroneously added
to the preceding entry. Yod : the Arabic synonym is missing. In Kaf , Mem and Pe
the Hebrew Lemma is missing. The lemma of Shin is missing and, since entry Shin
is missing, too, the entry was contracted with Shin .
224 Cf., e.g., Alef , , Bet , , , , Gimel , , Dalet . These additional
explanations sometimes concern additional Biblical or Rabbinic Hebrew synonyms,
references to the Bible, or additional references to relevant sources. It thus seems that
MS V was copied by an expert, who usually tried to add well founded information.
225 Despite the fact that MS P also contains many deficiencies: e.g.: In Mem , the
Arabic synonym is missing; in Samekh , the Romance synonym (sene) was erroneously
added to the following entry; in Qof the Romance synonym is missing.
226 In order to prevent the pages from becoming too complicated, occasional footnotes
to the commentary that offer additional information or introduce literature not previously quoted follow the same numbering as the critical apparatus.

introduction

Latin words and phrases, which are mostly medico-botanical terms.


These were retrieved in the relevant dictionaries and additional sources,
such as rabbinic literature as well as medico-botanical texts of the languages involved; see section of this introduction for the main sources
used.
As for Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic, our aim is not only to document
the lexical material but also to see where a correspondence between
a Hebrew / Aramaic and Arabic term is established elsewhere in the
literature (cf. . above). For the Romance and Latin terms, apart from
establishing their meaning, one of the main goals of the commentary
is to identify the language (cf. ...) they belong to. We have also
considered their identification with Hebrew and Arabic terms as far as
such could be found.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbreviations of Frequently
Cited Texts and Dictionaries
AdOr
AdV
AdVCat
AEY
AH
AK
ALap
ALF
AQ
ARS

AS
ASQ
AT
ATG
AV

Arveiller, R., Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia), Tbingen .


Translatio libri Albuzale De medicinis simplicibus. Ed. by
J. Martnez Gzquez and M.R. McVaugh, Barcelona
(Arnaldi de Villanova Opera medica omnia, vol. XVII).
Arnau de Vilanova, Obres catalanes, volum II: Escrits mdics, ed.
by P. Miguel Batllori, Barcelona .
Auerbach, P. and Ezrahi, M., Yalqut S. emahim, in Leshonenu
(), pp. .
Sachs, N. (ed.), Hilkhot Rav Alfas, vols, Jerusalem .
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. aw le-Rav Hai Gaon, in Leshonenu
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Gilliron, J. and Edmont, E., Atlas linguistique de la France,
vols, Paris .
Anonymous, Qis. s. ur al-Kafi (Summary of Tanhum
Ben Joseph
.
Ha-Yerushalmi, al-Murshid al-Kafi), MS Berlin .
Regimen Sanitatis ad Regem Aragonum. Ediderunt L. GarcaBallester et M.R. McVaugh et Praefatione et Comentariis
Catalanis Hispanisque intruxerunt P. Gil-Sotres adiuvantibus
J.A. Paniagua et. L. Garca-Ballester, Barcelona (Arnaldi de
Villanova Opera Medica Omnia, vol. X.).
Amar, Z. and Serri, Y., Liqqut. im mi-millon shemot ha-refu"ot
shel R. Jonah ibn Janah,
. in Leshonenu (), pp.
.
Amar, Z., Sammemanei ha-qetoret al-pi R. Sa"adyah Gaon, in
Sinai (), pp. .
Assaf, S., Teshuvot ha-Geonim, Jerusalem .
Assaf, S., Teshuvot ha-Geonim mi-Tokh ha-Geniza, Jerusalem
.
Venetianer, L., Asaf Judaeus. Der aelteste medizinische
Schriftsteller in hebraeischer Sprache, three parts, in
Jahresbericht der Landes-Rabbinerschule in Budapest
().


BadGram
BAL
BB
BF

BH
BJ
BK
BKH
BLS
BM
BMA
BMB

BMH
BMMa
BMMb
BMP

BMR
BS

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.
Tanakh. A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the Traditional
Hebrew Text. Philadelphia / New York / Jerusalem .
Thomas, A., Gloses provenales de source juive, in Annales Du Midi (),
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Thomas, A., La chirurgie de Roger de Parme en vers provenaux. Notice sur
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.
Thomas, A., La versification de la chirurgie provenale de Raimon dAvignon,
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EDITION OF SEFER HA-SHIMMUSH,


BOOK 29, SYNONYM LIST 1

ALEF1
. 5 4 3 2

"HLWT or "HLYM, Arab. #NBR, o.l. "NBR" or "YSPRM"


DYBL"NH
Hebrew "HLWT or "HLYM means aloe wood, Aloexyllon Agallochum
and Aquilaria Agallocha, both from India, and features in the Bible, e.g.
Ps : (KB ; CD :; KA :; BM f.; AEY :; FE ff.;
FO ; KT :; LF : ff.).
Arabic #anbar can mean: ) ambergris,6 ) saffron,7 ) wars8 and
) al-ha
. gar al-#anbar: Ambrastein (ambergris stone) (RS, no. and
p. f.).
For the identification of "HLYM as #anbar, cf. Sa#adya on Prov :
(SM ): (I have sprinkled my bed with myrrh,
aloes, and cinnamon): ; Ibn Janah.
(IJ ): * +,-
- (this [term] is explained as sandalwood), and the
gloss in MS Rouen no. : ./ 0,) (according to others it is: #anbar);9
David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :).10
1

Entries have been adapted from G. Bos and G. Mensching, Shem Tov Ben
Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos. , in Jewish Quarterly Review XCII (),
pp. .
2 : O
3 : V
4 : O V
5 : O, om. V
6 L cites various origins for #anbar as ambergris as given in the earlier literature:
It issues from a source in the sea: a fish, marine beast, or a vegetable in the bottom of the
sea; cf. IBF . It is now generally considered to be a morbid secretion of the sperm
whale intestine, which is fragrant when heated.
7 L ibid.
8 The yellow powder obtained from Memecylon tinctorium Willd. or Flemingia
rhodocarpa Bak. (SP ).
9 For the glosses in MS Rouen, cf. the extensive discussion in A. Maman, Comparative
Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages. From Sa#adiah to Ibn Barun (thth C.).
Translated into English by David Lyons, Leiden , pp. .
10 For David b. Abraham al-F
as (th century) and his Kitab Jami# al-Alfaz. see
Maman, Comparative Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages, pp. , abbr. MCS. As
Maman demonstrated, al-Fas consulted the biblical translations and commentaries of his
predecessors, including B. Nahawendi, Daniel Qumisi, J. Qirqisani, Salmon b. Yeruhim,
.
and Sa#adya (ibid., pp. ).

shem tov, synonym list

The Latin, O. Occ. or O. Cat. ambra/anbra (MLWB :; DuC :c;


FEW :; RL :b; DCVB :a; DECLC :b; RPA , ,
; AdV , ) means, just like the Arabic equivalent, ambergris.
In O. Cat., the form was rather ambre (DCVB loc. cit.; DECLC loc. cit.),
documented since the th c., which would also be a possible reading.
The term esperma de balena is documented for Cat. (DCVB :b;
DECLC :a). A corresponding O. Occ. term could not be found in the
dictionaries, but may well have existed, see the O. Occ. esperma sperm
(RL :ab), and balena whale (RL :a). It designates the waxy
substance obtained from the oil in the head of the sperm whale, known
as spermaceti. Nevertheless, as is the case here, it was used in the sense
of ambergris, like in the Alphita (see Sin :; CA ). Since ambergris
is found floating on the ocean or cast ashore, it was thought to be the
gum of a submarine tree (gummi cuiusdam arboris sub mari nascentis,
Alphita, loc. cit.). Also cf. O. Sp. anbra/alanbar (de balena) (Sin b;
DETEMA :b), and O. Fr. esperme de baleine (FEW :b).
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. ambra as Arabic #anbar, cf. AdV
, .
. 12 11
"ZWB, Arab. S. #TR, o.l. MWNYGTH
.
Biblical Hebrew "ZWB means hyssop, not Hyssopus officinalis L., which
does not grow in Palestine, but probably Origanum maru L., or Majorana
syriaca L. (KB ; CD :; KA : f.; BM ; AEY :; DAS :;
FH ; FM ; FO ff.; FZ ff.; KT :; LF : ff.).
Arabic s. a#tar means origan, Origanum (DT :; M ). The Arabic
s. a#tar features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (e.g. XX, ) and is
translated by N as: and by Z as: / / ("ZWB,
i.e. "WRGNW/"WRYGNW).
For the identification of "ZWB as .sa#tar see Sa#adya on Ex ::
(Take a bunch of hyssop): (S ; cf. RO );
IJ : : 123 (4 (a bunch of hyssop); and SF :. However,
Sa#adya on Ps : has: (ST ); cf. Ibn Barun (WB ): 56& (see as
well, ibid. n. , pp. ).
We could not identify the vernacular term MWNYGTH
. in MS P, at
least with respect to Catalan or Occitan. For other Romance languages,
11 : V passim
12 : O

alef

we found the Italian monegheta with the meaning Centaurea cyanus L.


(PFlor ). This form is characterised as ancient by Penzig; cf. also
the modern forms moneghette (Lombardian, Valtellina) and muneghetta
(Ligurian, Genua) with the same meaning. Similar Italian dialect forms
(Lombardian, Como) are moneghett (PFlor ) and moneghett salvadegh, meaning Convallaria majalis L. and Polygonatum anceps
Moench. (PFlor ) respectively. MSS O and V suggest the Catalan reading mongeta (DCVB :), which means various types of Phaseolus and also Anagyris foetida and would thus totally diverge from the
meaning of the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms as is the case for the Italian
forms mentioned above. Since MS V adds the synonym "WRYGNWM, i.e.
the Latin origanum oregano (Origanum heracleoticum Reichb. or Origanum vulgare L.), marjoram (Origanum marjorana) (NPRA ), we
might also suppose that the vernacular term is a corrupt form of Lat. or
Romance majorana (see entry Shin ). This hypothesis is not very probable either though, because, firstly, all three manuscripts are fairly uniform
with respect to this word, and, secondly, we find the same word with the
same synonym in list (entry Mem ).
. 14 13

"WG, Arab. SWM"Q, o.l. SM"Q


The Mishnaic term "WG means sumac, Rhus coriaria L. (JD ; LW :;
KA :, : f.; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ; FZ f.;
KT :, :; LF : ff.).
Arabic summaq is derived from Aramaic summaqa red (SDA ;
LF :; LA f.:) and also means sumac, Rhus coriaria L. and Var.,
or its berry, Anacardiaceae (L ; D :; DT :; M ; DAS :,
; LF : ff.; cf. as well Samekh no. below). The term features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ; XXII, ) and is transcribed
by N and Z as: or .
For the identification of both terms, cf. Alfaz. al-Mishnah (SAM
:),15 Arukh (KA :). In his commentary on mPeah ., Maimonides identifies as: (og = Syrian sumac) (MK :).

13 : P V
14 : O V
15 While Allony attributed these lexical explanations to Sa"adya Ga"on, Abramson
(Millon ha-Mishnah le-Rav Sa"adya Ga"on, Leshonenu (), pp. and subsequently Maman (MCS , n. ) argued that they are not Sa"adyas at all. According to

shem tov, synonym list

For the term indicated as vernacular, the Alphita (Sin , n. )


uses M. Lat. sumac as a synonym to anagodam (maybe Ferula assa
foetida, see Sin b, or Rhus coriaria, see CA ). In O. Occ., sumac(h)
or simac, Rhus coriaria, is documented since the th c. (DAO :;
FEW :b; RL :b; PSW :b; CB , , ; RPA ); in
O. Cat. (sumac(h)) since the th c. (DECLC :b; AdV , , ).
For the identification of Lat. sumac/O. Cat. sumach as Arabic summaq,
cf. AdV , .
. 18 17 16
"MYT", Arab. N#N#, o.l. MNT"
.
Hebrew "MYT" means ammi, Ammi visnaga, and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; KA :, :; AEY :; LA
ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic na#na# means peppermint (DT :; M ; DAS : f.; cf.
as well Dalet no. ).
For the identification of both terms, cf. R. Hananel19 on bShab a:
: ; cf. Rashi (ibid.): , : :
(in a similar way concerning "MYTH; later on (see bShab a),
the text explains what "MYTH is, namely ninya, minta). Since the proper
Semitic form is n or n, it is easy to understand how this form
was taken to be an assimilated form of and then assumed to be
identical to ; i.e., mint (cf. LA ff.:).20
MNT"
. is Latin or Romance menta mint (O. Occ. or O. Cat; see, among
others, NPRA ; FEW :ab; DECLC :a).
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. menta as Arabic na#na#, cf. AdV
, .

Brody (The Geonim of Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, New Haven
, p. ), Allonys identification was correct, as confirmed by further manuscript
discoveries in the Genizah, along with a comparison of citations in Se"adyahs name and
interpretations contained in his other works.
16 : VO
17 : O (cf. entry )
18 : VO
19 For R. Hananel (/) and his commentary on the Talmud see I.M. TaShma. Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit la-Talmud. vols. nd rev. ed. Jerusalem , vol. ,
pp. .
20 See as well I. Loew, Mlanges de Lexicographie Rabbinique, Revue des tudes Juives
(): , no. (pp. ).

alef

. 21
"S", Arab. "S, o.l. NYRTH
.
Aramaic "S" means myrtle, Myrtus communis L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBB b (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :,
:; KT :, ; LF : ff.). Its Hebrew equivalent is (KB ;
JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY :; FO ; FM ; IJS :;
KT :, ; LF ibid.).
Arabic as, which is possibly a loan translation from the Aramaic
(FF ), also means myrtle (DT :; M ).
Sa#adya on Is : translates with as:
(I will plant cedars in the wilderness, acacias and myrtles and
oleasters): (S ); see
as well IJ , SF :. The Arabic as also features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N and Z as: . For
the identification of as rayh
. an, see as well Ayin no. .
NYRTH
. is O. Occ. nerta for myrtle (FEW :bb). This form
with n- seems exclusively Occitan, the Cat. forms being murta or murtra
(DCVB :a; DECLC :a). For the use of nerta and murta in other
Hebrew-Romance synonym lists, see HebMedSyn .
. 24 23 22
TH
"YRWS, Arab. SYSNBR, o.l. BLSMY
.
Hebrew "YRWS is the Mishnaic term for iris, Iris pallida L. (JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FM ; FZ ff.;
LF : f.).
Arabic sisanbar is a corruption of sawsan barr (wild lily; cf. DT :;
LF :). For their identification, cf. Maimonides on mKil .: :
(iris is sisanbar which is the kind of
mint which has broad leaves) (MK :; cf. LF :). For Arabic sawsan,
cf. Shin no. below.
It seems that SYSNBR has been misinterpreted as a Romance form
of Lat. sisymbrium25 for a type of mint, probably Menta silvestris or

21 : VO
22 :
23 : O

om. V

24 : O
25 For the Latin word (< Greek ); see Sin , n. ;

, n. ; :; .

shem tov, synonym list

Menta aquatica, cf. NPRA ; CA (e.g. O. Occ. sisanbra, O. Cat.


sisimbri, M. Fr. sisimbre, see CB ; DECLC :a; FEW :b). This
confusion is due to the fact that the second term indicated as vernacular,
TH,
BLSMY
i.e. Lat. balsamita,26 also designated a type of mintit is
.
used as a synonym for xisimbrium (NPRA ; Sin :; CA ).
This confusion is not an isolated case, since the Arukh (KA :) also
explains "RWS as SYSYMBR##W (It. sisimbro). According to the Arukh,
sisimbrio is a corruption of sawsan barr in correspondence with our
hypothesis.
. 29 28 27

"GWZ HWDYY, Arab. N"RGYL,


o.l. NWZ "YNDY"H
Hebrew "GWZ HWDYY means coconut, Cocus nucifera L. (BM , s.v.
; LF : f.).
Arabic gawz hind or the more common nargl also means coconut
(cf. M and LF : f.). Arabic gawz hind features, e.g., in the Hebrew
translation of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun by Zerahyah
Hen,
where it is
.
.
translated as: .30
The vernacular term corresponds to O. Occ. *nos (or notz) india
Indian nut; for nos/notz, see RL :a; CB ; cf. also entry Alef
; cf. the M. Lat. nux indica (Sin , n. ), O. Sp. nuez indica o
nuez de India (Sin :; :; :; a). In the dictionaries we
consulted, the adjective indi is only documented with the meaning
violet (as a derivation of the noun indi for indigo, see RL :b and
DECLC :b), but it is attested in other compound expressions like
mirabolans indis with the meaning Indian (cf. entry He in our edition).
For the identification of this term and the Arabic synonym commented
upon above, see the entry Nuez indica e nuez de Yndia, nara(n)gil in
Sin :, probably taken from the index to the Latin translation of Ibn
Snas K. al-Qanun. The corresponding Cat. term is nou dIndia coconut
(DECLC :a), documented since .
26 Sisymbrium (and its variant sinsybrium) is used as a synonym for balsamita in the
Alphita (Sin :; CA ). In the Alphita, this term is also used for other types of
mint (prob. Menta sylvestris and Menta rotundifolia). According to CA , Balsamita
hortulana = sisimbrium = Chrysanthemum Balsamita.
27 : V
28 : O V
29 : om. OP
30 MS Oxford, Opp. Add. fol. (cat. Neubauer ), fol. a.

alef

. 32 31
ZND, o.l. PYR" PWG
"BN R#P, Arab. H
. GR
Hebrew R#P, plur. R#PYM, means ) flint and ) glazed tile, and
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in yBer VII, b, where it is
stated that the Lord made him (Adam) find two flints which he struck
against each other to produce fire (JD ; LW : f.; KA :;
BM ; KT :, ).
Arabic ha
. gar az-zand (= *az-zinad?) is, according to D :, s.v. ha
. gar
az-zinad (?): pierre briquet, silex (flint) (cf. al-Idrs (IJS :):
ha
. gar an-nar: . . . wa-huwa ha
. gar az-zinad) (cf. MS O). The term zand
actually means A piece of stick, or wood, for producing fire (L ).
Maimonides on mMen . (MK :) explains the term as:
(cf. L s.v. 7
: A kind of stones, which have holes and upon which
a fire is lighted and kept up until they are thoroughly burnt [ . . . ]; baked
bricks).
The vernacular term according to MS P and MS O, i.e. PYR" PWG or
PYYR" PWQ respectively, could be read as O. Occ. *peira fug for flint
stone (cf. O. Occ. peira stone, FEW :b and foc/fug fire, FEW :a).
Cf. the modern dialect forms quoted in FEW :b and TrFel :c,
e.g., peirafuec in a dialect of the Alpes in the Dauphin, and in DFO
:b, peiro-fioc. For O. Occ., the FEW documents the form peyrafuga
silex dont on peut tirer des tincelles avec un morceau dacier (i.e., silex
which serves for producing sparks with a piece of steel, documented in
the th c.), commenting that the word seems to have been misspelt
(FEW :a, n. ). MS V only includes the first element, *peira. We can
exclude a Cat. variant here, which would be pedra de foc (DECLC :b;
DCVB :b).

31 :
32 :

O V
O V add. V

shem tov, synonym list


34 33

36 35

o.l. PNY" S MYNWDS,


these are the black
" S. TRWBLYN,
Arab. QS. M QRYS,
.
seeds inside the pine cones
Hebrew " S. TRWBYL/"S
TRWBYL,
plur. " S. TRWBLYN/"S
TRWBLYN,
from
.
.
.
.
Greek (KG :; LS ) means pine cone and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mAZ . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
FM ; FT ; LF : ff., f.).
Arabic qadm
. qurays means the seeds in the cones of Pinus picea
(DT :; FrA ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mAZ . (MK :):
: (pine cone, namely, the
seed of the pine which is also called qadm
. qurays) (cf. LF : f.).
PNY" S MYNWDS is the plural of O. Occ. *pinha menuda/O. Cat.
*pinya menuda. O. Occ. pinha / O. Cat. pinya is a pine cone (RL :a
b; DAO :; CB ; DECLC :b); menut (fem.: menuda) means
small (RL :a; DECLC :a), so *pinhas menudas should be interpreted here as small pine fruits, i.e. the seeds, as opposed to the big ones,
namely the pine cones. For the usual names of the pine seeds, see Gimel
. The variant used in MS V, PYYRS (peiras, see entry Alef ), with the
meaning seeds could not be found in our Occ. and Cat. sources, but note
that pierre in Mod. Fr. is also used to refer to a small hard object similar
to the seeds of cherries and the like (cf. FEW :b) and M. Fr. pierrette
as seed or stone which can be found in certain fruits (cf. FEW loc. cit.).
Also cf. entry Alef .
. 38 37
o.l. BLNQYT.
"SPYDN", Arab. "SPYD" G,
Aramaic "SPYDN", read "SPYDK", is white lead and features as
or in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b,39 where it forms one of

33 : V
34 : O V
35 : V
36 :, om. O V
37 :
38 : O
39

add. V

om. V

See Meyer S. Feldblum, Dikdukei Soferim. Tractate Gittin. Annotated variant

alef

the ingredients for a compound remedy for anal worms (JD ; LW :;


SDA ; KA :, :; GS ; Low XXXVII; PB ).
Arabic isfidag also means white lead (L ; D :; GS , f.).
For the identification of "SPYDK" as isfidag, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit
b, p. . R. Hananel
explains the term as: = =)
.
on bGit b, p. ;
()86, cf. LO Liqqut. ei Perush R. Hananel
.
see as well Arukh (KA :). The th century physician, alchemist and
Kabbalist Hayyim
Vital calls this mineral: (fol. a, no. )40
.
41
or (BLNQYTY)
. (fol. a, no. ).
O. Occ. blan(c)quet (RPA , , ; CB , , , ) is
cruse, i.e. white lead; O. Cat. idem (DECLC :a; AdV ).
For the identification of Romance blanquet as the Arabic isfidag, see
AdV .
. 43 42
"STYS,
Arab. NYL, o.l."YNDY
.
Hebrew "STYS,
from Greek  (LS ; KG :) means woad, Isatis
.
tinctoria L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :; DAS :; FH ; FM ;
FZ f.; KT :, ; LF : ff.).
Arabic nl means Indigo tinctoria L.; cf. DT :: The translators
did not find an equivalent for sat.s. And so it happened that the early
Arab writers confused the  of Dioscurides, glastum of Plinius, Isatis
tinctoria L., woad, Cruciferae, with the  of Dioscurides, indicum
of Plinius, Arabic nl, Indigo tinctoria L., Indigo, Indigoferae, see as well
DT :; M , ; DAS :, , f.; IJS :.
For the identification of "STYS
as nl, cf. Alfaz. al-Mishnah (SAM
.
:); Arukh (KA :); Maimonides on mKil . translates as:
(an-nla
g) (MK :),44 a variant for (an-nl); NZ fol. a
reads: ("STYS,
Talmudic, in
.
Arabic nl and in o.l. indigo).
readings culled from MSS and Genizah fragments and Talmudic commentaries from
ce to ce, New York .
40 Cf. Gerrit Bos, Hayyim Vitals Practical Kabbalah and Alchemy: a th century
.
Book of Secrets, Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy, vol. (): , p. .
41 Ibid. p. .
42 : V
43 : VO
44 See as well his commentaries on mShebi . (MK :); and mShab . (MK :).

shem tov, synonym list

The Romance form "YNDY is the usual O. Occ. or O. Cat. term indi for
indigo (RL :ba; DECLC :bb).
. 47 46 45
"YBR"T"; Arab. "BHL, o.l. GYNBRY
Aramaic "YBR"T" or BRT" means juniper, Juniperus drupacea Labill.,
Juniperus Excelsa L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBB b
( :) (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :; FEB ff.;
FM ; FO f.; LF : ff.); the Hebrew equivalent is . See as well
Bet no. .
Arabic abhal means savin, Juniperus sabina L. (L ; D :;
DT :; M ).
For the identification of abhal as "YBR"T", cf. HTG :
and is in Arabic al ("BR"T" comes from HBRWS
abhal); see as well ibid. . According to al-Idrs (IJS :), 09 is called
;
 and <)
 in Syriac.
O. Occ. and O. Cat. ginebre is Juniperus communis (PSW :b
a; DECLC :bb). The variant used in MS V, GYNYYBRY,
seems to represent a diphthongised form that could not be found in our
O. Occ. and O. Cat. sources. But note that DAO : gives a Mod. Occ.
(Languedocien) jhinibr and that similar forms are frequent in other
Romance languages (e.g. O. Fr. geneivre, Fr. genivre, cf. FEW :b;
Aragonese hinieblo, jiniebro, cf. DECLC :b).
. 49 48
"LH, Arab. BTMH,
o.l. PYN
.
Hebrew "LH means terebinth, Pistacia terebinthus L., and features in
the Bible (e.g. Gen :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. mShebi . (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY :; DAS :; FEB ff.;
FM ; FO ff.; FZ f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic but. m(a) also refers to the terebinth (DT :; M ).

45 :
46 : V

47 : O V
48 : O V
49 :

add. V

alef

For the identification of "LH as but. m(a), cf. Sa#adya on Gen : (S ):


(and Jacob buried them under
the terebinth that was near Shechem):
; see as well IJ , and SID f.:. The Arabic term is a loan
translation from Aramaic, cf. Targum Onkelos (ibid.):
.50 (cf. FF ; MS. V).
O. Occ. pin / O. Cat. pi(n) is pine tree (RL :a; DECLC :b).

. 52 51
or BSD, o.l. QWRYL
"LMWG, Arab. MRG"N
Hebrew "LMWG, plur. "LMGYM, indicates a precious wood not specified
any more closely [ . . . ] trad. sandal-wood and features in the Bible (in the
plur. only), e.g. in Song :, and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bShab b
(KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; FEB ff.;
FO ; LF : ff.). In Rabbinic literature, it is identified, amongst other
things, as coral. For instance, in bRH a it is stated: :
("LMWGYN is KSYT", i.e., coral; cf. LW :: eig. was vom Meere
bedeckt ist: ) Koralle (actually something which is covered by the sea:
) coral); see as well FZ ; LF :; SB :).
Margan is the Arabic equivalent to "LMWG for the meaning coral (E.I.2
: f., s.v. mardjan (A. Dietrich)). Bussad is the Persian term and is
often used as a synonym although, strictly speaking, it is the root of the
coral as well as the subsoil to which it is attached; see Dietrich, ibid.;
VL :, s.v. bussad/busad, bissad/bisad; LF :; SP .
For the identification of "LMWG as margan, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot (EG ), and Maimonides on mKel . (MK :)
(cf. LF :). NZ fol. a reads:
("LMWGYM, in Arabic margan, o.l. QWR"LLY). For the identification
of margan as bussad, cf. Ibn Janahs
. K. at-Talkhs. as quoted by al-Idrs
(IJS :; cf. AS ); see as well ShT , no. .
The vernacular form QWRYL/QWR"YYL seems to reflect the O. Occ.
cora(i)l(l/h) or O. Cat. corayl alongside corall coral (RL :a; FEW
:ab; CB , ; DCVB :a; DECLCL :b). The Cat.

50 See A. Berliner, Targum Onkelos. Herausgegeben und erlutert. vols. Berlin ,


vol. , p. .
51 : VO
52 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

coral(l) could also designate various types of plants: Cotyledon orbiculata, Crassula arborescens and Crassula coccinea (DCVB loc. cit.). As a
plant name, in O. Occ., only coral is documented, which designates the
oak tree and its wood (DAO :; RL :a; PSW :a), but does not
match the form in our text, although this meaning resembles that of the
Hebrew lemma.
The Cat. coral is identified as busad wa huwa #uruq al-margan (AdV
).
. 54 53
"GWZ MQY", Arab. GWZ "LQY, o.l. NWS BWMYQ"
Hebrew "GWZ MQY" is vomic nut, Nux vomica, Strychnos nux vomica
(BM , s.v. ; LF : f.), and was possibly coined by Shem
Tov after the Arabic gawz al-qay". Subsequently, we find the term as
(cf. BM , but no source reference) and attributed to ha-RZ
(= Zerahyah
Hen)
in a marginal note to the term (NWZY
.
.
BWMTY)
in
Moses
ibn
Tibbons Hebrew translation of Maimonides On
.
the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ).

Gawz
al-qay" is the Arabic equivalent (DT :; M ).
The Hebrew transcription NWS represents O. Occ. notz (see entry
Alef ), so most probably the whole expression represents an O. Occ.
*nos/notz vomica. This term was modelled after the Medieval Lat. term,
nux vomica vomic nut, according to the Alphita (see Sin :; CA ),
where it is identified as nux indica (Cocos nucifera L.). Cf. the O. Fr.
noiz vomice, M. and Mod. Fr. noix vomique (FEW :ab), O. Sp.
nuez bomica (Sin loc. cit.). We might be tempted to exclude Catalan here,
which would be nou rather than notz or nos (DECLC :a), but note
that the development from word final /ts/ to the semivowel -u can only
be found in writing from the th c. onwards, although the sound shift
is supposed to have happened earlier (cf. BadGram f.; MollGram
; TermMedOc ). For vmic, vmica causing vomiting, documented
since , cf. DECLC (:a).

53 : O
54 : V

alef

. 56 55
"RY H"RS. , Arab. M"ZRYWN, o.l. LWRYWLH
Hebrew "RY H"RS. , lit., lion of the earth, designates Daphne mezereum
L. and Var. The Hebrew term is not attested in secondary literature (cf.
BM , n. ) and was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation
of the Arabic =(> %& which is, in turn, a loan translation (via Syriac?,
cf. LA f.:) of the Greek  (LS ; DT :, esp. n. ; cf.
al-Idrs (IJS :): =( % ,
2 . . . ?(67).
Mazaryun is the standard Arabic term for the same plant (cf. DT :;
M ). It features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is translated by N as: (LBRY"WLH) and by Z as:
(M
azaryun, i.e. L"WRY"WL").
Laureola is Lat. or O. Occ. (see the quotations from N and Z above
and Sin :: Anabula, i. mezerion, i. laureola; RPA ; cf. also
Sin :, :, a; CA ). In NPRA , it is pointed out that
laureola/lauriola was used as nom des plantes dont la feuille a plus ou
moins la forme de celle du Laurier (i.e., name for plants whose leaves
more or less have the form of those of the laurel), e. g. Daphne oledes L.,
Daphne oleaefolia L., Daphne gnidium L., among others. For O. Cat., see
the quotation given in DCVB :a: Pllules de riubrber que segons
Rasis sn de laureola (i.e., Rhubarb pills that, according to ar-Raz, are
made of laureola, Cauliach Coll.).
For the identification of Lat. or Romance laureola as Arabic mazaryun,
see AdV and GHAT :. Cf. as well al-Idrs (ibidem): . . . ?(67
?( @AB
-) (M"ZRYWN . . . and in French LWRYWLH).
.

60 59 58 57

"PSYQYM", Arab. SW"K, and this is the bark of the walnut tree, o.l.
PYLNY" D"RBRY DYNWGYR
"PSYQYM", a corruption of either  or  everything woven from palm leaves, or  (cord) (KG :) means a (rope)
55 : O V
56 : O W

57 : O
58 : O V
59 : om. OV
60 :

O eD V"aYA ! P "

shem tov, synonym list

twisted of palm leaves or cocoa nut fibres (JD ; LW :; KA :,


:; LA :). The term features in bErub a: R. Assi ruled: One
must measure only with a rope of "PSYQYM". What is "PSYQYM"?
R. Abba replied: NRGYL". What is NRGYL"?R. Jacob replied: A palmtree which has only one bast.61
Arabic siwak means A tooth-stick; a piece of stick with which the teeth
are rubbed . . . [commonly] a piece of stick of the [kind of tree called]
arak (Salvadora Persica L.) (L ; D :; DT :, s.v. But. iryun
()).62
We do not know how "PSYQYM" and siwak came to be identified; Lw
(LF :) remarks that he does not know the Aramaic name of Salvadora
persica, Arabic arak.
O. Occ. *pelanha darbre/albre de nog(u)(i)er lit. means bark of the walnut tree. See RL :b pelalha pelure, corc (peel, bark); PSW :b
pelonha with the same meaning, and a Mod. Languedocian form pelagno
(TrFel :b) with the change from final -a to -o typical for Mod. Occ.
This form presupposes the existence of an O. Occ. *pelanha, which is
exactly what we find here. For nog(u)er walnut tree, see FEW :b, and,
for the variant with the diphthong (noguier), see CB , . In O. Occ.
and O. Cat., we find both arbre (MS O) and albre (MSS P and V) for tree
(DAO :; FEW :a; RL :b; DECLC :ab; DCVB :b).
We can exclude Cat. here which would be *pelaina darbre de noguer. Cf.
for pelaina DCVB :a; DECLC :a; for noguer see DCVB :a;
DECLC :a. Also cf. the introduction.
.

68 67 66 65 64 63

"B TRM
HBN, Arab. M"HYZHRH, o.l. P"YRY "YGNS PYL or "NTYP
.
. TRY
.

and Latin "QWLWS QWNSYLY


S
"B TRM
HBN: This term, lit. meaning the father before the son, is
.
neither attested in the current dictionaries nor in secondary literature.
61

All our quotations from the Talmud are derived from The Soncino Talmud.
See as well Gerrit Bos, The miswak, an aspect of dental care in Islam, Medical
History, ,, :.
63 : O
64 : O V
65 : O V
66 : O V
67 : V, om. O
68 : V"! P
62

alef

It is possible that it was coined by Shem Tov after the Romance *peire
enans fil(h) or *paire enans fill mentioned below.
Mahzahra is not Arabic but rather Persian; cf. VL : f.: n.c.
cortex radicis plantae valde niger, iecori piscis similis et pisces necans;
SC : A poisonous yellow-flowering milk-grass which, thrown into
water, intoxicates the fish and brings them to the surface. Its Arabic
equivalent is mahzahrag and refers to the seed of Anamirta cocculus
Wight et Arnott (Menispermaceae); cf. SP ; ID :; a synonym is C%
D' (fish poison). According to Lw (LF :), there are no Hebrew
or Aramaic equivalents.
The third synonym of the vernacular variants corresponds to Lat.
oculus consulis; cf. the entry in Sin :, based on the Alphita (cf.
CA , Oculus Christi est herba, et oculus consulis est altera herba
similis illi), where the meaning Bachminze (i.e. Menta aquatica) is
given. The second synonym, "NTYP
according to MS P, could be
. TRY,
.
identified as a form belonging to the Lat. antipater (either the accusative
antipatre(m) or a form which is corrupt or was adapted to Romance,
such as *antipatre). M. Lat. antipater figures in MLWB :a with the
meaning species plantae. The identification of oculus consulis as antipater
is frequent, but the exact meaning is very difficult to determine. In
addition to the meanings given above, FAntNic indicates Anthemis
tinctoria L., Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. and Bellis perennis L. In other
texts quoted there, antipater is also documented as filius ante patrem,
cf. Matthaeus Silvaticus, quoted in FAntNic (ibid.): Oculus consulis
est herba dicta filius ante patrem vel oculus Christi. This quotation
is particularly interesting because it gives us an indication regarding
the interpretation of the first vernacular synonym, P"YYRY "YNY" S. PYL
according to MS O, which could not be retrieved elsewhere. Following
MTerMed, this expression has to be read as O. Occ. *peire enans fil(h)
or O. Cat. *paire enans fill, thus representing an inversion of the Lat.
term filius ante patrem; for peire/ pa(i)re father cf. RL :b and
DECLC :b; for enan(s), enant before, in front of RL :a and
DECLC :a; for fil(h)(s)/ fill son RL :a and DECLC :b. A
form which could be represented by "YGNS (MS P) was not found. In
CB , we find the term payre e filh, interpreted as melliloto, but it
is not clear if this term bears any relation to our term. MS V gives the
variant PYYRY "NNS. QYPYL, which is difficult to interpret; it might be
that the author wanted to emend the preposition enans by substituting it
with the conjunction enans que before (RL :ba; DECLC loc. cit.).

shem tov, synonym list

73 72 71 70 69
75 74

" HW,
Arab. QRT,
from its plant acacia is pre.
. o.l. PRYN" SLW"DYGD",
pared in the land of Egypt; o.l. "Q"SY"
" HW
means sedge, marsh plant and features in the Bible, e.g. in Gen
.
: (KB f.; CD : (reed); BM ; DAS :; FO ; LF
: f.).
Arabic qurt. means Alexandrian trefoil, Trifolium alexandrinum (M
; LF :; SP ).
The identification of " HW
as qurt. goes back to Sa#adya on Gen ::
.
(and they (i.e. the seven cows) grazed in the reed grass):
ah. remarks that the ahl at-tafsr (commentators,
(S ). Ibn Jan
i.e., Sa#adya) identify " HW
with qurt. and that it is a plant similar to
.
lucerne (rat. ba; cf. ID :), with larger leaves (IJ ); cf. LF :.
Its Persian name is, as he says, (EF (sibdir). According to Maimonides

(M ), it is the well-known plant in Egypt


that one gives to beasts of
burden in Egypt as fodder.
The vernacular term literally means wild plum PRYN" (MSS P and
V) and the variant PWRN" (MS O) belong to O. Occ. and O. Cat. pruna
plum (PSW :a; RL :b; FEW :ab; DECLC :b; cf.
entry Alef ). As for PRYN", it should be noted that Romance forms
with -e- or -i- can be sporadically found, e.g., Franco-Provenal pren
(Grenoble), prne (Vernot), [prme] (ALF, point ); Alsatian [prn]
(ALF, points and ) or Wallonian [prn] (FEW loc. cit.); cf. also
the Catalan derivations prinons/prinoyer (DECLC :ab). The form
PWRN" is a metathetic variant. Such forms of pruna are not unusual in
the Gallo-Romance area; cf. the Lyonnais form porna and similar forms
quoted in FEW (:a, e. g. perne, Amognes (Bourgogne), or peurne,
Verdun (Lorraine)).

SLWDYG"
(MS V) might be a spontaneous Romanisation of the Lat.
adjective silvatica wild. The variant in MS P seems to be a blend between
this term and salva(t)ja in a spelling *salvadja, the hereditary form
69 : V passim
70 : O
71 : V
72 : om. O
73 :
74 : VO
75 :

add. V

alef

of Lat. SILVATICA(M) and the usual term for wild (see for O. Occ.
salva(t)g(u)e, salva(t)je DAO :; RL :a; PSW :b and for
O. Cat. salvatge DECLC :b; DCVB :a; also cf. the entries Ayin
and Qof ).
"Q"SY" represents the Lat. acacia (< Gr. , NPRA ; DuC :a:
acacia succus prunellarum agrestium), which is not hereditary in any
Romance language (FEW :b), but existed almost everywhere as a
loan word, at least since the late Middle Ages: In O. Occ., we have acassia
acacia (DAO :; RL :a) and acacia, acassia, acrassia, accatie,
ahacatia suc de prunelles vertes (i.e., juice of unripe plums) (DAO :,
which corrects the meaning given in RL and DAO :). In O./M. Fr.
we find acacie (FEW :a), in late O. Sp. acacia/acassia/acasia/acasya
among others with the same meaning (th c.) (DETEMA :bc).
According to Rolland (also quoted in DAO loc. cit.), the juice of the
cassia or oriental acacia (being rare and expensive) was replaced in the
Middle Ages by the juice of unripe plums for pharmaceutical use (cf.
RFlor :).
MS V adds a third synonym, *spina Aegyptiaca, which corresponds to
Lat. spina Aegyptia mimosa (of the genus Acacia Willd.) (NPRA ).
The whole expression could not be found, but see (for the adjective
Aegyptiacus, -a, -um) ThLL (:) and MLWB (:, faba Aegyptiaca).
We might also suppose a Romance equivalent (an Occ. or Cat. form could
not be found, but see O. Sp. espina egipciaca attested in DETEMA :c).
. 77 76

"LMGNYTS,
"BN HSW"BT,
Arab. H
. GR
. o.l. QRMYT"
.

"BN HSW"BT
is the loadstone, magnetite or magnetic iron ore (Fe3O4)
(JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ). The Hebrew term features in Rabbinic
literature, a.o. in the context of the story of Jeroboams sin of the Golden
Calf. It is stated (bSanh b, bSot a) that Elisha hung a loadstone above
the Golden Calf, thus suspending it between heaven and earth. The term
then becomes common in medieval literature; cf. LFa ff.
Arabic ha
. gar al-magnt. is or al-magnat. is (from Greek ; cf.
LS ) refers to the same mineral (E.I.2 : ff., s.v. Magnat.s (E. Wiedemann)). The Arabic term features as in a Geonic Responsum to
bHag
. b (LO Teshuvot on Hag
. b, p. ).
76 :
77 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of ha


. gar al-magnt. is or al-magnat. is as Hebrew

"BN HSW"BT,
cf. ShM f. and the Hebrew translations of Dalala alh
. a"irn (Guide of the Perplexed) : (following LFa ). For other
identifications of the Hebrew and the Arabic term, cf. LFa .
The vernacular term QRMYT"
. must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. caramida
for magnetic stone (FEW :a), taken from the Greek 
(derived from  pipe); other Romance languages preserve the
intervocalic -l-: for example, O. Fr. calemite or calmite (FEW :a).
According to the works that we consulted, the form caramita (which we
seem to have here, as indicated by the Hebrew T)
. is documented only
once in O. Occ. (RL :a), where it was emended into caramida by
Levy because of the rhyme with falhida (PSW :a). Note that there
are other cases in our text in which the Romance intervocalic -d- is

transcribed using the Hebrew T. (cf. entry Het


LYQYTH,
. " STWRQ
. in
Latin and Romance, the second word must be read as liquida; also cf. the
introduction).
. 79 78
"SPRGWS, Arab. HLYWN, o.l. "SP"RGWS
"SPRGWS comes from Greek  (KG : f.; LS ). While
the Greek term can refer to the asparagus (Asparagus officinalis and
Asparagus acutifolius) itself, to the edible shoots thereof and to the edible
shoots of any plant, in Rabbinic literature, the term only refers to the
stalk or shoots of kale, Brassica oleracea, var. Acephala (KA : f., :,
; FM ; FZ f., ; KT :; LF : ff.; LP : the correct
differentiation of asparagus as the tender roots of cabbage, not asparagus,
goes back to the Geonim).
Arabic hilyawn from Greek  (=   marshasparagus), means asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L., and Asparagus
acutifolius L. (DT :) and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by N as: /

GY)
and by Z as: / ("YSPRGY/" SP"RG);

(" SPRGY
/" SPR
cf.
as well BMA .
Sa#adya allegedly called the asparagus (= Arab. G
H%; cf. D
:: asparagus in the dialect of the Maghreb; see as well DT : n. )
(HTG f.). Rav Hai Gaon remarks that "SPRGWS is a sort of cabbage
78 : V
79 :

O V

alef

and that it also refers to the wine in which it was prepared and which
was drunk every morning (LO Teshuvot on bPes b, p. ; cf as well
WG f.). R. Samuel ben Me"ir adds that it was taken as a remedy every
morning on an empty stomach (cf. Rashbam on bPes b). Maimonides
on mNed . remarks that "SPRGWS means, in general, the water in
which vegetables are cooked, and, in this particular case, kale water
(MK :).

"SP"RGWS (or the variant " SPRGW


S in the Vatican MS) represents
the Lat. asparagus (NPRA ) or Romance variants derived from it; as
a Romance word, it can be interpreted either as O. Sp. plural espar(r)agos
(DETEMA :ab), or the O. Cat. plural axparagox documented in

Majorca in the early th c. (DCECH :a). The form " SPRGY


in the
Oxford MS can be interpreted either as the Lat. plural or genitive singular
asparagi (that appears as esperagi in RPA ), the O. Occ. asperge
(documented since ), esperge, esparge (cf. DAO :; FEW :b)
or the O. Fr. esparge (FEW :a). Also cf. TermMedOc .
. 82 81 80
"QQY", Arab. "Q"QY", o.l. "Q"SY"
Aramaic "QQY" from Greek  (KG :; LS ), refers to the
Arabic gum won from the acacia tree (Acacia nilotica or Acacia senegal)
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b as "QYQ" (variants:
"QWQY", "QQY"), where it is stated: for anal worms one make a dressing
of acacia, aloe juice, white lead, silver dross, an amulet-full of phyllon
and the excrement of doves and apply it to the affected part (cf. JD ;
LW :; SDA ; KA : f., :; FEB ; FO ; LF :). The
regular Hebrew term for the acacia tree is the Biblical (see FEB ff.;
FO ; LF :).
For the Arabic equivalent aqaqiya (DT :; M ) to the Aramaic
"QQY", cf. the Geonic Responsum to the Talmudic passage quoted:
("QQY": thus it is called in Babylonia); see LO Teshuvot
on bGit b, p. . The Arabic equivalent for the Hebrew is sant. (cf.
Sa#adyas commentary on Isaiah : (DS )).
For the vernacular term see entry Alef .
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. acacia as Arabic aqaqiya, cf.
AdV , .
80

: O

81 :
82 :

V
V add. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 84 83
"YLWW", Arab. S. BR, o.l. "LW"N
The Aramaic term "YLWW", also "LWW" is aloe, Aloe vulgaris (JD ;
LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; AEY :; LA :; LF : f.).
The term features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in the recipe for
anal worms in bGit b previously mentioned (cf. Alef no. above).
Arabic s. abir refers to the inspissated juice of the leaves of different aloe
species, above all Aloe vera L., and Aloe Perryi Bak. (DT :; M ).
Aramaic "YLWW" is identified as Arabic s. abir in the Book of Medicines
attributed to Asaf: (s. abir is "LWY) (AV :)85 and features
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ), where it is translated by
N and Z as: ("LW"YN); cf. as well BMA .
The form "LW"Y in the Oxford MS transcribes the M. Lat. aloe (< Gr.
 , LS b) meaning, among others, Aloe vera L., Aquilaria L. or its
juice (MLWB :; NPRA ). The Lat. word was also used in various
Romance languages: in O. Occ. and O. Cat. we find aloe(n) (CB ;
RL :b; FEW :b; RM , , ; RPA , , ; RMA ;
DECLC :a; AdV , , , ). The form with -n (represented
by the variants features in the MSS P and V) was taken from the GreekLatin accusative (cf. MLWB loc. cit.), which, according to FEW loc. cit.,
entered the Romance languages via Ecclesiastical Latin.
Also cf. entry Qof .
. 88 87 86
"BN HYHWDY, Arab. HGR
"LYHWD, o.l. L"PYS MGN" TY
.
. S
"BN HYHWDY designates the so called Jews stone, which is generally
assumed to refer to the calcified spines of the sea-urchin. It was calcified
spines of the Cidaris glandaria species in particular, found in Palestine
in the middle Cretaceous period, that were brought to Europe by the
83 : V
84 : O

V add. V
Cf. A. Melzer, Asaph the Physician. The Man and his Book. A Historical-Philological
Study of the Medical Treatise, The Book of Drugs (Diss.) University of Wisconsin ,
p. , l. (commentary, p. a.l.). However, it is possible that the Arabic term is a
gloss (cf. E. Lieber, Asaf s Book of Medicines, Symposium on Byzantine Medicine, ed.
J. Scarborough (Dumbarton Oaks Papers )), Washington , p. .
86 : V
87 : om. P
88 : V
85

alef

crusaders and called Jews stones or melons from the Carmel. They
were then pulverized and the powder was administered with milk, wine
or honeywater to those suffering from kidney stones, bleedings and
wounds.89 The Hebrew term features for the first time in medieval
literature (BM ). For instance, in Pseudo Ibn Ezras Sefer ha-Nisyonot it
is recommended in a recipe good for amnesia: Said Dioscurides: if you
take the stone called lapis judaicus, which has streaks [on its surface], and
hang it on him, this will help him to regain his memory.90
Arabic ha
. gar al-yahud or ha
. gar yahud has the same meaning (cf.
M ; IBF ; IJS :; StH ). The term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by Z as: .
L"PYS MGN" TY
. S (and LPYS MGNYT. S according to MS V) is the Latin
term lapis magnetis magnetic stone; see, e.g., Sin , n. : Lapis
manetis, i. lapis aymant (cf. entry Alef ). This term corresponds to the
Gr.  (!) Magnesian stone (LS b), instead of the Latin
(lapis) magnes (GH :).
. 91
Arab. MSM
S,
o.l. "NPRYSG
S
"BS,
"BS is a Rabbinic term referring to ) wild grapes, a species of grape

of inferior quality (only featured in the plural "BSYN


= biblical Hebrew

B"WSYM;
cf. JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ; LF :) and ) quince,
cf. FZ f.; LF :.
Cydonia vulgaris ("BS is HBW
S);
.
Arabic mismis (apricot, Prunus armeniaca; cf. DT :) is probably a
corruption of mays (cf. FL :: species uvarum passarum; L : a
species of grape-vine . . . , a kind of raisins; LA :).
Maimonides on mMaas . remarks that stands for and
that it is a kind of inferior grape (MK :). Sa#adya (cf. DS ) explains
the term in Isaiah : as (= darnel, Lolium temulentum); in a
similar way IJ .
The vernacular reading of MS P corresponds to the Catalan form
anprssecs peaches, which can be found in the works of Arnau de
Vilanova (cf. DECLC :ab). According to the editor of AdVCat. ,
89 See DW :; Yom-Tov Levinski, Avanim tovot u-margaliot, Yeda-#Am
.
(), p. .
90 See Sefer Hanisyonot. The Book of Medical Experiences attributed to Abraham ibn
Ezra. Edited, translated and commented by J.O. Leibowitz and S. Marcus, Jerusalem ,
pp. .
91 : O V

shem tov, synonym list

this form has to be interpreted as antipersica, which he takes to be


a kind of peach (also cf. Old Gascon avantprsec meaning a kind of
little precocious peach, mentioned in DAO :). The Lat. antipersica
appears in the Alphita (Sin , n. ), where it is used as a synonym
for words refering to oranges. The lemma in the Alphita is cochima,
and, according to CA , cochinus is mentioned as a blend of peaches
and plums in the Aphorisms of the Salernitan author Urso. However,
we find it more probable that an- corresponds to the Arabic definite
article (with an assimilation: *al-prssec > amprssec), which is typical
for the areas in which Arabic was originally spoken, while it is lacking
in the rest of the Occitan and Catalan territories (see TermMedOc
f.). The usual Catalan word is prssec (st documentation: , see
DECLC loc. cit.; see ibidem for more variants), whereas, for O. Occ., we
find perseg(u)a, persegue, pres(s)ega, pres(s)egues, pressex, among others
(DAO :; RMM ; RM ; RMA ; CB ). For the variants
of the MSS O and V, provisional readings such as *anprsegues and
*aspesseges respectively, may be suggested.
. 94 93 92

o.l. " SPRY

" SWN,
Arab. " HR
. S,

means hard and is a variant of


Hebrew or Aramaic " SWN
from " SN

" SYN
(JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :). The term features in a
botanical context in bShab a, where (hard carobs) are
discussed.

Arabic ahra
(L ).
. s is the equivalent of Hebrew " SWN

The vernacular term " SPRY


is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adjective aspre,
derived from Lat. asper with the meaning rough, hard (RL :b;

.
DECLC :a). Cf. also " SPRY
as a gloss of Hebrew #az strong in ShK
. 95
"NQH, Arab. WRL
The meaning of the Biblical term "NQH, featured in Lev : in a list of
unclean reptiles, is uncertain; cf. KB : unclean animal: Sept. 
92 : e P
93 : O

94 : V"t" P
95 : (?) add.

O V

alef

and Vulg. sorex shrew, Pesh. " amaqta lizard; Bodenheimer, Animal
and Man f.: gecko, Hemidactilus turcicus.96 Cf. as well FA ;
FAB f.; LFa .
Arabic waral is varan, Varanus niloticus (DT :; M ; StS ).
For the identification of "NQH as waral, cf. Sa#adya on Lev : (S )
and IJ . Ibn Janah. adds: IJ KL M/ NO ) (it is something of the
See as well SF :.
nature of the lizard); cf. MS O: (dabb-lizard).
.
. 99 98 97

"NYS. Y PSTN,
Arab. QM" T;
. i.e., the flax that has been treated

Hebrew "NYS. Y PSTN


are bundles of flax; cf. JD ; LW :; KA
: f., :; BM . The term features in Rabbinic literature, such as in
mBM ., where it is stated that if one finds bundles of flax they belong
to the finder and do not have to be announced publicly in order that the
owner may claim them.
The Arabic term qimat. is the equivalent of the Hebrew term (L )
and features, amongst others, in documents from the Cairo Genizah; cf.
DRD : (lit.: bandage) a variety of flax.
. 101 100
"LWNYM, Arab. S. NWBR, o.l. PNY"S
Hebrew "LWN, plur. "LWNYM, can refer to different kinds of big trees,
amongst them: oak (= "allon), or terebinth (= "elon or "elah); cf. KB f.,
; AEY : f.; DAS :; FEB ff., ff.; FM ,; FO ff.,
ff.; FZ f.; LF : f. In Rabbinic literature, we also find the term
but. mim for "elonim to refer to terebinths (cf. Alef no. ; FO , n. ;
FZ ).
Arabic s. anawbar means pine or pine cone (DT :; M ). The
term features in medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides
On Asthma (IV, ; XII, ; cf. BMA and ) and is translated by Samuel

S).
Benveniste as: / (PRY HPNYYS/PYN

96

F.S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands, Leiden .

97 : V
98 : O

99 :
100 : VO
101 :

O V V1

shem tov, synonym list

We are not certain how the Hebrew and Arabic terms came to be identified with one another. However, according to Kaleb Afendopolo (?)a Karaite author who composed a list of plant names as part
of a supplement to Elijah Bashyazis Adderet Eliyahu, and one of whose
sources was Maimonidesbut. mim can be identical to bot. nim and this
term can also indicate pine cones (" z. t. rwblyn), which are called s. anawbar
by the physicians (cf. LF :, :, n. ; Alef no. ). Maimonides
remarks (M ) that habba
hadr
.
. a" is the fruit of the terebinth (but. m)
and that in the vernacular of al-Andalus it is called bna rushtiqa i.e.,
pino rustico, which, in reality, designates the wild pine, Pinus silvestris
(cf. Rosner ad loc.). Cf. as well Shin no. below.
The vernacular term PNY" S (MS P) must be the O. Occ. pinhas or
O. Cat. pinyas (for the meaning and further references, cf. entry Alef ).
The variant in V seems to be corrupt and is emended in a marginal gloss
i.e. O. Occ. or O. Cat. pinhons/ pinyons pine seeds, cf.
(V1) to PYNYWNS,
entry Gimel . In the variant in O, the Alef and Yod seem to be inverted
due to an error made by the copyist and may be interpreted as the Cat.
plural form pinyes.
. 103 102

"YLN "BRHM, Arab. PNGNKST,


o.l. PNT"PYLWN
.
Hebrew "YLN "BRHM means chaste tree, Vitex agnus castus (LF : f.:
/ ). The Hebrew term "YLN "BRHM as featured in this
entry is the only Hebrew reference we could find and was possibly coined
by Shem Tov.

Arabic PNGNKST
from Persian al-fangankust (cf. pang angust VL
:) is the Arabic equivalent; cf. DT :; M . In colloquial speech,
the tree is called sagarat Ibrahm, cf. Gimel no. (DT :, esp. n. ).
The vernacular term PNT"PYLWN/PYN
TH
.
. PYLWN in the Paris and
Vatican MSS is the Latin pentaphyllon (< Greek ), meaning Potentilla reptans L. or Delphinium staphisagria L., see NPRA ;
GH :. This word was also used in Romance medico-botanical terminology, see the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pentafilon, interpreted as Potentilla
reptans in DAO :; also cf. CB , among others, and DCVB :a.
As to the meaning chaste tree indicated by the Hebrew lemma, it can be

102 : O V
103 : O

alef

noted that MLWB : gives a quotation from Albertus Magnus (animal. :), in which the respective terms are identified: agnus, quod
alio nomine pentafylon sive quinque folia vocatur. In fact, pentaphyl i.e. agnus castus, meanlon was substituted in MS O by "QNWS QSTW
. S,
ing Vitex agnus castus according to NPRA and MLWB loc. cit.; also cf.
CA . For the interpretation of the epithet castus, see ibid. and the following passage from Albertus Magnus (veget. :): Vocatur agnus castus
eo, quod folia et succus et flores eius efficacia sunt in inducenda castitate.
Also cf. entry Gimel .
. 105 104

"PSNTYN, similarly in Arabic, o.l. "YSNS


"PSNTYN (from Greek !; cf. KG : and LS ) is the Aramaic Rabbinic term for absinth, Artemisia absinthium (JD ; LW
:; SDA ; KA :, : f.; KT :, ; LF :), and features, e.g. in bAZ a, where it is stated in the name of R. Joshua b. Levi
that bitter wine, i.e. wine mixed with absinth (), is not prohibited
when left uncovered. The Biblical Hebrew term is (cf. KB ; LF
: ff.).
For the Arabic equivalent afsantn, cf. DT :; M . The Arabic term
features, e.g. in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; cf. BMMb )
where it is transcribed by N as: , and translated by Z as: .
S. W).
("YSYN
Biblical Hebrew is translated both by Sa#adya (Proverbs :; cf.
SM ) and Ibn Janah. (IJ f.) as #alqam, a term also used for squirting
cucumber (Ecballium elaterium; cf. DT :) and bitter Cucurbitae in
general (cf. M ).
(or "YSYN
S. /"YYSYN
S. in the Oxford and
The vernacular term "YSNS
Vatican MSS) must be read as O. Occ. aisens (DAO :; PSW :a) or
eisens (DAO loc. cit.; CB ) with the meaning absinth (FEW :a).
Note that the usual Catalan word is donzell (DECLC :ab). See
HebMedSyn (, , ).

104 :
105 : O V

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 106
"DRT, Arab. KS", o.l. PLS. "DH
Hebrew "DRT means ) splendor, ) robe (KB ; CD :: majesty,
cloak; DAS :, , , ff., ; KT :). In the latter sense,
it features, amongst others, in Gen : where Esau is described as
emerging red like a hairy mantle all over at his birth: (as
a hairy mantle all over).
Arabic kisa" is the equivalent of Hebrew "DRT (WKAS : f.).
For the identification of "DRT as kisa" cf. Sa#adya on the biblical passage
mentioned (S ). See as well IJ .
The vernacular term must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. peliseta/pellisseta
petite pelisse (i.e., little coat with a pelt lining, FEW :a), verbrmter
Mantel (i.e., garnished coat, PSW :b; DCVB :a), a diminutive
form stemming from Lat. PELLICEUS made of pelt (FEW loc. cit.).
For the confusion between -t- and -d- in our text, cf. the introduction
and also the entries Alef and Het
. . Another possibility would be
to interpret this word as the Cat. feminine form pellissada (masculine:
pellissat) (DECLC :b; DCVB :b), which is used in the context
of wool: Llana pellissada: llana que fa pellissa (i.e., llana pellissada: felted
wool) (DCVB loc. cit.).
. 109 108 107
110

" SLG,
Arab. " SN"N,
i.e. a plant which is dried, thoroughly pulverized and
turned into a powder with which the hands are washed to remove the
dirt from them

" SLG
is a Hebrew Rabbinic term used to refer to the ashes of plants
containing alkali, which were very popular as a washing-powder (JD ;
LW :, ; KA : f., :; BM f.; KT :, ). Foremost
amongst these plants was , Russian thistle, Salsola kali
(FM ; LF :).

106 : O
107 : V
108 :
109 : om. V

110 :

alef

Arabic usnan is the Arabic equivalent (cf. DT :, n. : der Walkersoda, dem Salzkraut, mit dem man sich die Hnde wscht) (salt-wort
(kali) used for washing the hands).
with (as. -s. abun)
Maimonides renders the Hebrew term " SLG
in his commentaries on mShab . and mNid .. In bShab a Samuel

remarks on the term " SLG:


I asked all seafarers and they told me that it
is called shunana; it is found in the cavity wherein the pearl lies and it is
scraped out with an iron nail.111 The Aramaic featured in this text
has the same root as the Arabic usnan and the Persian usnan or isnan
(VL :: herba quaedam qua vestes et supellectilem et manus quoque
post coenam lavant, ar. P dicta; SC : The herb alkali, and the ashes
which are made from it, with which they wash clothes and the hands after
eating).

For the explanation of the term " SLG,


cf. the Geonic Commentary on
Tohorot (EG f):  . . .  . . . 
.
. 114 113 112

" SKR#,
Arab. B"QS, o.l. BRZYL

Aramaic " SKR#


means box, Buxus sempervirens (JD ; LW : f.;
KA : f., :; BM ; AEY :; FEB ff.; FM ; KT :).
The term features as in the Targum on Is : as a translation
for Hebrew . And in mYom . it is stated that the two lots for the
Day of Atonement may be prepared from box-wood.
Arabic baqs from Greek  (LS ) is the Arabic equivalent
(DT :, n. ; ID :). See as well Bet .

The identification of " SKR#


as baqs features in the Arukh (KA :),
Ibn Janah. (IJ ) and in Maimonides commentary on the Mishnah
mentioned (cf. MK :), where he remarks that is

(" SKR#
is baqs wood); see as well EG and LP .
The vernacular form BRZYL (MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. brazil
(DAO :; RMA ), brezil bois de teinture (i.e., wood used for
111 See as well H. Kroner, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Medizin des XII. Jahrhunderts an
der Hand zweier medizinischer Abhandlungen des Maimonides auf Grund von unedierten
Handschriften dargestellt und kritisch beleuchtet, Oberdorf. Bopfingen , pp. ,
n. .
112 : Uk" P V
113 : O
114 : V

shem tov, synonym list

dyeing, FEW :a)/brezilh meaning brazil wood (RL :a), or the


O. Cat. brasill, idem (documented since , cf. DECLC :a). The
word probably refers to the same wood as the one mentioned in MLWB,
brasilium or brasile (:), where as its meaning wood of the tree
Caesalpina Sappan L. (brazil wood) is given.
Instead of brazil, MS V has another plant name, O. Occ./O. Cat.
sandil, sandel (FEW :b; RMA ; CB among others; DECLC
:a; DCVB :a; AdV among others) which means sandalwood (plants of the genus Santalum) or powder made of the sandalwood, which is used in medicine.
. 115
"BYB, Arab. PRYK
"BYB is a Biblical Hebrew term for the ears (of corn) already ripe, but still
soft, to be eaten either crushed or roasted (KB ; cf. as well CD :;
DAS :, ff.; FH ).
Fark is the Arabic equivalent (D :: bl qui nest pas encore mr
(corn which is not yet ripe)).
For the identification of "BYB as fark, cf. Sa#adyas translation of Ex
: (S ): (Now the flax and barley
were ruined, for the barley was in the ear):
ah. (IJ ), quoting the Hebrew term as
. Ibn Jan
it features in Lev :: (new ears parched with fire), also
translates it with fark and remarks in the name of Rav Hai Gaon that it
is the ripened ear.
. 117 116
" S. TB",
Arab. DWKN; the Sages called it DWKN" as it is stated: and the
.
Levites on their platform
" S. TB"
. is a Rabbinic term meaning, according to JD : a surrounding,
attachment, whence ) balcony, colonnade, portico, and ) something to
recline on; couch, seat; cf. as well LW :; KA :, :; KT :.

115 : V
116 :  P

117 : O :

alef

Arabic dukkan from Aramaic DWKN" (FF ) means, according to


L : A shop or kind of wide bench [ . . . ] generally built against a
wall [ . . . ]. Aramaic DWKN" means platform (SDA ; cf. JD ;
LW : f.).
The Rabbinic quotation hails from bMeg a, where it is stated that
Priests at their Temple service, Levites on their platform, lay Israelites at
their stationall desist from their service in order to come and hear the
reading of the Megilla (Book of Esther).
For the identification of S. TB"
. as dukkan, cf. Arukh ::
.
. 118
"GN, Arab. "G"NH
Hebrew "GN (aggan) is a large and deep bowl (KB ; CD :; SD ,
SDA , Aram. ; KA :; BM f.; BKH and index; KT :).
Arabic iggana means urn, amphora, washing-tub, cf. L ; HaF .
For the identification of "GN as iggana, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Ex ::
(Moses took one part of the blood and put
it in basins): (S ). Ibn Janah.
(IJ ) gives the same explanation for the term featuring in Song ::

'K BQ D R : (your navel is like a round goblet); see


as well IQR :; SF :; WB , , n. .
. 120 119
Arab. SL#, o.l. LWPYY"
"GWDWT BSR;
The term (lit. bundles of flesh) could not be retrieved in the
secondary literature, but was possibly coined by Shem Tov for the Arabic
sil#atun, plur. sil#un which is, according to L : A ganglion or an
excrescence of flesh. The Modern Hebrew term for ganglion is &Y
(EM :).
The vernacular term LWPYY", according to the MSS V and O, must
be the M. Latin lupia epidermal cyst (DuC :a) or the O. Cat. llupia, bump that is due to a painless tumor, mostly in the face or on the
head, documented since the th c. (DCVB :a; DECLC :b, which
118 : V
119 : O
120 :

shem tov, synonym list

mentions it as a learned word first documented in the th c.). For the


graphical representation in the Hebrew spelling of the word initial palatal
l-, see the introduction. The word is not documented for O. Occ., but the
FEW :a gives the Mod. Occ. variants lupia and lupi(e), so that we
might hypothesise that a form such as *lupia also existed in O. Occ. and
that this is the first documentation (for Occ. as well as for Cat.). Also cf.
M. Fr. loupie and M./Mod. Fr. loupe in the same meaning (FEW loc. cit.).
L(l)upia stems from *lopp- (probably Germanic for lopping thing), an
etymon of a word family that was not documented in the Gallo-Romance
area before the th c., and which appears first in French and later in Occitan (cf. FEW :a). The spelling -YY" instead of -Y" seems to be corrupt. The first -Y- in the variant of the MS P (LYPY") might either represent the sound [y] (see the introduction) or has to be regarded as an error.
.
QNH, Arab. "NBWB
"BWB SL
QNH is a Rabbinic term for reed-pipe (JD ; LW :; KA : f.;
"BWB SL
KT :). Thus, it is stated in mArakh . that the pipes used for the
Temple service had to be made of reed rather than bronze because of
their sweet sound. According to Maimonides in his commentary on the
Mishnah mentioned "BWB is the tube of the reed-pipe:
(MK :).
Arabic unbub is the equivalent of "BWB, cf. L f.
For the identification, cf. Rav Hai Gaon, K. al-H
. aw (AK ):
.
. 124 123 122 121
"DR", Arab. #NZRWT, o.l. "NGLWT. or SRQH QWLH QS. BH
Aramaic "DR" is a plant of unknown identity (JD ; LW :; SD ;
SDA ; KA :, :; FEB , n. ; LA :, :). It is identified in
Rabbinic literature as ) (bSanh b; printed editions read: "DR"):
The wood from which Noahs ark was constructed, perhaps cypress
(CD :); ) / (bRH a): the term is a transcription of
121 : O V
122 : O P
123 :
124 : om. OV

alef

 (cedar) (cf. KG :); cf. SB : n. : Whether , which


Rab needs for the explanation, is cedrus with the elision of /k/, seems
to be doubtful. (cf. LW :); according to SDA , this hypothesis
should be rejected since the phonetic change k > " is unknown in Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic; and ) (yKet VII, d): an unknown species
of tree from the Lebanon, or conifer (KB ). In bGit b "dr" juice or
its leaves in beer are recommended for fever. In bBez. b "dr" is identified
as "dr and it is stated: A field in which there is an adar can neither be
robbed nor forcibly purchased and its fruits are protected. According to
the well-known commentator R. Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi) a.l. it is a
kind of vermicide.
Arabic #anzarut, from Persian #anzarut or #angarut (cf. VL :), is
sarcocol, a resinous gum derived from a Persian umbelliferous plant,
Astragalus sarcocolla Dym. (DT :; M ).
The vernacular term "NG(Y)LWT,
. according to MSS O and V, corresponds to O. Occ./O. Cat. angelot (CB ; DECLC :b), derived
from the Arabic word featuring here, with the meaning substance used
for producing make-up (PSW :b). Corradini quotes the passage:
sarcecoll(am), que es dit a(n)gelot (i.e., sarcecoll(am) which is called
a(n)gelot, CB ). The variant in P is corrupt with the Yod at the wrong
place.
The second vernacular term corresponds to Lat. or Romance sarcocol(l)a in the variant sarcacolla (MSS P and V) or sercacolla (MS O),
documented, e.g., in O. Occ. as sarcaquolla (RPA ); also cf. O. Sp.
sarcacola in Sin : and the O. Cat. variant used in MS V, sercacolla
(AdV ), a variant of sarcocol(l)a. For O. Occ. and O. Cat. sarcocolla, see
RMA and DECLC :b respectively. For Latin, see LLMA b and
NPRA , where the meaning agrimonia is given; GH : with the
meaning Persian gum. The Lat./Romance term was borrowed from Gr.
. The last word given in MS P, QS. BH, could not be identified.

. 126 125

"RGMN, Arab. "RGW"N,


they say that this is wool dyed with L"Q"
"RGMN is wool dyed with red purple (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; SD ; KA :; BM ; DAS :, , ff., ). It features
125 : O V
126 :

shem tov, synonym list

in the Bible, e.g. Ex :, and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bSanh a and


mKel ..
The Arabic equivalent is urguwan and means redness or a certain red
dye (L ).
For the identification of "RGMN as urguwan, cf. Sa#adya on Ex ::
(blue, purple, and crimson yarns, fine
linen, goats hair): (S ); see as
well IJ ; IQR :, s.v. ; SF :.
L"Q" is a transcription of Lat. or Romance lac(c)a; cf. DuC :a species
resinae; LLMA b gum, lacquer; also cf. the following Alphita passage: Lacca dicitur guma de qua urina humana fit carminium, orobo,
orobonis idem (Sin , n. ). According to the sources used by CA ,
lacca is lacca globulata, little balls made of laquer from the red brazil
wood or from Coccionelle (Cochineal). For O. Cat. lac(c)a, lacha and
O. Occ. laca meaning Cartenia lacca, see DECLC :a; DCVB :a;
FEW :a; DAO :a; RL :b; RPA . The DAO loc. cit. and the
FEW loc. cit. add the explanation: Matire rsineuse recolte sur certains arbres, dun rouge brun, qui sert [ . . . ] fabriquer une teinture (i.e.,
red brown resinous substance extracted from certain trees, which serves
for fabricating a dye).
. 127
"SPST", Arab. PS. PS. H, o.l. MDG"L
Aramaic "SPST" is horse fodder (JD ; LW :; SDA ; AEY
:), possibly from Persian aspast (cf. VL :; but cf. Akkadian
aspasta: an edible garden plant); it is identified in Rabbinic literature
(e.g. bSanh a; bJeb b; bAZ b) as lucern, Medicago sativa L.; cf.
LF :: The Talmudic passages, however, specifically refer to lucern
(see as well KA :, :; BM ).
Fis. fis. a or fas. fas. a is the Arabic equivalent, which is used for dry lucern
in particular (DT :; see as well ID :; M ).
For the identification as (low growth, corn in its earliest stage
used instead of grass, cf. JD ) in MS V see Rashi on bAZ b:
; see as well LA :.
The vernacular form MDG"L/MDGL (MSS P and V) represents some
variant of Lat. MEDICA, whose name stems from the fact that it was a

127 :

O V

alef

species of clover imported from Media (via Greece, where it has been
attested since bc, cf. FEW :a). As the Lat. word (NPRA ),
the Romance forms appear with the meaning Medicago sativa. According
to the FEW, non of the Romance languages inherited this word directly
from Latin, but rather via a Vulgar Latin variant MELICA that is documented for Medieval Latin (> Sp. mielga, Cat. melca or melga, It. melica,
among many others, see DCECH :ba; DECLC :ab). But in
the Gallo-Romance area, we find learned variants of the original form
MEDICA, introduced from the th century onwards, according to the
FEW (e.g. the M. Fr. medique). Interestingly, a form very similar to the
variants that appears in our text (medical) can be found in the northern
French department of Orne (FEW loc. cit.; cf. ALF , point ). The
FEW remarks that this form is to be explained by assuming that local
botanists changed the original word through popular etymology, in the
form of a contamination with MEDICALIS. A similar hypothesis may
be made for our forms. The Latin accusative form MEDICALEM could
have given rise to a popular form *metgal or a learned form *medegal in
O. Occ., just as the Latin MEDICARI, to heal, was turned into O. Occ.
metgar (FEW :a) or medegar (RL :a). The variant used in MS
O might represent a diphthongised form, which remains unexplained
and could be an error.
. 128
"QLBYSWT, Arab. QTN
.
The Hebrew term "QLBYSWT, variants QLYBWST" and QLYBWST,
means coccyx or femur and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
bShab a (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; Low LXXVII; PB ).
According to Katzenelson,129 it is the Os innominatum. Krauss (KG
:) derives the term from Greek (cf. LS ). Lw remarks
in his notes to Krauss (a.l.) that this etymology is incorrect and refers
to Brll (Forschungen, Ben Chan. , p. ) for a derivation from
, but states at the end of his note that the term remains
without explanation (( . . . ) das Wort bleibt unerklrt.) (cf. LS ).
Dalman130 explains the term as hailing from the Greek  %
(cf. LS , ).
128 : O
129 I.L. Katzenelson, Ha-Talmud

we-Hokhmat
ha-Refu"ah, Berlin , p. .
.
Cf. G. Dalman, Aramisch-neuhebrisches Handwrterbuch, Gttingen , reprint Hildesheim , p. .
130

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic qat. an means loins (DKT ; FAL :). The Arabic


equivalent for coccyx is #us. #us. (DKT ).
It is probable that Shem Tovs incorrect entry can be traced back to a
confusion regarding the two terms in his translation of Bk. ; cf. MS
Paris, fol. a: ;
cf. SpLA ,: ST,Q) UQ V2*2 - MK M/ ,Q) (and one or two big
cauterisations over the lumbar region above the coccyx).
. 132 131
o.l. "RNS
" TD,
. Arab. #WSG,
The Biblical Hebrew term " TD
. (cf. KB ; CD :), also featuring
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. bSot a; mShebi .) (cf. JD ; LW :),
is identified as ) European buckthorn, Lycium europaeum, and )
Rhamnus lycioides or Rhamnus palaestinus (AEY:; DAS :;
FEB ff.; FM ; FO ; LF : ff.).
Arabic #awsag is used for different kinds of lycium which were often
confused with one another, such as Lycium halimifolium Miller and Var.,
Lycium europaeum L. and Var., Lycium afrum L. and Var. (DT :;
M ; DAS :, ; ID :).
For the identification of " TD
. as #awsag, cf. Sa#adya on Gen ::
(When they came to Goren ha-Atad):
(S ), and Ibn Janah. (IJ ). See as well SF :.
The vernacular term "RNS must be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat.
arn with the meaning Christs thorn (RPA ), thorny bush, Paliurus
australis (since , DECLC :a, plur. arns, :b). MS O suggests
arnas as a possible reading, which could not be confirmed as a plant name
in the sources we consulted.
. 134 133
Arab. "LTLG and "LN"D
"LGBYS,
"LGBYS means hail and features as in Ez :, ; :
(KB ; JD ; CD :; BM ; DAS : f.) in the sense of hailstones. bBer b explains as follows:
131 : O
132 : O

133 : O
134 : VO

alef

(stones which come to a standstill because of a man and fall down


because of a man). Ibn Janah. (IJ ) explains as: 0,L W.
(large hailstones), and similarly David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :):
.
Arabic talg means snow or cold applied to water (L ) and Arabic
aqua e terra emanans (water emerging from the earth)
na"ad means
(FL :).

. 138 137 136 135


"SPLNYT, Arab. LS. WQ and this is anything which adheres to the limb it
is put onto
Hebrew "SPLNYT, from Greek  (KG :; LS ), features in
Rabbinic literature (e.g. bShab a, b) as plaster, rag or compress
(JD f.; LW :; KA :, :; KT :; Low XXXVII; PB ).
Arabic las. u q means sticking, adhering, clinging, devoted, attached;
sticking plaster (WKAS : f.; D :; FAQ f.).
Maimonides explains "SPLNYT as marham (salve) in his commentary to mShab . and mKel .. Rashi explains the term as (plaster, compress, bandage) in his commentary to bShaba; see as well
EG .
. 139

"BN SMYR,
Arab. HGR
"LM"S, o.l. "DYM"N
.

Hebrew "BN SMYR


features in the Bible and in Rabbinic literature and is
identified as diamond (KB f.; JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM f.; LFa ff.).
Arabic ha
. gar al-mas also means diamond (L ; RS ; cf. as well
Resh no. below).

For the identification of "BN SMYR


as ha
. gar al-mas, cf. Sa#adya (frag140
ment from the Genizah, T-S. ):

135 :
136 : VO

P V

137 : V
138 :
139 : V

O [] V

140 Published by S. Schechter, Saadyana. Geniza Fragments of Writings of R. Sa#adya


Gaon and others, Cambridge , p. .

shem tov, synonym list

(SMYR
is explained by R. Sa#adya as mas) (= WG ); Ibn Janah. (IJ ):
  . Cf. as well SF :.
The vernacular term "DYM"N is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adiman(t)
(DAO :; FEW :b; FEW :a; DECLC :b) with the O. Occ.
variant aziman, for diamond or hard metal. Since the Hebrew letter
Dalet may represent the Romance sound /z/ or /dz/ (cf. the introduction
as well as the entries Bet and Gimel ), both readings are possible.
. 142 141

" SKWL
HKWPR, Arab. NQWD "LHN
.

Hebrew " SKWL


means bunch or cluster (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; BM ) and Hebrew KWPR features in the Bible and Rabbinic
literature and refers to the cyprus flower, Lawsonia alba L., also called
henna plant (KB ; JD ; LW : f.; BM ; AEY :;

FEB ff.; FM ; FO ; LA f.:; LF : ff.). " SKWL


HKWPR
features in the Bible (Song :) and refers to the berry on the henna
bush (KB ibid.).
Arabic #unqud means cluster, bunch of grapes; raceme (HaF ;
L ) and al-hinn
. a" means henna, Lawsonia alba L. (DT :; M ;
DAS :; ID :).

For the identification of " SKWL


HKWPR as unqud al-hinn
. a, cf. Sa#adya on Song : (SH ): and Ibn Janah. (IJ ). See as
well SF :.
. 143
"GWZ HWDYY, Arab. NRGYL
For the Hebrew and Arabic term, cf. Alef no. .
. 146 145 144

"PWNYN HSWPYN,
Arab. "LHM
. S. "L"MLS
The Hebrew term "PWNYN features in Rabbinic literature and is identified as chick-peas, Cicer arietinum L. (DAS :; FM ; LF : ff.).
141 : V
142 : om. V
143 :
144 : V

om. V

145 : O
146 : V

alef

The term "PWNYN HSWPYN


means smooth chick-peas (JD :
smooth beans (without incision); FH ) and features, for instance,
in mKil .. The Arabic term himma
s. or himmi
s. also means chick-peas,
.
.
Cicer arietinum L. (DT :; DAS :, f., , s.v. hummu
s. ;
.
ID :). al-himma
s
or
alhimmi
s
al-amla
s
means
smooth
chick-peas
.
.
.
.
.
(L ).
The identification can be found in Maimonides commentary to the
Mishnah mentioned (MK :).
. 148 147
"PWNYN GMLWNYN, Arab. "LHM
. S. "LKBYR
The Hebrew term "PWNYN GMLWNYN features in the Mishnah, for
instance, in mShebi . and mKil ., and means large-sized chick-peas
(FH , ; LF :).
Arabic al-himma
s. or al-himmi
s. al-kabr also means large-sized chick.
.
peas.
The identification goes back to Maimonides commentary to mShebi
. (MK :).
. 149
"PYL, i.e. the fruits which ripen late
"PYL means late fruits (KB ; JD ; LW :; BM ; DAS :;
FH ) and features in the Bible, for instance, Ex :, and in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. bMQ a.
The explanation of the term is similar to that given by Maimonides
(MK :) on mShebi .: :
("PYL, i.e. the fruits that remained from the past Shemittah
year).

147 :  P V
148 :

add. V

149 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 152 151 150


Arab. "YG"
S. which is #YN BQR
"GSYM, o.l. PRWNS,
Hebrew "GS, plur. "GSYM, features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. yKil I, a)
and is identified as pear, Pirus communis L. (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,
:; BM f.; AEY :; FE ff.; FM ; KT :; LF : ff.).
According to Fleischer (see LW :), the Hebrew term "GS means plum
in Semitic dialects other than Syriac. In Rabbinic literature, "GSYM is also
written as #WGSYM, which leads Lw to assume that the term is of a nonHebrew origin (LF :).
Arabic iggas. is plum, Prunus domestica L. In Syria iggas. means pear.
(DT :; M , ; ID :, :).
For the identification of "GSYM as iggas. cf. Sa#adya (SAM :),
and Maimonides commentary to mKil . (MK :). In his Glossary of
Drug Names, Maimonides remarks that the inhabitants of Spain call iggas.
by the name #uyun al-baqar eyes of cattle (M ; cf. al-Idrs (IJS :):

K ,/ +,' 72) (common people call it #uyun al-baqar)).


The vernacular term PRWNS is the plural of Romance pruna or similar
for plums (for the references, see entry Alef ). The synonym that
appears in the Oxford MS represents a variant with an epenthetic Waw
(*purunas); for this phenomenon, cf. the introduction.

150 : O
151 : VO
152 :

O V

BET
. 3 2 1
Arab. QRNPL, o.l. GRWPLY

BSM,
Hebrew features in the Bible in the sense of ) balsam tree (Balsamodendrium opobalsamum), ) balsam oil, and ) perfume (KB
; CD :; BM ). In Rabbinic literature, or features in
the sense of spice, perfume (JD ; LW :, f.; SD ; KA :,
:; LF :).
Arabic qaranful is clove, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. or Caryophyllus aromaticus L. The Arabic term is borrowed from Greek
(LS ; DT :; ID :; LF : ff.).
Sa#adya on Is : (S ) translates (BSM) as: I,I fragrant substance, perfume (L ); see as well Ibn Janah. (IJ ). In his commentary on mUqz ., Maimonides explains the Hebrew as all
kinds of fragrant plants, such as: qirfa (Cortex cinnamoni cassiae), qaranful, and others (cf. MK :). The th century liturgical commentator
Abudarham identifies as qaranful in his commentary on a poem by
Ibn Gabirol: (BWSM, which is called QRNPL in
Arabic) (cf. LF :).
In correspondance with the Arabic term, the vernacular term

GRWPLY
(MS P)/GYRWPLY (MSS V and O) is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
girofle (FEW :b; CB , among others; RMA ; RPA , among
others; RMM ; DECLC :b) for clove (< Fr. girofle < VLat. GARIOFULU < Gr. , documented since in Cat., with the
variants girofre and girofe DECLC loc. cit.).
For the identification of O. Cat. giroffle as Arabic qaranful, cf. AdV ;
GHAT :.

1 :  P
2 :

V
VO

3 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 5 4
BTNYM,
Arab. BLWT,
.
. o.l. GL"NS
The Hebrew term BTNH,
plur. BTNYM,
features in the Bible (Gen
.
.
:) and in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShebi .) and means pistachio, Pistacia vera L. (KB ; CD :; LW :; SD ; KA : f.,
:; AEY :; FE ff.; FM ; FO f.; FZ f.; LA ff.:;
LF : ff.).
Arabic ballut. designates the oak and its fruit, the acorn, Quercus ilex
L. (DT :; M ; DAS :, n. , ; :, , ; ID :). It
is derived from the Aramaic ballut. a oak or acorn (FF ; LF :;
SD ).
Sa#adya (S ) on Gen : translates the Hebrew BTNH
with Arabic
.
but. m fruit of the terebinth tree (L ; DT :; DAS : f.). In
his commentary on mShebi . (MK :), Maimonides identifies the
as (pistachio) and reads the
Hebrew term (BWTNH)
.
Hebrew as " alla oak, and not as "ela terebinth, and translates
as
the term accordingly as: . As to the identification of BTNYM
.
ballut. , it is possible that this transposition of the trees is connected to the
transposition of their fruit as featured in our text.
According to Kaleb Afendopolo (?-), but. mim can be identical with bot. nim and this term can also indicate pine cones (" z. t. rwblyn)
which are called s. anawbar by the physicians (cf. LF :; :, n. ;
Glossary, no. ; cf. as well Alef no. above).
The vernacular term is Lat. glans acorn (LLMA a; ThLL :)
or, more probably, the plural of O. Occ. glan(t) (DAO :; FEW :a;
RL :a; PSW :b; CB ) or O. Cat. glan (which is documented
since the end of the th c.; DECLC :a), also with the meaning
acorn.
. 7 6

BS. L SDH,
Arab. " SQYL
or #NS. L or BS. L "LP"R, o.l. " SKYLH
or SYBH
MRYNH
The term , lit. field onion could not be retrieved in secondary
literature; it was possibly coined by Shem Tov for Arabic "isql.
4 :
5 :

V
VO

6 : VO
7 :

O V

bet

Arabic "isql or #uns. ul or bas. al al-fa"r is squill, Scilla maritima L.


or Urginea maritima Bach. (L ; DT :; DAS :, , ;
ID :; :). "Isql is the Arabic transcription of the Greek 
squill (LS ), and the Arabic name bas. al al-fa"r signifies onion of
rat, as the bulb of the squill was used as a rat poison (M ; DT :).
Arabic #uns. ul features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XVII, ; XXI,
, ) as 0*2 0 (squill vinegar) and is translated by N as:
TL"),
S. " SQY
and by Z as: /
(HWM
.
.
.

The vernacular term " SQYLH


(MS P) is the O. Occ. (e)squil(l)(a), for
scille officinale (Urginea maritima (L.) Baker/Scillla maritima L., see
DAO :; DAO Suppl. :; RL :a; RPA ). The O. Cat. equivalent is esquila (DCVB :a, DECLC :), for which the DCVB indicates the meaning ceba, i.e. onion, which does not appear to be exact,
as the quotation cited there (see below with respect to ceba marina)
shows. MSS V and O suggest a reading *esquitla; this seems to reflect
Catalan spelling conventions (cf. BadGram ), where -tl(l)- could
represent the palatal sound [] otherwise spelt ll in Catalan and lh
in Occitan, like in the homonymous word esquitlla (i.e., bone fragment).
O. Cat. esquilla is identified as Arabic "isql in AdV . For an
TLL",
identification between Arab. #uns. ul and the O. Cat. term " SQY
which
.
reflects the same form as in MSS V and O, cf. GHAT :.
The second vernacular term given in our text is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
seba (ceba) marina with the meaning sea onion, squill (RL loc. cit.; DAO
loc. cit.), which is identified as or at least related to the first term in the
following passages: (O. Occ.) sqill so es seba marina (i.e., squill that
is seba marina) (RPA ); Et a confortar lauzidor es lesquila bona e
fina quom nomma ceba marina (i.e., and for curing the ears, the squill,
which is called ceba marina, is good and fine, Brev. damor, fol. , quoted
in RL loc. cit.); (O. Cat.) Prenetz lesquila blanca, o s ceba marina
(i.e. take the white squill which is ceba marina, Medic. Part. , quoted
in DCVB loc.cit). According to NPRA (), the scilla alba (with white
membranes) is a subspecies of the Scilla maritima.
For the identification of O. Cat. seba/ceba marina as Arabic #uns. ul, cf.
AdV . Arabic "isql is identified as O. Cat. SYB" MRYN" in GHAT :.

shem tov, synonym list

. 11 10 9 8
BS. L KWPRY, Arab. BS. L HRYP,
o.l. SYBH QWDYNT.
.
The Hebrew term BS. L KWPRY features in Rabbinic literature, for example, in mTer ., mNed . or bNed b, a, where it is identified as
wild onion, village onion, as opposed to onions of
the city dwellers (cf. JD ; LW : f.), and in yShebi II, a, where it
features as the translation of the Mishnaic onions which
dont produce seeds (cf. mShebi .; KA :, :). Lw (LF :)
does not identify the Hebrew term BS. L KWPRY as wild or village onion
but rather as Cypriot onions (cf. as well SD ) and refers to Pliny, who
described the Cypriot onions as very strong and pungent.
Arabic bas. al hirr
. f means a strong onion, burning and biting to the
tongue (L ).
Maimonides on mTer . (MK :) qualifies city onions as large and
village onions as small.
The vernacular term SYBH/SYB" QWDYNT. seems to be a literal translation of the Arabic expression given in our text and is not documented
in this combination in our sources: the first element ceba/seba (see above,
entry Bet ) means onion (FEW :a; RL :a; CB ), the
second one is the O. Occ. present participle cozen(t) (for the formation of participles in O. Occ., cf. POc ) of the verb cozer (a variant
of the more usual coire, < Lat. COCERE) meaningbesides to cook
tre dsagrable (to be disagreeable) (FEW :a) and causer une
douleur picante (to cause a stinging pain), see RL (:a), where a quotation with a present participle is given: El desiriers cozens e doloiros
(i.e., the sharp and painful desire, B. de Ventadour: Bels Monruels).
The latter sense seems to be present in our case. For the Hebrew letter
Dalet representing the Romance sound /z/, cf. the introduction. Since
the Cat. variant is only documented with the typical loss of intervocalic voiced -s- (< -c-) (MollGram )coent for excessivament picant
(excessively hot/ spicy, see DECLC :b)we can exclude this language here.

8 : V
9 : V
10 : VO
11 :

add. V

bet

. 13 12

BWRYT, Arab. BWRQ or NTRWN,


o.l. SLNY
TRY
.
.
The Hebrew term BWRYT features in the Bible (Jer :; Mal :)
and in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mNid .; mShab .; bNid a; bShab
a) and means alkaline salt extracted from soap-plants; lye, potash,
Mesembrianthemum cristallinum (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;
KA : f., :; BM ; DAS :; :; FO ff.; FZ f.;
LF : ff.; Low XXXIX; KT :).
Arabic bawraq or buraq means borax and is derived from the Persian
bawrah or burah (VL :). According to al-Idrs (IJS :), it is called
nt. run in Greek. Maimonides states that bawraq is a type of natron,
Arabic nat. run (M ); see as well Goltz (GS ff.), who remarks that the
nitrum of Dioscurides and Galen was identified as bawraq. For bawraq,
cf. as well A. Dietrich, in EI2 XII Suppl. f.
Maimonides comments on the afore-mentioned Mishnaic references
that (BWRYT) refers to Arabic gasul soap, and Ibn Janah. comments on Jer :: , : (i.e. in Arabic
usnan kali or glasswort, a plant used for washing; cf. DT :; M ).
Rashi on bKer a explains (BWRYT) as soap.

The vernacular term SLNY


TRY/
S"LNY
TRY
is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
.
.
word salnitre (DAO ; CB ; DECLC :a; DCVB :a) or the
Latin sal nitri (for sal, salt, see DuC :a; for nitrum, natural soda,
DuC :c; GH : gives sal nitrum with the meaning sodium
carbonate); for its use in O. Occ. texts, see RMA (). The meaning
is natural soda (FEW :b), potassium nitrate (DCVB loc. cit.). In
O. Cat., the word is documented since .
Lat. sal nitrum (nitri)/O. Cat. salnitre is identified as Arabic bawraq in
AdV , , and the GHAT : identifies the Romance (O. Cat.)
term as Arab. nat. run.
. 15 14

BNWT SQMH,
Arab. GMYZ,
that is figs of the field

The Hebrew term BNWT SQMH


features in Rabbinic literature (e.g.
mDem . or bBer b) and is identified as the fruit of Ficus Syco12 : O V
13 : O
14 : O V
15 :

shem tov, synonym list

morus L. (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; FE ; FM ; FZ ;
LF : ff.).
Arabic gummayz is sycamore, Ficus Sycomorus L. (DT :; DAS
:, , , ).

For the identification of BNWT SQMH


as gummayz, cf. Sa#adya (SAM
:); Maimonides on mDem .: , =

(BNWT SQMH
= gummayz, it is also called wild figs) (MK :).
. 18 17 16
BWTNH,
that is "YLN HPSTQYM
.
Hebrew BWTNH,
plur. BTNYM,
means pistachio, Pistacia vera L. Mai.
.
monides on mShebi . (MK :) identifies the Hebrew term as
(pistachio); cf. the explanations and references in Bet no. .
. 21 20 19
i.e. half cooked
BYS. H TR"MY
T",
.
. Arab. NYMBRST,
The Hebrew term features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bNed b, as
and is explained there as referring to an egg boiled down
so many times that it is small enough to be swallowed and pass through
the body unchanged. If such an egg is consumed by a patient, it attracts
the sickening matter and can be used by a physician for diagnosis.
(cf. JD ; LW :; PB ). In yNed VI, c it features as
and is explained as , i.e. & , an egg that can be
supped up (LS ). In mNed ., it features as and is
explained by Maimonides (MK :) as an egg cooked in hot water
which has not been allowed to coagulate, and is called by
physicians. According to Krauss (KG :; see as well LW :)
is derived from  trembling, moderately boiled (LS ), while
Kohut (KA :) derives from softness (LS ; cf.
Low XL: soft-boiled egg).

16 :
17 : O

18 : V
19 : O

20 : O V
21 :

bet

or NYMRST
is derived from the Persian Y
 C,B
Arabic NYMBRST
and means ovum semicoctum, half-cooked egg (VL :; D :;
EG ; IJ ; KZ ).22
cf. MaimoniFor the identification of BYS. H TR"MY
T"
.
. as NYMBRST,
des commentary on mNed . stated above (MK :).
. 23
H,
BHRMG, Arab. SY
. o.l. SNTWNY"
.
BHRMG is Bactrian willow (Salix Caprea L.?). The term is probably a
transcription of Arabic bahramig (for the different interpretations of this
plant name, cf. MS ff.:); Persian bahramih (VL :).
Arabic sh. is a general name for all Artemisia species, possibly referring
to Artemisia maritima (wormwood) in particular, cf. DT :.
One Latin word for wormwood, already used by Pliny, is santonicum, that also appears as santonica herba in Latin and as centonica in
M. Lat. (NPRA ; DuC :a; FEW :ab). From this word,
some learned and inherited forms still exist in Romance, although they
are essentially restricted to the Gallo-Romance territory (cf. FEW loc.
cit.). Consequently, we could not find any O. Cat. documentation (see
DECLC :b for a modern variant taken directly from Latin, maybe in
the th c.). But in O. Occ., we find forms like centonica and sentonica
for Artemisia absinthium (besides the more usual aisens, ausens, ensens)
and the like (DAO :; see also entry Alef ). The form found
in our text matches the Old Gascon variant sentonia, which is quoted
in the DAO (:) with the meaning Santolina Chamaecyparissus. It
is unclear from where the authors of the DAO took this meaning, but
it seems likely that it was taken from the FEW :a. However, the
FEW remarks that both wormwood and Santolina belong to the family
of Anthemideae, so that the name santonica was also applied to the latter
already in the late Middle Ages. For the M. Latin centonica, the meaning
Artemisia abrotanum is confirmed by the Alphita tradition (see Sin b;
CA ).
22

Cf. H.G. Kircher, Ibn al-Quff, Die Einfachen Heilmittel aus dem Handbuch der
Chirurgie des Ibn al-Quff (Diss.), Bonn , no. : Das beste Ei (d.i. das bekmmlichste) ist dasjenige, das man weichgekocht (nmbirisht) verzehrt, und zwar bringt man
Wasser zum Sieden, gibt das Ei hinein, zhlt bis dreihundert und nimmt es heraus
dann ist es nmbirisht (i.e. the best [that is, most digestible] egg is one that is soft boiled
[nmbirisht], which is done by bringing water to a boil, putting in the egg, counting to
three hundred, and taking it out againthen it is nmbirisht).
23 : V

shem tov, synonym list

. 26 25 24
BR" DTWM", Arab. SN TWM, o.l. DRN" D"YL
Aramaic BR" DTWM", featuring in bShab b and bTaan a, means
clove of garlic, as Rashi on bTaan a explains: : :
(for garlic, Allium sativum L. see SDA ; DAS :;
LF : ff.).
Arabic sinn tum is clove of garlic (L ). In Geonic sources we find
habb at-tum (SDA ).
the explanation
.
O. Cat. *derna dall (clove of garlic) was not
O. Occ. *darna dalh or
found in this combination in our sources. For the O. Occ. alh (var. all,
aill, ayll, aylh among others)/O. Cat. all (var. ayl, all), meaning Allium
sativum L., see DAO :; FEW :a; RL :a; DECLC :a;
DCVB :. Occ. darno tranche dorange, de noix etc (i.e., slice of
orange, of nut and others, see DAO :), tranche de poisson (i.e.,
slice of fish, see FEW :a) is only documented for modern dialects.
Similarly, for Cat., derna tros, boc en qu es parteixen fruits i altres coses
(i.e., piece, morsel, in which fruits and other things are divided) is not
documented before and is not very common (cf. DECLC :a;
DCVB :a). According to FEW loc. cit., the word was borrowed
from Breton, arguing that the basic meaning was slice of fish, and that
the word was not found in Gallo-Romance sources before the th c.
(Northern France) and even later in Southern France (th c.). Thus, we
are dealing here with a first documentation, so that the etymology of the
FEW has probably to be rejected. It seems to be more plausible to us,
that, as Coromines proposes, the word derives from a Gaulish etymon
*DARNOM (plur. DARNA). Thus, given the ancient documentation in
our text, it might turn out in future research that the word was borrowed
in the Occ./Cat. area and spread from there to the north, contrary to
the FEW argumentation. The clove of garlic was normally called in
O. Occ. dolsa (daill), cabossa (dalh), testa (dailh) (RL :a; DAO :),
in O. Cat. dent dall (DCVB :b).
O. Cat. all is identified as Arabic tum in AdV .

24 :
25 : O V
26 :

VO add. V

bet

. 28 27
BRY DTUMY, Arab. "SN"N TWM, o.l. DRNS D"LYS
Aram. BRY DTUMY is a plural of the previous item, just like Arabic
asnan tum. We could not retrieve the plural form in current literature.

Likewise,
the vernacular term is the same as in entry Bet and
features here with both nouns in their plural form.
. 29
BYS. Y KYNYM, Arab. S. YB"N
Hebrew BYS. Y KYNYM means nits or a species of vermin called licenits (JD ; LW :; KA :, :) and features in bShab b
and bAZ b.
Arabic s. i"ban or vulgarly pronounced s.ban is the equivalent of the
Hebrew term (L ).
For the identification of BYS. Y KYNYM as s. i"ban, cf. LO Perushim on
bShab b, p. : .
. 31 30
BRDLS, Arab. PHD, o.l. LWPRT.
Hebrew BRDLS, from Greek  leopard (LS ; KG :;
LR ) means cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus (JD ; LW : f.; KA
:, :; EM ; BAL ; FAB f.), and features in Rabbinic
literature, where it is identified as three different animals: polecat (cf.
Rashi on bPes b), hyena (cf. bBQ b) and panther (cf. bBQ b;
bBM a) (cf. LZ ).
Arabic fahd is lynx (L ; JAD : ff.) and also means cheetah
in Modern Arabic (W ; cf. as well BK ; KSZ :, :, f.:,
f.:; StS ).
Maimonides on mBQ . identifies BRDLS as , Arabic dab#,
.
hyena (MK :; L ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. laupart or the O. Cat. leupart
(documented since Llull) for leopard (FEW :a; DECLC :b).
27 :
28 : O
29 : V
30 : V
31 :

om. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 34 33 32
BYB, Arab. BLW#H or MZ"B, o.l. "YGYR
The Hebrew term BYB features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mErub .;
mAZ .; bErub a; bBQ a, a; bAZ b) and means conduit, pipe,
gutter or canal (CD :; JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :;
BKH , , ; KT :, ).
Arabic ballu#a means a sink-hole or perforation, into which water
descends (L ) and Arabic mzab means a water-spout, a pipe or
other channel that spouts forth water (L ).
For the identification of BYB as ballu#a, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ f.):
/LQ ZA [  ) ( is a hollow place like ballu#a), and Maimonides on mErubv . (MK :): : (a canal
which the water runs through).
The vernacular term represents the O. Occ. aiguier drain for dirty
water (FEW :a)/Cat. aiguer trough with water that the potter
needs to moisten his hands, kind of tin tankard that serves to scoop
water (DCVB :a), derived from the Lat. AQUARIUS. Note that the
Occ. ending -ier35 (with the diphthong [je]) is well represented in MS
O by -YYR, whereas the beginning of the variant in MS O seems to be
corrupt or to reflect some non-documented dialectal variants (which
would be analogous to similar forms with initial id-/ed- documented for
Francoprovenal: edir, idye. r big vase for serving water at table, FEW
loc. cit.). The variant in MS P, with a single Yod in the ending, might
suggest a Cat. reading, since the diphthong [je] tends to be represented by
-YY- in our MSS. The synonym of the Vatican MS possibly corresponds
to the O./M. Fr. aiver, eauvier with the meaning big vase for serving water
at table (FEW loc. cit.). Lastly, it might be worth while mentioning that
the meaning of the Arabic word ballu#ah (see above) is closely matched by
one of the meanings of the O. Occ. feminine word aiguiera, namely sink
((FEW :a) DCVB loc. cit., meaning II.)a word that is attested
also in Cat. (aiguera) in the same meaning.

32 : V
33 : V
34 : O V
35 The ending -ier was the regular result

GHP ff.).

add. V
of the Latin suffix -ARIUS in Occ. (see

bet

. 37 36
BTWLT QRQ#, i.e. hard soil never worked on
The term BTWLT QRQ" designates virgin soil and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bNid b (JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ), where
it is explained as: (as long as it is not tilled). Next to
we find: , for instance in Tos. Shebi ..38
. 40 39
BTY GHYNY,
that is, low houses
.
Aramaic BTY GHYNY
means houses with low ceilings (JD , s.v. ;
.
LW :; SDA : low rooms; KA :, :) and features in bShab
a in the context that it is not forbidden to cover a lamp on Shabbat so
that the sparks do not set the beams of the house on fire, especially in
BTY GHYNY,
that is, houses with low ceilings.
.
. 42 41

B#LT HS. D, Arab. D"T "LGNB,


o.l. PLBSYN
NWN WYYR"
B#LT HS. D was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a Hebrew loan translation
of the Arabic dat al-ganb, and does not feature in the standard Hebrew
dictionaries.
Arabic dat al-ganb means pleurisy, Pleuritis costalis (L ; IR ,
Rippenfellentzndung; cf. as well Sade no. below). The
; SN :
.
term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ),
where it is translated by N as: and by Z as: .

The vernacular term PLBSYN


NWN WYYR" in the Vatican MS

(PLWYSYN NWN WYR" in the Oxford MS) must be interpreted as


*plevesin non vera. With the addition non vera, the author seems to suggest that the illness treated here is not the real pleuresy in contrast to
the one that figures in Sade
and Shin . This combination is not
.
36 : O
37 : V
38 See Tosefta Zera#im, ed. S. Lieberman,

(Tosefta Ki-fsut. ah), p. .

39 :
40 : O

New York , p. , and his commentary

om. V

41 : VO
42 :

O P

shem tov, synonym list

documented in our sources, but see e.g. the analogous expression pleuresa no verdadera in the O. Sp. version of Bernard de Gordons Lilium
medicinae (LM II:): La [pleuresa] no verdadera se produce en los
msculos o en la carne de las costillas en el exterior o en las costillas
falsas que estn debajo del diafragma [ . . . ] o bien es de ventosidad
(i.e., the false [pleurisy] arises in the muscles or in the external flesh
of the ribs or in the false ribs which are beneath the diaphragm [ . . . ],
in other words, it is a result of flatulences). The first element is the
O. Occ. plevesin (FEW :a, variants: plevezin, plevesim). The FEW
remarks, that the ending -in in O. Occ. is a result of the change of the
Greek ending -' (') in -inum in Late Lat. (FEW :b). The
variant of the Paris MS belongs to the Lat., O. Occ. or O. Cat. form
pleuresis pleurisy (DuC :b; LLMA b; CB ; DCVB :a;
DECLC :a, documented in O. Cat. since the end of the th c.). The
following two elements in the MSS O and V must be read as Latin non

vera with the meaning not real. The variant of the Paris MS (PLBRSYN
YWWYR") might transcribe *pleuresin vera; for this term, cf. the entries
Sade
and Shin . We might assume, for *pleuresin, an adaptation of
.
pleuresis according to the O. Occ. model discussed above (plevesin). Less

probably, it might be that the Nun in PLBRSYN


belonged to the following
word in the MS which P is based upon; in this case, the following Yod
might be corrupt for Waw and Waw for Nun, so that we get the reading
*pleurisie non vera, where pleurisie would, however, be O. Fr., (FEW loc.
cit.).
.

BWLMWS, Arab. S"


Aramaic BWLMWS, from Greek  =  (LS ; KG
:; LR ), means ravenous hunger, bulimy, esp. faintness from
fasting (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; Low XXXIX). It
features, e.g. in mYom . and bYom a.
Arabic gas = gasy means syncope, fainting (cf. L f.; SN ).
Arabic gasy features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (e.g. III, ; IV,
; VI, ; VII, , , , ; cf. BMMa , and BMMb , , ,
ff., ), where it translated as: // both by N and Z. In
his commentary on mYom ., Maimonides explains as a sort of
epilepsy () (MK :).

bet

. 43
BW#H, Arab. DBYLH, o.l. PWSTYM"
.
Aramaic BW#H means swelling or abcess (JD s.v. ; LW :;
SDA ; KA :, :; BM ) or bulla or blister on the lung or
outside the body (Low XXXIX) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
bSanh b, bHul
. b.
Arabic dubayla means an abcess (L ; SN ). It features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, a) and is transcribed by both
N and Z as: .
The vernacular term PWSTYM"
is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. postema
.
with the meaning abcess (CB , , , among others; RM ;
DECLC :a, documented in Catalan since the end of the th c.).
. 44

BWRM" DGLL", Arab. BR"M MN H


. GR
Aramaic BWRM" DGLL" means stone pot (SDA ; KA :, ,
:) and features in the plural BWRMY DGLLY in bPes b.
Arabic burma, plur. biram, is a cooking-pot of stone, or a cookingpot in a general sense, of copper, iron, etc. (L ; cf. DRD : earthenware pot); and biram min ha
. gar means cooking pots of stone. Cf. as
well Pe no. below.
The identification of the two terms can be found in medieval Halakhic
literature. For instance, Zedekiah ben Abraham Anav (th century)
states in the Sefer Shibbolei ha-Leket: his words (i.e. ha-Rif = Isaac Alfasi)
prove that are stone vessels which are the same as our ,
and in Arabic is called (sic).45
. 46
BLH, Arab. BLH
Hebrew BLH means to be used up, to be worn out and features in the
Bible, e.g. Deut : (KB ; CD :; BM ).

43 : V
44 : O V
45 Zedekiah ben Abraham, Anav, Sefer Shibbolei

Wilna , p. .
46 : V

ha-Leket ha-Shalem, ed. by S. Buber,

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic BLH is Arabic bala, read: baliya, which has the same meaning
as the Hebrew (cf. L f.).
For the identification of the two terms, cf. Sa#adya on the biblical verse
mentioned:
(I led you through the wilderness forty years; the
clothes on your back did not wear out, nor did the sandals on your feet):

(S ); IJ , n. (gloss MS R). See as well IQR :; SF :;


WB .
. 48 47
BYS. H, Arab. HM"H
.
Hebrew BYS. H means waterlogged ground, marsh (KB ; CD :;
BM ) and features in the Bible, e.g. Job :.
Arabic ham"a
has a similar meaning (L : black mud).
.
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ ): ) \'] ^UHT- 7)
+L_7. Sa#adya on Job : (SJ ) translates as: (mud, mire),
and David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :) as: (water oozing from the
ground).
. 50 49
BYT HMWQD, Arab. MTBKH,
o.l. PWG"NYH
.
The Hebrew term MWQD means a fireplace and BYT HMWQD generally a room where fire is maintained and specifically the room in the temple in which a fire is continuously maintained, from where fire was taken
daily for the altar, and where the priests warmed themselves and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (JD ; LW :; KA : f.;
DAS :,, ).
Arabic mat. baha means a place of cooking or a place in which cooking
is performed (L ; cf. as well DAS :, , , , ).
The vernacular term PWG"NYH (according to the MS P) represents
the O. Occ. foganha/fuganha kitchen (PSW :ab) or the O. Cat.
foganya fireplace (DCVB :a; DECLC :a). The latter is, according
47 :
48 : V

om. O

49 : O
50 : O

V
V

bet

to DECLC loc. cit., a typical variant of the dialects of the Balears and the
Empord. Other documented forms of this word are O. Occ. fogaynha
(FEW :a; RL :a) and the more common O. Cat. variant fogaina
(DECLC loc. cit.; DCVB loc. cit.). These forms do not seem to be
represented by the Hebrew spelling showing only one Alef that hardly can
stand for the diphthong -ai-. For the Romance term also cf. TermMedOc
f.
. 51
BYYTWT, Arab. "HLYH, that means being raised in houses
The Hebrew term BYYTWT means domestic animals, i.e. those that
pass the night in the town (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ;
DAS :; KT :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBez.
. or bBez. a.
Arabic ahliy means a domestic beast that keeps to the dwelling of its
owner (L f.).
. 53 52
BYBRYM, Arab. BRG "LHM"M
.
Hebrew BYBR, plur. BYBRYM, from Greek  = Latin vivarium
(KG : f.), means an enclosure in which live game, fish and also wild
beasts are kept (JD ; LW :; SDA f.; KA : f.; DAS :;
KT : f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBez. ..
Arabic burg al-ham
. am means a pigeon-turret or a lodging place
of pigeons (L ; DAS : ff.). In his commentary on mShab .,
Maimonides explains the Hebrew term BYBR as a place where birds and
animals are kept (MK :).
. 55 54
Arab. BQS, o.l. BWYYS
BRWS,
Hebrew BRWS refers to Juniper, Juniperus drupacea Labill., Juniperus
Excelsa L., and features in the Bible (e.g. Is :) and in Rabbinic literature
51 : V
52 :

V
O V
V
:  P [] add. V

53 :
54 :
55

shem tov, synonym list

(e.g. bRH a) (KB; AEY :; DAS :, ; FEB ff.; FM ;


FO ff.; FZ f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic baqs means the box-tree, Buxus sempervirens L. (see Alef
). Hebrew BRWS is normally translated into Arabic as: or
(cf. RO ; SE ; IJ : , gloss MS Rouen (n. ): ;). +B 0,)
which is the Aramaic (FA ); but cf. SF :: :

(BRWSYM
is cedar; cf. DT :). The Hebrew equivalent to Arabic
baqs is , and the Aramaic one is ; cf. Alef ; see as well Alef
.
The vernacular term BWYYS (according to MS O) is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. boys for Buxus sempervirens (DECLC :b; RL :b; CB ).
In O. Cat. it is documented for the first time in the th c. (DECLC loc.
cit.).
. 56
BYT HS. W"R, Arab. TWQ
"LTWB, o.l. QBS. "NH
.
BYT HS. W"R means neck opening or jugulum and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab a (LW :; KA :, :; BM ; KT :,
).
Arabic t. awq at-tawb means neck opening of a garment (DAS :,

).
A Geonic Responsum (GGS , l. , and ) explains the term as:
(= Persian juruban for collar).
The vernacular term in the Paris MS corresponds to the O. Occ./O. Cat.
capsana (Cat. variant: capana), collar (FEW :b; DECLC :a
b; DCVB :b). The forms in MSS P and O represent the variant causana, mentioned in PSW :a alongside capsana, where the meaning
halter; a ring that holds the hunting bird is given. For other meanings,
cf. DCVB loc. cit.
. 58 57
BLWYY, Arab. HLQ"N

The Hebrew term BLWYY or BLWY features in the Bible (e.g. Jer :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKel .; bSukk b) in the plural only
56 :
57 : V
58 :

O V add. V

VO

bet

and means rags of old clothes (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;


BM ; cf. Bet no. ).
Arabic hulqan/halaqat, sing. halaq/halaqa, means old and worn out

garments or pieces of cloth (L ).


For the identification, cf. IQR :: (Jer :):
. Sa#adya on Is :: (And
theninstead of perfume, there shall be rot; and instead of an apron, a
rope): , has Arabic
halaqat for Hebrew NQPH (S ; cf. RO ).

. 60 59
BWKN", Arab. PHR, o.l. PYSTWN
.
Aramaic BWKN" or BWK"N", from Akk. bukanu (cf. spiral trumpet,
horn, LS ; KG :; SB :, from Greek ), features in
Rabbinic literature (e.g. bShab b or bBQ b) and means pestle, rib
(JD ; LW :; SD ; SDA ; KA : f.; KT :; LF :).
Arabic fihr means a stone such as fills the hand or a stone of the size
of that with which one crushes walnuts and the like, or simply a stone
(L ; cf. HaF : stone-pestle).
A Geonic Responsum (ATG ) explains the term as Arabic:
(pestle of a mortar).
PYSTWN,
the vernacular term according to the Paris and Oxford MSS
.
is documented in M. Fr. as piston, pestle (FEW :ab), but most
probably corresponds to a non-documented O. Cat./O. Occ. *pisto(n),
which is attested for Cat. only since (pist, see DECLC :a;
DCVB :b) and for Occ. in Mistral (pistou(n), see TrFel :b).
DECLC loc. cit. indicates that the Cat. word was borrowed via Fr. piston
from the It. pistone (the etymon is Lat. PISTARE to pound; cf. FEW
loc. cit.). The usual word to designate the pestle in O. Occ. was pestel
(FEW :b; PSW :b), stemming from lat. PISTILLUM, which has
the same meaning (cf. FEW loc. cit.). The variant of the Vatican MS seems
to be corrupt without the -t-.

59 : O
60 : V

shem tov, synonym list

. 63 62 61
"RS. , Arab. BLWT. "L"RD,
BTNYM
SL
.
. this is "LKM"DRYWS, o.l.

K"MYDRYWS
"RS. ) could not be retrieved in
The Hebrew term (BTNYM
SL
.
Hebrew literature (for ; cf. Bet no. above) and was possibly coined
by Shem Tov for Arabic ballut. al-ard.
.
Arabic ballut. al-ard. literally means oak of the earth from Greek
 (LS ) via Syr. ball
ut. ar#a (cf. BLS ) and designates, just
like the Arabic transcription of , that is kamadaryus or the
older form hamadaryus, three different plants: . Teucrium chamaedrys
flavum L. and . Stachys officinalis L. and Var. (DT :;
L.; . Teucrium
M ).
The term featuring as vernacular, K"MYDRYWS according to MS
P, must be the Lat. camedreos/camidrios/camidreos/camidreus meaning
Teucrium chamaedrys L., Teucrium lucidum L., Veronica Chamaedrys L.
and Stachys officinalis L., which is documented, among others, in the
Alphita (see Sin ab, also for the derivation of camedreos from the
Greek word mentioned above; MLWB :; NPRA ; ThLL :;
CA ). This term appears in O. Occ. medical texts in the variant camedereos (RPA ; RMA ) and in a Hebrew text written in Southern

France as Q"MDRY"WS/QMDRY"W
S (PJP ). For O. Cat., it is docu The
mented in GHAT : where it is transcribed as QMDYRY"WS.
common word used in Lat. was chamaedry(o)s, chamaedryis, transcribed
from the Greek (MLWB loc. cit.; NPRA loc. cit.; ThLL :, where a quotation of Scribonius Largus, , is given:  quae herba similis
quercus folia habet), but the Hebrew spelling of all three variants rather
suggests one of the forms mentioned above. With respect to the final part
of the word, the variants used in MSS V and O present an Alef that indicates the hiatus.
. 64
BHRMG, o.l. SNTWNYH
.
Cf. Bet no. .
61 : VO
62 : O, om.
63 : O
64 : om. OV

V
V

GIMEL
. 2 1
GYHWQ, i.e belching, Arab. TMTY,
. o.l. " STRYLY"R
.
The Hebrew term GYHWQ means belching (LW :; KA :,
:; BM ) and features in bBer a. Rashi gives a second explanation: ( that is to say that he
raises and stretches his body upwards) (cf. BM n. ).
Arabic tamat. t. a (M") means he stretched himself (L ). In
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIV, ), the Arabic M" )& I`_ (he
yawned or stretched himself) is translated by N as: and by Z
as: .
For the identification of GYHWQ as tamat. t. a, cf. Tanhum
Ben Joseph
.
Ha-Yerushalmi (BTJ ), s.v. : ghnen () ist gekrzt aus
, ebenso wie , rlpsen, eig. sich recken (), aus .
Cf. as well ShM f. A Geonic explanation of is: (laughing,
jesting) (LO Liqqut. ei Ge"onim on bBer b, p. ).
The vernacular term " STRYLY"R
(MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. esteril.
har, to stretch (out), to loll (FEW :a; PSW :b). According to
FEW loc. cit., the word seems to be absent from Cat., as well as from the
other Romance languages.
. 5 4 3
GRYSYN, Arab. PYS"R or another kind of cereal
Hebrew GRYS, plur. GRYSYN, is a Rabbinic term which lit. means split,
broken and which is used in particular in the sense of pounded, broken
bean, or grain of pearl barley, or geris, i.e. a certain measure (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; FA ; KT :). Plur. GRYSYN is used in
particular in the sense of a dish of pounded grains (JD ), or groats

1 : om. OV
2 :
3 : O
4 : VO
5 :

V add. V

shem tov, synonym list

or porridge made from marsh beans, Vicia Faba L. (LF : ff., but cf.
DAS :).
Arabic faysar means, according to D :, s.v.(*,: fves cuites avec
du beurre et du lait (beans cooked with butter and milk). Dalman
(DAS :) states that marsh beans (Vicia faba L.) that have been
pounded (magrus), cleaned from their pods and cooked with groats of
wheat, are called bs. ar.
Maimonides on mPeah . explains the Hebrew term as:
(the term for beans once they have been
pounded and cleaned from their peels) (MK :).
. 7 6
ST"N

GWPNN, Arab. SBST"N, o.l. SB


The Hebrew term GWPNN features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mDem
.) and means ) fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (FM ) and
) sebesten, i.e. the fruit of the sebesten tree, Cordia Myxa L. (AEY
:; DAS :; FZ f.; LF : f.; :).
Arabic sibistan or sabistan is the Arabic form of the Persian sag-pistan
(VL :) and means sebesten, i.e. the fruit of the sebesten tree, Cordia
Myxa L. (M ; ID :).
For the identification of the two terms, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :); see
as well Maimonides on mDem .: :
(a plant similar to aneth and, according to others, to sebesten)
(MK :).
ST"N

The vernacular form SB


(MS P) represents M. Lat./Romance
sebesten/sebestin. For M. Lat. it is documented in the Alphita (see Sin
:; CA ) and in the Latin version of the index of Ibn Snas
Kitab al-Qanun (see Sin , n. ); also cf. AdOr and Sin b.
For Romance it is documented, e.g., in Cat. (sebesten, Cordia Myxa L.,
although very late, , see DECLC :a) and in O./M. Fr. (sebestin),
M./Mod. Fr. sebesten (FEW :b), as well as in similar Spanish
(DCECH :ab) and Old Francoprovenal forms (sebasten, see AdOr
). We could not find any documentation for O. Occ., but see the Mod.
Occ. form sebest(e) without final -n, attested in DFO :a.

6 :
7 :

O V
O V

gimel

. 8

GRGRY #S. Y QTP,


. Arab. HB
. BLS"N, o.l. QRPWBLSMW
Hebrew GRGRY #S. Y QTP
. means the berries, i.e. fruits of the balsam tree,
Commiphora opobalsamum, and features, for instance, in mShebi .
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; AEY :; FM ; LF ::
storax, cf. as well Qof no. and Ayin no. below).
Arabic habb
balasan means the fruit of the balm tree (balm of Gilead),
.
Commiphora opobalsamum (L ; DT :; ID :; LA :;
LF :; D :: les droguistes entendent sous ce terme le fruit du
bachm; mais probablement il sagit de la liqueur qui decoule du bachm
[With this term the druggists mean the fruit of the bachm but it is
probably the moisture which flows from the bachm]) (cf. L ); cf.
MS ff.:; see as well Ayin no. , Qof no. and Shin no. below.
For the identification of QTP
. as balasan, cf. Maimonides commentary
on the Mishnah cited above (MK :): :
(QTP
. is without doubt the balsam tree). Cf. as well LF :.

The vernacular form QRPWBLSMW


(MSS V and O) may represent the Latin carpobalsamum, which designates the fruit of the balsam tree, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. (NPRA ; MLWB :b).
For the use of Waw for rendering the Latin ending -um, see the introduction. The form might also correspond to the O. Sp. carpobalsamo
(DETEMA :a; DCECH :b), but we consider it more probable

that it represents the Latin word. The variant in MS P (Q"PRWBLSMW)


shows a (probably accidental) metathesis (capro- instead of carpo-). Carpobalsami is documented for O. Occ. in RPA .
. 14 13 12 11 10 9

GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM, Arab. HB


o.l. GR"NH D"NWS
. "LPNGNKST,

Q" STW
. S
The Hebrew term GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM means the kernels of the fruit
of the chaste tree or Abrahams tree, Vitex agnus castus L. (cf. Alef no.
above).
8 : P
9
10 : om. O
11 :
12 : O
13 : O
14 : O

: om. V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic habb
al-fangankust has the same meaning (cf. Alef no.
.
above).
The vernacular term is a mixed Lat./Romance form (GR"NH D"NWS

according to MS P) and should be read grana danus castus,


Q" STW
. S,
with anus standing for agnus (see Sin : and : for this spelling).
The reduction of -gn- to -n- is frequent in Medieval Latin; the velar
sound appears, however, in MS O as a Qof. For agnus castus, see entry
Alef . The first element represents the plural of Lat. granum kernel
(DuC :b, no. ) or O. Occ./O. Cat. grana grain, seed (RL :b;
DECLC :b).
. 17 16 15
GRGRY "STYS,
Arab. HB
.
. "LNYL, o.l. GR"NH DY"YNDY
For Hebrew GRGRY and Arabic habb,
cf. Gimel no. above, and for
.
Hebrew "STYS
. and Arabic nl, cf. Alef no. above.
The vernacular term must be identified as O. Occ. *grana de indi/dindi
for kernels of indigo. O. Occ. indi or endi means indigo according to
RL :b; O. Cat. indi has the same meaning (documented since ,
cf. DECLC :b) also cf. entry Alef ; for grana, see entry Gimel .
The expression as a whole is not documented in our sources.
. 19 18
GL#YNYN, these are the GPT of everything which has GPT
The Hebrew term GL#YNYN means kernels or stones (BM ), while
GPT means Trester, der Rckstand von zerrissenen Schalen und zermalmten Kernen (residue of torn husks and crushed kernels) (cf. LW
:, f.: , gemeinarabisch aH; KA :, :; KT :, :;
Bustan, Muh
. t. al-muh
. t. : ^b/ 2 T?4 cB aH, gift are the olive kernels after they have been squeezed). The text seems to be corrupt, and
should possibly be read as: (GPT are
the [crushed] kernels of everything which has kernels); cf. the Geonic

15 : O
16 : O

17 :
18 : O
19 :

add. V

O V

gimel

Commentary on Tohorot (EG ): . See as well


Gimel no. .
Maimonides on mShab . (MK :) explains as:
(the residue of the olives once the oil has been
extracted).
. 20
Arab. G S",
o.l. RWT.
G#S,
The Hebrew term G#S features in the Bible, for example in Ps : or
Job :, in the sense of to rise and fall loudly, quake, shake, and in
Rabbinic literature with the additional meaning to belch, cough, sneeze
(KB ; CD :; JD f.; BM ).
Arabic gasa"a means to belch or to eructate (L ; KZ ) and
features, for instance, in Maimonides On Asthma (V, ) and is translated by Samuel Benveniste as: and by Joshua Shatibi as: (cf.
BMA ).
The vernacular form RWT. must be read as O. Occ or O. Cat. rot belch,
sigh (RL :a; PSW :a; DECLC :a).
. 22 21
GHH, Arab. SHNH
.
The Hebrew term GHH means face or look (BM ; CD :; KB :
healing) and features, e.g. in Prov :.
Arabic sahna
. means aspect, appearance or external state or condition
(L ; cf. as well IR : countenance).
For the identification see Sa#adya (SM ) on Prov ::
(a joyful heart makes for good health, despondency
dries up the bones): ,
; see as well IJ who prefers the explanation of countenance
to that of healing (cf. ; Hos :); and IQR :.

20 : VO
21 : V
22 :

VO

shem tov, synonym list

. 25 24 23

GYBSS, Arab. GBS,


o.l. GYP
Hebrew = , from Greek  gypsum (LS ; KG :;
LR ), means plastering material, gypsum and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :, s.v. ;
KT :, : s.v. ).
Arabic gibs means gypsum (L ; GS , ; cf. as well Het
. no. ).
The Arukh (KA :) identifies Hebrew as Arabic: , and
Maimonides on mKel . Hebrew as Arabic: (MK :).
The Geonic Commentary on Tohorot (EG ) explains the Hebrew term
as: (cf. as well KA :; for Arabic isfidag, cf. Alef no. above).

The vernacular term GYP


(MS P) is O. Occ. gip for gypsum (PSW
:a); a Catalan reading is not possible here, since all documented
forms end with a sibilant (O. Cat. guix, var.: algeps, ges, gis. s. , gibs, DECLC
:b).
. 29 28 27 26
MTPY,

GPRYT HY,
o.l. SWLPRY
WYB
. Arab. GYR
.
Hebrew GPRYT means sulphur and features in the Bible (e.g. Gen
:; Deut :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bKet b; bSot b)
(KB ; JD ; BM ). GPRYT HY
. refers to sulphur that has not
been in the fire or natural sulphur and is not attested in secondary
literature, but seems to be coined after the Latin sulphur vivum (see
below). That is how the Hebrew term features in the Sefer Keritut by
Hillel Ben Samuel of Verona, i.e. the Hebrew translation of Bruno of
Longobardos Cyrurgia magna which Hillel completed in the year .30
Arabic gayr mut. fa" should be emended into kibrt gayr mut. fa" (cf. MS
O) which is not attested in secondary literature either but is an equivalent
to Greek !' (, i.e. the kind of sulphur which was qualified as
23 : P
24 : O V
25 : VO
26 : add.

27 : VO
28 :
29 : O P

add. V

30 See Gerrit Bos: Medical Terminology in the Hebrew Tradition: Hillel Ben Samuel of
Verona, Sefer ha-Keritut (forthcoming: Journal of Semitic Studies).

gimel

the best by Dioscurides (DW :; cf. DB :: Schwefel . . . der noch


nicht im Feuer gewesen ist [Sulfur . . . that has not yet been in the fire];
LS : native sulphur) and which was called by Pliny: sulphur vivum
(Natural History XXXV, ), cf. GS ). For Arabic kibrt see E.I.2
: ff., s.v. al-kibrt (M. Ullmann). Maimonides On Poisons (BMP )
calls this kind of sulphur: ( 7 B? d eE a?.[ (sulphur untouched
by fire). Moses Ibn Tibbon translates the term as:
.

The vernacular expression SWLPRY


WYB must be read as O. Occ.
or O. Cat. solfre viu or similar (for O. Occ. cf. DAO :, where the
meaning natural sulphur is given). The O. Occ. solfre with the variants
sulpre, solpre (RL :a) and sofre (PSW :b), O. Cat. sofre, variants
solfre, sfre (first documentation in ; cf. DECLC :ba) is
sulphur. For O. Occ. viu, vieu living, cf. RL :a; PSW :b; for
O. Cat. viu with the same meaning, cf. DCVB :a; DECLC :b.
Our term, solfre viu, thus means living sulphur, as opposed to solfre mort,
literally dead sulphur (PSW :ab). The second word in the variant
in P is an error and represents either the adjective ver true, cf. entry
Samekh for the same type of error, or ver(t) green. In both cases, this
would represent a mistake made by the copyist. Levy translates the term
that appears here as natrlicher Schwefel (i.e. natural sulphur), leaving
the meaning of solfre mort with a question mark (PSW :ab). Other
forms that appear in the PSW are sulpre/solpre vieu, solpre viau, sofre biu,
all from the th c. The term is also documented in RMM as solpre
viu; Brunel reads its meaning as soufre de Sicile (i.e., sulphur from Sicily)
(RMM ). For O. Cat., sofre viu is mentioned in DCVB :b. The
Romance term seems to be modelled upon the Latin sulphur vivum, cf.
the above quotation from Pliny and the following passage in the Alphita:
Vzifur, nomen est minii. Vzifur fit secundum Avicennam de silphure
viuo et argento viuo per combustionem, et inde potest elici sulphur
vivum, et multum assimilatur sinopide, quia durius est (Sin , n. ).
. 31
GYRDN is someone whose head hair has been pulled out
GRDN or GRDN" means ) weaver, ) scabby, afflicted with an itch
(JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA : f., :). The term features in

31 :

shem tov, synonym list

the plur. in bKet b and is explained by Rashi as follows:


(i.e., someone whose head hair has been pulled out).
An even closer parallel to Shem Tovs explanation features in the
Arukh (KA :): .
See Gimel below.

. 33 32
GYHR,
o.l. BRWN
. Arab. " HMR,
.
The Hebrew term GYHR
means red-spotted in the face
. or GYHWR
.
(JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ) and features, for example,
in mBekh ..
Arabic ahmar
means red (L ).
.
For the identification of GYHR
cf. Maimonides on the
. as ahmar,
.
Mishnah mentioned: : (MK :).
The vernacular term BRWN (MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. brun
for brun, sombre, bis, triste (brown, dark, drab, sad, RL :a; FEW
:b). As to the colour, cf. the definition of O. Fr. brun given in the
FEW: qui est dune couleur sombre, entre le roux et le noir (i.e. of a
dark colour, between a fox-coloured red and black). The synonym used
in MS V (BWRWN) includes an epenthetic Waw (see the introduction).
This word cannot be Cat., where the -n was lost in the th c. (GriGram
; DECLC :a: bru, first documentation at the end of the th c.).
. 34

GRGWRYM, Arab. GR"GYR, o.l. GWRGRYSMW


Hebrew , plur. , a noun derived from the verb meaning to gargle (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ), features in
medieval medical literature, e.g. in Nathan ha-Me"atis Hebrew translation of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun (cf. BM ).
Arabic garagah, plur. garagr, has the same meaning as the Hebrew
term (L ; D :). Arabic garagr features in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (III, , ; cf. BMMa , ), where it is translated by N as:
, while Z uses: .

32 : VP
33 : V
34 :

O V

gimel

Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains as follows:


[GRGR] derives from [GRGRT]
and that is the larynx) (MK :).

The vernacular form GWRGRYSMW


(MS P) is the Lat. gargarismum
(ThLL :; for the spelling with Waw as the second letter, see
below), which existed alongside gargarismus (liquoris ore hausti repetita
ad guttur revocatio, DuC :b). For the non-representation of the final
-m in Lat. words, see the introduction. Also cf. the following quotation:
Aplofeumatismus dicitur omne illud quod per os aut per nasum. [ . . . ]
trahit fleuma a capite, siue fit per gargarismum, siue per masticationem,
siue per fricationem [ . . . ] (Alphita, see Sin :; CA ). Reading

GWRGRYSMW
as O. Sp. gargarismo for gargling (DETEMA :a)

does not seem probable to us. The variant used in MS V (GRGRYSMY)


may either represent the genitive of the Lat. word or the O. Occ./O. Cat.
gargarisme (CB , ; DECLC :a), with the variant guargarisme
(O. Cat., DECLC loc. cit.). The variant of the Oxford MS seems to be
used in a plural form of the Romance term gargarismesthe Alef must
be an error. The Cat. variant quoted may have influenced the spelling of
the variant in MS P and might thus be responsable for the spelling with
GW-.
(

. 36 35
GWDLWT, Arab. S. P"YH
. MN DHB, o.l. LNDS D"WR
The Hebrew term (GWDLWT) could not be identified in the
context of the Arabic and Romance synonyms which both refer to plates
of gold. Note, however, that in Tet
. no. we find the Hebrew term
with the same meaning.
Arabic s. afa"ih. is the plural of s. afha,
. meaning wide, or broad stone;
plank, or board (L ; cf. Tet
no.
);
Arabic s. afa"ih. min dahab means
.

plates of gold (cf. Tet


no.
).
.
The term indicated as vernacular should be read as landas daur plates
of gold. The first element is the Late Lat., O. Occ. landa or O. Cat.
l(l)anda, based on a syncopated form of Lat. LAMINA (FEW :a;
PSW :b; DuC :c; DCVB :a; DECLC :a). The meaning
is metallic blade (DCVB loc. cit.). As for landas daur, this term was
interpreted as exclusively Occitan in TermMedOc because of the
35 : A P
36 :

O A c P V add. V

shem tov, synonym list

preservation of the Latin diphthong AU- in aur gold (Catalan: or). Note,
however, that the Occitan form aur (DAO :; RL a; FEW
:b) existed as a loan word in Old Catalan, see DECLC :a;
DCVB :a. In fact, our term is documented as a diminutive in a Catalan
text from , as landetes daur (DECLC :a). The usual Cat. form
was llauna, an older term for (small) plates of any metal (DECLC loc.
cit.), but Corominas considers the variant llanda as a perfect synonym
for llauna, which is mostly used in Valencia and the Balearic islands. For
O. Occ., landa is scarcely documented and appears only in PSW :b
a, where it was not yet fully understood. Levy speculates on the meaning iron ring, and, in metaphorical use, violence. But Levy already noted
the following entry in DuC :c: landa pro lamina vel banda. Since the
Arabic term in our text means plates of gold, our term definitely represents the Occitan or Catalan translation of the Latin term lamina aurea,
see Alphita: bracteos interpretatur lamina, unde bractea crisea, i. lamina
aurea (Sin , n. ; CA ). The variant of the Vatican MS shows the
singular form.
. 37
GLGL, Arab. LWLB, o.l. TWRN
.
The Hebrew term GLGL has the primary meaning of wheel (KB ;
JD ; LW :; SD ), but also features in Rabbinic literature
meaning screw or winch (cf. KT :).
Arabic lawlab means, besides other things, screw, spiral, whorl
(WKAS :; L f.; D : f.; FrA ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adyas translation of Is ::
(It is cereal that is crushed.
For even if he threshes it thoroughly, and the wheel of his sledge and his
horses overwhelm it, he does not crush it):
(DS ; RO ;
DAS :).
The vernacular term TWRN
should be read as O. Occ. or O. Cat. torn.
.
According to FEW :ba, in Gallo-Romance, this noun designates
various tools which are characterised by turning around their own axis.
As examples, the FEW lists, among others, the main shaft of the water

37 :

add. V

gimel

well, in which the water is lifted with the help of a rope, the spinning
wheel, a bobbin, and the turners lathe. From there, still following FEW,
the designation was transferred to encompass tools and other items that
turn around their own axis. For Cat., see DECLC :a: torn instrument
of the turner (< Lat. TORNUS < Gr. ), first documented both as an
instrument and as a turning movement (th c.). For another occurence
of torn, see entry Mem .
. 41 40 39 38
GRYDWT HM#YM WH#YS. WR, Arab. SHWG
"L"M# ", o.l. PWNTS
.
.
Hebrew (GRYDWT HM#YM WH#YS. WR) means
intestinal abrasion and constipation; is not attested in
secondary literature, only features in EM as a modern term;
for cf. BM .
Arabic sah
. g al-am#a" (cf. MS O) means dysentery, attended by abrasion or excoriation of the colon (L ; SN ). Arabic  features
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ), where it is
T)
translated as: (HPSY
. by N and as: (HWLYD PWNT)
.
by Z. In Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ), we find
the expression  
(and in some cases it causes abrasion), which
is translated as: (PWNS. ) by Moses ibn Tibbon,
and, in Maimonides On Asthma (XIII,; cf. BMA ),    
(and he suffered from severe dysentery) is translated as:
(PWNS. ) by Samuel Benveniste.
The vernacular term, which also features in N, Z and Moses ibn
Tibbon, is the Cat. pons dysentery (DECLC :a; DCVB :a),
stemming from Lat. PONDUS (FEW :b). The word is attested
in Cat. since (cf. DECLC loc. cit.); we might thus have a first
documentation here. It seems to be absent from Occ., but note that it is
documented for It.: mal dei pondi/mal del pondo with the same meaning
(FEW :a; REW ).

38 : emendation
39 : VO
40 : V
41 : O

editor MSS

shem tov, synonym list

. 43 42

GDMWT, Arab. GD"M,


o.l. MDYL
The Hebrew term GDMWT means leprosy and is attested in medieval
medical literature translated from Arabic (BM ). As all the examples
adduced by Ben Yehuda were given subsequent to Shem Tov, it is possible
that the term was coined by him.
Arabic gudam means elephantiasis, a type of leprosy (L ; SN ).

The term features,


for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (II,
; III, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by N as: or
and by Z as: , the common biblical term for leprosy.
The vernacular term MDYL is identical with O. Occ. mesel/mezel or
O. Cat. mesell for leprous (CB , ; cf. ibid. for the noun mezeleria
for leprosy), derived from Lat. MISELLUS for unfortunate, miserable
(DECLC :bb). The O. Cat. form is documented for the first time
in (DECLC loc. cit.). For the transcription of the O. Occ. voiced s by
Hebrew Dalet, cf. the introduction. The variant of the Vatican MS with
the loss of the initial Mem seems to be corrupt.
. 45 44
GRGTNY, Arab. N" S. WR, o.l. PYSTWL"
.
The Hebrew term GRGTNY or GRGWTNY, from Greek !
(wicker-basket, creel; LS ; KG :; LR ) originally meant
a wicker or net work in the wine or oil press and has a secondary
meaning to designate the scarry and lifeless surface of a healed up
wound, eschar (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; PB , ; cf.
Low XLV: keloidosis).
Arabic nasur or nas. u r means fistula (D :; SN ). The Arabic
term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV,
,) where it is transcribed as: by N, and translated as:
(PYSTWL")
by Z.
.
The vernacular term PYSTWL"
must be read as Lat. (ThLL :;
.
DuC :a), O. Occ./O. Cat. fistula (FEW :b; RPA ; DECLC
:b), or O. Occ. fistola/festola/festula (RL :b; CB ; RMA ,
42 : VO
43 : B" PO
44 : V
45 : V

V add. V

gimel

, , ) with the meaning fistular, suppurating wound (FEW


loc. cit.).
. 47 46 [ ]
RWTB],
GR#YNH [SL
Arab. NW"H "LTMR "LRTB
.
.
RWTB
Hebrew GR#YNH or GL#YNH SL
.  means the stones of fresh
dates (for GR#YNH see Gimel no. above) and has a parallel in the
Arabic nawat at-tamr ar-rat. b (D : f.). The identification goes back to
Maimonides commentary on mUqz . (MK :); see as well FE .
. 49 48
GPT is the peat from olive peels or poppy seed
For the quotation cf. the Arukh (KA :):
(following bShab b). See as well Gimel no. .
. 50
GNWH,
. Arab. BHR, o.l. GWYYS
GNWH
. is the verbal infinitive of the Hebrew verb GNH,
. which features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bRH b/a and bBQ a, and means )
to sigh heavily under an attack of angina pectoris and ) to cough and
spit blood (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic buhr designates the state of being out of breath (L ).
The vernacular term GWYYS could not be identified. It is possible
that it is the plural of Romance derivations of Lat. GAUDIUM, as we
found O. Occ. and O. Cat. words that more or less match the form given
in the MSS, e.g., O. Occ. joia, gaug (FEW :b,b) and O. Cat. goig
(DECLC :b) with the meaning pleasure. However, this does not
seem not very probable to us, since its meaning differs completely from
the one indicated by the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, unless we dare
to interpret it as meaning crow.

46 : V
47 :
48 : O

add. V

49 : add.
50 : add. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 53 52 51

WYW"
GHLYM
LWH
Arab. GMR
HY,
.
. SWT,
. o.l. BRS"

Hebrew GHLYM
LWH
features in Rabbinic literature (bPes a;
.
. SWT
bBer b) and means burning, living or flickering coals as opposed to
, which are coals whose flames have died down and are no
longer flickering (JD ; LW :; BM ; KT :).
Arabic gamr hayy
means a live or burning coal (L ).
.
For the identification of Hebrew GHLYM
as Arabic gamr, cf. Sa#adya
.
on Lev :: (and he shall take a
panful of glowing coals scooped from the altar):
(S ); see as well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ):
(
 h,'; SF :.
WYW" (MS V) should be read as O. Occ./
The vernacular term BRS"
O. Cat. brasa viva for living embers of coal (RL :b; PSW :a;
DCVB :b, where the plural vives brases is mentioned). The first
element is Romance brasa (for O. Occ. see RL :a; for O. Cat. see
DECLC :a, where it is stated that brasa is a word of unknown origin
common to Western Romance languages). The variant of the Oxford MS
includes the Dalet that represents the sound /z/ (see the introduction).
The second element is the feminine of the adjective in the entry Gimel
.
. 56 55 54
GWRY HKLBYM, Arab. "GR" "LKL"B, o.l. QDYLS
Hebrew GWRY HKLBYM means whelps of dogs (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic agra" al-kilab has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of GWRYM as agra", cf. Sa#adya on Lamentations
:: (Even jackals offer the breast and suckle
their young):
(SH ); see as well IJ .

51 : VO
52 : om. O add. V
53 : O  U"
54 : O
55 : VO
56 :

VO !cK P

gimel

In conformity with the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, the vernacular


word is the plural of O. Occ. cadel little dog (FEW ,:b, < Lat.
CATELLUS, puppy) or the O. Cat. equivalent cadell (DECLC :b),
documented since the th c.
. 58 57

GRDN, Arab. "QR#, o.l. RSQS


GRDN or GRDN" means ) weaver, ) scabby, afflicted with an itch;
) someone whose head hair has been pulled out (cf. Gimel above).
Arabic aqra# means scabby or someone afflicted with scabs (D :),
or bald (HaF ).
The vernacular word is the O. Occ. rascas scabby (RL :b), scabby
head (PSW :a), O. Cat. rascs scabby (DECLC :a, an older
variant is raschatz, th c.). See the quotation in PSW loc. cit.: Le sucx
de fumeterra val a rascas guerir de son mal (i.e., the juice of fumus terrae
is good for healing someone with a scabby head from his illness) (Brev.
dam. ). The morphological basis of this word is O. Occ./O. Cat.
rasca scab (RL :b), scabies (DCVB :b; DECLC :b), which

is represented in the Vatican MS (RSQH);


see the quotation from Tres.
Pobr. given in DCVB loc. cit.; Val lo ros del vi plvora feyt e posat
sobre la rasca munda-la ab oli (i.e., if one makes a powder of the tartar
of wine it is good, and if one puts it on the scab with oil it cleanses it).
The variant in the Oxford MS seems to be corrupt.
. 60 59
GRGRY "LWNYM, Arab. HB
. "LS. NWBR, o.l. PNYWLS
For Hebrew GRGRY and Arabic habb,
cf. Gimel no. and above, for
.
Hebrew "LWNYM and Arabic s. anawbar, cf. Alef no. above.
is
The vernacular term of the Paris and Vatican MSS, P(Y)NYWLS,
the plural of O. Occ. pinhol for kernel of the pine cone (PSW :b),
O. Cat. pinyol (idem, DECLC :a). The term featuring in the Oxford

57 : VO
58 : O V
59 : O []V
60 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

must be read pinhons/ pinyons, with the same meaning as


MS, PYNWNS,
pinhols, documented for O. Occ. in RPA (more usual though without
n-mobile, pinhos, cf. RPA , CB , among others); for O. Cat. see

DECLC :a; DCVB :b, piny, plural pinyons. See also ShK
,
where PYNYWNS is a gloss of Hebrew bot. nim for pignons.

For the identification of the Romance (O. Cat.) PYNGWN


S as Arab.
HB
. "LS. NWBR, see GHAT :. The identification of the same Arabic
term as the corresponding Latin term can be found in the index of the
Latin translation of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun, see Sin : and notes
and .
.
GRH, Arab. TRQWH, o.l. "WRQ"
The Hebrew term GRH is the general name for the part of the body which
extends from the neck to the chest (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM ; EM ) and features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. in mYom .;
mTam .; bYom b).
Arabic tarquwa designates the collar-bone (L ; DKT , , :
clavicule: FAL :). The Arabic term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (VI, ,; VII,; XII, ; XV, ; cf. BMMb
and ), and is transcribed by N as: and translated by Z with the
TYWL").
In his commentary to the
vernacular / (QTWL"/Q
.
.
Mishnaic passages mentioned, the Hebrew term is left untranslated by
Maimonides.
The vernacular term has to be read as orca, which is documented in
O. Occ. only with the meaning jug (< lat. ORCA barrel, cf. FEW :a).
But, as the FEW states, on the basis of some modern variants of this word,
the meaning was extended to shoulders, because of the vaulted form
of a jug; cf. the northern Mod. Occ. variants of Coubon (Haute-Loire)
uortsa shoulder, Velay (Haute-Loire). ourcho, Limagne (Puy-de-Dme)
ourchu camel-backed (FEW :ba). It seems that the Sefer haShimmush represents the first known documentation of this meaning for
O. Occ.

gimel

. 62 61
GYDYM NHYM,
Arab. "WRDH
.
Hebrew GYDYM NHYM,
lit. veins that are restful, could not be re.
trieved in secondary literature. Most probably, it reflects Shem Tovs
endeavor to create a novel Hebrew medical terminology, in this case
for the Arabic #uruq gayr d
. afiqa (vessels that do not pulsate), i.e. veins,
a term that was common in medieval medical literature, together with
awrida. The term on its own, however, in the sense of vessel, vein
can also be found subsequently, such as in the translations of Zerahyah
.
Hen
for the Arabic #irq (vein) (cf. Maimonides Medical Aphorisms,
.
e.g. III, (BMMa )) and wi#a (receptacle, vessel) (cf. Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms, e.g. VI, (BMMb )). In addition to , we find
(cf. Maimonides Medical Aphorisms, e.g. III, , where #irq is
translated as: by N) and (cf. Maimonides Medical Aphorisms,
e.g. VIII, (BMMb ), where awrda is translated as: / by
N and Z).
Arabic ward, plur. awrida, means vein, especially vena cava and vena
jugularis (DKT ; FAL :; cf. as well L ).
. 64 63

GMLWNYN SWPYN,
Arab. KBYR "MLS
For both terms, cf. Alef no. and .
. 66 65
GBHT,
. Arab. S. L#, o.l. QLWYN
Hebrew (GBHT)
means baldness (of the forehead) as opposed to
.
baldness [of the pate] (cf. KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :)
and features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g.
mNeg .).
Arabic s. ala# has the same meaning as GBHT
. (L ).

61 : V
62 : O V
63 : V
64 : O
65 : O
66 :

O (= Lev :) add. V

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of GBHT


. as s. ala#, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Lev
:: (But if a white affection
streaked with red appears on the bald part in the front or at the back
of the head): ; cf. as well
IJ ; SF :.
The vernacular term QLWYN might be a non-documented O. Occ.
word like *calvin derived from O. Occ. calv (FEW :a; RL :a),
O. Cat. calb (DECLC :a; DCVB :b) bald. Suffixed variants of
calv/calb without visible changes in meaning or word class are quite usual
in the languages in question, see O. Occ. calvut baldheaded (FEW loc.
cit., RL :b, PSW :a), O. Cat. calbut (DECLC :b; DCVB
loc. cit.), O. Occ. calvet (RL loc. cit.). But the suffix -in was used for
making adjectives from nouns (e.g., aur gold, aurin golden), which
meant generally indicating resemblance (cf. WfP ), so we might
suppose a derivation from a noun such as calba (baldhead, Cat., DCVB
: b).
. 69 68 67
GYD HB"SLYQ is the inner vein of three veins of the arm, which people
used to bleed from
The Hebrew term B"SLYQ, meaning basilic vein (from Arabic i,L3; cf.
DKT , ; FAL :; KZ ) is not attested in secondary sources,
but features in Masie (MD ) as: / / .
B"SLYQ features in medieval Hebrew medical literature, for instance, in
the Hebrew translations of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XII, ,
, , ) by N as: /, and by Z as: /
/.
Shem Tovs explanation bears some similarity to that featuring in
Moses ibn Tibbons Hebrew translation of Maimonides On Hemorrhoids:
(cf. BMH II, ).

67 : V
68 :

O, om. V

69 :

gimel

. 72 71 70
GYD HS. "PN is the vein visible on [the hollow of] the knee in the knee
joint
GYD HS. "PN (from Arabic: -* 
2; cf. KZ ; cf. as well DKT
index) means the saphenous vein. The term features in medieval Hebrew medical literature, for instance in the Hebrew translations of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XII, ), by N as: , and by
Z as: . The term features in Masie (MD ) as: .

70 : O V
71 : V1
72 :

add. V

DALET
. 3 2 1
DRS. YN, Arab. D"RS. YNY, o.l. SNMWMW
Aramaic DRS. YN means cinnamon (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA
:, :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a.
Arabic dar s.n means Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum ceylanicum Nees. (DT :; M ). The Arabic term is derived from Middle
Iranian *dar-cen, *dar i cen(k) (SDA ).
The Geonim identify the Hebrew term as Arabic dar s.n (cf. LO
Teshuvot on Shab a, p. ; BT :; FEB f.; KA :; LF :;
cf. as well Sade
no. ).
.
The vernacular term SNMWMW (MS P) is Latin cinnamumu(m),
cinnamon (for the missing -m and the Waw representing the Lat. ending
-um, see the introduction) or Cat. cinamomo with the same meaning
(DECLC :a), with the late first documentation () to be kept in
mind here, although the modern dialectal form sirimmo (Tall, Boi) in
the Pyrenees would indicate that the forms ending on -o are old. For
O. Occ. and O. Cat., we were able to find cinamomi (see entry Sade
),
.
which appears in the Vatican and Oxford MSS (an interpretation as the
Lat. genitive singular is also possible).
The second word in the Vatican MS, QNYLH, has to be read as
O. Occ. or O. Cat. canela (RL :a; CB , among others; RMA ;
DECLC :a; AdV ), canella (RL loc. cit.; CB , among others;
RMA ; RPA , among others; DECLC loc. cit.), O. Occ. canelha
(CB , ; RMM f., , ), or O. Cat. canyela (DECLC loc.
cit.) with the meaning cinnamon.
Lat. cinamomum/O. Cat. canela is identified as Arabic dar s.n in
AdV , .

1 : O
2 : V
3 :

VO add. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 5 4

DM HTNYN, Arab. DM "L"KWYN, o.l. SNGY


DYDRGWN
Hebrew DM HTNYN meaning dragons blood, is not mentioned in
secondary literature. The term features in medieval Hebrew medical
literature as a loan translation of Arabic dam at-tinnn (see below), for
instance, in the anonymous Sefer Ahavat Nashim (ed. Caballero-Navas,
, , ) which was, according to the editor, written at an unknown
date but certainly not earlier than the second half of the th century,6
and in the anonymous Sefer Zikhron ha-Holiyim
ha-Howim bi-Khlei ha.
Herayon (ed. Barkai, History, p. ), which was, according to the editor,
possibly written in the second half of the th century or at the beginning
of the th (Barkai, ibid., p. f.).7
Arabic dam al-ahawayn, lit. the blood of the two brothers, is a

red resin derived from


diverse Liliacea; in the Orient, the Dracaena
Draco Willd. and, in the West, the dragon tree (Dracaena Draco L.). It
is also known by the name dam at-tinnn or dam at-tu#ban dragons
hawayn

blood (DT :; M ; LF : ff.). Arabic dam al-a


features,

for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), and was


translated both by N and Z as: .

The vernacular forms SNGY/


S(")NQ
D(Y)DR(")GWN must be identified as the O. Occ. term sanc de drag(u)on (FEW :a; DAO :;
CB ; RMM , ); variants are sanch de drago (CB ) and sang
de draguo(n) (RMA ; RPA , ), with the meaning rsine dun
rouge fonc, qui est fourni par diffrents vgtaux exotiques, en particulier par le rotang (calamus draco), et quon emploie en mdecine
comme astringent (i.e., dark red resin, produced by different exotic
plants, in particular by the Calamus Draco and used in medicine as
astringent, DAO loc. cit.). Also see the identical O. Cat. sanch/sang de
drago, documented in the th c. (DCVB :a). For the identification of O. Cat. sanch de drag as Arabic dam al-ahawayn, cf. AdV ,

4 : O V
5 : O

V
C. Caballero-Navas, The Book of Womens Love and Jewish Medical Literature on
Women. Sefer Ahavat Nashim, London .
7 R. Barkai, A History of Jewish Gynaecological Texts in the Middle Ages, Leiden .
6

dalet

. 10 9 8
DWD"YM, Arab. YBRWH
. or LP" H,
. o.l. MDR"GWLH
Hebrew DWD"YM features in the Bible (e.g. Gen :; Song :)
and is identified as mandrake, Atropa mandragora or Mandragora officinarum L. (KB ; CD :; AEY :; DAS :, ; FO f.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic yabruh. is derived from Aramaic (cf. FA f.; SD )
and refers either to the mandrake plant; Mandragora officinarum L. and
Var. or to its anthropomorphic root, while Arabic luffah. means either the
plant or its fruits (DT :; M ; DAS : ff.).
For the identification of Hebrew DWD"YM as Arabic luffah,
. cf. Sa#adya
on Song : (SH):
(the mandrakes yield their fragrance, at our doors are all
choice fruits; both freshly picked and long-stored have I kept, my beloved,
for you):
; cf. IJ ; SF :. The identification
of luffah. as yabruh. features in Ibn Janahs
. K. at-Talkhs. as quoted by alIdrs (IJS :; cf. AS ).
The vernacular term MDR"GWLH (MS P) or MDRYGWL" (MS V)
must be read as the O. Occ. mandragolha (PSW :b; FEW :b) or
the O. Cat. mandragola, Mandragora officinarum L. (DECLC :b),
having lost the -n- like in a French form documented in the th c.,
madregole (FEW :b). The synonym of the Oxford MS (MNDRYGYL") includes the -n-; the second Yod in this variant seems to be corrupt for a Waw. Von Wartburg dates the O. Occ. form in the th c.
(FEW :b); the O. Cat. form is documented for the first time in the
th c. in a Ramon Llull text (DECLC :b). For the identification of
Arab yabruh as O. Cat. MNDRGWLH, cf. GHAT ;. The O. Occ.
and O. Cat.forms with the ending -ora (CB , , ; DAO ,;
PSW :b; RL :b; RPA ) seem to be later (in the th c., see
DECLC :b and FEW :b). The form ending on -ora is identified
as Arabic luffah. (see above), cf. AdV , .

8 :
9 : V

add. V

10 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 12 11
DLW#YM, Arab. QR#, o.l. QWGWRL"
Hebrew DL#T, plur. DLW#YM, means pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.
(KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS : f.; LA :;
cf. FH ; FM and LF : ff.: Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.) and features
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil ., mUqz .).
Arabic qar#, from Aramaic (FF f.; LA :), also means
pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L., Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Lagenaria
vulgaris Ser. (DT :; M ; DAS : f.; LA :).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic Commentary on mUqz .:
(stalk of a
pumpkin: A pumpkin has a kind of wooden stalk; the meaning of the
Arabic qara# in Aramaic is ) (EG ). The Hebrew term DL#T is also
common as a translation of the Arabic qar# in medieval medical literature
such as, for instance, in the Hebrew translations of Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms VII, (cf. BMMb ) and IX, (cf. BMMb ), by N
and Z.
The vernacular form QWGWRL" (MS V) represents the O. Occ. cogorla
(pumpkin, FEW :b), whereas the synonym used in the Paris MS,
QWGWRLS (or QWGWRL" S in the Oxford MS), is its plural, cogorlas.
The word is probably derived from Lat. *CUCURBULA (from CUCURBITA, with the suffix -ULA instead of -ITA). According to the FEW,
forms derived from this etymon can be found in various parts of France,
corresponding to the linguistic variants of Lorraine, Franco-Provenal,
Auvernian, and Languedocian. DAO : documents cogorla in RM and
RPA with the supposed meaning being pumpkin (RM ; RPA ; cf.
also RMA ); see also Corradini Bozzi: cogorlla, idem (CB ) and,
in addition, cogorla salvatge, bryony, in RPA (DAO :; RPA ).
These examples and the additional evidence in our text have led us to
revise Coromines opinion that cogorla is an uncertain and badly documented word (DECLC :ba). With respect to Modern Occitan, the surviving forms [ku'gurla], [ku'gurlo] and the like seem to be
restricted to parts of the modern departments of Hrault, Gard, Lozre,
Ardche, H.-Loire, and Puy-De-D. (see ALF, map ).13 Also see DFO
11 : O
12 :

O P
In the departments of Loire, Rhne, Ain and Isre we find reduced forms like
['kurlo], ['kurla].
13

dalet

(:a, courgourlo, classified as Languedocian). The form does not exist


in Catalan; it is missing in the DCVB. See also Coromines (DECLC loc.
cit.), who only quotes Occitan forms, including kugrla (Aniane), the
toponym La Corgolire (in the Cevennes, at Valarauga, Gard), which figures as Cogorlieuyras in and ; see ZA LXI.
. 16 15 14

DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT, Arab. DL"#, o.l. MLWN SR"SNYQY


Hebrew DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT means the Greek and Egyptian pumpkin. Both varieties feature in the Mishnah (mKil ., ., .) and, e.g. in
yKil I, a, where, according to Rabbi Nehemiah, the Egyptian pumpkin
is identical to the Aramaic variety (FM ; LF :).
Arabic dulla# is watermelon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. (M ).
The identification of Hebrew DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT as Arabic dulla#
[mis. r] goes back to Maimonides commentary on mKil . and .:
: (MK :).

The vernacular term MLWN SR"SNYQY


(MS P) must be read as *melon sarracenici, an expression which is not documented in our sources.
The first element is O. Occ. melon (DAO :; RPA ) for melon. The
second element seems to belong to the Lat. adjective SARACENICUS,
saracenic; it does not match any known O. Occ. or O. Cat. form (for
O. Occ. sarrazin, sarrazinal, sarrazines and sarrazinesc, see PSW :b;
for O. Cat. sarra, -ina and sarraci, -ina, see DCVB :a).
. 18 17
DMLTYQYWN,
Arab. PR"YN, o.l. PLYSYYRS
.
The term DMLTYQYWN
is a corruption of Hebrew
.
(DLMTYQYN),
plur.
of

(DLMTYQY),
from Greek 
.
.
or (LS ; KG :; LR ; cf. KA : f.). It features in
mKil . and is explained in the Jerusalem Talmud (ad locum) as:
(= from Greek tunic; KG :; LN ; SMCB ).
Krauss (KT :) explains as a kind of tunic, which appeared

14 :
15 : P1

O V

16 :

O V add. V
V
V

17 : O
18 : O

shem tov, synonym list

at a later time instead of the stole. Jastrow (JD ) explains the term as
a long undergarment of Dalmatian wool and Levy speaks of wollene
Priestergewnder (woollen cassocks) (LW :; cf. BLS : vestis diaconi); Sperber (SMCB, and esp. ) concludes that it is a garment
called after the country it hails from, i.e. ; see as well KA :,
: f.; SB : f. See as well Het
. no. .
Arabic PR"YN is probably a plur. formed from fira", plur. of farwun,
which designates a certain thing that is worn, a furred garment, a skin
or wool, a kind of garment, well known, lined with the skins of various
species of animals, worn for preservation from the cold (L ).
Maimonides comments on the Mishnah mentioned:
(Bera cloaks and Brundisian cloaks and Dalmatian undergarments and felt shoesone may not
wear them until they have been examined) that although the exact meaning of all these terms has not been established, it is clear that we are dealing with items of wool used to cover the legs and thighs (
,
) (MK :).
The vernacular term must be a derivation of O. Occ. pelis(s)a, furry
coat (FEW :b; RL :a), like pelisiera or *peliseira. O. Occ. pelisiera
is documented to mean female dealer in skins in WfP , and
FEW :a. Note that, according to WfP , a special meaning that
these words [i.e., O. Occ. words in -iera] take is that of an article
of clothing, so that we could suppose here, in accordance with the
meanings of the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, a (non-documented)
meaning such as a kind of furry garment. Also cf. the O. Occ. derivations
pel(l)is(s)a(i)ria, furriers trade (RL loc. cit.; PSW :b) and peliseta,
little coat with pelt lining (see entry Alef ).
Also cf. entry Het
. .
. 20 19
DNDNH, Arab. N#N#, o.l. MNT"
.
Hebrew DNDNH means mint, Ceterach officinarum Willd., and features in Rabbinic literature, for instance in mShebi . (JD ; LW :;
KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FM ).

19 : AA P
20 : VO 

dalet

Na#na# is the generic Arabic name for different species of mint, e.g.
Mentha piperita Smith., Mentha sativa L., Mentha aquatica L. (DT :;
M ; DAS :, , n. , ; cf. as well Alef no. ).
The identification of DNDNH as na#na# goes back to Maimonides
commentary on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term MYNT"
. is the Lat. or Romance menta for mint
(DAO :; RM , among others; RL :a; PSW :b;
CB , among others; DECLC :ab; DETEMA :ab). Cf. Alef
no. .
For the identification of O. Cat. menta as Arabic na#na#, cf. AdV ,
and GHAT :.
. 22 21
DBDBNYWT, Arab. QR"SY" e.g. HB
. "LMLWK, o.l. SYRRS
The Hebrew term DBDBNYWT features in Rabbinic literature, for instance in mAZ . or bAZ b, and means lumps of dripping grapes
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; cf. LF :: overripe grapes moistened
by their own juice; cf. as well FE ). In the Middle Ages the term is also
used to designate the cherry fruit, Prunus cerasus; cf. the Arukh (KA :):
(see as well FE ff.; LF :).
Arabic qarasiya, from Greek  (LS ), designates the cherry
fruit, Prunus avium L. and Var. or Prunus mahaleb L. and Var. The name
habb
al-muluk (berries of kings) was used in Spain and the Maghrib
.
for both the cherry and the fruit of the sebesten tree (Cordia myxa
L.) (DT :; M , ; DAS :). Arabic qarasiya features e.g. in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by
N as: , and transcribed by Z as: .
Maimonides on mAZ . (MK :) explains as:
(honey combs). For the identification of DBDBNYWT as habb
.
al-muluk, cf. the mentioned quotation from the Arukh.
The vernacular word SYRRS (MS P)/SRYYR" S (MS O)/S. RYYR" S
(MS V) must be read as the plural of O. Occ. cireira (DAO :;
RL :b; PSW :b) or, for the variant of P, the Cat. cirera (DECLC
:b) used in the meaning cherry.
GHAT (:, :) identifies Arabic qarasiya and habb
al-muluk
.
as O. Cat. SRYR"S.
21 : V
22 : O

shem tov, synonym list

. 24 23
DYS", Arab. HRYSH, o.l. "NWN" QWYYT"
.
Aramaic DYS" or DYYS" means a dish of pounded grain, grits or:
coarsely pounded wheat or barley eaten alone or mixed with honey
(JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, for instance, in bBez. b, b or bShab b.
Arabic harsa means grain or wheat, bruised, brayed or pounded
or designates in particular a kind of thick pottage, prepared of cooked
wheat and cooked flesh-meats much pounded together (L ; RAP ,
, f., , ) and features in different medical tractates of Maimonides such as On Hemorrhoids, cf. BMH II, (cf. as well KZ ); On
the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR I, ) and Maimonides On Asthma (III,
; cf. BMA ).
The identification of DYS" as harsa goes back to R. Hananel
on bBer
.
b: :
(about simple unpounded grain everybody
agrees that [one says]: Who creates various kinds of food: is
simple pounded grain, without honey and in Arabic harsa) (LO Perush
R. Hananel
on bBer b, p. ); see as well the Arukh (KA :).
.
The vernacular term "NWN" QWYYT"
. must be identified as O. Occ.
*an(n)on(n)a cueita, literally meaning cooked cereal, wheat. The whole
expression is not documented in our sources; for an(n)on(n)a, cf. DAO
:, :; FEW :a; RL :b. The second element is *cueita,
the feminine form of the participle *cueit, which is documented, e.g.,
in biscueit (RL :b). Von Wartburg remarks that an(n)on(n)a is
especially attested for the South of France (FEW :b). The word does
not seem to exist in Cat.
. 27 26 25
HS. MR, Arab. ZWP" "LS. WP, o.l. "YSNWSRWN

DSN
TWM
.
HS. MR grease of wool is possibly a loan translation of
Hebrew DSN
Arabic dasam as. -s. u f grease of wool, which designates, according to
23 : VO
24 : VO
25 : V
26 :

27 :

O V

dalet

Maimonides Glossary of Drug Names (M ), Arabic zufa rat. b grease


of wool.
Arabic zufa designates ) hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis L. and Var.,
Greek * (LS ) and ) grease of wool, Greek 
(LS ). The confusion about this term hails from the fact that the
Arabs, and before them the Syrians, transcribed the two Greek words
in the same manner. In Arabic, the different meanings are generally distinguished, by the adjective reading zufa rat. b (moist zufa) for 
and zufa yabis (dry zufa) for * (DT :, :; LA :).
In our text, the Arabic term zufa designates the grease of wool or lanoline
as is indicated by as. -s. u f, which possibly has to be read as: as. -s. u f ad-dahin
(the fatty wool); cf. Maimonides, Medical Aphorisms XXIII, : II
 -)4
j% Z*   Z*  (Lanoline is the fatty wool, not the filthy
wool). Cf. as well Sade
no. below.
.
The term indicated as vernacular seems to be a corruption of a medieval Latin term that appears in the Alphita, as ysopum cerotum or ysopus
cerotis (Sin , n. ), which is the dirt of the sheep wool extracted by
decoction (see Sin b and CA ). All variants of our text seem to
reflect a reading *cerontum in the second part of the term. Also cf. entry
Sade
.
.
. 28
GYB
S
DRDNY, Arab. LT"T, o.l. GYN
DRDNY is probably Persian dardan meaning fragments derived from
the Persian verb dardan (VL :).
Arabic litat, plur. of lita, means gums (WKAS : ff.).

GYB
S (or GYNGYB" S
The vernacular
term used in the Paris MS GYN
in the MSS O and V) must be interpreted as the plural of O. Occ.
gengiva gums (FEW :b; RL :b), whereas, for O. Cat., only the
variants gen(n)iva, genyiva without -g- are documented (DECLC :b;
DCVB :a).
. 29
DPWS, Arab. Q"LB, o.l. PWRM"
Hebrew DPWS, next to TPWS
in Mishnaic Hebrew, from Greek 
.
(LS ; KG :; LR ) means frame, mould (JD ; LW :;
28 : VO ?
29 : O V

add. V

shem tov, synonym list

KA :; BM ; BKH Index; KT :, :, ; see as well Mem


) and features, e.g. in mMen .. The term also features in medieval
medical literature as a translation of Arabic qalab, e.g. in the Hebrew
translation of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV, ) by N, whereas
Z has .
Arabic qalab means a model according to which the like thereof is
made, or proportioned; a mould into which metals are poured (L ;
see as well Mem no. ).
For the identification of DPWS as qalab, cf. Sa#adya, SAM :;
see as well Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above: :
(MK :).
The vernacular term PWRM" must be read as Latin or Romance forma,
which means, in general, form, shape (FEW :b). In O. Occ. it could
also have the special meaning cheese, loaf (FEW :a; PSW :b)
and later (Mistral) forme, modle, moule de fromage (i.e., form, model,

cheese mould, PSW :a). Also see ShK,


, PWRMH, gloss of the
Hebrew s. elem for form, image.
. 32 31 30
DBYWNYM, Arab. DRQ "LHM"M,
o.l. PMT"
.
. DYQWLWMS
Hebrew DBYWNYM means excrement (JD ) or pigeon droppings
(KB ; KA : f., : f.; BM ) and features in Kings : (K"ri)
and bMeg b.
Arabic darq al-ham
. am means dung of pigeons (L ).
For theidentification of DBYWNYM as darq al-ham
. am, cf. IJ .
S (MS P) must be interpreted
The vernacular term PMT"
DYQWLWM
.
as O. Occ. femta de coloms for pigeon droppings. The first element is
femta (CB ), a feminine variant of fem, femp, (RL :a; PSW :b)
with the meaning fiente, excrment (i.e., droppings, excrement; RL loc.
cit.), and the second element is the plural of colom for pigeon (FEW
:b). This term is documented in our sources, although not exactly
in the form that we have here (see the masculine variant fems de columps
(RMA ), and the feminine fenda dels colons (CB )).

30 :
31 : VO
32 :

O V

O V add. V

dalet

. 34 33
S"

DYKH GRYSWT, Arab. DQ" GRY


Hebrew DYKH GRYSWT means to pound pearl barley or grits (JD ,
; LW :; KA :, :, :; cf. Gimel no. ). DYKH features in the Bible, e.g. Ps : in the sense of to crush (KB )
and, in Rabbinic literature, it is only attested as the verbal substantive: meaning pounding, derived from (cf. JD ; LW :;
KA :).
The Arabic probably has to be read as: daqqa garsan, i.e., to pound
grits (L , ); cf. as well D :: piler grossirement. Cf. as well
DAS : and MT .
. 37 36 35
o.l. BRQYL
DWT, Arab. S. HRYG,
Hebrew DWT or HDWT
means a subterranean masoned store-room,
.
cistern, cellar (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; KT ::
Korngrube (corn-pit)) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBB
. or mKel ..
Arabic s. ihrg means watering-trough or tank or cistern (L ).
For the identification of HDWT
as s. ihrg, cf. the Geonic Commentary
.
on Tohorot (EG ), and Maimonides on mKel . (MK :).
The vernacular term BRQYL may be interpreted as the O. Occ. broc,
pot, small jug (RL :b) with the diminutive suffix -el; cf. the parallel
form brocat (big jug, PSW :b) with the augmentative suffix -at. For
these suffixes, see GHP ; WfP , . Another form is
O. Occ. broquer, pot, small jug (RL loc. cit.).
. 38
DWKYPT, Arab. HDHWD
Hebrew DWKYPT designates the bird hoopoe, Upupa epops (KB ;
CD :; SD ; KA :; BM f.; LZ ff.), and features in the
33 : V
34 :
35 : O
36 : VO
37 :
38 : O

O V ? add. V

add. V

shem tov, synonym list

Bible (Lev :; Deut :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bHul


. a; bGit
b).
Arabic hudhud has the same meaning (L f.; BK ; KSZ :;
StS ; see as well Venzlaff, Al-Hudhud).39
For the identification of DWKYPT as hudhud, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on
Deut :: (the stork, any variety
of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat):
; see as well IJ .
. 41 40
DRDY", Arab. DWRDY, o.l. PYG"L
Aramaic DWRD", plur. DRDY", means sediment, lees, dregs (JD ;
SDA ) or yeast (LW :; KA :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bAZ a or bTaan a.
Arabic durd has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of DRDY" as durd, cf. LO Perushim on bTaan
b, p. : ,[]

() (DWRDY", SDY"
[SDRY"],
SMRYM
they all mean the same and in
Arabic it is called D(W)RDY) (cf. as well SDA ).
PYG"L (MS P)/PGL"RH (MS O)/PYGL"RH (MS V) are O. Occ. words
related to the Latin FAEX (RL :b; FEW :) or the derivation
FAECULA tartar, yeast. See the O. Occ. fec/fetz, lie, sdiment, matire
fcale (i.e., sediment (of wine), faecal material), e.g. fetz de vi, sediment
of wine, and O. Cat. feu solatge (DECLC :). FAECULA could
have produced an O. Occ (semi-learned) form *fegula/*fegola. In this
case the term used in the Paris MS would be corrupt and should be
read as PYGL",42 although it is strange for these MSS that /o/ or /u/
is not expressed. The variants used in the MSS O and V could not be
interpreted.

39 H. Venzlaff, Al-Hudhud. Eine Untersuchung zur kulturgeschichtlichen Bedeutung des


Wiedehopf im Islam, Frankfurt a. Main .
40 : O V
41 : O V add. V
42 Note, however, that this word (originally belonging to medical language according
to the FEW) has usually not produced any hereditary forms. Another possibility would
be to hypothesize an O. Occ. *fegal from the adjective FAECALEM.

dalet

. 44 43
DQL, Arab. NKL i.e. the palm tree, o.l. DYYTLYR
.
Hebrew DQL means palm tree, Phoenix dactylifera L. and Var. (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; DAS :; FM ; LF : f.), and
features, e.g. in mPeah ..
Arabic nahl or nahla also means palm tree (D :; DT :;
).
DAS :, ,
For the identification of DQL as nahl, cf. Maimonides commentary on
the Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular form DYYTLY(Y)R
must be an O. Occ. *daitil(i)er
.
for palm tree, which is not documented in our sources. We only find
the O. Occ. name of the fruit, datil (DAO :; FEW :b; RL :a;
PSW :b; RM ; CB , ). In O. Cat., we find the name of the
fruit, dtil, and the name of the tree derived from it by the suffix -er,
datiler, featured in Ramon Llull (th century, see DECLC :a). The
Romance words for the fruit are learned words from Lat. DACTYLUS
(FEW :b); by contrast, the form in our text shows the regular development of Lat. -CT- to a diphthong with offglide Yod: DACTYLU(M) >
O. Occ.*daitil.
. 45
DLDWL, Arab. DBWL, o.l. RPYSY
In Rabbinic Hebrew, DLDWL originally means the hanging-down of
a piece which is partly detached from the body, especially, the part
hanging down (LW :; KA : f.), and then a wart with a thin
neck (JD ) or a tumor of the skin, wart (Low XLVI) and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNeg . or bHul
. a. It is derived from
the verb which means to reduce, weaken or: to loosen, detach
(JD f.), but cf. SDA ; s.v. (): to become degenerated,
diminished.
Arabic dubul indicates the disease called wasting or marasmus
(L f.). In Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, , ,; X, , ;
XIX, ; XXII, ; cf. BMMa , , ), it is rendered a.o. as: or
S. Y) by Z.
by N and as: or (RYSPY
43 : V
44 : O !A
45 : O V

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of DLDWL as dubul, cf. the Geonic Commentary


on Tohorot (EG ): ) . 
(. Epstein has emended the
text in such a way that is an explanation of , which conforms
with Ibn Janah;
. IJ (see as well Krauss, KA :), and is contrary to
Kohut, KA :, n. .
The vernacular term could not be identified. It might be related to
the O. Occ. despezar (RL :b; PSW :b) to tear to pieces, to
dismember (see the meaning of the Hebrew word; also cf. the O. Fr.
despeceiz destroyed part, piece, FEW :b) or to the Latin RECIDERE
or a Romance derivation thereof (e.g., O. Occ. rescis torn into pieces,
res(s)is / ressitz weak, miserable (FEW :a)).
. 46
D"H, Arab. HD"
.
Hebrew D"H, which features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bHul
. b), designates the bird kite, Milvus milvus (KB ;
CD :; JD ; BAL ; BH :; FAB ), which is, according
to Jewish law, prohibited as food.
Arabic hid"a
has the same meaning (L f.; BK , ; JAD : ff.;
.
KSZ :, :; StS ).
For the identification of D"H as hid"a,
cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Lev ::
.
(the kite, and different species of falcons):
ah. (IJ ).
; see as well Ibn Jan

46 :

O V

HE
. 3 2 1
HRNY, Arab. KBYZ, o.l. MLB"
Aramaic HRN" or "RN", plur. HRNY or "RWNY/ "R"NY, refers to a plant of
uncertain identity. According to the Geonic tradition, it is identical with
the plant called \ (malva) mallow (JD ; SDA : malva
(leaves); KA :, :; LA ff.:; LF :) and features, e.g. in
bShab b.
Arabic hubbayz, a variant of hubbaza, is malva or mallow, Malva

silvestris L. and Var. (L ; DT :;


M ; DAS :, : f.: Malva
rotundifolia, Malva parviflora).
The vernacular term MLB" (MS P) is the Lat. or the Romance (most
probably O. Occ. or O. Cat.) malva (NPRA ; Sin :; DAO :;
RL :a; FEW :a; CB among others; RMA , ; RPA ;
RM , , ; DECLC :a) with the meaning mallow. Variants like *malvia suggested by the Oxford and Vatican MSS could not
be found in our sources, but we suppose the influence of malvi, documented for O. Occ. for the meaning Althaea officinalis (DAO :),
which looks similar to the mallow (cf. its etymology MALVA + HIBISCUS > *malva"biscu > late Lat. malaviscum > Romance malvi(s), see
FEW :a; DECLC loc. cit.). Also cf. Mod. Cat. malv (DECLC :b;
DCVB :b).
For the identification of Arabic hubbaza as O. Cat. malva, cf. GHAT

: and AdV , , for the identification


as malv ibid.
. 5 4
HRZP", Arab. #"QR QRH",
. o.l. PLYTRY
.
Aramaic HRZP", also HRZYP", HRZYPW, featured in Rabbinic literature,
namely in bPes a, means a bitter herb (JD ; SDA ); according to
1 :
2 : O

3 : O
4 : V

5 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

LW : it is a poisonous herb, fatal for cattle (cf. Rashi on bPes a).


Kohut (KA :) identifies the term as: Saint Johns wort, Hypericum
perforatum L.
Arabic aqirqarh
. a is Anacyclus Pyrethrum L., pyrethrum (DT :;
M ; LF : f.). The Arabic name is derived from Aram. #qqar qarh
.a
naked root (LA :). The term features in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ), where it is translated by both N and Z with the
the common Hebrew term in medieval
vernacular (PLYTRY),
.
medical literature.
The Arukh (KA :) renders HRZP" as vernacular
(PYLTR").
.
The vernacular form PLYTRY
must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pelitre
.
(FEW :a; PSW :a; DAO :; CB ; RM ; RMM ;
DECLC :b; DCVB :a) with the meaning Bertram, Mutterkraut
(pellitory, feverfew; PSW :a), Anacyclus pyrethrum (DAO :).
For the identification of Arab. #aqirqarh
. a as O. Cat. pelitre, cf. AdV ,
; also cf. GHAT :, where we find the corrupt Arab. form #Q"R
QRHH.
.
. 6
HRDWPNY, Arab. DPL", o.l. LWRDMWNY
Hebrew HRDWPNY or HRDPNY, next to Aramaic HRDWP", from
Greek & (LS ; KG :; LR ) means oleander, Nerium Oleander L. (LW :; SDA ; KA :; :; DAS :;
FEB ff.; FM ; FZ f.; LA f.:; LF : ff.) and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes a or mHul
. ..
Arabic difla has the same meaning (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. by Samuel ha-Nagid:7
[ . . . ] (HRDWPN in Mishnaic
language HRDWPNY [ . . . ] it is called ad-difla).8 Maimonides comments
on the Mishnah mentioned that it is a herb which kills an animal when it
eats from it, but that it is not harmful for human beings, just like chicken
dropping (MK :).
6 : D V
7 On Samuel ha-Nagid (), cf. I. Ta-Shma, Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit la-Talmud,

vol. , second rev. ed. Jerusalem , pp. .


8 J. Mann, A portion of the work by Samuel Ibn Nagdela of Granada,
in: idem, Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature, vol. , Cincinnati ,
, p. .

he

The vernacular term is corrupt, and actually contains two words.


The first three letters correspond to O. Occ. laur, O. Cat. llaur laurel
(DAO :; CB , among others; DECLC :bb). It should
be recalled that some of the plant names for Nerium Oleander contain
an element meaning laurel in several languages, e.g. Lat. laurorosa
(NPRA ), laurier-rose (FEW :b) in French and lauzier/laurier/
lauri-roso in Occ. (DAO :), in Italian lauro roseo or lauro indiano,
among others (PFlor ). The string beginning with Dalet is a variant
that belongs to the Greek , which often appears with a parasitic
m in Medieval Latin (e.g. in the Alphita, cf. Sin , notes , and
). Also see the Hebrew version of the Alphita (HebMedSyn ),
where daphnococci laurel berries is spelled DMNY QWQTY.
.
. 10 9

P" TYDH
HYTYH, Arab. "NGD"N,
o.l. PWLYD" GH
.
Hebrew HYTYH or more correctly HTYH, TYH or TY"H designates )
either the plant crowfoot, Ranunculus, or its root (JD ; BM ;
LF : ff.), or ) the root of Ferula asa foetida L. (FM ; LF : ff.;
cf. as well KA :, :).
Arabic angudan or angudan, from Persian angudan (VL :,),
refers to Ferula asa foetida (DT :) and, according to Maimonides
Glossary of Drug Names, the leaves of asafetida (M = IJS :; cf.
MS V and ID :). See as well Ayin .
For the identification of as angudan, cf. Maimonides on mUqz .

(MK :); see as well EG .


PYTYD"
The vernacular PWYYL" D" S"
(according to MS O) is the
.
O. Occ. fuelha dasafetida (leaf of asafetida). We could not find any
form corresponding to asafetida that could possibly be transcribed into
Hebrew with Gimel as is the case in MS P (so that this spelling is
most probably an error). For asafetida, cf. Het
. no. . The first element
is O. Occ. fuelha (var. fuella, fueilla, foilla, fuoilla) leaf (DAO :
; FEW :b) in MS O, whereas P and V reflect the form folh or
fuelh, O. Occ. for leaf (see for example RL :a; DAO :; FEW
ibid.). These two variants might also represent the masculine Catalan full
(DECLC :b; DCVB :b).

9 :

VO add. V
O V

10 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 11
HBNYM, Arab. "BNWS, o.l.YYWNWS
Hebrew HBNYM, featured in the Bible (Ez :), means ebony, Diospyros mespiliformis (KB ; CD :; FEB ff.; FO f.; LF
: f.).
Arabic abanus has the same meaning (DT :). The identification
goes back to Rav Hai Gaon as transmitted by Ibn Janah,
. K. al-us. u l:

  (HBNYM is al-aban
us according to the
translation by Rav Hai Gaon) (IJ ). See as well MCS :.
The vernacular YYWNWS must be the Lat. ebenus (Sin :; FEW
:a) that was also used in O. Cat. texts (ebenus, ebenu, DECLC
:b; DCVB :b) for ebony. In O. Occ., we find the following
forms: avenuz (or similar variants), via Arabic transmission (FEW
:a; PSW :b; DAO :) and ebana, ebene, ebeni, forms directly
derived from Lat. (RL :b; DAO :). The spelling with YY- in MS
P and with G- in MSS O and V as well as the Yod in the last syllable
in these MSS remain unexplained. A similar variant appears as O. Cat.
GYBYNWS in GHAT :, where it is identified as Arab. abanus.
. 13 12
HLYLQYM KRKWMYYM, Arab. HLYLG " S. PR, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
STRYNY
.
Hebrew HLYLQ/HLYLG KRKWMY, plur. HLYLQYM/HLYLGYM KRKWMYYM, means yellow myrobalan. Hebrew HLYLQ possibly derives
from Syriac hallqa (cf. BLS ; LA :). As the term is
attested for the first time in the Geonic compendium Halakhot Gedolot
(ed. Hildesheimer,14 p. ; cf. as well LP ). Additionally we find the term
as in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaph (cf. LA :).
Arabic hallag as. far is Terminalia citrina Roxb., Hara nut (D :;
M ; ID :; SP ). Hallag is the Arabic form of the Persian
name halla (VL :). It indicates several kinds of myrobolans, mostly
the fruits of Terminalia Chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), black chebulic

11 : VO
12 : O V
13 : O V
14 J. Hildesheimer (ed.), Halachoth Gedoloth nach dem Text der Handschrift

vols. Berlin .

Vaticana,

he

myrobalans (cf. below no. ). The yellow kind is sometimes separated


under the name of Terminalia citrina Roxb.. According to MeyerhofSobhy (MS : f.), most modern botanists think it to be a stage in the
growth of the chebulic myrobolans. Arabic hallag as. far features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N as:
KRKWMY) and by Z as: (MYR (MYRBWLNS
WBLNY S. YTRYNY).
.
The vernacular form used in the Paris MS, MYR" BWL"NY STRYNY,
.
must be identified as the Lat. plural mirabolani citrini, literally yellow
myrobalans (Sin b; AdV :; in Hebrew transcription MYRBWLNY SYTRYNY,
see PJP ). For the first element mirabolanus or
.
myrobalanus (< Gr. ) cf. DuC :c; ThLL :. The
variants that appear in the Oxford and Vatican MSS represent mirabolans
citrins/ setrins, which is attested in O. Cat. (DCVB :a), but might also
be O. Occ. (for mirabolans, see CB ; cf. the attested form mirabolha
setrin in RMM ). For the identification of Lat. mirabolani citrini/
O. Cat. mirabolans citrins/sitrins as Arabic hallag as. far, see AdV , .
. 17 16 15
HLYLQYM KBWLYYM, Arab. HLYLG K"BWLY, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
K"BWLS
Hebrew HLYLQ/HLYLG KBWLY, plur. HLYLQYM/ HLYLGYM KBWLYYM means Chebulic myrobalan and features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in the Hebrew translation of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ). For Hebrew , cf. He no. above.
Arabic hallag kabul is Terminalia Chebula Retz. (D :; M ;
ID :; SP , cf. He no. ). The Arabic term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: (MYRWBLNY
(MYRBWLNS QYBWLYS)
K"BWLY).
is
The vernacular term used in the Paris MS, MYR" BWL"NY K"BWLS,
a mixed form: the Lat. plural mirabolani with the epithet in Romance (see
the O. Cat. plural quebol(l)s), whereas the synonym used in the Vatican
MS is completely Romance: MYRBWLNS Q"BWLS (mirabolans quebolls,
literally Chebulic myrobalans, DCVB :a). Cf. the Romance term in
in PJP . In AdV ,
Hebrew spelling, MYR"BWL"NS KYBWLS,
15 : V,
16 : V, om. O

om. O

17 :

V, om. O

shem tov, synonym list

the O. Cat. form mirabolans kbols is identified as Arab. hallag kabul.


The corresponding Lat. term is mirabolani kebuli (Sin b). Also cf.
entry He .
. 20 19 18
HLYLQYM HWDYYM, Arab. HLYLG HNDY, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
"YNDYS
The Hebrew term HLYLQYM HWDYYM means Indian Myrobalans.
Arabic hallag hind is Terminalia horrida Stend. (D :; ID :;
SP ). According to Meyerhof-Sobhy (MS :), one kind of myrobalans is called Indian when their fruits reach the size of a grape. The
Arabic term features in Maimonides, Medical Aphorisms (.) and is
whereas Z
translated by N as: (MYRBWLNS "YNDYS),

has: (MYRWBLNY "YNDYS).


The vernacular MYR"BWL"NY "YNDYS (MS P) is a mixed form, composed of the Lat. plural mirabolani and the O. Occ./O. Cat. plural indis
(Indian). It corresponds to the Lat. mirabolani indi, literally Indian
myrobalans (Sin b). The synonym in V is O. Occ. or O. Cat. *mirabolans indis (cf. the documented mirabolans indi/ indichs in CB ; DCVB
:a). The form features in an O. Cat. text: Mirabolans indis[M]irabolans indis sn semblants [a] kbols (i.e., Indian myrobalansIndian
myrobalans are similar to Chebulic myrobalans, AdV ; for its identification as Arab. hallag hind, cf. ibid. , ). For the O. Cat. term
and the
in Hebrew spelling, also cf. GHAT :, MYRBW## "YNDYQS,

Romance expression in PJP , MYR"BWL"NS "YNDYQS.


. 21
HZLH, Arab. NZLH, o.l. R"BM"S
Hebrew HZLH, from the root NZL to flow, traditionally means dripping, pouring out or shedding (EM ; cf. as well BM ), but in
medieval medical literature it assumes the meaning catarrh through
semantic borrowing from the Arabic nazla; cf. MD .

18 : V,
19 : V, om. O

om. O

20 :
21 : P V

V, om. O

he

Arabic nazla means catarrh (D :; cf. as well IR , , ,


; KZ ; SN : nazalat catarrhus). The Arabic term features, e.g.
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, ; VI, ; VIII, ; IX, ; XIII,
; XVI, ; XIX, ; cf. BMMa and BMMb , , ), and is translated
by N as: , , and by Z as: \ or (RYWM").
The vernacular term used in the Oxford MS, R"BM"S, and also the Vatican variant RBMS correspond to the O. Occ. raums/ reumas/ reumatz
cold (the illness) (FEW :a; PSW :b; CB , among others).
The spelling used in the Paris MS with -WB- suggests the diphthong -ouinstead of -au-. The phenomenon au > ou as mentioned by Corradini
Bozzi (CB ) can occasionally be found in one of the MSS examined
there, both in tonic and pretonic position; also cf. the Mod. Occ. variant
rooums (FEW :b). In Cat., we only find the modern variant reums
documented for the Roussillon area (DECLC :b; DCVB :b).
. 24 23 22
o.l. QWLWN
HDRQWN, Arab. QWLNG,
Hebrew HDRQWN or HDRWQN, from Greek + (LS ; KG
:: + ; LN ; LR ), means dropsy (JD ; LW :,
; KA :, : f.; Low XLVII) and features in Rabbinic literature,
for instance, in bShab a.
Arabic qawlang or quling, from Greek , (LS ) means
colic (L ; SN ). The regular Arabic parallel to the Hebrew
term is NKT% (cf. LO Teshuvot on bShab a, p. ; D :;
HTG , ; KZ ). A Hebrew parallel to Arabic QWLNG is QWLNG
(Maimonides Medical Aphorisms VIII, (BMMb ); translation N)
or QWLWN (ibid., translation Z). For the identification, cf. ShM :
. (because it brings
on HDRQWN (cf. bBer a). Some say it is dropsy, others say it is
colic).
The vernacular term QWLWN is Lat. or Romance colon with the
meaning colon (ThLL :; MLWB : and, e.g., O. Occ. FEW
:a; O. Cat. DECLC :a; DCVB :a). The Romance term is
a loan word of Medieval medical Lat. which in Fr., for example, went
through a semantic shift to arrive at the meaning colic (FEW :).
22 : V
23 : O
24 :

V
add. O

shem tov, synonym list

The meaning of the Arabic and Hebrew terms suggests a similar semantic
shift in O. Occ./O. Cat.
A further confirmation of this shift is the second synonym given in
the Oxford MS, the M. Lat. c(h)olica, (bilious) colic (MLWB :;
MLLM b). Colica also existed as a learned word in Romance languages, e.g., in O. Cat. documented since (DECLC :a; DCVB
:b), but also in O. Occ. (see CB ). RL mentions it only as an adjective (colic, -a, concerning colic, e.g. in a quotation of Eluc. de las propr.,
fol. : colica passio, see RL :a).
. 25
HM#DT HM#YM, Arab. ZLQ "L"M#"
Hebrew HM#DT HM#YM, which is not attested in secondary literature,
was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a Hebrew loan translation of the
Arabic zalaq al-am#a" Dysenteria spuria (KZ ; SN ; cf. BM ).
The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ;
XXIII, , , , ), and is translated by N as: /
, and by Z as: / . Moses ibn
Tibbon translates the Arabic as: in Maimonides On the
Regimen on Health; cf. BMR IV, .
.

HTPT
HSTN,
Arab. TQTYR
"LBWL
.
.

Hebrew HTPT
HSTN,
which is not attested in secondary literature, is
.
possibly a loan translation coined by Shem Tov after the Arab. taqt.r
al-bawl dribbling of urine (L ; cf. IR : strangury; SN :
Harnverhaltung (retention of urine)).
. 28 27 26
HDR KNTH, Arab. DW"RH, o.l. BWDYLS
Hebrew HDR KNTH or Aramaic HDR" DKNT" (cf. MS V) means Mesenteron, the old term for embryonic mid gut (JD ; SDA ;
25 : O V
26 :

O V
V

27 : O
28 : V

he

KA :; :; Low XLVII) and features in Rabbinic literature in bHul


.
b and a.
Arabic duwwara or dawwara is a round part or portion, what winds,
or what has, or assumes, a coiled, or circular form, of the guts, or
intestines, of a sheep or goat (L ; cf. FL :: Pars ventris in ove
quae intestina comprehendit (That part of the stomach of a sheep
which encompasses the intestines)). For the identification, cf. ShM :

( because it is turned and twisted; [its construction is similar


to:] the basis of the twist which is the same as the twisted basis, and,
similarly, it is called duwwara /dawwara in Arabic with the meaning
turning around each other).
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. or O. Cat. budel(l)
derived from Lat. BOTELLUS with the meaning intestine (FEW :a;
DECLC :b; RL :b). In O. Cat., we find the first documentation
in the Doctrina pueril by Ramon Llull (about ): Per menjar e beure
complex hom los budels [ . . . ] (i.e., by eating and drinking man fills
his intestines, DECLC :b). In the O. Occ. texts edited by Corradini
Bozzi, we find two different types of budels: budel cular for rectum
(CB as a synonym of longahon) and budel gran or maior for colon
(CB ; CB ).
. 32 31 30 29
HPWK H" S. TWMK",
Arab. THW# "LM#DH "W TQLBH"
.
Hebrew HPWK H" S. TWMK"
literally means upsetting the stomach. We
.
could not find any attestations for this term.
Arabic tahawwu# al-ma#ida aw taqallubha means to have an upset
stomach and to vomit (L ; SN ). The Arabic tahawwu# features
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .

29 :
30 : O V
31 : VO
32 : V

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 35 34 33

HST, Arab. K"BWS, o.l. MSQ"


Hebrew HST is probably a corruption of (HST),
. which is a nonattested alternative form for the more common Hebrew (SYWT)
. or
which
means
fright,
panic,
nightmare
(JD
;
Aramaic (SYWT"),
.
LW :; SDA : fright, type of demon; KA :, :; BM ).
The term features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in bYom b in:
(he saw something frightening in his dream; i.e. had a
nightmare). Note, however, how the physician Nathan b. Jo"el Falaquera
(late th century) uses the term instead of in the Sefer Zori
.
ha-Guf,36 MS Oxford, Bodleian, Hunt. Don. (Uri ), cat. Neubauer
, fol. b: (cf. BM ,
n. ). One wonders whether it was confused with the term , which
features in bYom b a few lines earlier than the term .
Arabic kabus means incubus or nightmare, what comes upon a man
in the night, preventing his moving while it lasts; forerunner of epilepsy
(L ; WKAS :; SN ).
For the identification, cf. the quotation from the Sefer Zori
ha-Guf.
.
The vernacular word corresponds to the Lat. or O. Occ. masca witch
(FEW :a). The meaning nightmare, suggested by the Hebrew
and Arabic synonyms, can be found both in Lat. (masca, DuC :b;
ThLL :), and in Mod. Occ. dialects: myso nightmare (Pietraporzio,
Piemont), stre cauc pr il masco to have a nightmare (FEW :b),
mascos nightmare (DFO :a), so it must have existed in O. Occ. too,
as our text confirms. Also cf. Southern Piedmontese mske with the same
meaning (FEW loc. cit.).
. 37
HZYH, Arab. HDY"N
Hebrew HZYH means absurdity, folly, error (EP ; KTP :: Phantasiegebilde, Torheit; Irrtum; BM ).
33 :  P
34 :

35 : O V
36 For Nathan Falaquera and

his medical compendium, cf. G. Bos and R. Fontaine,


Medico-philosophical controversies in Nathan b. Jo"el Falaquera Sefer Zori
ha-Guf ,
.
Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. XC, JulyOctober :.
37 : V

he

Arabic hadayan means delirium, raving (SN ; Dols, Majnun


The term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
;38 FrA ).
Aphorisms (XXIII,a), and is translated both by N and Z as: .
For the identification of HZYH as hadayan cf. Samuel ibn Tibbon
.39
(ca. ), Perush ha-Millim ha-Zarot,
. 41 40
HTBWSSWT, Arab. KD"B,
and it is derived from wallowing in your
.
blood (Ez :)
Hebrew HTBWSSWT is derived from BWS to trample, to tread down
and means to be trodden down, to be trampled (KB ; CD :). It
features in Ez :, as .
Arabic hid
. ab from IJ means to be coloured, to be dyed (L ).

The Hebrew
and Arabic terms are identified in SID ::
:.
. 43 42
HTP
"LMWD#
. HT
. HMQWM, Arab. TNTYL
.
.
Hebrew HTP
. HH
. is a verbal noun meaning moistening (BM ;
EM ), and has, in a medical context, the special meaning of applying
a fomentation. HTP
. HT
. HMQWM thus means applying a fomentation
to a place [of the body].
Arabic tant.l means to moisten (D :), and in a medical context
to apply a fomentation. TNTYL
"L MWD#
.
. means to apply a fomentation to a place [of the body]. TNTYL
features
in Maimonides Medical
.
Aphorisms (XIII, ) in a medical sense and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .

38 M.W. Dols, Majn


un: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society. Edited by D.E. Immisch, Oxford .
39 Samuel ibn Tibbon, Perush ha-Millim ha-Zarot in: Sefer Moreh Nevukhim le-Mosheh
Ben Maimon. Ed. Y. Ibn Shmuel. New revised edition, Jerusalem .
40 : VO
41 : O
42 : O
43 : O V (= bYom a) add. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 44
HZ"H, Arab. NDW
. H
.
Hebrew HZ"H hails from the root NZH, which features in the Bible (e.g.
Lev :) in the Qal in the sense of to spatter and in the Hif#il both
in the Bible (e.g. Num :) and in Rabbinic literature in the sense
of to sprinkle (KB ; JD f.; LW :, Aram. ; BM f.).
HZ"H, a verbal noun derived from HZH meaning sprinkling, features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mZeb . (JD ; LW :; KA :;
BM ).
The Arabic root nada
. ha
. means to sprinkle and nad
. uh. is a kind of
perfume or any medicine injected into the mouth (L f.; HaF ).
Sa#adya (S ) translates the biblical HZH as it features in Num
:: (Further, he who sprinkled the water of
lustration shall wash his clothes) as: ; see as
well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ). The term HZ"H is left untranslated
by Maimonides in his commentary on the Mishnah passage mentioned.
. 46 45
HDRQWN, Arab. QWLNG
For both terms, cf. He no. above.
. 47
HTLBDWT, Arab. TLBD
Hebrew HTLBDWT is a verbal noun derived from HTLBD, which means
to be connected, stuck (EM ) and is only attested for medieval
literature. It features, for instance, as in Samuel ibn Tibbons
Hebrew translation of Maimonides Guide of the Perplexed, III.,48 where
it is a translation of the Arabic .49 also features in medieval
philosophical literature in the sense of porous cf. KTP :.
is not attested in the dictionaries.
44 : O V
45 : om.
46 : VO
47 : O
48 Ed. Ibn Shmuel, p.

OV

.
Moshe ben Maimon, Dalalat al-h
. a"irn. Arabic text established by S. Munk and
edited with variant readings by I. Joel, Jerusalem , p. , l. .
49

he

Arabic talabbud is the inf. of talabbada, meaning to shrink back; to


crouch down; to be formed into a ball; to become compacted; to form
lumps; to stick, be stuck together; to be matted (WKAS :).

WAW
. 2 1
WTYQH, Arab. #SYDH
The Aramaic term WTYQ" (cf. MS O), featuring in Rabbinic literature in
bPes b, is the name of a certain pastry, tart (JD ; LW :, ;
SDA ; KA :, :) which can be cooked in oil and salt or in water
and salt (cf. bPes b; AH :b; KT :). In Geonic literature
is identified as ; cf. LO :.
Arabic #as.da is a sort of thick gruel, consisting of wheat-flour moistened and stirred about with clarified butter, and cooked (L ; DRD
; RAP , n. , , ). The term features in Maimonides On the
Regimen of Health, (cf. BMR I, ) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon
as: ; cf. as well Maimonides On Asthma
(III, ; BMA ) and KZ , , .
. 5 4 3
SQWL"

WRDY HHMWRYM,
Arab. WRD "LHMYR,
o.l. GN
.
.
Hebrew WRDY HHMWRYM
literally meaning roses of donkeys, which
.
is not attested in secondary literature, is possibly a loan translation coined
by Shem Tov after Arabic ward al-ham
. r.
Arabic ward al-ham

r
rose
of
donkeys is the common name for
.
peony in the Maghreb, Paeonia corallina Retz. or Paeonia foemina Garsault (DT :; M ; LF :; MS ff.:). See as well Shin no.
below.
SQWL"

The vernacular term GN


is difficult to interpret. It resembles
the M. Lat. genestula (cf. the Alphita entry in Sin : and CA ,
where it is interpreted as broom) or the Cat. ginestola, Genista tinctoria
(DCVB :b). This term is not documented for O. Occ., and, even for

1 : VO
2 : O

3 : O
4 : VO
5 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

Cat., Coromines doubts that the form listed in DCVB ever existed, since
there are no other documentations of it (DECLC :b).
. 7 6
o.l. "WRGWN"LS
WRYDY HS. W"R, Arab. "WD" G,
The Hebrew term WRYDY HS. W"R designates the large blood vessels,
jugular veins leading from the head to the heart (JD f.; KA :;
Low XLVII; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHul
. ..
Arabic awdag, plural of wadag, designates each of the external jugular
veins; a certain vein in the neck; two veins extending from the head to the
lungs (L ). Awdag features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV,
) and is translated by N as: and by Z as: .
For the identification of WRYDYM (WRYDYN) as "awdag, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above: : (MK :).
The vernacular term in MS V, WYN" S. "WRGNLYS. , must be interpreted
as a plural form belonging to the O. Occ. or O. Cat. vena organal (O. Occ.
also vena orguenal, cf. PSW :a, where the meaning jugular vein
is given; FEW :b: vena organal, vena orguenal artre du cou (i.e.,
carotid (artery)), since the th century); for O. Cat. see DCVB :b
organal, where vena organal is interpreted as principal vein of the neck
with the addition jugular (with a question mark). The form with -W- in
MSS P and O could reflect the Latin spelling with a purely orthographic
-u-, such as in orguenal.

6 : VO
7 :

ZAYIN
. 1
ZR# GD, Arab. BZR "LKZBWR, o.l. GR"NH DYQWRY"NDRWM
The Hebrew term ZR# GD means seed of coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (KB ; JD ; CD :; KA :, :; DAS :, :;
FO f.; LA ff.:; LF : ff.) and features in the Bible, e.g. Ex
:, and Rabbinic literature, e.g. bYom a.
Arabic bizr al-kuzbur, or the more common form bizr al-kuzbura, has
the same meaning (L ; DT :; M ; DAS :).
The identification goes back to Sa#adya (S ) on Ex ::
(The house of
Israel named it manna; it was like coriander seed, white, and it tasted
like wafers in honey):
.
The vernacular term GR"NH DYQWRY"NDRWM in MS P must be
read as grana de coriandrum, a combination of O. Occ. grana (seed,
cf. Gimel no. and ) and Lat. coriandrum with the meaning Coriandrum sativum L. (GH :; NPRA ). The variant in MS V represents the O. Occ. coliandre (FEW :a; CB , among others;
RPA , ; RM ), whereas the one in MS O is O. Occ./O. Cat.
coriandre (RL :b; PSW :a; CB ; RPA ; DCVB :b).
, KWLY"NDRY, gloss of the Hebrew gad. O. Cat. corianSee also ShK
dre (AdV ) is identified as Arab. kuzbura (AdV ). Also cf. GHAT
:, where we find Romance KLY"NDRY as a synonym for the Arab.
KZBWR.
. 2
Arab. LHYH
QNYN"
ZQN HTYS,
"LTYS, o.l. RWS"
.
Hebrew ZQN HTYS is possibly a loan translation of Arabic lihyat
at.
tays (cf. below) (BM ; LF :). The Hebrew term features in
medieval medical literature, for instance, in the Hebrew translations
1 :
2 : O V

O V

shem tov, synonym list

of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), by N, and in Judah ben


Solomon Natans Kelal Qaz. ar mi ha-Sammim ha-Nifradim (JNK :).
See Samekh .
Arabic lihyat
at-tays is the literal translation of Greek -
.
beard of a he-goat (LS , ) and is identified as ) goatsbeard,
Tragopogon porrifolius L. or Tragopogon pratensis L., ) hypocist,
Cytinus hypocistis L., ) rock-rose, Cistus villosus L. and other varieties,
) field horse-tail, toadpipe, Equisetum arvense L., and ) greater
plantain, Plantago maior L. (WKAS : f.; DT :, :; M , ;
LA f.:). See Samekh .
The term indicated as vernacular is the Latin rosa canina, meaning
dog rose; Rosa canina L., also called rosa silvestris (NPRA ). The term
was also common in Romance; for an example in O. Occ. medical texts,
see RMA (, , where the meaning fleur de lgantier, i.e., blossom
of the dog rose, is given). The synonymy of goatsbeard in the sense of
hypocist (see the entry barba hyrcina in the index of the Latin translation
of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun, cf. Sin :) and the wild rose rosa canina is
erroneous but can be traced back to the Alphita (s.v. rosa), where the fact
that the hypocist grows at its foot is held as a typical feature of the plant
(ad pedem cuius nascitur [hypoquistidos], Sin , n. ).
.
ZR# WRDYM, Arab. BZR "LWRD, o.l. "NTR"
.
Hebrew WRD, plur. WRDYM, means rose and features in Rabbinic
literature (JD ; FM ; FO ; FZ ff.; LF : ff.). ZR# WRDYM,
means seed of roses.
Arabic bizr al-ward has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of WRD as ward, cf. Maimonides on mShebi .:
: (MK :).
The vernacular term "NTR"
. is the Late Latin ant(h)era (< Greek ! , flowering, MLWB :, meaning medicamentum quoddam
compositum and bacilla, quae in interiore floris rosei parte inveniuntur, also cf. ThLL :; GH :: ein Arzneimittel aus Blten, i.e.,
a medicine made of blossoms) and which features in the Alphita with
the meaning seed of roses (CA ; Sin :). A well known passage is the following one from Guy de Chauliacs Chirurgia magna (th
c.): Anthera est illud citrinum quod est in medio rose (Chauliac, ed.
McVaugh :), which was translated into Spanish and Catalan
as Antera es aquella cosa cetrina que es en medio de la rosa (see

zayin

DETEMA :a and Sin b) /Antera es aquella cosa groga qui es en


mitj de la rosa (i.e., antera is this yellow thing in the middle of the rose,
Cauliach Coll; see in DCVB :b). The term anthera is documented
in Cat. in the year (DCVB loc. cit.; cf. the quotation from Chauliac
above).
. 6 5 4 3

ZNB HSWS, Arab. DNB "LKYL, o.l. QWNSWLYDH


or DNT. QBLYN" or
QWD" DQBL
Hebrew ZNB HSWS literally means horse-tail; the Syriac version
(LA :) is the literal translation of Greek / horse-tail,
Equisetum silvaticum or Equisetum maximum (LS ; BM ). The
Hebrew term features, for instance, in the Book of Medicines attributed to
Asaf (AV :; LF :). In addition to ZNB HSWS, we find
in OLD : and :.
Arabic danab al-hayl or its more common plural form adnab al-hayl

a variety

is also theliteral translation


of Greek / and designates
of Equisetum (DT :; M ; LF:).
Our text mentions three vernacular plant names: The first,

QWNSWLYDH,
is the Lat. or O. Occ. consolida with the meaning Symphytum officinale, which is documented in O. Occ. in the th century
(FEW :b; PSW :a; RMA ; RMM ; RPA , , ,
among others). But it seems that the forms co(n)solda (cf. MSS O and V)
and co(n)souda (with syncope) are more frequent in O. Occ. (CB ,
,,, among others; RM among others; RPA among others).
The second term is an O. Occ. or O. Cat. *dent cavalina (in Cat.
also: cavallina), which is well represented in our text and follows the
model of the Lat. dens caballinus (see Alphita: Sin , n. ; CA ).
In O. Sp., we can find the vernacular translations diente de cauallo (Sin
: and :) or diente caualluno (Sin :), which, in the contexts
shown in the Sinonima, must designate the plant Hyoscyamus albus
L. (see Sin b). The ending of the adjective is due to the fact that,
in O. Occ., dent tooth could be feminine (besides the etymological
3 :
4 : O

O V

5 : V
6 : O V

add. V

shem tov, synonym list

masculine; see RL :ab), and, in Catalan, the feminine form appears


to be the standard case by the Middle Ages already (see DECLC :b).
The adjective caval(l)in, caval(l)ina is well attested for both languages
(RL :a; DCVB :a; :b; DECLC :b).
The third term, QWD" DQBL, must be read as O. Occ. *coda de
caval(h) with the literal meaning horse-tail. This combination is not
documented in our sources, but in an O. Occ. text we find cauda equina
menor with the meaning horsetail (CB ) and, in Cat., the plant name
coa/cua de cavall exists (DECLC :a; DCVB :b, no. IV,, name
of different species of plants of the genus equisetum of the equisetaceae
and especially Equisetum arvense L.). The Romance term is a translation
of the Lat. cauda caballina or cauda (coda) caballi or cauda caballina,
Equisaetum pratense Ehr., E. silvaticum L., E. palustre L. (NPRA ;
FEW :a). The forms that we find here are unequivocally Occitan:
coda or coza for tail (RL :a; FEW :b), derived from the Lat.
etymon CAUDA (FEW :a) or, monophthongised in Vulgar Latin,
coda, while, in O. Cat., we can only find the form coa, the result of
Western Romance lenition with the loss of voiced intervocalic plosives
(DECLC :a).
The additional term in MS V is the O. Occ. or Cat. proenca with the
meaning Planta apocincia de lespcie Vinca media (i.e., apocynaceous
plant of the species Vinca media, DCVB :b; RMA ; RPA ).
. 8 7
ZYKWM, Arab. ZK"M, o.l. RWBMS
Hebrew ZYKWM is a Hebraised form of the Arabic zukam not attested
elsewhere which means a coryza, or catarrhus ad nares; a rheum
(L ; cf. as well IR , , , ; KZ s.v. 'Q6; SN : CQ6
coryza).
The Arabic term features, e.g. in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XIX,) and is transcribed by N as: and , and translated by
Z as: (QTR").
.
For the vernacular, cf. the entry He .

7 : O
8 : O

zayin

. 10 9

ZW#H, Arab. RGP


Hebrew ZW#H, which features in the Bible (e.g Is :) and Rabbinic
literature (e.g. mBer .), means trembling, fear, tempest (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ).
The Arabic verbal infinitive ragf means commotion, agitation, convulsion, tumult or disturbance (L ).
Sa#adya on Is : translates the term as: (DS ; cf. as well
SF :), and the anonymous compendium of Tanhums
al-Murshid al.
Kafi as: (AQ, fol. a); cf. SAM :: :.
. 11
ZRZYRYM, Arab. ZR"ZYR
Hebrew ZRZYR, plur. ZRZYRYM, designates the bird starling, Sturnus
vulgaris (JD ; LW :; KA : f.; :; BM ; LZ f.), and
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance in bHul
. a.
The Arabic equivalent of starling is zurzur, plur. zarazr (L f.;
BK f.; JAD : f.; StS f.).
For Hebrew ZRZYRYM and Arabic zurzur, cf. Nldeke, Beitrge zur
semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, pp. .12
. 15 14 13
ZNB H#YN, i.e. "L"M"Q "LS. GYR MMHYLY "L"DN
Hebrew ZNB H#YN, which is not attested in secondary literature, was
possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation of the Arabic S2 IBk,
meaning the exterior angle of the eye (DKT ).
Arabic is Ul* \, i.e. the outer angle of the eye
(FAL :; DKT , : Le petit angle. Angle externe de lil).
The Arabic term features as: S2 \7 in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms

9 :

10 : VO
11 :
12
13
14
15

O V
Cf. Th. Nldeke, Beitrge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, Strassburg .
: O V
: V
: O

shem tov, synonym list

(XV, ; XXIII, ), and is translated by N as: /


, and by Z as: / .
The meaning of the last part of the entry is not clear.
. 17 16

ZR# SWMR
PRDSY, Arab. BZR R"ZY"NG #RYD,
. o.l. PNYQWLY

Hebrew or Aramaic SWMR


means fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, and
its varieties (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY :; DAS :; LA ff.:; LF : ff.; cf. as well Shin
no. below), and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in yKil I, a.

Hebrew ZR# SWMR


PRDSY literally means seeds of paradise fennel
and is perhaps a loan translation coined by Shem Tov of Arabic basbas
al-ganna paradise fennel (cf. below).
Arabic raziyanag, from Persian raziyanah, which designates the fennel
or sweet anet and its species (VL :), means fennel, Foeniculum
vulgare L. and Var., and its varieties. The Arabic term raziyanag is
common in Egypt and the East, whereas, in the Maghreb, the Arabic
name basbas is used for fennel (DT :; M ; ID :; see as well Shin
no. below). Basbas al-ganna paradise fennel is one of the different
varieties of fennel. Arabic raziyanag #ard. literally means broad fennel.
The vernacular term PNYQWLY must be read as the genitive singular of M. Lat. feniculum (Classical Lat. faeniculum, see ThLL :;
NPRA ; FEW :a), which also appears in one O. Occ. text: feniculi (RPA ).
For the identification of Arabic raziyanag (despite the incorrect
spelling R"ZYNG) as Lat. PNYQWLY, cf. GHAT :; also cf. AdV .
. 20 19 18

ZR# PYGN SDH,


Arab. T"PSY", o.l. T"P
. SY"
Hebrew PYGN or its more common form PYGM (cf. MS O), from Greek
 (LS ; KG :; LR ), designates the herb rue, Ruta

graveolens L. and chalepensis L. (JD ; LW :; KA :; :;

16 :
17 : O V
18 : O
19 : O V
20 : O V

O V

zayin

BM ; AEY :; DAS :; FZ f.; LA ff.:; LF : ff.),


and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mUqz .. is Syriac
pgana de bara, i.e. wild rue, Peganum harmala L. or Haplophyllum
buxbaumii (Poir.) Don. (FEB n. ; LA :; LF : f.). Hebrew
means the seeds of wild rue. See as well entry Pe .
Arabic tafsiya is a transcription of the Greek name ! (LS ) and
designates the plant Thapsia garganica L., false fennel, bastard turpeth
(D :; DT :; M , ; ID :; LF : f.). According to
al-Idrs (IJS :), ar-Raz held tafsiya to be the gum of wild rue

(e. 5E m'3  ,-<); an identification


that was refuted by Ibn alBayt.ar (IBA : no. ; IBF :); cf. M , cf. as well Maimonides
commentary on mUqz . above.
Hebrew is identified as Arabic / by Sa#adya, Alfaz. alMishnah (SAM :; EG ) and Maimonides on the Mishnah
mentioned (MK :). Syriac pgana de t. u ra (mountain rue, known
in the Middle Ages as wild rue; DT :) features as a synonym for
Syriac t. apsiya (= Gr. !, Arab. tafsiya) in Bar Bahlul (BB ) (cf.

LA :; LF :).
is the corresponding Latin word thapsia,
The vernacular term T"P
. SY"
Thapsia garganica L. (NPRA ), or the corresponding Romance loan
word (FEW :ab). In O. Occ. (th century), we find the form
tapsie (with the meaning thapsie (ombellifre) according to RMA ):
Pren razis tapsie [ . . . ], i.e., take the root of thapsia, but note that it is a
Latin genitive in this quotation. In O. Sp., the form tapsia is documented
for Thapsia garganica L. (Sin : and for the identification ;
DETEMA :c). In Cat., the first documentation of tapsia is indicated
as very late () in DECLC :a, but note the following quotation
from the th c. that can be found in DCVB :a: La qual yo crech
esser tpsia, i.e., the one that I believe that it is thapsia, Cauliach Coll., vi,

a, . It can also be found in GHAT :, where O. Cat. and Lat. T"PSY"


are identified as Arab. tafsiya.

. 21
ZKN HTHTWN,
Arab. "L#"NH
.
Hebrew ZKN HTHTWN
means pubic hair and features in Rabbinic
.
literature, e.g. in mSanh . (JD ; KA :; BM ; Low XLIX;
PB ).
21 : O

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic al-#ana means pubes, the hair that grows above the anterior
pudendum (L ; FAL :, cf. as well KZ ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
(their allusion to the pubic hair as
a beard is a euphemism) (MK :).
. 24 23 22

ZRDYN, Arab. ZRGWN,


o.l. WYRS.
Hebrew ZRDYN, plural of ZRD, featuring in the Bible (e.g. Deut :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .), has different meanings. In
the Bible, the term is identified as whitethorn, Crataegus monogyna
Willd. (KB ; cf. as well AEY :). In Rabbinic literature, the
term is identified as soft sprouts, shoots, greens and with
the young sprouts of the service tree, Crataegus azarolus, hawthorn
(JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM f.; BT :; FE , ,
; FM ; FZ f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic zargu n (cf. Hebr. ; Aram. ) means grape-vine or
shoots of grape-vine, Vitis vinifera L. (L f.; ID :).
A Geonic Responsum (ATG ; BT :; LO Teshuvot on bShab
a, p. ) explains the term as: [ ]
. is identified by Maimonides as the roots of asafetida (FM );
however, according to Kohut (KA :), it is the leaves of orach (cf.
FM ). Maimonides on mShab . explains as branches of
fruit trees which are pruned in the pruning season (MK :; = AQ,
fol. b).
The vernacular term is vertz, the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. vert for
green (RL :ba; DAO :; DCVB :a; DECLC :a),
which features in one quotation given in RL (loc. cit.) as the opposite
of madur for ripe (PSW :a; DAO :; FEW :a; DCVB ibid.,
verd, meaning ). But here it appears to be used as a noun, as documented
for Cat., see DCVB :b: La part verda dels vegetals; el fullatge,
lherba (i.e., the green part of the plants; the foliage, the herb; cf. also
DECLC :a), a meaning which corresponds quite exactly to one of
the Rabbinic readings of the Hebrew term (greens); also cf. Fr. vert
herbs and green foliage documented since (FEW :a). As an
22 :
23 :
24

V
VO
: O V

zayin

alternative this word can be interpreted as the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat.


vit (vine, FEW :, DCVB :a) or the O. Occ. rectus form vi(t)z
(FEW loc. cit.), in particular for the variant in MS V.
. 26 25
ZWWD, Arab. MZWD it is like a bag made of skin
Aramaic ZWWD means ) outfit for travelling, provision and ) bag,
bundle and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bQid a (JD ;
LW : f.; SDA ; KA :, :). Arabic mazwad means a bag, or
other receptacle, for travelling provisions, or for dates, made of leather
(L ).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bQid a, p. :
(a bag in which you can put everything
is called mazwad in Arabic). Cf. as well EG n. , and BTJ .
. 29 28 27
ZGYM, that is, the external skin of grapes
Hebrew ZG, plur. ZGYM, means the skin of grapes (KB ; JD f.;
KA :, :; BM f.; LF :) and features in the Bible (e.g. Num
:) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .).
For the definition of ZG, cf. Maimonides on mNaz . (MK :): :
(ZG is the external skin).
. 30
ZNB H#YN, it is the place called "LLH"
. Z.
For ZNB H#YN, possibly a loan translation of Arabic S2 IBk, (the
exterior angle of the eye), cf. Zayin no. above.
Arabic al-lah
. az. means the outer angle of the eye, next the part
between the eye and the ear (L ; WKAS :).

25 : V
26 :

27 : VO
28 :

VO

29 : VO
30 : O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 32 31
ZHB "WPYR, Arab. TBR, o.l. PLYWLH
The Hebrew term ZHB "WPYR featuring in the Bible ( Chron :)
means gold of Ophir (KB ; CD :). In addition to ZHB "WPYR,
we find KTM "WPYR, as in Job :.
Arabic tibr means native gold, in the form of dust or nuggets (L ;
cf. as well GS : tibr Rohgold, Seifengold (native gold, alluvial gold)).
Ibn Janah. (IJ ) explains tibr as crude gold or silver:  MHL ^E  
nL'/ 0  JH) IE 5
2 9 ' (cf. ShT , no. ).
For the identification, cf. Se#adyah ibn Danan, who translates in
the expression used in Job : as: (SID :).
The vernacular term seems to belong to Lat. foliola (plural of the
diminutive foliolum for little leaf , cf. ThLL :). In Romance,
although the first documentation is very late (th century), we find
the Cat. fulliola, lit. little leaf . In accordance with the Arabic term, it is
documented with the meaning raw piece of stone, wood, metal, among
others (DCVB :a; DECLC :b). As for O. Occ., only the nondiminutive variants folha and fuelha could be found for this meaning
(cf. FEW :a; PSW :a). In O. Cat. there is the rarely documented
word falla leavage, foliage (DCVB :ab) which may only show a
coincidental similarity to fulla leaf . The variant with a that appears in
our text may thus be an as yet undocumented diminutive variant such as
Cat. *fallola or Occ. *falhola. MS V presents an extended version of this
term: aur de *fallola/*falhola, lit. gold of little leaves (for aur, cf. Gimel
).
. 33

ZWNYN, it is "LSYLM
Hebrew ZWNYN means darnel or rye grass, a weed growing among
wheat, Lolium perenne L. or Lolium temulentum L. It features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW : f.; KA :, :;
AEY :; DAS :, :; FH , , ; FM ; FO ;
FZ f.; LA f.:; LF : ff.).

31 : V
32 :

O " P V
om. O [ . . . ] add. V

33 :

zayin

Arabic as-saylam means darnel grass, Lolium temulentum L. and


Var., that is often found in wheat. Its seeds cause dizziness when mixed
into bread (L ; DT :; M ; cf. as well Tav no. ).
The source of the identification of ZWNYN as as-saylam could not be
retrieved. According to Lw (LA :; LF :), Simeon ben Zema
h.
.
Duran () remarks in his Magen abot that Weizen artet in
aus (Wheat degenerates into
saylam); cf. as well Efraim Hareuveni
in Tarbiz X, , pp. , . Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
(MK :) explains it as a kind of wheat that is changed by the earth so
that its form and nature is corrupted.
. 37 36 35 34
ZBWR", Arab. ZNBWR, it is the hornet
Aramaic ZBWR" means hornet and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in bGit a (CD :; JD ; SDA f.; KA :, :). The biblical
equivalent is DBWRH, as in Is : (KB ; BAL f.; FAB f.).
Arabic zunbur means hornet or hornets; a large sort of wasp (L ;
BK ; JAD : ff.; StS s.v. zambur; cf. as well Sade
no. below).
.
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(in that day, the LORD
will whistle to the flies at the ends of the water channels of Egypt and to
the bees in the land of Assyria):

(DS ).
. 39 38
ZR#WNYM, Arab. HBWB,
o.l. LYWMNS
.
Hebrew ZR#WNYM means rows of plants in one bed, seeds; vegetables
and features in the Bible (e.g. Dan :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil
.) (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :; FH f.). Arabic
hub
. ub means kernels, seeds (L ).

34 : V
35 :
36 : O (cf. entry ) V
37 : om. O, V
38 : om. O
39 : "!

P V

O (cf. entry )

(cf. entry )

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Daniel : (SpS):


(So the guard kept on removing
their food, and the wine they were supposed to drink, and gave them
legumes):
; see as well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ).
The vernacular term LYWMNS has to be read as an O. Occ. plural
form *liumens (with the meaning vegetables) related to O. Occ. leum,
lium (PSW :ab), liom (DAO :) or liume (RL :a), derived

from Lat. LEGUMEN


(FEW :ab). Etymologically, the form liume
should present a n-mobile, which is not documented, however. But the nmobile is typically lost in the plural, so that the form we find here remains
unexplained, unless we suppose a learned Latin influence. In the sources
we have consulted, we could only find plurals of the forms without a
final -e (see, for example, the plural lioms; CB ), another example of
Note that this form is one of the clear
which we find in MS V (LY"WMS).
cases in which a Catalan reading is excluded, since the word retained the
intervocalic -g- in this language (llegum, see DCVB :a, where the
O. Cat. plural form llegumes is mentioned; cf. DECLC :b).

.
Z"B, Arab. DWB, o.l. LWP
Hebrew Z"B means wolf and features in the Bible (e.g. Gen :) and
Rabbinic literature (e.g. bBekh a) (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;
KA :; FAB f.; LZ f.).
Arabic di"b means wolf, wild dog, dog of the desert (L ; JAD
f.:).
: ff.; KSZ
For the identification of Z"B as di"b, cf. Sa#adya on Gen ::

(Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; in the


morning he consumes the foe, and in the evening he divides the spoil):
(S ); see as
well IJ ; IQR :; SF :.
The vernacular term LWP can be identified as O. Occ. lup or lop for
wolf (RL :a; CB , among others). Levy and Brunel only give
the meaning see bass (PSW :a; RM ). Lop is also documented
for O. Cat. (llop in Modern Cat., cf. DECLC : a; DCVB :b). For
the meaning wolf and several species of fish (Labrax lupus and Labrax
punctatus), see DCVB :a; DECLC :b.

HET
.
. 2 1

HRY#,
Arab. #S. PWR, o.l. SPR"N
"WRTWL"N
.
.
Hebrew HRY#
features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil .) and means
.
safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L. (JD : bastard saffron; LW :;
KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FH ; FM ; FZ f.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic #us. fur designates the safflower blossom or bastard saffron,
Carthamus tinctorius L. (DT :; M ; DAS :, ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on
the Mishnah cited above: : (MK :). See as well BT :,
and Het
. below.
The transcription of the vernacular term must be the O. Occ. *safran
ortolan (garden safflower), a combination which is not documented in
any of our sources. In O. Occ., we find two forms that are Arabisms
and mean safflower: safran with a final -n and safra without a final -n
(RL :a). In Catalan, we only find the latter form (DECLC :b).
Ortola(n) is the O. Occ./O. Cat. word for gardener derived from the late
Latin hortulanus (RL :a; FEW :ba; DECLC :ab). We
do not have any testimony for the adjectival use of the Romance term.
It seems to be an adaptation from Latin (cf. terms like Late Lat. allius
hortulanus garden garlic, see DECLC :a).
. 4 3
P" TYDH
HLTYT,
Arab. HLTYT
as well, o.l. " S"
.
.
.
Hebrew HLTYT
designates ) the plant Ferula asafoetida L., asafedita
.
fennel, ) its blossom, ) its leaves, ) its fruits, or ) its resin and features
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .) (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,

1 : e" P
2 :

3 :
4 : O V

shem tov, synonym list

:; FM ; FZ f.; LF : ff.; Low LI; PB , ). See as well


Ayin .
Arabic hilt
. t designates the gum resin of the plant Ferula asafoetida L.
(DT : n. : Hilt
. t is the milky sap (s. amg) of Asafoetida (angudan)
which has hardened in the open air into a gum resin with a dirty shade
of yellow. M and ; cf. as well He no. ).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic Commentary on Tohorot (EG
), and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular term is a Romance learned word or Medieval Latin,
documented, for example, in O. Occ. and O. Cat. texts as as(s)afetida
(CB ; DECLC :b, first documentation in the th century). It is a
variant of the late Latin phytonym as(s)a foetida (DECLC :b), which
designates the plant Ferula asa foetida L. In O. Occ., other variants exist,
such as assafessada (CB ) or asafatidan (CB ).
For the identification of Arabic hilt
. t as O. Cat. asefftida cf. AdV ,

; also see GHAT :, where we find the Romance synonym " S"
PTYD"
for Arab. HLTYT.
.
.
. 5

HPW
SYT,
Arab. KNPS, o.l. " SQRB
T.
.

Hebrew HPW
SYT,
featured in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPar .,
.
means scarabee, beetle (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; FAB
; LZ f.).
Arabic hunfas means black beetle, or a certain species thereof (L
f.; BK , ; JAD : ff.; StS ).

For the identification of HPW


SYT
as hunfas, cf. a Geonic Responsum
.
(HTG ; WG ): ; cf. as well Maimonides on the
Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular word is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. escaravat (RL :b
a; DECLC :aa) which means beetle. The first documentation in both languages is in the th century (DECLC :b and
FEW :b). The variants in the Oxford and Vatican manuscripts

(" SQR"BYG
and " SQRBYY
T)
. must be the O. Occ. escaravaig (see DECLC
loc. cit.) or escaravait respectively, documented in PSW :b as the
oblique plural or nominative singular form escarava(i)tz.

5 :

O V

het
.

. 7 6
HY
. #WLM, Arab. HY
. "L#"LM, o.l. BYB" QWRBYN"
Hebrew HY
. #WLM or HY
. H#WLM, which also features in Aramaic (cf.
LA f.:; LF : f.), designates the plant Sempervivum tectorum
L., houseleek (BM ; AEY :). The oldest reference we could
find is in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaf (AV :), where it
features in its Aramaic form as , which probably goes back to
the Greek 1 houseleek (LS ).
Arabic hayy
al-#alam probably designates the plant sempervivum,
.
Sempervivum arboreum L. or Sempervivum tectorum L. (DT :;
M ).
The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, )
and is translated by N as: , and by Z as: .
For the plant designated by the Arab. and Hebr. synonyms, we find
the Latin term semperviva (instead of sempervivum, NPRA ; also cf.
Sin :, : among others). The second element of this plant name
appears to be reflected by the first of the two words of our Romance term:
viva. The second word, QWRBYN", could not be identified (and there is
no documentation of viva in the context of a similar form in our sources),
unless it represents the Lat. adjective corvinus (or a Romance equivalent),
which can be found in plant names: e.g. pes corvinus, used in the Alphita
(cf. Sin , n. ; CA ), or the Italian vite corvina for vine with a kind
of dark grape (FEW :b).
. 8
HPYPH,
Arab. HK,
.
. o.l. PRYT"R
.
Hebrew HPYPH
means cleansing the head and features in Rabbinic
.
literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; LW :; BM ; KT :;
Low LII; PB ; cf. SDA : Aram. : shampoo).
Arabic hakk
signifies the act of scratching, rubbing, fretting (L ).
.
Cf. as well Het
. no. .
For the identification, cf. AQ, fol. b: :. Cf. as well
ShM f.

6 : O
7 : O V

8 : X" P

shem tov, synonym list

The word indicated as vernacular is the O. Occ. and Cat. fretar to


rub, which is frequently found in texts from the th and th centuries,
(FEW :a; DECLC :a). The variant in the Vatican MS seems to
be corrupt.
. 10 9
HR
Arab. HNDQWQH,
o.l. TRYPWLWN
. HBYN",
.
.
.
Hebrew HR
is Eryngium Creticum L., eryngium and features
. HBYN"
.
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPes . (KA :, :; AEY :;
DAS :; FH ; FM ; FZ f.; LA f.:; LF : f.; cf. as
well JD : a hairlike creeper; creeper on palm-tree and LW ::
ein Kraut, dessen Bltter bitter sind (a herb, whose leaves are bitter)).
Arabic handaq
uqa, from Syriac (cf. LA ff.:), designates the vari.
eties of lotus such as Medicago sativa L., Melilotus officinalis L. and
Trigonella coerulea L. (L ; DT :; M ).
For the identification of HR
as handaq
uqa, cf. AH (bPes a,
. HBYN"
.
.
p. a): ,
says R. Simeon
( =) (HR
. HBYN",
.
b. Lakish, is a creeper of the palm tree, and an explanation is "L QWS. #YN"
(= "LQRS. #NH) and another explanation is "L HNDQWQY).
Subsequently
.
Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above (MK :) explains HR
. HBYN"
.
as (al-qirs. a#na) eryngium (cf. LW :).
The vernacular term TRYPWLWN
represents the Greek 
.
(for Lat. triphyllon, see NPRA , Fritilaria graeca L. and Trifolium L.).
The variant used in the Vatican MS represents the Latin trifolium, which
is documented, among others, for designating species of Melilotus, Medicago and Trigonella (NPRA ). In O. Occ., we find the semi learned
forms trefolh (DECLC :a), trefle (CB ) and the like, and in O. Cat.
trif(f)oli (AdV , ), none of which feature in our text.
For the identification of Arab. handaq
uqa as Lat. trifolium cf. AdV ;
.
also see GHAT :, where we find the Lat. term TRYPWLLY
MRYNY
.
(the genetive trifolii marini) as the synonym for Arab. HNDQWQH.
.

9 : O V
10 :

het
.

. 11
HNYN",
Arab. KWNDWS, o.l. KWNDWS
.
Aramaic HNYN"
should possibly be read as HNWN",
which is Hebrew
.
.
hellebore, Helleborus L., and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. bShab b: But said R. Huna, there is a certain wood in the sea towns
called hanun, whereof a chip is brought and placed in her nostril (i.e. of
a ewe) to make her sneeze, so that the worms in her head should fall out
(JD : henna, alcanet; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :;
FM ; LA :; LF :).
Arabic kundus means sneezewort, Achillea ptarmica L., and also
soap wort, fullers herb, Saponaria officinalis L. (WKAS :; DT :;
LF : f.). The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is transcribed by N and Z as: . Al-Idrs (IJS :)
mentions B () as a synonym for Q.
The vernacular term must be an Arabism, derived from the word just
discussed. It is a form without the Arabic definite article, contrary to the
common practice in Ibero-Romance varieties; thus, in O. Sp., we find the
forms alcudes and alcocundez, both with the Arabic definite article and
featuring as synonyms for the Lat. eleborus (cf. Sin : and n. ; also
cf. Het
. ).
/

. 12
HRBQ,
Arab. KRBQ, o.l. "LYBRWM
.
Hebrew HRBQ,
which also features in Syriac (s.v. hurbakn
a or hurbek
ana
.
.
.
LF : f.; LA :), is perhaps a loan translation of Arabic harbaq

13
(cf. below). It designates the plant hellebore (cf. Payne Smith :).
Arabic harbaq, Greek 2 and 2  (LS

), designates
the hellebore, Helleborus albus or Veratrum album L.
and Helleborus niger L. (DT :; M ). The Arabic term features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by
N as: / ("LYBRWS/KRBQ) and by Z as: (LYBRWS).
The vernacular term corresponds to the Latin word eleborum (NPRA
), possibly in a syncopated form.

11 : V
12 :
13

V
Cf. R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, vols. Oxford .

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of Arab. harbaq abyad. and harbaq aswad as Lat.

elleborus albus and elleborus niger cf. AdV .


. 15 14

HLMY
or HLMYT,
Arab. KTMY,
o.l. MLWYSQLY
.
.
.
The Hebrew term HLMYT
designates the plant mallow and features
.
in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic literature (mKil .) (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :, ; KA : f., :; DAS : f.; FM ;
FO f.; FZ f.; LF : ff.). Cf. as well He no. .
Arabic hit. m (hat. m, hat. mya) means marshmallow, Althaea offici ; DAS : f.).
nalis (DT :; M
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mKil .: :
, (a kind of vegetable whose
identification I do not know, but it is said that it is ) (MK :).
The vernacular term must be read as O. Occ. malviscle (CB and
; RMA ; DAO :) for Althaea officinalis L.
. 18 17 16

HLBNH
NGRT, Arab. MY#H S"YLH, o.l. " STWRQ
LYQYTH
.
.
Hebrew HLBNH
and Aramaic (SD ; SDA ; LA :),
.
from Greek  (LS ), means galbanum, Ferula galbaniflua,
a gum resin used as an ingredient of frankincense, which smells like
asafoetida (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :, ; KA :, :;
BM ; DAS :; FO f.; LF : ff.). It features in the Bible (e.g.
Ex :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bKer a). HLBNH
NGRT means
.
liquid galbanum.
Arabic may#a sa"ila designates liquid storax, Liquidamber orientalis
Mill. (DT :; M ; ID :; LF : ff.). The Arabic term 2,7 features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, , ) and is translated
STWRQ)
and by Z as: /
by N as: / (" S. TWRQ/"
.
.

("YSTWRG
/MY#H, i.e. " STWR
G).
.
.

14 : om. O
15 :

(cf. entry ) V

16 : VO
17 : ? O
18 : O

(cf. entry ) V [. . .] add. O

het
.

For the identification of HLBNH


as may#a, cf. Sa#adya on Ex :
.
(S n. ), IJ : 2, 0,)  , and AQ, fol. a: :
According
(HLBNH:
.
to some, it is the plum tree of Mahaleb and, according to others, it is
ladanum (the resinous juice which exudes from Cistus laniferus L., and
other varieties), but this is incorrect; according to yet others, it is storax
and this is most likely). Cf. as well ShM :
kind of liquid storax which is also called " S. TRK).
(HLBNH:
.
.
David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :) translates the term as: (plum
tree of Mahaleb); cf. MCS :.

The term " STWRQ


LYQYTH
. is the O. Occ. estorac/estorex liquida,
O. Cat. storach(s) lquide or the Latin storax liquida, with a prothetic ein storax, typical for the medieval spelling of Latin words in Western
Romance territories (cf. estorax, estoracis in Sin : and n. ). The

transcription " STWRQ


(i.e. with Qof) can refer both to the form estorac
and to estorax or estorex, because the Latin word final grapheme -x was
frequently transcribed using the Hebrew letter Qof. For the O. Occ.
estorac, see FEW :, whereas estorex is documented in CB ; for
O. Cat. storach(s) lquide cf. AdV , .
The identification of the Arabic and the Latin/Romance terms can be
found in the index to the Latin translation of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun,
see Sin :: Almea seyla, i. estorax liquida.; for further identification
of the Arabic and Latin terms as well as O. Cat. storach(s) lquide cf.
AdV , .
.

21 20 19

22

Arab. MY#H Y"BSH, o.l. TMY"MH


HLBNH
YBSH,
and there is another
.
.

kind of HLBNH
which is called " STWRQ
QR"MYT.
.
means dry galbanum (for references cf. no.
Hebrew HLBNH
YBSH
.
above).
Arabic may#a yabisa designates solid storax, Styrax officinalis L. (cf.
Het
. no. and ID :).
19 :

om. O
20 : V
21 : V
22 :

shem tov, synonym list

The vernacular term TMY"MH


is the Latin t(h)imiama (taken from
.
Greek), which is documented as a learned medico-botanical term in most
of the Romance languages (cf. for O. Sp. Sin : and n. ; for the
Gallo-Romance varieties see FEW :b). For O. Occ. see PSW :b
a, t(h)imiana, an incense composed of various ingredients.
The Romance term of the other species of HLBNH
should be read
.
*estorac (estorax, estorex) caramit. For the variants of the form (e)storax,
cf. Het
. , and for caramit, cf. Alef (QRMITH
. for magnetic stone).
In O. Occ. recipes, storax caramita (RPA ) is documented, and Brunel
gives the meaning as baume storax (storax balm). In Medieval Latin, we
find, among others, the forms storac calamite and (storax) calamita (the
Alphita, cf. Sin and CA ). According to CA, the name storax
calamita is derived from the fact that it was stored and imported in canes
(see the meaning of Lat. CALAMUS, FEW :ba).
. 23
DQL, Arab. S#P "LNKL
HRYWT
SL
.
DQL means dried branches or twigs of the palm
Hebrew HRYWT
SL
.
tree and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mSuk . and bShab a
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM f.). In his commentary on
the Mishnah mentioned (MK :), Maimonides explains the term as:
(palm branches).
Arabic sa#af an-nahl means palm-branches (L ).

. 25 24

o.l. QWDWNS
HBW
SYM,
Arab. SPRGL,
.
plur. HBW

Hebrew HBW
S,
SYM,
designates the fruit quince, Cydo.
.
nia oblonga or Cydonia vulgaris, and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in bKet b (JD ; LW : f., ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY :; DAS : n. , ; FE ff.; FZ ff.; LF : ff.; cf.
SDA , Aram. : apple).
Arabic safargal has the same meaning (DT :; M ; DAS :, ,
, ). For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bKet b, p. .

23 : V
24 : VO
25 :

VO

het
.

The vernacular term QWDWNS is the plural of O. Occ. codon (PSW


:b; FEW :b) for quince (cf. codons in RM ). The O. Occ.
codon or the palatalized variant codoin (CB ), codonh (CB ) or
)
codoing (RL :) (for the diatopic variation see, for example, ShK
E UM, which is based
is derived from the Vulgar Latin etymon COTON
on the Greek word -. For O. Occ., our sources do not indicate
the date of the first documentation, but in O. Cat., the word is first documented in the work of Ramon Llull at the end of the th century.
sot ha-Kesef, we find the O. Occ. gloss QDWYYN (representing
In Sar

the palatalised variant) for the Hebrew HB


). For the identifi. S (ShK
cation of Arab. safargal as O. Cat. codonys, cf. AdV , ; also see
GHAT :, where we find the Romance synonym QWDWNYYS for
Arab. SPRG"L.
. 28 27 26

"LS#YR,

HLB
S#WR,
Arab. NS"
o.l. "MYDWM, made of barley-flour
.
Hebrew means starch of barley (for , cf. KB ; JD ;
BM , ; KA :).
Arabic nasa" as-sa#r has the same meaning (L ; DAS : f.).
Arabic U2F features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, , )
and is translated by N and Z as: / and NoB by N as:
("MYDWM) and by Z as: ("MYDW) (XX, ).
The vernacular term "MYDWM is the Latin word for wheat flour
amidum (Sin b; MLWB :: flos farinae (triticeae)). Most of the
Latin manuscripts of the Alphita have the characteristic addition interpretatur sine mola fractum (cf. Sin b). The variant in the Vatican
MS is the rare Medieval Lat. variant amido, -onis (MLWB loc. cit.), a
non documented O. Occ. form *amido (amidon with n is documented
in RPA ) or O. Cat. amid (DCVB :a).

26 : O
27 : V
28 :

om. O, V

shem tov, synonym list

. 31 30 29
"L#NB, o.l.
HR
. S. NYM, that is the inner stones of grapes, Arab. #GM

GRYNYWNS
Hebrew HR
. S. NYM means fruit stones or especially grape stones and
features in the Bible (e.g. Num :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mNaz
.) (KB : unripe grapes; CD :: sour grapes; JD ; LW :;
SD ; KA : f., :; BM ; DAS : f.; FH ).
Arabic #agam al-#inab means grape stones (L ; DAS :).
For the identification of HR
. S. NYM as #agam, cf. Maimonides on mNaz
.: : (MK :).
The Romance variants of the Oxford and Vatican MSS represent the
plural of the O. Occ. word granhon with the meaning (olive) kernel
(PSW :b). The form in the Paris MS might be interpreted as O. Occ.
or O. Cat. *grinhons or *grenhons, which is not documented in our
sources. In O. Sp., the word gran existed, which, in one context of the
Libro de Alexandre, an O. Sp. text from ca. , is supposed to designate
grape seeds (DCECH :ab).
. 33 32
HLGLWNWT,
Arab. BQLH "LHMQ",
o.l. BYRDWL"Q"
.
.
Hebrew HLGLWNWT
designates purslane, Portulaca oleracea L., and
.
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in m Shebi . (JD ; LW :;
KA : f., :; BM ; FM ; LF : ff.).
Arabic baqla hamq
a" designates the same plant (DT :; M ;
.
DAS :, :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
: (a
kind of purslane, with large leaves and a long stalk and it is al-baqla alhamq
a) (MK :); see as well BTJ .
.
The vernacular variants BWRWTWLYG"
(MS O) and BWRTWL"Y.
.
YG" S (MS V) correspond to the O. Occ. bortolaiga and its plural bortolaigas, mentioned in DECLC :ab. The Catalan form of the same word

29 :
30 : VO

om. OV

31 : O V
32 :
33 :

O V
O V

het
.

is verdolaga (first documentation: late th century; used, among others,


by Arnau de Vilanova, see Anal. Sa. Tarra. XXII, , quoted in DECLC
loc. cit.). The form verdolaga is also Spanish (see Sin for O. Sp.) and
can be found in Occitan medico-botanical texts (cf. CB ). According to Coromines (DECLC, loc. cit.), the word is of Mozarabic origin,
with the forms bardilqa and barduqla being documented (the etymon
is the Latin PORTULACA). To explain the Catalan and the Spanish form,
Coromines hypothesises the existence of a Mozarabic *berdolaca, which
is surprisingly similar to the variant used in MS P, BYRDWL"Q".34
In GHAT : we find the identification of Romance (O. Cat.)
BWRDWL"GH as Arab. BQLH HM"QH.
.
. 38 37 36 35
or TYL, o.l. GRM
H
. S. B, Arab. NGYL

Hebrew H
. S. B means Bermuda Grass, Cynodon dactylon, and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; LA ff.:;
LF : ff.; cf. as well FM s.v. ; FZ ff.: Uriginea maritima).
Arabic nagl or tl designates Couch Grass, Cynodon dactylon and
Agropyrum repens (DT :; M ).
For the identification of H
. S. B as tl, cf. the Geonic commentary on

mKel .:
(
is a plant whose name is in Aramaic and tl in Arabic and in
Hebrew) (EG f.; cf. as well SDA , s.v. ).
The vulgar term GRM is the O. Cat. (DECLC :ba) or the
O. Occ. gram (DAO :; RL :b; PSW :b) for Triticum repens
(FEW :a); Levy gives the German translation Quecke, i.e. couch
grass (PSW :b). Both are derived from the Latin etymon GRAMEN
(FEW :a; DECLC :b). This form is documented in O. Occ.

34

One should consider the possibility that the author or the copyist(s) of the Sefer
ha-Shimmush had some Arabic-Romance glossary of Spanish origin at hand, particularly because Shem Tov, just like many of the Jewish physicians in Southern France, had
originally come from Spain. As an alternative, the form BYRDWL"Q" might be interpreted as a blend between the Catalan or Spanish verdolaga and the Latin PORTULACA.
35 : V
36 : VO
37 : VO
38 : O

shem tov, synonym list

during the th and th centuries (FEW :a) and in O. Cat. for the
first time at the end of the th century.
For the identification of the Arab. and Romance terms cf. GHAT
:, where we find the Romance synonym GR"M for Arab. TYL.
. 39
HPYPH,
Arab. SK, o.l. PRYTR
.
.
Hebrew HPYPH
means cleansing the head (cf. Het
.
. no. ).
Arabic SK is possibly a corruption of #$% (sah
. gun) which means
scratching, abrading the skin (HaF ). #$% features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: (HWLYD PWNT).
.
For the vernacular term, cf. Het
no.
.
.
.
HWG,
Arab. DW"R
.
Hebrew HWG
means circle or to make a circle (KB ; CD :;
.
LW :; BM ) and features in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic literature (bHag
. b). The Hebrew term is possibly a semantic borrowing of Arabic duwar meaning circle, and as a medical term vertigo,
giddiness in the head (L ; SN ). As a medical term, it features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV, ) in the combination () ()
and is translated by N as: and
by Z as: .
It is possible that Shem Tov used the Hebrew term in the sense of
vertigo as a semantic borrowing from the Arabic.
. 40
HLB
PQW#WT, Arab. SHM
.
. "LHN
. TL,
. o.l. QWLWQNTYD"
.
Hebrew HLB
PQW#WT, which literally means fatty substance of bitter
.
apple (for , sing. , bitter apple, Citrullus colocynthis (L.)
Schrad., cf. KB ; JD ; LW :; KA :; :; DAS : f.,
:; FM ; FO f.; FZ f.; LF : ff.; PB ) and is not attested
in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov based on the
39 :
40 : VO

om. OV

het
.

Arabic sahm
. al-han
. z. al which designates the inner part of the colocynth,
exclusive of its seeds (L ; DT :; M ; DAS : f.; :).
hm
Sa
. al-han
. z. al features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(III, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by both N and Z as:
(QWLWQYNTYD").
.
For the identification of PQW#WT as al-han
. z. al, cf. LO Perushim on
Shab b, p. , IJ f., RJ and Maimonides on mShab . (MK :
n. ). For the identification of HLB
as sahm,
.
. cf. SE .
The vulgar term QWLWQNTYD"
is
the
Late Latin coloquinthida (<
.
Lat. COLOCYNTHIS < Gr. !; DCECH :a), which was
also used in Romance (O. Occ. colloquintida, RL :b, or coloquintida,
RPA and , or in O. Sp. coloquintida, Sin :, DETEMA :c
a) for the plant Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Sin ab). It is
not documented for Catalan; Coromines only gives the Catalan form
coloquinta (DECLC :a). There is a description of the virtues of this
plant in the O. Occ. Eluc. de las Propr. (fol. ): Colloquintida es herba
mot amara (Colloquintida is a very bitter herb, RL :b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms, also cf. GHAT
(:) where we find the Romance synonym QWLWQYNTYDH
for
.

Arab. SHM
. HN
. TL.
.
. 42 41
HLB"
D"R#", Arab. SHMH
"L"RD
.
.
.
Aramaic HLB"
D"R#", which literally means grease of the earth and is
.
not attested in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov
after Arabic sahma
al-ard. (cf. below) to designate a certain animal or
.
plant. The reason why Shem Tov coined this term in Aramaic instead of
Hebrew was possibly in order to distinguish it from the Biblical Hebrew
as featuring in Gen :: (and you shall live
off the fat of the land), which is translated by Onkelos as: , by
Pseudo-Jonathan as: , and by Sa#adyah as:
(S ).
Arabic sahmat
al-ard,
.
. literally grease of the earth, has different meanings: ) earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. (DT :; M ), ) according to Maimonides (M ), the Maghrebis apply the name sahmat
al-ard.
.
to a small quadruped animal with streaked paws of gecko species (cf. as
41 : V
42 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

well LFa ), ) according to Abd ar-Razzaq, the term designates mushrooms (M ; cf. as well L ), and ) the term is applied to a plant
that has not been identified exactly (cf. M : edible lichen and D ::
Garcinia Mangostana).
For the identification of Hebrew HLB
and Arabic sahm,
.
. cf. SE .
. 43
"LQRTM,
HLB
HQWRTMYN,
Arab. NS"
o.l. "MYDWM
.
.
.
Hebrew QWRTMYN
either designates the plant safflower, Carthamus
.
tinctorius L. and Var., or its seeds and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. bPes b (JD ; LW :, ; SDA f., Aram. ;
KA : f., :; LA ff.:; LF : ff.; cf. as well Qof no.
below). HLB
HQWRTMYN
means safflower starch.
.
.
Arabic nasa" al-qirt. im also means safflower starch. Arabic qirt. im,
from Aramaic , also designates the seeds of the safflower plant,
Carthamus tinctorius L. and Var. (DT :; M ; cf. as well Qof no.
below). The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XVII, , ) and is translated by N as: / and by Z as:
/ / / (QRTM/QRWQ
.
"WRY"NT"L/
"WRY"NT"LY).
. QWRQ "WRY"NT"L/QRQW
.
.
See as well Het
. and above.
For the vernacular, see entry Het
. .
. 44
HLY
. TH,
. Arab. ZL"BYH
Hebrew HLY
. TH
. means a paste made of flour stirred in boiling water,
dumpling and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHal
. . (JD ;
LW :; SD ; BM ; cf. as well DAS : and KT :: pouring
hot water on flour).
Arabic zalabiya means fritters or puff pastry with honey or almond
(D :; DAS :; RAP : fritters) and features in Maimonides On
Hemorrhoids (cf. BMH II, ) and On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR I,
) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: (paste
baked in a pot) (EG n. ; FrA ; KZ ). In Maimonides On Asthma
(III, ; cf. BMA ), the term is transcribed as: by Joshua Shatibi
43 : O
44 : V

het
.

and translated as: by the anonymous translator. For


zalabiya, see as well Samekh .
. 47 46 45

HMY
SYWT,
Arab. MSTHH,
o.l. NSPWL
S
.

Hebrew HMY
SYWT
means medlar, Mespilus Azarolus L., and is only
.
attested in medieval literature (AEY :; LA f.:, :;
LF :). Thus, it features in the Alphabet of Ben Sira (ed. Eli Yassif, Sippurei Ben Sira bi-Yemei ha-Benayim, Jerusalem , p. ) as ,
where it is explained as being Italian: (nespole), i.e. medlars.
Caleb Ben Elijah Afendopolo identifies (also written as: )
as (quinces), but also as mespila (following LA f.:; cf.
LP ).
Arabic mustaha designates the medlar tree, Mespilus germanica L.
and Var., and is perhaps derived from Latin mustaceus/mustus must
(GH :) (DT :; cf. M , and D : which give sorb tree
and azarole tree as additional meanings).

The vulgar term NSPWL


S could be identified as the plural of the
O. Occ. nespola for medlar (PSW :a; RMM ). Also cf. the Italian
variant mentioned above with respect to the Alphabet of Ben Sira.
. 49 48
o.l. NRQYS
HB
. S. LT, Arab. NRGS,
The biblical HB
. S. LT, featuring, e.g. in Is :, refers to the plant asphodel, colchium, meadow saffron or narcissus (KB ; CD :;
FO f.; LA :; LF : ff.). In the Geonic period the term has the
meaning of a young lily (JD ; BM f.; AEY :; LF :).
Cf. as well DAS : f., , n. .
Arabic nargis, from Persian nargi or nargis (VL : f.), designates
different species of narcissus, such as Narcissus poeticus L. and Var.,
Narcissus tazetta L. and Var. or Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. and Var.
(DT :; M ).

45 : V
46 : O
47 : O
48 : O V
49 :

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::


(the arid desert shall be glad, the wilderness shall rejoice
and shall blossom like a crocus):
(DS ); see as well SF :.
The vulgar term NRQYS (or NRKYS in the Vatican MS respectively)
must be identified as a Romance word derived from the Latin narcissus
(Sin , n. ). There is no documentation of any O. Occ. or O. Cat.
*narquis or *narcis readings that the two Hebrew transcriptions suggest.
However, in Gascon, the word narcis for narcissus is documented in the
th century (FEW :b). The form could also represent M. Fr. narciz
for narcissus (FEW :a). In any case, the transcription of Romance cbefore front vowels as Qof or Kaf is unusual.

. 52 51 50
53

HLYPWT
TRDYN, Arab. RWS "LSLQ or "L" DL"#,
o.l. TY
.
.
. ST. S DYBLYDS or

QWST. S
Hebrew HLYPWT
TRDYN means shoots of beet, Beta vulgaris Var., and
.
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mUqz . (JD , ; LW :;
; KA :, :, ; FM ; LF : ff.).
Arabic ru" u s as-silq or al-adl
. a # means heads or ribs of beet (L ;
DT :). In Maimonides On Asthma (IX, ; cf. BMA ), we find adl
. a#
as-silq, which is translated as: by Shabiti, and as:
by Samuel Benveniste and the anonymous translator. Cf. as well Tav no.
below.
For the identification of HLYPWT
TRDYN as adl
.
. a # as-silq, cf. the
Geonic commentary on mUqz . (EG ).
The expression TY
. ST. S DYBLYDS "W QWST. S must be read as O. Occ.
testas de bledas o costas. The O. Occ. and O. Cat. name bleda is identified
as the plant Beta vulgaris (DECLC :b). According to DECLC :b,
the form bleda comes from a form *BLETA, which is the result of Latin
BETA (transformed by confusion with BLITA, plural of BLITUM, i.e.
blite, a similar plant). Thus, the O. Cat. synonym blet which Raynouard
gives for O. Occ. bleda (RL :a) is not correct. The plant name bleda
50 : !# P
51 :

VO

52 : O
53 : O, om. V

het
.

is documented in many O. Occ. texts (for example, in CB and ;


RM , RMA ; RMM ). The version used in the Vatican MS,
TY
. ST"
. S DYBWLYT. S. (testas de boletz), must be the result of a reading
based on boletz (mushrooms; see, for example, the singular form in
CB ) instead of bledas beets.
Our text mentions two parts of the plant: first, testas, which lit. means
heads (RL :b; PSW :ab; DECLC :b), and, second, costas,
which means, among others, ribs of leaves (PSW :b).
. 56 55 54
o.l. "MYDWM or "YNPYS
HLB
H
.
. TH,
. Arab. NS",
Hebrew HLB
H
.
. TH
. means wheat starch; wheat fat (KB ; CD :;
BM ) and features in the Bible, for instance, in Ps : (KB ;
CD :; BM ).
Arabic nasa" means starch (cf. Het
. no. ).
HLB
H
.
. TH
. in Ps : is translated by Sa#adya as: (ST ).
For the identification, cf. ShM f.
For the first vernacular term, cf. Het
. no. . We could not find any
explanation for the second vernacular term.
For the identification of Arab. nasa as Lat., amidum, cf. AdV .
. 59 58 57
HZRT
GLYM, Arab. KS BRY, o.l. LYTWG"
P"R"
.
.
Hebrew HZRT
GLYM means hill or wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna L.
.
or Lactuca scariola L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil
. (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :; DAS :,
:; FM ; FZ : Sonchus oleraceus; LF : ff.). Arabic hass barr
designates wild lettuce (DT :; M ; DAS : f., :).
For the identification of HZRT
as hass, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :). See
.
Hebrew is translated
as well Maimonides on mKil ., where
as: (hill lettuce) (MK :).

54 :
55 : V

56 : ! P
57 :

58 : VO
59 : O, om.

shem tov, synonym list

The transcription LYTWG"


P"R" must be identified as a non-docu.
mented O. Occ. term *laytuga fera. Several O. Occ. forms for lettuce are
documented: laytug(u)a (DAO :; CB , ; and also variants with
the spelling -ai-, -ey- for the diphthong), and lachug(u)a (CB , ).
The diphthong -ay- or -ey- is reflected in the -YY- spelling in MSS V and
O. The O. Occ. adjective fer, fera (< Lat. FERUS) has the meaning of wild
(RL :a; PSW :b).
. 61 60
HS",
. Arab. KS, o.l. LYTWG"
.
Aramaic HS"
. designates lettuce, especially Lactuca sativa L., and features in Rabbinic literature in bPes a (JD f.; LW :; SD ;
SDA ; KA :, :; BM ; FZ ff.; LA f.:; LF :).
Arabic hass designates garden lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (DT :;
DAS : f., f., :). The Arabic term features, for instance, in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ), and is translated by
N as: and by Z as: .
For the vernacular term laytuga or the like, cf. Het
. no. .
. 64 63 62

H
Arab. "ZRQ, i.e. like the sky
. SMLY,

Hebrew H
is an adjectival form derived from biblical H
which
. SMLY
. SML
means glittering substance, amber (CD :; JD ) and features, e.g.
in Ez :. In Modern Hebrew the term means electricity.
Arabic azraq means blue, sky-coloured (L ). Cf. as well DRD :
blue-eyed (byname as family name).

The identification of H
as azraq goes back to Ibn Janah,
. SMLY
. cf.
Se#adyah ibn Danan, Sefer ha-Shorashim (SID :): :

(H
is blue light according to Abu l-Wald [Ibn
. SML
Janah]).
.

60 : V
61 :
62 :
63 : V

O V
V

64 :

add. O

het
.

. 65
HLBY
S. or HLB
.
. S. YM, Arab. R"SN, o.l. "LN" QNPNYH
Hebrew HLB
S. means ornithogalum, bulb of ornithogalum
. S. or HLBY
.
or orchid, Orchis anatolicus, and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mShebi .. yShebi VII, bc explains the term as: (eggs
of ornithogalum) to designate the roots or nodules of ornithogalum
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; EG f.; FM ; FZ f.:
Euphorbia apios L.; LA :).
Arabic rasan, originally a Persian word (VL :), designates elecampane, Inula Helenium L. and Var. (DT :; M ). The term features as
@7o 0,AB4 ) %( in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and
is translated by N as: and by Z as:
.
In accordance with the Arab. term, the vernacular term used in
the Vatican MS, "NWL" QMPN", must be interpreted as the learned
Romance term enul(l)a campana (O. Occ. enulla campana, RMA ;
DAO art. :) for Inula Hellenium L. (Sin ). The variants
used in the other two MSS, Paris and Oxford, show a metathesis of
-l- and -n- ("LN") whichfollowing von Wartburgwas frequent in
Medieval Latin (th to th century): elena, elna (FEW :b). Von
Wartburg also states that the distribution of this plant name in southern
France could be a result of the medical activities of Montpellier (FEW
:b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms, cf. GHAT
:, where we find the Romance term "YNGWLH QMP"NH as a
synonym for Arab. RS"N "L#RWQ ("YNGWLH is evidently a misspelling
of "YNWLH).
. 68 67 66
HLZWN,
Arab. HLZWN,
o.l. LM"S"
.
.
Hebrew HLZWN
means ) conchiferous animal, snail, oyster, esp.
.
purple-fish, purple-shell; ) beetle or locust; ) a snail-shaped piece
of chain, screw and ) an eye-disease. The term features in Rabbinic
65 :
66 :  P
67 : " P
68 : ! P

O V

shem tov, synonym list

literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW : f.; KA : ff., :;


BM ; LZ ff.).
Arabic halaz
un means snail, or a certain creeping thing (L ;
.
JAD :; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
The vernacular LYM"S" is the O. Occ. lima(s)sa (RL :b; CB , )
for slug (RL :b), derived from the Lat. LIMAX. This form is clearly
Occitan, because it is llimac in Catalan: llimac o caragol sens crosta:
limax (llimac or snail without crust: limax, DECLC :b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms cf. GHAT
:, where we find Arab. HLZWN
for the Romance synonym LYMS".
.
. 69

HL"T
HYM, Arab. ZBD "LBHR,
MRYN"
.
. o.l. " SQWMH
Hebrew HL"T
HYM, literally meaning filth of the sea, is not attested in
.
secondary literature and seems to have been coined by Shem Tov as a
loan translation of the Arabic zabad al-bahr
. (cf. below). Note, however,
that the term also features as a translation of the Latin spuma maris in
the Sefer Keritut by Hillel ben Samuel of Verona.70
Arabic zabad al-bahr
. sea foam is the translation of Greek 3 bastard-sponge (LS ) and designates, according to Dioscurides
(:), a mixture of sponges, algae and polypiers rejected by the sea
(DT : n. ; M ).

The vernacular phrase " SKWMH


MRYN" (or " SQWM"
M"RYN" in the
Vatican and Oxford MSS respectively) must be read as O. Occ. or O. Cat.
*escuma marina. In our documents, we were unable to find this O. Occ.
or O. Cat. compound expression, which is the Romance equivalent of the
Latin spuma maris sea foam, pumice (Sin a). The O. Occ. and O. Cat.

escuma (RL :a; DECLC :a) is an alteration of the Lat. SPUMA

influenced by the Germanic SKUMS for foam (see DECLC :a),


which, in O. Cat., is documented for the first time in and had
the connotation of dirt (see DECLC :a). The adjective marin is
documented in the O. Occ. aiga marina for sea water (RL :a) among
others.
69 : VO
70 See Gerrit Bos: Medical terminology

in the Hebrew tradition: Hillel Ben Samuel of


Verona, Sefer ha-Keritut (forthcoming: Journal of Semitic Studies).

het
.

. 73 72 71
HLW
HLT,
Arab. MB#R, i.e. the rectum
.
.
Hebrew HLW
HLT
means mesentery and features in Rabbinic litera.
.
ture, e.g. in bHul
a
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ;
.
Low LI; MD : rectum; PB ).
Arabic mab#ar means rectum, intestine or gut (L ). The Arabic
term features in the Arabic translation of Galens Anatomicarum Administrationum, ed. Garofalo, vol. , .:
2 ) C,KT, for Greek: ! (4). For the identification, cf. ShM :

(HLW
HLT
.
.
because nothing ever remains in it, unlike the other intestines; for it is
constantly empty, and whatever reaches it is immediately expelled, and
therefore it is called mab#ar, that is to say the excrements are expelled
from it; it is also called ma#bar).

. 74

HLMWNY
HBS. YM HTRMY
TYN,
i.e. half-cooked egg yolks and in
.
.
.

Arabic it is called NYMBRST


Hebrew HLMWN
means yolk of an egg and features in Rabbinic
.
literature, for instance in bAZ a (JD ; LW :; KT :; KA :).
cf. Bet no. .
For Hebrew BS. YM TRMY
TYN
and Arabic NYMBRST,
.
.
. 76 75
HWLDH,
Arab. KLD
.
Hebrew HWLDH
means mole or weasel and features in the Bible (e.g.
.
Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mPes .) (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW : f.; SD ; KA : f., :; BAL , ; DAS :;
LZ ff.).
71 : O
72 : O V
73 : VO
74 . . . :

V
75 : O
76 : V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic huld means mole (L ; BK ; JAD : ff.; KSZ :,


).
:; StS
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev ::
(The following shall be unclean
for you among the things that swarm on the earth: the mole, the mouse,
and great lizards of every variety):
(S ); see as well IJ ,
gloss MS Rouen (n. ); SF :; WB ; Maimonides on mPes .
(MK :).
. 80 79 78 77
"LPR"YN, o.l. GYP
DYPLYSRS
HRSYT
HDLMTYQWN,
Arab. GBS
.
.
Hebrew HRSYT
means potters clay, clay ground (JD ; LW :;
.
KA :, :; BM ; BKH , ; KT :; :) and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMaasrSheni ..
Arabic gibs means gypsum (L ; cf. as well Gimel no. ).
Maimonides on mMaasrSheni . explains HRSYT
as
.
(cooked clay) (MK :); see as well EG , , .
For Hebrew and Arabic , cf. Dalet no. .
"LPR"YN is unThe combination HRSYT
HDLMTYQWN
and GBS
.
.
clear.
The Romance term suggests a reading such as *gip de peliseiras (fur
makers gypsum), with the term maybe designating a kind of clay or
gypsum used in the production of clothing or fur. For the Romance gip
cf. Gimel , for a commentary on PLYSRS see Dalet .
. 82 81
HWM
S. H, Arab. HM"
.
. D,
. o.l. LP"SYWM
The Hebrew term HWM
S. H is possibly a variant reading of HWM#H
(cf.
.
.
JD ) which designates sorrel, Rumex L. (EM ; AEY :;
LA f.:; LF : ff.). According to Kohut (KA :), the term

77 : V
78 : add. V (cf. entry
79 : VO
80 :
81 : O V
82 : V

O V

het
.

as it features in mDem . refers to the same plant; Lw (LF :)


remarks, following Hasade , , that the more correct reading is .
features, for instance, in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaf
(AV :).
Arabic humm
ad. means sorrel, Rumex L. and Var. (DT :; M ;
.
DAS :, :; LF : ff.). The Arabic term features in medieval
medical literature such as, for instance, Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as: and translated by
Z as: (cf. as well KZ ).
The form LP"SYWM (or L"PSYWM in the Oxford MS respectively)
can be identified as the Medieval Latin lapacium (cf. NPRA , s.v.
lapathum, cf. Sin b), which designates different species of Rumex L.
(Sin a; NPRA loc. cit.).
For the identification of Arab. humm
ad. as Lat. lapacium acutum, cf.
.
AdV .

. 85 84 83
o.l. "WMWR WYSQW

HL
Arab. HL
SH
. T. HLWQ,
.
. T. LZG,
Hebrew HL
means smooth humour and is not attested in
. T. HLWQ
.
secondary literature (BM ; EM ).
i.e. hilt. lazig means viscous humour (L ;
Arabic HL
. T. LZG,

WKAS : ff.; FAL :,


:). The Arabic term features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ), where it is translated as:
by both N and Z.

reflects the Latin or RoThe vernacular term "WMWR WYSQW


SH
mance *(h)umor viscosa/vescosa. This syntagmatic term is not documented in our sources. For O. Occ., we find the form umor (DAO :)
for humours of the human body (PSW :b). In O. Occ., the adjective vescos is documented in the description vescosa, plena dumors
(vescosa, full of humours, RL :a). It seems that the Romance term
is a literal translation of the Arabic one mentioned above.

83 : emendation
84 : VO
85 :

editors MSS

O add. V

shem tov, synonym list

. 89 88 87 86
o.l. L"N" QRPYN"DH
HMYLH,
Arab. S. WP MNPWS,
.
Hebrew HMYLH
means a blanket of thick, coarse stuff (JD ;
.
LW :; KA :; BM ; KT :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, for instance in mNed ..
Arabic s. uf manfus means wool separated, or plucked asunder or
loosened, so that it became spread, or sparse, or dispersed (L f.);
cf. as well Sade
no. below.
.
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :) explains
HMYLH
as: (wiqaya, cf. D :: les tissus de soie et or, dont
.
les juives senveloppent la tte et quelles nomment oukaia au Maroc et
en Algrie (cloth woven of silk or gold, which the Jews wrap around
the head and which are called oukaia in Morocco and Algeria); cf. as
well R. Dozy, Dictionnaire dtaill des noms des vtements chez les Arabes,
Amsterdam , p. f.).
The vernacular term in the Vatican and Oxford MSS is an O. Occ.
compound expression *lana carpenada, literally wool picked into pieces.
For the O. Occ. verb carpenar zerrupfen (i.e., to pick something into
pieces), see PSW :a. For the O. Occ. or O. Cat. lana for wool, see
RL .b; FEW :b; DECLC :a; DCVB :a. The term most
probably refers to the wool prepared using teasels for spinning (cf. the
meaning of O. Sp. carpinado in DETEMA :b).
Von Wartburg (FEW :a) points out that the derivates from Lat.
CARPERE have, in Gallo-Romance, the meaning to pick (wool/canvas)
into pieces. Their meaning differs from carder (i.e., to card) and refers
to preparing this operation; cf. the definitions plucher la laine avec les
doigts avant de la carder (to pick the wool with the fingers before carding
it), carder avec la main (to pick with the hand).
. 90
HWTM
HMLK, Arab. K"TM "LMLK
.
Hebrew HWTM
HMLK literally means seal of the king.
.
86 : O
87 : V
88 : V
89 :
90 :

O V add. V

het
.

Arabic hatam al-malik has the same meaning (L ).


AQ, fol. b explains the term as:
[ . . . ] (A stone of a ring, it is a noun, also the noun for seal); cf. as
well ShM f. Certain medicines that were kept in the royal treasury
were sealed with a royal seal; cf. Maimonides On Asthma (XIII,, cf.
BMA ).
. 91
HLYPWT
TRDYN, Arab. " DL"#
.
. "LSLQ, o.l. QWST. S DYBLYDS
For Hebrew HLYPWT
TRDYN and Arabic " DL"#
.
. "LSLQ, cf. Het
. no. .
For the vernacular term, cf. Het
. no. .
. 94 93 92

H
o.l. PWRWS
. S. YR, Arab. KR"T, Rabbin. KRYSYN,
Hebrew H
. S. YR means leek, Allium porrum L., and features in the Bible

(Num :) and Rabbinic literature (mKel .), whereas KRYSYN


is the
more common term for leek in Rabbinic literature (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW : f.; AEY :; DAS : f., , :; FO f.;
FM ; FZ f., ff.; LF : ff.).
Arabic kurrat is the generic term for leek (DT :; M ; DAS
:, , n. , :; cf. as well Kaf no. ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Num ::
(we
remember the fish that we used to eat freely in Egypt, the cucumbers,
the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic):
(S ); Ibn
Janah. on the same verse (IJ ); and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited
above (MK :). See as well WB n. .
The vernacular PWRWS must be read as the O. Cat. plural porros or
the Latin porrus (cf. NPRA , s.v. porrum), with the meaning leeks
or leek respectively. In O. Occ., we only find the forms porr, poyre
(RL :a) and por (FEW :a), porre with the plural forms pors,
porrs, porres and pos (PSW :ab). In O. Cat., the forms porre (first
91 :
92 : O
93 : O
94 : om. V

om. OV

shem tov, synonym list

documentation in ) and porro (first documentation ) coexisted,


but the second form survived due to its correspondence with the rules
of Cat. morphology, with the plural porros (see DECLC :a) being
formed from it.
For the identification the Arabic term as O. Cat. porros, cf. AdV ,
.
. 95
HLY
H"PR, Arab. RMD, o.l. QS. YD"
.
Hebrew HLY
H"PR, literally meaning disease of the ashes, is not attested
.
in secondary literature. The term was possibly coined by Shem Tov
as a loan translation of the Arabic ramad (lit. ashes), which, as a
medical term, means ophthalmia and is translated in medieval medical
literature by Z as: or is transcribed by N: as (Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms: XIX, ; cf. BMMb ; cf. as well L ; IR , ,
; MH Index; SN ).
The vernacular term QS. YD" is the O. Occ. cassida with the meaning of
defluxion of the eyes (PSW :b), derived from Vulgar Latin *caccita
for sleep (in the eyes) (see FEW :b).
.

HL
. S. YYM, Arab. SR"SYP
Hebrew HL
. S. YYM means loins and features in the Bible (e.g. Is :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bHag
b) (KB ; JD ; BM ;
.
Low LI; PB ).
Arabic sursuf, plur. sarasf, means the cartilage attached to each rib
(L ; DKT , ; FAL :; IR ) and features in medieval
medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (e.g.
VI, ; cf. BMMb ), where p,%q )W 7 (i.e. the hypochondria) is
translated by Z as: (cf. as well KZ and ).
Sa#adya translates (The belts on their waists) in Is : as:
(cf. DS ; RT ), Ibn Jan
ah. (IJ ) on Job : and : as:
C?6,], and AQ, fol. b translates as: .

95 :

het
.

. 96
HL
Arab. THLHL
. HLH,
.

Hebrew HL
means shaking, trembling (KB ), shivers, chill
. HLH
.
(Low LI), convulsion (BM ) and features in the Bible, e.g. Is :.
Arabic tahalhul from the root tahalhala means being shaken, dis ).


jointed (HaF
Sa#adya on Is : translates HL
as (cf. DS ; RT ).
. HLH
.
. 98 97

H
Arab. S. N"NYR, o.l. MWSQLR
S
. HYM,
.
Hebrew H
means hook, thorn, awl, fastening, clasp,
. H,
. plur. H
. HYM,
.
chain; fibula and features in the Bible (e.g. Is : (= Kings :))
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. Ex. R. s. ) (KB ; CD :; JD ;
KA :, :; BM ).
Arabic s. innara, plur. s. ananr, means iron hook (D :).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ ) and Se#adya ibn Danan on
Is : (SID :); see as well SF :.

The vernacular term MWSQLR


S corresponds to the plural of O. Occ.
mosclar (RL :a; PSW :a; FEW :a). Raynouard gives it
the meaning nasse, i.e. fish trap (RL :a), which is corrected by
Levy to Angelhaken, i.e., fish hook, (PSW :a), as confirmed by the
Hebrew and Arabic synonyms in our text. Following von Wartburg, the
O. Occ. mosclar is documented in the Languedocian variety in the th
century with the meaning fish hook, derived from the Latin etymon
MUSCULARIS (from MUSCULA little fly), which went through a
semantic shift in O. Occ. (FEW :ba).
. 100 99
HYYN,
Arab. NY" and HY
.
. is as well NY"
Aramaic HYYN,
plural of HY,
.
. means ) living; alive; living creature;
healthy; ) in natural condition; raw; unmixed (JD ), or: living,
raw, unmixed, flowing (SD F; SDA ).
96 :
97 : V

O V add. V (cf. entry )

98 : O, (cf. entry ) om. V


99 : O,
100 :

emendation editors P

om. V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic n" means raw, untouched by fire (L ). In a medical


context, the term is used in particular to indicate the raw, uncooked state
of bodily humours. Thus, it features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(XX, , ; XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as: and by Z as: or .
. 104 103 102 101
HLWDT
HBRZL, Arab. S. D" "LHDYD,
o.l. RWBYL DYPYRY
.
.
Hebrew HLWDT
HBRZL means iron rust (for , cf. JD ;
.
LW :; KA :, :; Low LI).
Arabic s. ada" al-had
. d also means iron rust (for s. ada", cf. L ).
The vernacular expression RWBYL DYPYRY has to be interpreted as
O. Occ. *rovilh de ferre or O. Cat. *rovell de ferre for oxidation of iron.
The combination of both words is not documented in our sources. The
O. Occ. rovilh (PSW :ab) is documented with the meaning iron
oxyde, tarnishing of silver (DAO :); the corresponding O. Cat. term
is rovell, and both terms are derived from Lat. ROBIGO (DECLC :a
b). The variant in the Oxford MS must be interpreted as a Western Romance form showing the loss of the intervocalic labial occlusive,
such as O. Occ. roill (RL :a) or the Northern Catalan variety roell
(DCVB :b). The O. Occ. and O. Cat. form ferre for iron is frequently documented (RL :a; PSW :a; four entries in the index
of RMA ; DCVB :a).
. 105
HTWL,
Arab. TKMYD
.
Hebrew HTWL
means bandage and features in the Bible (Ez :) and
.
medieval literature (KB ; CD :; BM ; cf. as well Low LII s.v.
swaddling).
Arabic takmd means to apply a hot compress (L F). The Arabic
term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (X, ) and is translated
by N as: and by Z as: .

101 : O
102 : V
103 : O V
104 : VO VE
105 : e!

het
.

. 107 106
Arab. SHD,

S
HLWT
DBS,
o.l. BRYSQ
.
Hebrew HLWT
DBS means honey combs and features in Rabbinic
.
literature, for instance, in mUqz . (JD ; LW :; BM ;
DAS :).
Arabic sahd or suhd means honey or honey in its wax, i.e. its combs
(L ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
: (MK :).
S is the plural of O. Occ. and O. Cat. bresca
The vernacular term BRYSQ
(DECLC :b; also cf. O. Occ. vrezqua in CB ) with the meaning
honeycomb (RL :b). The origin of the word is not clear, but it dates
sot ha-Kesef,
back to the Pre-Roman period (DECLC loc. cit.). In Sar

we find the gloss BRYSQ", but here it glosses the Hebrew word s. uf for
). For O. Cat, it is documented for the first time in
honeycomb (ShK
a Ramon Llull text from about (DECLC loc. cit.).
. 109 108
HWM
T,
i.e. HHLZWN
.
. Arab. HLZWN,
.
.
Hebrew HWM
T. means lizard, chameleon and features in the Bible
.
(Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, for instance, in bHag
. a (KB f.;
JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ; BAL f.; BH :, :, ,
; LFa ; LZ ).
un, cf. Het
For Hebrew and Arabic halaz
. no. .
.
The Hebrew term HWM
T
is
translated
by
Sa#adya and Ibn Janah. as
.
.
(S ; IJ ). However, as Rashi on Lev : translates HWM
T.
.
110
as: , David Kimhi,
. Sefer ha-Shorashim, col. , remarks that
has a gloss
according to some it is a reptile called: , and ShK
lyms (see the vernacular term in Het
. no. ). There must have been a
tradition identifying HWM
T. with HLZWN.
.
.

106 : ? O
107 : VO
108 : add.
109 : om. V
110

Ed. Biesenthal-Lebrecht, Berlin .

shem tov, synonym list

. 114 113 112 111


HTP
is interpreted by R. Sa#adya Ga"on, of blessed memory, as WSW"S
.
and it is a kind of delusion
Hebrew HTP
means robbery (KB ; CD :; BM ; EM )
.
and features in the Bible (Prov :).
Arabic waswas means ) speech, or talk, that is indistinct, or low and
confused; ) an evil idea, imagination, or thought, which occurs to
the mind; ) melancholia, in which is a doting in the imagination and
judgment, a sort of delirium (L f.; D :) and features in medieval
medical literature with the meaning delusion (cf. Dols, Majnun, pp. ,
, , ).115 Thus, it occurs in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(e.g. II, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
. Cf. as well KZ .
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Prov ::
(She too lies in wait as if for prey, and destroys the
unfaithful among men):
(SM , cf. also n. ).

111 :  P
112 : om. OV
113 : om. O
114 : V
115 M.W. Dols, Majnun: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society. Edited by D.E. Immisch, Oxford .

TET
.
. 1
TWM
TY
Arab. TYN
MKTWM, o.l. BWL SGYL"
. T. HTWM,
.
.
.
Hebrew TY
is possibly a loan translation of Arabic t.n mahtum,
. T. HTWM
.

literally sealed earth (cf. below and JD ). Instead of meaning


loam (cf. BM ), we find , cf. Maimonides, On Poisons (BMP ),
transl. Moses ibn Tibbon: ha-t. in he-hatum.
Arabic t.n mahtum means Terrasigillata or Lemnian earth (L ;

IR ).
Terra sigillata, i.e. sealed earth or clay, was called in this way because
the pastilles prepared from these kinds of earth or clay were marked
with a seal. Thus Pliny, Natural History XXXV, refers to that from the
island of Lemnos under the name  (seal). It was actually the best
known of the different kinds of terra sigillata introduced into medicine
by the Greeks, and was, according to Renaud and Colin,2 hydrated iron
peroxide, which served as an antitoxin. According to Siggel, Das Buch
abir ibn Hayy
der Gifte des G
an, p. , it was a reddish earth from
.
the isle of Chios that was taken to Byzantium in sealed form; it was
possibly an Al-Mg silicate. Maimonides, Glossary of Drug Names, s.v. t.n
(M ) mentions three different kinds of terra sigillata, namely from
Lemnos, Buhayra
and Yemen. See as well E.I.2, vol. , p. , , s.v. t.n
.
(C.E. Bosworth): Edible clay or earth. This was a diatomaceous earth or
kieselguhr, made up of the siliceous remains of minute organisms, and
was found in various parts of Persia in mediaeval Islamic times.
The vernacular variants in the Oxford and Vatican MSS seem to be
Romance adaptations of the Latin term terra sigillata (e.g. an O. Occ. or
O. Cat. *terra sage(l)lada/sege(l)lada). The O. Occ. term terra segelada
is documented in CB () with the meaning argillaceous soil. For
O. Occ. and O. Cat. terra earth, soil, see DCVB (:a); DECLC
(:a) and DAO (:), where the following specific meaning is given:
1 : O V
2 H.P.J. Renaud and G.S. Colin, Tuhfat al-ahb
ab.

Glossaire de la matire mdicale


.
.
Marocaine. Texte publie pour la premire fois avec traduction, notes critiques et index,
Paris , no. .

shem tov, synonym list

terre argileuse dont se servent les potiers pour faire leurs ouvrages (i.e.
argillaceous soil, which the potters used for their products). For the
O. Occ. verb sagellar, sagelar, segelar or sugelar seal, see FEW (:b);
RL (:ab); PSW (:b). For O. Cat., see DCVB (:a); DECLC
(:b): segellar marcar o cloure amb segell (i.e. to mark or close
with a seal) since , with the variant sigillar (). The Lat. term
is documented in an O. Occ. text with the meaning terre sigille (sealed
earth) (RMA , ).
The Paris MS uses a synonym for terra in the sense of clay, namely

O. Occ. bol or bolh (from Lat. BOLUS


< Gr. 5, see DECLC :b)
for bolus, medical clay (RL :b; FEW :bb: for Erdscholle,
i.e. clod or soil; also see RMM and RMM ). The word bol(h) was
normally used as part of the compound term bol armenic, see entry Tet
. ,
which is the only context in which the corresponding Catalan word bol(l)
appears according to the dictionaries we consulted (as bo(l)l armini, cf.
DECLC :b, since ). The term we find here is a hybrid form bol
sigillatum, which is a combination of the O. Occ. or O. Cat. noun and the
same Lat. perfect passive participle that is used in terra sigillata, used here
in its neuter form, sigillatum (FEW :a). Neither this combination
nor any other compound expression that includes bol (except for bol
armenic) is documented in our sources.
For the identification of Arab. t.n mahtum as Lat. bolus/terra sigillata
O. Cat. bol(i)um sagillatum.
cf. AdV , ; ibid. mentions for

GHAT : identifies the Arabic term as O. Cat. TYR"


SGYL"DH.
.
. 3
TY
"RMYNY, o.l. BWL "RMYNQWM
. T. "RMY, Arab. TYN
.
Hebrew TY
. T. "RMY (read: TY
. T. "RMNY) seems to be a loan translation of
Arabic t.n armn (cf. below) and features in medieval medical literature
(cf. BM : ).
Arabic t.n armn means Armenian bole or earth (L ; M ); cf.
Renaud-Colin, Tuhfat
. al-ahb
. ab, ibid.
The Latin counterpart of the Arabic term is bolus armenicus, which
appears in the Alphita (see Sin : fn. ; CA , ). This term is
reflected in the vernacular expression in MSS P and O, which is, however,
a blend of the Romance word bol or bolh/boll (see entry Tet
. ) and the
3 :

O V

tet
.

Lat. adjective in its neuter form, armenicum. The term bolarmenicum is


documented in an O. Fr. text (FEW :b, bol dArmnie, argile rouge
et visqueuse quon faisait venir dOrient et qui entrait dans la composition
de certains mdicaments, i.e. Armenian bole, red and viscous clay, which
was imported from the Orient and which was used for the composition
of certain medicines). In the Vatican MS, we find the O. Occ. term bol
armenic (see RL :b; FEW :b). Coromines points out (with
respect to the corresponding Catalan term, see entry Tet
. ) that this
substance was frequently searched for in mines and natural caves in the
region of Valencia (DECLC :b).
For the identification of Arab. t.n armn as Lat. bolus armenicus
cf. AdV ; ibid. mentions bolium armenicum and boliarmini for
O. Cat. In GHAT : we find BWL"RMYNY for O. Cat. and BWLWM
"RMYNYQWM for Lat., both identified as Arabic t.n armn.
. 7 6 5 4
TRKSYD,
Arab. NWRH, o.l. PLDWR, which is something composed of
.
lime and arsenic
Hebrew TRKSYD
means binding cement and features in Rabbinic
.
literature, e.g. in bBB b (JD ; LW :: steiniger, felsiger Kalk
(stony and rocky lime); KA :; :; KT :, n. ). The
etymology of the term is unclear. According to Jastrow (ibid.), it is
a combination of two words, namely W and , and, according to
Levy (ibid.) and Kohut (ibid.), of Greek  (rough, harsh, LS )
and . The Geonim explain TRKSYD
as a superior kind of plaster
.
and identify it as: (= G,H%, white lead, ceruse); cf. ATG (=
BT : f.: :
(TRKSYD:
It is a kind of plaster, but better than
.
it, and one smears it on top of the plaster and in Arabic it is called:
)). (cf. KT : n. , Lieberman, Tosefta ki-fshut. ah, p. , s.v.
).8
Arabic nura means gelschter Kalk; Haarentfernungsmittel (slaked
lime; depilatory) (L ; GS f., , ; Sig ; SP ff.; cf. as well
4 : VO
5 :

VO

6 :
7 : [ . . . ] V1

V, om. O

8 S. Lieberman, Tosefta ki-fshutah. A comprehensive commentary on the Tosefta.


.
Part VIII: Order Nashim, New York .

shem tov, synonym list

H. Grotzfeld, Das Bad im arabisch-islamischen Mittelalter, Wiesbaden


, p. ). Moses ibn Tibbon renders the Arabic nura as in
his translation of Maimonides On Poisons (BMP ).
The composition of arsenic and quicklime had been used as a depilatory since ancient times; for a recipe see, e. g., DETEMA :b s.v.
silotro, a depilatory medicine: mientra entra en el bao sea vntado con
psillotro fecho de quatro partes de la cal e vna de arsenico cochas con el
vinagre e agua. (i.e when he enters into the bath, he should be anointed
with psillotro made of four parts of lime and one of arsenic, boiled with
vinegar and water) Cauliac (th c.). Consequently, the vernacular term
is the O. Cat. pelador instrument o matria que saplicava a la pell de
persones o de bsties per arrabassar-ne els pls (i.e., an instrument or
substance that was applied to the skin of persons or animals to eracinate
the hairs) (DCVB :a). In contrast to the ample documentation for
Cat. (see DCVB loc. cit.), O. Occ. does not appear in our sources.
.
TNY,
Arab. QDH
.
.
Hebrew TNY,
bibl. TN",
means a certain dry measure or travelling box,
.
.
basket and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (KB ;
JD ; LW :: ein grosses, metallenes Gefss (a big, metallic jar);
KA : f. s.v. : ein korbhnliches Gefss (a basket-like bin); BM
s.v. ; KT :, n. ).
Arabic qadah. means a drinking-cup or bowl (L ; DRD :
tumbler).
Maimonides on mKel . and mEduy . explains Hebrew as a
solid container made of iron or copper used by the physicians to keep
their remedies in (MK :, :). Cf. as well BKH .
. 11 10 9

TRYQH,
Arab. LDG, o.l. PWNSWR"
.
Hebrew TRYQH
is a verbal noun derived from TRQ,
which means sting,
.
.
bite (BM , for TRQ,
cf.
JD
;
LW
:;
KA
:,
:; BM ).
.
Arabic ladg means stinging or biting (WKAS : f.).
9 :

O V

10 : V
11 :

O V1

tet
.

PWNSWR"
represents O. Occ. ponchura sting, bite (RL :a; FEW

:b, s.v. PUNCTURA),


punchura sting, stinging (PSW :b). See
the quotations in RL (ponchuras del verinos serpens de yfern, i.e. bites
of the poisonous serpent of the hell) and PSW (la punchura [d]una
mosca, i.e. bite of a fly). The corresponding verb is ponchar/ punchar
to stingwhich also existed in O. Cat. as punxar (DECLC :b); a
derivation *punxura is possiblewith the variant pinchar listed in the
PSW (:a). The variants used in the Oxford and Vatican MSS could
be corrupt forms of ponhedura, ponhidura sting, bite (PSW :b;
FEW :b) or another non-attested form derived from O. Occ. pnher
or O. Cat. pnyer to sting (DECLC :b), e.g. *ponhura, *punyura.
.
TY
. HH,
. Arab. TYL"
.
Hebrew TY
. HH
. means plastering and features in Rabbinic literature
(e.g. in mNeg .) and medieval medical literature (JD ; LW :;
BM ). The term features in the Hebrew translation (from the Arabic)
of the Alexandrian Summaries of the Sixteen Books by Galen prepared
by Simson ben Solomon in the year under the title
(following BM ; cf. E. Lieber, Galen in Hebrew, pp. ).12
Arabic t. ila" means any fluid, semifluid, liniment, unguent, oil, varnish, plaster, or the like, with which a thing is daubed, smeared, rubbed
or done over, anointed, painted, varnished, plastered, coated, overspread,
or overlaid (L ; cf. KZ ). The Arabic term features, e.g. in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ; XXIV, ), where it is translated
by N as: and by Z as: , and in Maimonides On Asthma XI, and
XII, (cf. BMA and ), where the plural ,LI& is translated as: by
Joshua Shatibi and as: by both Samuel Benveniste and the anonymous translator.
.
TRYT,
Arab. TWN,
o.l. TWNYN"
.
.
.
Hebrew TRYT,
from Greek ! (LS ; KG :; LR ; SD )
.
or Latin triton (GH :; cf. LW :; KG :; LR ), means
12 E. Lieber, Galen in Hebrew, Galen: Problems and Prospects. A Collection of Papers
submitted at the Cambridge Conference. Edited by Vivian Nutton, London ,
pp. .

shem tov, synonym list

preserve, pickle and esp. salted or pickled fish (JD ) and a kind of
tuna and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNed ., and mAZ .
(LW :; SD , Aram. : type of fish, salted fish pieces sold in the
market; KA :, :; LFa f.; LZ f.).
Arabic t. u n or tuna means tuna; cf. G. Oman, Littionimia nei Paesi
Arabi del Mediterraneo, Firenze , no. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. tonina salted tuna (PSW :b
a) or O. Cat. tonyna tuna (DECLC :b). Following Coromines,
the O. Cat. term originally designated just one variety of tuna (DECLC
loc. cit.).
. 13
TRYYM,
Arab. TRYH
.
.
Hebrew TRY,
plur. TRYYM,
means fresh and features in the Bible (e.g.
.
.
in Ju :, and Sam :) and medieval literature (KB ; CD :;
BM ).
Arabic t. ar" has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification, cf. IJ ; SF :; WB . Sa#adya on Is : (S;
RT ) translates (festering sores) as: .
For the Romance synonym which is added only here in MS O, see the
commentary on entry Tet
. .
. 14
TYWL,
Arab. RY" DH
.
.
Hebrew TYWL
means walking, going errands (JD ; LW :). It
.
is possible that Shem Tov employs the term in the non-attested sense of
physical exercise for Arabic riyada.
.
Arabic riyada
originally
had
the
meaning of training, disciplining
.
oneself through exercise, exercise (D : f.). In medieval medical
literature, it is the common term for physical exercise and features, for
instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, , ; cf. BMMa
and ) where it is translated by N as: and by Z as: .

13 : VO
14 : VO

add. O

tet
.

. 16 15

TYRWP,
Arab. TSWY
S
.
Hebrew TYRWP
means confusion, distraction, trouble and features in
.
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBer . (JD ; LW :; BM ; cf. as
well Low LIII and PB ).
Arabic tasws means confusion; indisposition (D :). The term
features as Yo in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV, ), where it is
translated by N as: and by Z as: .
.
TBLH,
Arab. S. PYHH
.
.
Hebrew TBLH,
from Greek , Latin tabula (LS ; GH : f.;
.
KG :), means plank, board, tablet for writing, book of accounts,
list, will and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes a (JD ;
LW : f.; SD ; KA :, :; BKH ff.; KT :, , , :,
, , , , :, , ). Maimonides, for instance, on mKel .,
explains Hebrew TBLH
as Arabic (lawh)
.
. (MK :).
Arabic s. afha
. means a wide or broad stone, plank, board, plate
(L ); cf. Gimel .
.
T. HYNH,
Arab. "STMR"
.
Hebrew T. HYNH
means grinding and, figuratively, sexual contact and
.
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSot a (JD ; KA :, :;
BM ).
Arabic ist mar" means podex or anus of a human being (L , f.).
. 18 17

TRMY
T",
.
. Arab. NYMBRST
Cf. Bet no. .

15 : V
16 : O
17 : O
18 : V

shem tov, synonym list

. 20 19
ZHB, Arab. S. PYHH
TS
. SL
. DHB
ZHB means foil or plate made of gold and features
Hebrew TS
. SL
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; KA :,
: f.). Arabic s. afhat
. dahab means plate made of gold (cf. Gimel

no. above).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :).
. 22 21
T. HWP,
Arab. "GBR, o.l. BRWN, it is like lead
.
Hebrew T. HWP
means dirty-white, grey and features in Rabbinic lit.


erature, e.g. in bHul
. b, as a variant of SHWP:
() (If he had two kinds [of wool], grey and white) (JD ;
LW :; BM ; KA :).
Arabic agbar means dust-colored (L ).
The vernacular term featuring in the Paris and Vatican MSS is brun
(see the entry Gimel ). The variant given in the Oxford MS, BWRWN,
appears to be corrupt (for the epenthetic Waw see the introduction).
. 25 24 23

S
TWP
H,
o.l. LYSY
.
. that is "LGLB"N,
Hebrew TWP
H
.
. designates the plant Lathyrus Cicera L. or Lathyrus
sativus L., everlasting-pea (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY
:; DAS :, ; FH ; FM ; FZ ff.; LA f.:; LF
: ff.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPeah ..
Arabic al-gulubban designates vetch (L ; D :; DT :, n. ;
M ; DAS :; cf. as well Shin no. below).

19 : P V
20 : O
21 :
22 :
23
24
25

V
O
: V
: VP
: O ! P V

tet
.

For the identification, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot (EG


). Maimonides on mTevul . (MK :) explains the term as:
(oats).
The vernacular term featuring in the Oxford MS is the plural of the
O. Occ. plant name gieissa, which exactly fits the meaning of the Hebrew
word. This plant name, which is of unclear etymology and seems to be
totally absent from Catalan, has an ample documentation for O. Occ.,
see DAO :: gieissa, Lathyrus sativus (), with the variants gieiza,
geysa, geyssa, geysha, geicha, geisso, jaissa, jaisse (plus the following forms
that are classified as M. Lat., see DAO :: gaicia, gueysha, ge(y)ssia,
jessa, jayssia, geissa, geyssa). It is worth mentioning that the French
variant (cf. gesse in Mod. French) appears in a Judeo-French gloss as
YYSN,
YYSY
S and YaYSeY
(DBG ), transcribed by Blondheim
YYSS,
as jese (also cf. FEW :b, which indicates the meaning Lathyrus
sativus).
The Lamed at the beginning of the variants given in MSS P and V is
either an error or might be the definite article la; since we obviously have
the plural form here, we would have to suppose that the article became
agglutinated so as to form a word such as *lagieissa. As Brunel observes
in the recipes he edited, a plural noun often appears with a singular
article (RMA XI), e. g. la fuelhas (RMA and ). This would represent
another, albeit not very probable hypothesis.
. 26

TP
means to dip ones hand in oil or water in which
. H,
. Arab. TNTYL,
.
herbs have been cooked and to hit the [affected] spot with it as an
anointment
Hebrew TP
. H
. means to clap hands, to strike or to wet (JD f.;
SD ; KA :, :; BM f.).
Arabic tant.l means the application of fomentations and features
in medieval medical literature, for instance in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XIII, ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
.

26 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 28 27

TRY,
Arab. TRY",
o.l. PRYSQ
.
.
For Hebrew TRY
and Arabic t. ar", cf. Tet
.
. no. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adjective fresc for fresh
(DAO :; FEW :a; RL :b; PSW :a; DECLC :a;
DCVB :b, cf. Tet
. no. , add. MS O).

27 :
28 : "X" P

om. O add. V

YOD
. 4 3 2 1
YRWQT HMWR,
i.e. donkey cucumbers, QT" "LHM"R,
o.l. QWGWMRY
.
.
"M"R
Hebrew YRWQT HMWR
designates the plant Ecbalium elaterium Rich.,
.
squirting cucumber and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mOhol
. (KA : f., :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :; FO f.;
FM ; FZ f.; LF : f.).
Arabic qitta" al-him
. ar, lit. donkeys cucumber, designates the same

plant (DT :;
M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot which
explains YRWQT HMWR
as Hebrew and as Arabic qitta"
.

al-him
a
r
(EG
);
see
as
well
Maimonides on mOhol . (MK :). For
.
Hebrew and Arabic qitta" al-him
. ar, cf. as well Qof no.

below.
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ.
term cogombre amar (for the whole term see CB ; for the noun
cf. RL :b, FEW :b; for the adjective cf. RL :bb)
and seems to be a synonym for cocumbre aigre cornichon vert (i.e.
green gherkin) (RMA ) and cogombre salva(t)g(g)e, literally for wild
cucumber (CB , ; RMM ; RM ). The variant in the Paris MS
seems to be *cogomre amar, without epenthetic -b-; cf. the O. Sp. cogomro
(DETEMA :b). In Cat., we find the compound expression cogombre
amarg as a synonym for cogombre bord, cogombre boig and cogombre
silvestre, all of which designate a plant of the species Ecbalium elaterium
(cf. DCVB :a). The DCVB also lists the ancient Cat. variant amar
(:ab), so that the term featuring here might also be interpreted
as Catalan. But Coromines argues that this form only coexisted with
amarg in the writings of Cerver de Girona when he wrote in O. Occ.
(DECLC :a). However, see the form cogombra amar in an O. Cat.
1 : V
2 :
3 : VO
4 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

translation of Arnau de Villanova (AdV ) identified as Arab. qitta"

al-him
. ar (ibid. , ).
. 6 5
GNWT, Arab. YRBWZ or BQLH "LYM"NYH, o.l. BLYDZ
YRBWZYN SL
Hebrew YRBWZ, plur. YRBWZYN, designates the plant blite, Albersia Blitum Kunth., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi
. as: wild blite (cf. below) (JD ; LW :, ;
SD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; FM ; LA f.:;
GNWT,
LF : ff.; cf. as well FZ f.: Amaranthus). YRBWZYN SL
which is not attested in secondary literature, possibly designates the cultivated variety of blite.
Arabic yarbuz (derived from Persian (LA f.:; BLS )) or
baqla yamaniya means blite and its varieties (DT :; M ). In
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ) yarbuz is translated by N as:
(BLYT
. S. ) and by Z as: .
For the identification of Hebrew YRBWZYN as Arabic yarbuz, cf.
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term corresponds to the O. Occ. or O. Cat. plural blez
or blets (RMM ; DCVB :ba) of the plant name blet for amaranth (FEW :b), which is blite, thus conforming with the Hebrew
lemma and the Arabic synonym. RMM (index ) indicates the meaning betteraves (beetroot), following the interpretation of PSW :b;
this wrong meaning is emended in DAO :, see below. The word
is derived from Lat. BLITUM (see DECLC :b and FEW :b;
DAO : gives the incorrect etymon BETA). For the general confusion
of BLITUM and BETA already apparent in Late Latin, see DECLC :b
and entry Het
. of this edition. By contrast, in our synonym list, the
author seems to make a difference between these two plants; cf. Het
.
and Tav . In another O. Occ. text, the two plant names are also mentioned separately: Ad ome que no pot anar a cambra, dona li manjar
bledas e blez e malvas e mortayrolh e cebas am carn grassa (i.e. to someone who cant go to the toilet, give him to eat bledas and blez and mallows
and broth and onions with fat meat) (RMM ). For the form with Dalet
and Zayin, see the introduction.

5 :
6 : VO

O V

yod

For an identification of Arab. baqla yamaniya as O. Cat. BLYT. S (blets,


wrongly interpreted by Magdalena Nom de Du as bolets, i.e., mushrooms), cf. GHAT :.
. 8 7
TYN,
YRBWZYN SW
it is wild blite
.
TYN
Hebrew YRBWZYN SW
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance
.
in mShebi ., and designates the wild, uncultivated blite (cf. above).
. 10 9
YYWNWS, Arab. YBWNWS, bibl. HBNYM, already mentioned under
the letter He
Aramaic , from Greek 4 (LS f.; LN ), means ebony
wood (LW :; SDA ; KA : f.; LF :), and features in bShab
a and is explained by R. Hananel
as , i.e. Arabic ?.
.
The Arabic term is a variant of Arabic "BNWS, abanus or abanus,
which also means ebony (L ; DT :), just like the biblical HBNYM
(for references and identification, cf. He no. ).
. 14 13 12 11

YW#ZR SDH,
Arab. PWDNG GBLY, o.l. PWLYYG MWNT",
. there are six
varieties, one of them is called MNT"
and one is called QLMNT.
. STRY
.
Hebrew YW#ZR designates the plant Adiantum capillum Veneris L.,
Maidenhair and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab .
(JD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; FM ; FZ f.;
LF :). , which is not attested in secondary literature, possibly
designates its uncultivated variety.
7 : O V
8 : O
9 : ? add. V

10 :
11 : V
12 : O
13 : V

O, om. V

14 :
V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic fudang gabal means mountain mint, possibly Nepeta cataria


:; M ).
L. and Var. (DT
For the identification of Hebrew YW#ZR as Arabic fudang, cf. Sa#adya,

(SAM :);15 Maimonides on mShab . (MK :)).


The first vernacular synonym in MSS P and O seems to be an O. Occ.
compound term, such as *pol(i)eg monta(n), which is not documented
in our sources (in all MSS of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, it is spelt without
the n-mobile). For Lat., the term pulegium montanum is documented
as PWLYGY"WM MWNT"NUM
(PJP ). Since pol(i)eg means a kind
.
of mint (cf. Yod ), the meaning of polieg montan should be wild
or mountain mint, in correspondence with the Arabic term. It has
to be noted that the Romance forms stemming from PULEGIUM are
frequently confused with forms stemming from POLIUM (see Sin b).
Thus the complex term appears to be a loan translation or adaptation
of the Late Lat. plant name polium montanum (NPRA , also see the
genitive singular poli montani in RPA ), used in contrast to polium
marinum (see Sin a; also cf. polium maris in NPRA ). According
to NPRA, the meaning of polium monatum is Teucrium Creticum L.
Another possible meaning is Teucrium polium L. (Sin loc. cit.).
A particular point of interest here is the adjective *monta(n): No

derivations from the Lat. MONTANUS (a derivate of MONS)


seem to
16
have existed before the late th century. The only exception seems to be
silmonta(n),17 but -monta(n) is not used as an independent adjective here.
In O. Occ., there is only the adjective montanhenc.18 In O. Cat., the only
known derivations from munt/mont (< Lat. MONTE[M]) are: munter
salvatge, munts de muntanya, salvatge and muntes muntanyenc (see
DECLC :ab). Thus, what we find here seems to be the first known
documentation of a Romance form derived from the Lat. MONTANUS
(by means of a morpho-phonetic adaptation to the O. Occ. paradigm).
We find the same phenomenon for the adjective *ortolan (< Lat. HORTULANUS) in Het
. , which is not documented either in O. Occ. It might
15

See as well J. Ratzaby, Nosafot le-Alfaz. al-Mishnah, Leshonenu (), pp.


, see especially pp. .
16 The Sp. adjective montano was documented for the first time in , see FEW
:b; for other documentations from the th century, see DETEMA :a and (for
the term siler montano) a.
17 Here we have one word and not a compound term. See the variant given in the
Oxford MS of entry Kaf and the spelling of the Late Lat. silmontanum as one word in
the other MSS.
18 Derived from O. Occ. montanha < Lat. *MONTANEA: Menta es herba [. . .]
salvagge e montanhenca (RL :a).

yod

well be that these forms did not really exist in O. Occ, but are rather adaptations made by our author. Note that these adjectives do not occur in an
isolated fashion, but as elements of compound terms, imitating the Lat.
terminology.
The variant in MS V seems to be a misspelling of the term in MSS
P and O or corresponds to a hypothetical O. Occ. compound expression
*polieg menta which is not attested in our sources; for the second element,
menta, see the commentary on Alef .
The second vernacular word given here is MNT"
O. Cat. or
. STRY,
.
O. Occ. mentastre (first doc. in Cat.: th c., Alcoat, according to
DECLC :, for O. Occ. see RL :, where the meaning menthe
sauvage (wild mint) is given; also cf. PSW :; CB ; RMA ;
RPA ; RMM ; RM , , ). Furthermore, the literature on
Lat. mentastrum and its Romance equivalents refers to several kinds of
mint (NPRA ; DCVB :b and :ba), one of them being
Calaminta. For the identification of O. Cat. mentastre, Latin mentastrum
and Arabic fudang cf. AdV , ; see also GHAT :. It should be
noted that it features in Medieval Hebrew translations of medical texts
for Arabic fudang; cf. Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ).
The third vernacular element is QLMNT,
. O. Occ. calament herbe
chat (cat mint), mentioned in RL :b, together with the following
quotation from Eluc. de las propr. (fol. ): Calament es herba semblant
a menta (i.e., calament is a herb which is similar to mint), and another
quotation from the O. Occ. translation of Abulcasis; for further documentation, see also FEW :b; CB , ; RPA . For Cat., the
DECLC : only mentions calamenta nepta, i.e. Nepeta cataria (first
doc. ), the DCVB also mentions the masculine plural form calaments (:b), without any indication of where this form was found.
. 19

YTLQH,
. Arab. YTSBT
Hebrew YTLQH,
. Hitpa#el imperfect from LQH,
. features in the Bible (Ex
:) as () (to flash intermittently) (KB ), and in Rabbinic
literature where it means he or it is enclosed or squeezed in (JD ).
Arabic yatasabbat means he or it clings, catches, cleaves or adheres
(L ). The term is also used in a medical context, for instance, in

19 :

shem tov, synonym list

Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXV, ), where it is stated: aI krJ2 a_o )& s()> t
Au) L2 (If the illness becomes prolonged and the
inflammations become hard or adhere to an organ). N translates the term
as: and Z as: .
.

YNSWP,
Arab. B" SQ

Hebrew YNSWP
designates a certain unclean bird, possibly the long
eared owl, Asio otus, and features in the Bible, e.g. in Lev : (KB ;
CD :: screech owl; BM ; BH :, , , ; FA ;
FAB f.; LZ ).
Arabic basaq or basiq means musket, or sparrow-hawk; falco nisus
(L ; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev ::
(the little owl, the cormorant, and the great owl):
(S ).
. 23 22 21 20
YYNMLYN, Arab. KMR M#MWL B"L"P"WYH, o.l. PYMNT.
Hebrew YYNMLYN, from Greek  (LS ; KG :; LR ),
means wine mixed with honey (JD s.v. ; LW :; KA :;
Low LIV; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab ..
Arabic hamr ma#mul bi-l-afawh means wine made with spices
(L ).
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains YYNMLYN as:
(wine and honey and pepper) (MK :).
Accordingly, the vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pi(g)men(t)
(CB ; RL :ab; PSW :a; RM ; DCVB :a) for sorte de
boisson compose de miel et dpices (i.e., a type of beverage composed of
honey and spices) (RL :a), Getrnk aus gewrztem Wein u. Honig
(i.e., a beverage of spiced wine and honey) (PSW :a): Pigment est
dit quar si fa despecias (i.e., pigment is called like this because it is made
of spices) (Eluc. de las propr., fol. , see RL ab). Also see (for the
20 :
21 :

V
V

22 :
23 : V

O V

yod

Lat. pigmentum) the O. Sp. definition: Pigmentum, i. vino confaionado


[cum speciebus] (i. vino pimente), Sin :.
. 25 24

YPYG T#M
HYYN, Arab. YKPY T#M
.
. "LSR"B
Hebrew YPYG T#M
HYYN means he or it counteracts the taste (i.e.
.
effect) of the wine (for YPYG, Hif#il imperfect from PWG, cf. JD f.;
BM f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bErub b and
bSanh b, where it is stated that A miles walk or a little sleep removes
the effects of wine ( ).
Arabic yahf t. a#m as-sarab means he or it conceals the taste of the

wine (L ).
. 29 28 27 26
YBLWT, Arab. TW"LYL, o.l. BWRWGS
Hebrew YBLT, plur. YBLWT, means wart (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; BM ; Low LIV; PB , ) and
features in the Bible (Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mErub
..
Arabic tu"lul, plur. ta" all, means a certain excrescence on the person
(L ; IR
; MH f.: wart, fleshy excrescence, Gr.
of a man
).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev :: : (S ),
IJ ; and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above: :
(YBLWT: an excrescence on the human body) (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the plural of
O. Occ. or O. Cat. be(r)ruga or ve(r)ruga (RMM ; DECLC :b;
RL :b; DCVB :ab; CB , , ) for wart (< Lat.

VERRUCA;
see FEW :b). The variant given in the Paris MS seems
to correspond to the Cat. diatopic variant borruga, which is very frequent
in the Pyrenees (DECLC and DCVB loc. cit.).

24 : V
25 :

VO

26 :  P
27 : V
28 : om. V
29 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 30
YGM#, Arab. YTMDM
. D.
Hebrew YGM# means he swallows or quaffs and features in the Bible
(e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (KB and
CD : f. s.v. ; JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ).
Arabic , from v'J7, means he rinsed his mouth with water
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
= , :
, (Someone suffering
from weak gums is not allowed to quaff with vinegar and to spit it out)
(MK :).
. 31

YSKYL,
Arab. YNG H
.
Hebrew , from the root , features in the Bible (e.g. in Sam
:) and means ) he understands, comprehends, ) he has insight,
) he makes wise, insightful and ) he achieves success (KB f.;
BM ff.). In Rabbinic literature, means ) he is wise, understands; he considers, deliberates and ) he looks towards, faces; he is
directed (JD ; LW :).
Arabic yangahu
. means he succeeds; he attains or accomplishes
(L ).
For the identification, cf. IJ f.: .wAB
.wA7 (David was more successful than all the soldiers of Saul
(cf. Sam :); because he was very successful (cf. Sam :)).
. 32
YTSWS, Arab. YPWR
Hebrew YTSWS, from the root TSS, features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. in
bAZ b) and means ) it bubbles, boils, ferments, ) it spurts and )
it causes spurting or sparkling (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :,
:; BM ; KT :).
30 : emendation
31 : VO
32 :

editor P O V

yod

Arabic yafuru means it boils, or estuates, it ferments, it flushes or


mantles (L ).
. 36 35 34 33
YTRQRQ, Arab. YKDR,
WYRD
. o.l. TWRG"
.
Hebrew YTRQRQ is a denominative verb derived from or .
Hebrew means to be light-colored, pale, green, yellow (KB ;
JD ; LW :; SD ; BM ) and means pale-colored,
greenish; yellowish-green and features in the Bible, e.g. in Lev :,
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in ySuk III, d) (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :, ; BM ; Low LV).
Arabic yahdaru
means he becomes of a green, dark, or an ashy, dust
.

colour (L ).
The Arabic term features as the noun x pallor in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (X, ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
Sa#adya on Lev : translates as Arabic (S ).
The vernacular term in MS V seems to correspond to the O. Occ. and
O. Cat. expression torna vert for he/ she/ it becomes green. For the verb
tornar in combination with color adjectives, cf. RL :a: Lingostas e
rosilh que tornavan los blatz plus vermeilhs que bresil (i.e., Rock lobster
and rust which turned the wheat redder than bresil), V. de S. Honorat;
PSW :b: Cant Jhesu Crist fo el pueg de Thabor, ab lui mosenher
Peire et (ab) mosenher Jacme, la cara de Jhesu Crist si tornec si blanca
co neu (i.e., When Jesus Christ went up the mount Thabor together with
Peter and James, Jesus Christs face became as white as snow), Scala div.
amoris, p. . For the adjective vert, cf. DCVB :a and PSW :a.
The spelling of the adjective verd with <d> in both languages seems to be
more modern (cf. DCVB loc. cit. and Levys commentary on the feminine
form verda (PSW loc. cit.)).
The spelling of TWRG"
in MS P with Gimel instead of Nun seems to
.
be erroneous.

33 : VOU" P
34 : VO
35 : V
36 : VO Y

shem tov, synonym list

.
YTPLS. , Arab. YRT#D
Hebrew YTPLS. means he or it shudders and features in the Bible,
namely in Job : (KB ; BM ).
Arabic yarta#idu means he trembles, quivers, quakes, shivers, or
enters a state of commotion (L ).
For the identification, cf. Se#adyah ibn Danan (SID :), s.v. :
(Is :) (My mind is confused, I shudder in
panic): ; see as well Judah ben Samuel (Abu Zakariyya
Yahy
. a) ibn Bal#am on the same biblical passage:
(Ce mot a t traduit par
tremblement et secousse; cest un nom qui se retrouve dans le verbe
).37 Sa#adya translates in Is : as Arabic (cf. DS ;
RT ), and in Job : as Arabic (SJ ; BS ).
. 39 38
SK,
Arab. YKDK
YSK
. D.
SK
means he knocks about, shakes, dabbles (JD ;
Hebrew YSK
LW :; KA :) or he rinses (SDA s.v. ; KA :; BM )
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bAZ b.
Arabic yahad. hidu
. means he agitates, moves, stirs, shakes (namely

water and the like) (L ).


. 42 41 40
o.l. PWLYYG
YW#ZR, Arab. PWDNG,
For Hebrew YW#ZR and Arabic fudang, cf. Yod no. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. pol(i)eg (PSW :b; RM ;
DAO :; DAO Suppl. : [= RM ]) or pul(i)eg (PSW
:b; RMA ). The meaning is a kind of mint (PSW :b),
menthe pouliot# (RM a), i.e. Mentha pulegium L. The Occ. word is
37

Cf. J. Derenbourg, Gloses dAbou Zakariya Yahia Ben Bilam sur Isae. Paris ,

p. .
38 : V
39 : O V
40 :
41 : O
42 : O

om. V

yod

documented for the first time in the th century. In Cat.although the


variant polig existsthe diminutive poliol or similar forms seem to be
more frequent (DECLC :aa). In any case, the diphthongised
Occitan variants polieg or pulieg are more probable because of the -YYspelling. Also cf. Yod nos and .
. 46 45 44 43
YW#ZR NHRYY, o.l. PWLYYG RY"L
Hebrew YW#ZR NHRYY, which is not attested in secondary literature,
possibly designates aquatic mint, Mentha aquatica L. and Var. (cf.
DT : and M : fudang nahr, and Yod no. ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. polieg rial (CB ) or pulieg
real (PSW :b), which was used to designate the same ingredient
as mentioned in entry Yod . See the Alphita, which states: pulegium
quando simpliciter ponitur regale intellegitur, Sin , n. ; also cf. Sin
see the preceding entry and entry Yod .
a. For PWLYYG,
. 47
YLPT, Arab. HZ"Z
or "BRYH
.
Hebrew YLPT means (Egyptian) lichen or scabs and features in
the Bible (e.g. in Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBekh a
(KB ; CD :; JD ; BM ; Low LIV; PB ).
Arabic haz
. az means scurf (of the head) (L ; SN : Furfures
capitis) and Arabic ibriya means warts (Richter, ber die spezielle
Dermatologie, : Schinnen;48 cf. D : s.v. c
: verrues).
For the identification of Hebrew YLPT as Arabic haz
. az, cf. Sa#adya on
Lev :: (or who is a
hunchback, or a dwarf, or who has a growth in his eye, or who has a boil

43 :
44 : O
45 : P
46 :

om. V

47 : V
48 P. Richter, ber die spezielle Dermatologie des #Al
ibn

al-#Abbas (Haly Abbas) aus


dem . Jahrhundert unserer Zeitrechnung, Archiv fr Dermatologie und Syphilis
() pp. , repr. in: Beitrge zur Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Medizin.
Aufstze. Dritter Band: Aus den Jahren , hrsg. von F. Sezgin, in Zusammenarbeit mit M. Amawi, D. Bischoff, E. Neubauer, Frankfurt am Main , pp. .

shem tov, synonym list

scar, or scurvy, or crushed testes):


(S ); IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ).
.
YTD, Arab. WTD
Hebrew YTD means peg, nail, handle of a tool and features in the
Bible (e.g. in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit a (KB f.;
JD ; LW :; KA : f.; BM ff.; KT :, , n. ; :,
, ).
Arabic watid or watida means a wooden pin, peg, or stake (L ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(he shall be a seat of honor to his fathers
household. I will fix him as a peg in a firm place):
(DS ); see as well IJ , gloss
MS Rouen (n. ), SF :, and WB , n. .
. 49
YLQH, Arab. Y#TL
Hebrew YLQH means he suffers, is at a disadvantage or esp. he is
smitten, afflicted with disease (esp. leprosy) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab b (JD ; LW : ff., ; SD , Aram.
; SDA ).
Arabic ya#tallu means he falls ill (D :) and features in medieval
medical literature, e.g. in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ,
), and is translated by N as: and by Z as: .
. 51 50
YM NPH, it is the middle of the sieve, Arab. WST. "LGRB"L
Hebrew YM NPH means the receiver of flour and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :: ein siebartiges vertieftes Geflecht (a sieve-like recessed mesh); KA :, :; BKH ;
DAS : f.; Low LIV; PB ).

49 : O
50 :
51 :

om. V

yod

Arabic wasat. al-girbal means middle of the sieve (for girbal, cf.
L ).
Maimonides on mKel . (MK :) explains as: ,
and as any vessel, cavity or construction made to collect liquid things
or white flour into it.
. 53 52
YRQWN, Arab. YRQ"N, o.l. "YQTRYSY"
.
Hebrew YRQWN means ) jaundice, ) a disease of the grain, mildew
and ) paleness of the face, and features in the Bible (e.g. in Deut :)
and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a (KB f.; JD ; LW :;
SD ; SDA ; BM ; DAS :; Low LV: Anaemia; chlorosis;
PB f., n. ).
Arabic yarqan means jaundice (D :; SN :
H3 
? jaundice, W% 
? black jaundice). The term also features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (II, ; IX, , ; XIII, ; XX, ; cf. BMMa and
BMMb ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as: /
("YQTRY
. S. Y"H) or ("YQTRYZY"H).
.
For the identification of YRQWN as yarqan, cf. Sa#adya on Deut
::
(The LORD will strike you with consumption, fever, and
inflammation, with scorching heat and drought, with blight and mildew;
they shall hound you until you perish):
(S ).
Cf. as well WB .
The vernacular term seems to be the Lat., O. Occ. or O. Cat. ictericia,
icteritia or hyctericia (RL :b; LLMA a; ThLL :). Corradini
Bozzi mentions the forms ytericia (CB ) and itericia (CB ) with
loss of the velar element; for the O. Cat. form ictercia, see DCVB :a
and DECLC :b. The meaning of the term is ictre, jaunisse (jaundice), see the following O. Occ. quotation: Hyctericia es tacament de
pel (i.e., hyctericia is staining of the skin; cf. RL loc. cit.). The word is a
derivation of Lat. ictericus jaundiced (ThLL loc. cit.; RL :b; MF ).
The term is also used in the Hebrew fragment of Macer Floridus with the
spelling "YQTRY
. S. Y"H and "YTRY
. S. Y"H (MF loc. cit.).

52 : V
53 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

YTBWLL, Arab. YTSTT


Hebrew YTBWLL means he or it is thrown about and features in the
Bible in Hos : (KB ; CD :; BM ). As , the term features
in the Bible in Gen :.
Arabic yatasattatu means it becomes dissolved, broken up, discomposed, deranged, disorganized, disordered, or unsettled; separated, disunited, dispersed, or scattered (L ).
Sa#adya translates in Gen : as Arabic :
(That is why it was called Babel, because there
the LORD confounded the speech of the whole earth):
(S ). Cf. MCS :.
. 54
YSWDWT, Arab. "L#N" S. R
Hebrew YSWDWT, featuring in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic
literature (e.g. yErub V, c), means foundations, walls, bases (KB ;
CD : f.; JD ; LW :; KA : f.). The term is especially frequent in medieval scientific literature with the meaning of elements
(BM ; KTP : f.; cf. as well Efros, Philosophical terms,55 p.
(transl. of Arabic: t*KT%&); Maimonides, Moreh Nevukhim I, ; Wolfson, Arabic and Hebrew Terms for Matter and Element, ).56
Arabic #anas. ir, plural of #uns. ur, has the same meaning (L ; Goichon, Lexique, pp. ,57 no. ; E.I.2 ; ff., s.v. #uns. ur (R. Netton)). It should be noted that #uns. ur has a medical origin as a translation
of Greek (humour), and then acquired the meaning of element,
following Galens statement: What in the world is an element (')
is in animals a humour ( ) (Wolfson, ibid., p. ). See as well Shin
.

54 : O, om. P
55 I. Efros, Philosophical

terms in the Moreh Nebukim, New York .


H.A. Wolfson, Arabic and Hebrew Terms for Matter and Element with Especial
Reference to Saadia, Jewish Quarterly Review. New Series, vol. XXXVIII, no. , Philadelphia .
57 A.M. Goichon, Lexique de la langue philosophique dIbn S
na (Avicenne), Paris .
56

KAF
. 1
KMWN MTWQ, Arab. "NYSWN, o.l. "NYS
Hebrew KMWN designates cumin, Cuminum cyminum L., and features in the Bible (e.g. in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mDem
. (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :;
BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FH ; FM ; FO f.;
FZ ff.; LA f.:; LF : ff.). KMWN MTWQ means sweet
cumin and is possibly a loan translation of Arabic al-kammun al-hulw
.
(cf. below).
Arabic ansun means anise, Pimpinella anisum L. The cultivated
variety is also called sweet cumin (al-kammun al-hulw)
(DT :;
.
M ).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. anis for Pimpinella anisum L. (DAO :; for further documentation also see: CB , ; RPA , , among others; RMA ;
RM ; RL :a; FEW :a; DECLC :ba; DCVB :a),
documented for the first time in an O. Occ. text from and for O. Cat.
in (see DAO loc. cit.; DECLC loc. cit.). Besides this form, in O. Occ.,
the variants aniz (RM ; DAO loc. cit.) or anitz (RM ; DAO loc. cit.;
FEW loc. cit.) also existed. In GHAT :, we find the same transcription
of the Romance term, "NYS, also given as a synonym for Arab. "NYSWN.
For further identification cf. AdV , where we have the O. Cat. synonym ans for Arab. ansun. The variant in MS O is probably the genitive
singular of Latin anisum (Sin :; CA ).
. 2
KLPY, Arab. N" HYH
.
Hebrew or Aramaic KLPY means directed towards, opposite, against
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mSanh a (JD ; LW :;
SDA ; KA : f., :; BM f.).
1 : O
2 : V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic nahiya
means intention, direction, region and nahiyata
.
.
means towards (D :).
. 3

KMWN HRYM, Arab. KMWN KRM"NY, o.l. SYLMWN


T"NWM
.
Hebrew KMWN HRYM, literally mountain cumin, is not attested in
secondary literature and is possibly a loan-translation of Arabic kammun
gabal, which designates a species of Carum (WKAS :; DT :).
Arabic kammun kirman designates a variety of cumin called cumin
of Kirman, Carum nigrum Royle (WKAS :; M ).
The vernacular term that appears in the Paris and Vatican MSS seems
to be the Late Lat. sil montanum (Lat. SIL is Bergkmmel, i.e. Laserpitium siler [< Gr. ], cf. FEW :a; but see NPRA : sil montanum for Seseli tortuosum L.), whereas the variant used in the Oxford
MS should be interpreted as O. Occ. silmontan (CB ; DAO :;
FEW :a) or cilmontan (CB , ), with the loss of the final nmobile. The same phenomenon is found, for example, in the entry Yod
(*polieg monta) of this edition, in contrast to safran ortolan (Het
. ), where
the n-mobile is present. Sil montanum usually appears as a synonym for
siler montanus (-um) (cf. Sin :).
. 5 4

KWRPS SBNHRWT,
Arab. BTRS"LYWN,
o.l. PYTRW
SLYNY
.
.
MSDWNYKWM

Hebrew KWRPS (read KRPS) SBNHRWT


means parsley, Petroselinum
sativum Hoffm., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. yShebi IX, c,
where it is explained as: () (JD ; LW : f.;
SD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ;
FZ ff.; LA ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic bat. rasalnun (also bat. rasaliyun or fat. rasaliyun), from Greek
 (LS ), designates parsley, Petroselinum sativum
Hoffm. or Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. (DT :). According to Maimonides, Sharh. asma" al-#uqqar (ME ), there are six types of karafs,
among them the maqdunis (parsley) which is called al-karafs as. -s. arahs

3 :
4 : O

5 :

O V

kaf

(celery of Sarakhs), and which is, according to some, identical to


bat. rasaliyun.
In Geonic literature, Hebrew KRPS is explained as Arabic karafs (cf.
SDA ). See as well no. below.
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS should be read petroselini/petroseleni Macedonicum and corresponds to Latin petroselinum
or petroselenum Macedonicum for Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. with
the first element in the genitive form (NPRA : le Persil est spontan
en Macdoine, i.e. parsley grows in Macedonia without cultivation). In
the Oxford MS, we only find a transcription of the noun without the
adjective. For the lack of agreement between nouns and adjectives in case
or gender, see also entry Kaf and the introduction.
For the identification of Arab. bat. rasaliyun as Lat. petroselinum (without adjective as in MS O), cf. AdV .
. 7 6
KWSMYN, Arab. KRSNH, o.l. "RSS
Hebrew KWSMYN (or KWSMT) means spelt, Triticum sativum or
Triticum dicoccum Schrad., and features in the Bible (e.g. in Ex :)
and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; KA :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, , , ,
f., , ; FH , f., , , ; FM ; FO ff.; FZ ff.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic kirsinna means bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia Willd. or L. (WKAS
: f.; DT :; M ; DAS :, , , f., , ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Ex ::
(but the wheat and the emmer were not hurt, for they ripen
late): (S ). With regard to
KWSMT, Ibn Janah. (IJ ) makes the following interesting remark on
how the names of plants can differ from region to region: KWSMT is
kirsinna. The people of Syria call it al-kant while the people of Iraq call it
al-gullaban. I have informed you about the different names given to this
plant, so that if you see that someone else gives it a name different from
the name I have given it, you will not be worried and doubtful.
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. or Cat. er(r)s for
vesce noire, Ervum ervilia (DAO :; for further documentation see
6 :
7 :

O V
O

shem tov, synonym list

FEW :a; RL :a; DCVB :a). In Cat., the form ers is only documented in dictionaries from the th century (see DCVB loc. cit.), but
Catalan usually has forms without a final -s and/or with an etymological
labial sound (er, erp or erb; DECLC :ba, documented for the
first time as the variant er in ). GHAT : states the Romance
form "YRYS (i.e. the plural of Occ. erre, DAO loc. cit.; FEW loc. cit.)8 as a
synonym of Arab. KRSN" which also forms part of this entry.
The forms er(r)s, er(re), erp and erb go back to the Latin etymon
eruum, on the basis of which eruus (-oris, neuter) is formed, with both
forms meaning Vicia ervilia Willd. = Ervum ervilia L. (NPRA ). The
variant with the ending -us might have entered into the Gallo-Romance
languages without a labial plosive or fricative segment /b/, /p/ or /v/, in
contrast to the other Romance languages (FEW :ab).
. 10 9

KRSYNYN,
Arab. " SQ"LYH,
o.l. WYSS

Hebrew KRSYNYN
means bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia L., and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (JD f.; LW :; KA :,
:; BM f.; AEY :; DAS :, , ; FH , , ;
FM ; FZ ff.; LF : ff.).
Isqalya is, according to Maimonides, the Spanish name for Arabic
handarus or al-#alas, spelt, Triticum spelta L. (M ; DAS :;
ID :), while, in his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned (MK

:), he identifies KRSNYN


as al-kirsinna bitter vetch (for al-kirsinna,
cf. no. above).
Ibn Janah. (IJ , ) identifies Arabic isqalya as Hebrew
spelt, and wonders why some identify it with Arabic al-kirsinna bitter
vetch (IJ ).
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. ves(s)a or vea
for Vicia sativa (DAO :; for further documentation see FEW :a;
PSW :ab; DECLC :ba; DCVB :ab).

Magdalenas interpretation of the Romance term as iris is erroneous.

9 : O V
10 : VO " P

kaf

. 12 11
KRWB, Arab. KRNB, o.l. QWLS
Hebrew KRWB means cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; SD ; AEY
:; DAS :; FH , , , ; FM ; FZ ff.; LF : ff.;
cf. as well SDA : Aramaic ).
Arabic kurunb also designates cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., and its
varieties (WKAS :; DT :, ; M ; DAS :, ).
For the identification, cf. LO Liqqut. ei Ge"onim on bBer a, p. ,
Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
: (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Oxford MS seems to be the plural of O. Occ.
caul for cabbage (DAO :; FEW :a; CB , , among
others) or its old rectus singular form, which can still occasionally be
found in MSS from the th and th centuries (CB , ). The
Vatican MS has the variant cals (for cal see DAO :). The variant
given by the Paris MS seems to be either a defective spelling of O. Occ.
cauls or the monophthongised form cols, which is not documented in
O. Occ., but which is the common form in O. Cat. (see DECLC :a
b; DCVB :bb).
. 13

K#KYN, Arab. K#K, o.l. BYSQWYY


T.
Hebrew or Aramaic K#K, plur. K#KYN, means pronged and lengthy
unleavened cake (JD ; LW : and SDA : type of bread;
KA :: Zwieback (rusk); BM : Bretzel, Kringel (pretzel);
DAS :, : kleines gestes Gebck in Ringform (a small sweet
pastry in ring form)) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes b.
Arabic ka#k means something baked (rusk, biscuit, or the like)
(WKAS : f.; MT ff.; DAS :, , , , f., ).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bPes b, p. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. bescueit biscuit (RL :b, with
the diphthong indicated by the spelling -YY-), which existed alongside
the forms bescoch, besquech, bescuit and others (FEW :b). The
11 : O
12 : O V
13 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

O. Cat. variant is without the diphthong (bescuit) and means galeta de


galera, de vaixell (i.e., ships biscuit, DECLC :b).
. 15 14
KMHYN, Arab. KM"H, o.l. BWLYTS
.
Hebrew KMHYN means truffles and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in bBer b (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY : s.v. ; DAS :; LF : ff.).
Arabic kam"a means truffles, Tuber melanosorum L. or Terfezia
leonis L. and Var. (WKAS :; DT :; M ; DAS : f.).
In medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ), Arabic \'Q is translated as: / (N and Z).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bNed b, p. .
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. bolet (FEW
:b; CB , , ; DAO :; RL :b; DECLC :b;
DCVB :ba). The meaning is champignon pores (i.e., mushroom of the genus Polyporales; DAO :).
In GHAT :, the vernacular term is identified as the Hebrew
lemma and the Arabic synonym of our entry and transcribed in the same
way as in the Vatican MS.
. 18 17 16
KRKWM, Arab. Z#PR"N, o.l. KRWSY
Hebrew KRKWM designates ) saffron, Crocus sativus All., and )
curcuma, Curcuma longa L. and features in the Bible, e.g. in Song
:, and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNid .. In the Jewish tradition,
the biblical and Mishnaic KRKWM is identified as saffron (JD ;
LW : f.; SDA : Aramaic ; AEY :; DAS :; FM ;
FO ff.; FZ f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic za#faran designates saffron, Crocus sativus L. and Var. (DT
:; M ; DAS : f.).

14 : om. V
15 :

O V

16 : O
17 : V
18 :

VO

kaf

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Song ::


(nard and saffron, fragrant reed

and cinnamon, with all aromatic woods, myrrh and aloesall the choice
perfumes): , , , ,
(SH ). For a Geonic explanation, cf. EG :
( = ) ; see as well SF :.
The vernacular term is croci, the nominative plural or the genitive singular of Late Lat. crocus for Safran mdical, Crocus sativus L. (NPRA ).
The Latin genitive is also used in O. Cat. texts (cf. DCVB :a).
For the identification of Arab. za#faran as O. Cat. crossi cf. AdV ,
. In GHAT :, we find the Latin transcript QRWSY as a synonym
for the Arab. term in our edition.
. 21 20 19

o.l. Q"PYLWS
KWSBR HBWR, Arab. KSBWRH "LBYR or BRSY"W
S"N,

WNYRYS
Hebrew KWSBR HBWR is a loan translation of Arabic kuzburat albi"r maidenhair (cf. below), and features, for instance, in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (IX, , XXI, ; cf. BMMb ) as: (trans.
(trans. Z), and
N) and as: (QPYLY WWYNYRYS)/
in Judah ben Solomon Natan, Kelal Qaz. ar mi ha-Sammim ha-Nifradim
(JNK :, :) as: () (cf. as well KZ and LF :).
Arabic KSBWRH "LBYR, i.e. kuzburat al-bi"r, means maidenhair,
Venus hair, Adiantum capillus Veneris L. Arabic barsiyawusan is derived from Persian par-i Siyawus(an) (VL :, ) and designates the
same plant (WKAS :; DT :; M ; DAS :, ). For the
identification of kuzburat al-bi"r as barsiyawusan cf. IJS :.
The vernacular term in the Paris MS is the Late Lat. capillus Veneris
for Adiantum capillus Veneris L. or Asplenium adiantum nigrum L.
(NPRA ). The variants given in the Vatican and Oxford MSS are its
genitive singular capilli Veneris, which is documented in O. Occ. recipes
(see DAO Suppl. :; RPA ; RMM ).
For the identification of Arab. kuzburat al-bi"r as Lat. capillus Veneris
cf. AdV . In GHAT, we find the Latin transcipt QPLY WNHRYS given
S"N,
which corresponds to the
as a synonym for the Arab. lemma BR SW
19 : O
20 : O [. . .] V
21 :

O X P V

shem tov, synonym list

second Arab. synonym featuring in this entry (:), while the Latin
transcription QPYLY WYNYRYS features as a synonym for the Arab.
lemma KZBR "LBYR, which corresponds to the first Arab. synonym given
here (:).
. 22
KWRPS PRDSY, Arab. KRPS, o.l. "PY
Hebrew KWRPS (read KRPS) means celery, Apium graveolens L., and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (JD ; LW : f.;
KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ;
FZ ff.; LA ff.:; LF : ff.). Hebrew K(W)RPS PRDSY is
probably coined after the Arabic name for Apium graveolens L. and Var.,
namely karafs bustan (cf. DT :; M garden celery). Cf. as well
Kaf no. above.
Arabic karafs or karafs bustan respectively means garden celery,
Apium graveolens L. and Var. (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification of Hebrew KRPS as Arabic karafs, cf. the Arukh
(KA :): , and Maimonides on mShebi
. (MK :). Cf. as well no. above.
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. api for Apium graveolens L. (DAO :); see also RL :a;
FEW :a; CB , ; RMM , , , among others; RPA ;
RMA ; RM , , , among others; DCVB :ab; DECLC
:.
The variant in the Oxford MS is the Latin genitive singular apii, which
is also documented in O. Occ. recipes: rases lo cap et onhes lo am de suc
apii (i.e., shave the head and anoint it with juice of apium, RMA ),
semenssa de fenolh et de jolvert, apii, ysopi [ . . . ] (i.e., seeds of fennel
and of parsley, of apium and of hyssop, RMA ), among others.
In GHAT :, we find the identification of Romance (O. Cat.)
"PY as Arabic KRPS. We also find the Latin genetive apii as another
synonym (the hiatus between the two final vowels is clearly indicated by
the spelling with an epenthetic Alef: "PY"Y). For further identification of
the Arabic and O. Cat. terms mentioned, cf. AdV , .

22 :

kaf

. 23
25 24

KWRPS SDH,
some commentators said that it is KWRPS SBNHRWT,

Arab. BTRS"LYWN,
o.l. SWSBYRT. or GWGBYRD
.
Hebrew & features in Tanhum
Yerushalmi (cf. ShM f.),
.
where it is explained as Arabic karafs barr (wild celery) or karafs fah. s.
(uncultivated celery):
. For Hebrew KRPS, cf. no. above, and for Hebrew

KRPS SBNHRWT
and Arabic bat. rasalnun, cf. no. above.
Ibn Janah. states the following in the K. at-Talkhs. as quoted by al-Idrs
(IJS :): c
y* z-
[  ,%
M.
The first vernacular term in the Paris MS seems to correspond to
a non-documented O. Occ. or O. Cat. form like *xuxvert, *xusvert or
the like for Petrosilenum sativum. In Cat., we find the diatopic variants xuvert and juvert (see DECLC :a). The usual Cat. word is julivert/jolivert and, in O. Occ., the plant name is jolvert with the variants
jovert, jurvert, juvert (DAO :). GHAT : shows the Romance

(O. Cat.) GWSBYR


T. (probably to be read as *jusvert) as a synonym
for Arab. PTRSLYWN
and Latin PYTRW.
This corresponds to the first
.
.
form here, which also shows the syllable final sibilant. This sound is also
present in the variants given in the Oxford and Vatican MSS, which seem
to reflect another Catalan variant, namely givert (DCVB :a); the
DCVB locates this word in Cornell del Conflent/northern Catalonia (i.e,
the territory that today belongs to France).
The second vernacular term in the Paris MS seems to indicate a
graphical and maybe also phonetic variant of *xuxvert, where the first
palatal sound appears to be voiced like in the forms with j- above.
. 27 26
KMKYN, Arab. KW"MK
Hebrew or Aramaic KMKYN means a Persian sauce of milk, curdled
milk (JD ; LW :, : sourish, savory supplementary food that

23 : om. V
24 : om. OV
25 :
26 : V
27 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

whets the appetite and stimulates digestion, Pers. kamah, Arab. kamah;

SDA : a type of dish containing milk; KA :, :; Low LVI;


PB , , ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bNid b.
Arabic kawamih, plural of kamah, means savoury piquant appetiser;

vinegar dressing; fruit etc. laid in vinegar


and is derived from Persian
kamah (VL :; WKAS :). The term features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (BMR I,
), where it is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: ,
and in On Asthma (IX, ; cf. BMA n. , ), where it is translated
as: in the Hebrew translation of the treatise prepared by Samuel
Benveniste.
. 28

KRSYN,
Arab. KR"T, o.l. PWRWS

means leek, Allium porrum L., and


Hebrew KRSYN,
plur. of KRYSH,
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (JD ; LW :,
; SDA s.v. ; AEY : s.v. ; DAS :; FM ;
LA ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic kurrat has the same meaning (WKAS : f.; DT :; M ;
no. ).
DAS :; cf. Het
.
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :); LO Teshuvot on
bGit , p. : , ; and Maimonides on the
Mishnah cited above: : (MK :).
The vernacular term featured in the Paris MS seems to be the Late Lat.
por(r)us or the plural of O. Cat. porro leek (see NPRA ; DAO : f.;
DECLC :a; the O. Cat. form is documented for the first time in ).
The variant used in the Oxford MS could be the Latin ablative plural (de)
porris, but it is more probable that it is the O. Occ. plural of po(r)ri (see
CB ; DAO :s; DAO Suppl. : ff. [first documentation around
]). It could also be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. po(r)re (CB ,
, ; DAO :s; DECLC loc. cit.). The variant used in the Vatican
MS appears to be the O. Occ. plural por(r)s (CB , among others;
DAO :s; RL :a).
For the identification of Arab. kurrat as O. Cat. porros, cf. AdV ,

28 :

O V

kaf

. 29

Arab. H

KSKW
S,
SH
. SKRY

Hebrew KSKW
S is possibly a corruption of the Arabic term huskarsa

and should be read as: .


Arabic hu
. skarsa (= huskarsa) means eschar (D :, , ;
MH ; UW ). The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XV, ; XXIII,), where it is transcribed as: /
by N and translated as: by Z.
. 33 32 31 30
GBYN,

KBWS WRDYM made with honey, Arab. GLN


o.l. M"L RWSD
Hebrew KBWS WRDYM, which is not attested in secondary literature,
means pressed or conserved roses. The term KBWS is derived from
KBS (Pi#el) which features in Rabbinic literature (BM ) in the sense
of to preserve and which features in a plural form in bPesa
(LW :: eingelegte Kruter (preserved herbs)), and in yShab I, c as
(ihre eingelegten Frchte). Rose-jam made with sugar or honey
is well-known in Spain, Provence and the Orient (LF :).
The Arabicised form gulangubn, from Persian gul meaning rose and
angubn meaning honey (VL :; :), means roses confected
with honey (cf. FAQ f. and Vzquez de Benito, Herrera, Los arabismos de los textos mdicos latinos y castellanos, pp. ;34 see as well
M ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. mel rosat: MEL ROSAT. Pren en
.x. lb. mel scumat .j. lb., suc de rosas frescas, en una ola sus lo fuoc o
metes, e cant sacomensara a bolhir, metes de rosas talhadas vermelhas
.iiij. lb., e bolhisca tro la comcitio del suc sie comsumida (i.e., MEL
ROSAT: Take of it ten pounds, one pound of foamed honey, juice of
fresh roses, put it in a pot over the fire and when it starts to boil put
four pounds of cut red roses and boil until the reduction of the juice is
complete; RPA ). The Lat. MEL for honey, originally neuter, seems
29 : O
30 : om. OV
31 : om. V
32 : VO
33 : O V
34 C. Vzquez de Benito, M.T. Herrera,

castellanos, Madrid .

Los arabismos de los textos mdicos latinos y

shem tov, synonym list

to have masculine derivations in Gallo-Romance (O. Occ. mel rosat and


M. Fr. miel rosat, see FEW :b), whereas in Ibero-Romance it has
feminine forms: O. Cat. mel rosada (DECLC :a) and O. Sp. miel
rosada (see DCECH :b, Sin :). However, a masculine form is
documented for O. Cat. in AdV . For the spelling *rosad with a final
-d (appearing in all the variants of our MSS, but see also the next entry),
see the introduction.
. 37 36 35
KBWS WRDYM made with sugar, Arab. WRD MWRB", o.l. SWKRY

RWSD
For Hebrew KBWS WRDYM, cf. no. above.
Arabic ward murabban means rose-jam (for murabban see D :;
DRD ). The term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXII, ) and is translated by N as: (SWKRY
RWST)
. and by Z as: .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. sucre rosat or sucre rozat for mit
Rosenessenz gewrzter Zucker (i.e., sugar flavored with the essence of
roses, PSW :b); also see RL :b; CB , , , among others;
RMA , . For the final -d in the Paris and Oxford MSS, see the
introduction.
. 39 38
SDH,

GY
G
KRYSY
Arab. KR"T GBLY,
o.l. PWRWS SLY"
Hebrew designates field-leek, Allium ampeloprasum, and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; FM ;
LF :), where it is stated that and are not Kilayim
(two different species that may not be sown together).
Arabic kurrat gabal means mountain leek and is, according to Maimonides, kurrat nabat., false leek, Allium ampeloprasum L. (M ).

Sa#adya (SAM :)
explains as: (unculti-

35 : om. O
36 :

37 : O V
38 : O V
39 : O

kaf

vated leek), and Maimonides (MK :) explains the term as:


(field, i.e. uncultivated leek).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS seems to be the plural of a non-documented O. Cat. compound term *porro salvatge, modelled on the Latin porrum agreste or rusticum for Allium ampeloprasum
L. (NPRA ). For porro, see the commentary on the entry Kaf , for
the adjective salvatge, see entry Alef . The variant given in the Vatican
MS might be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. porre, porri (see Kaf ) and
the singular salvatge. For this variant and further information see entry
Kaf .
.
KWPR, Arab. HN",
o.l. "LQN"
.
Hebrew KWPR, from Greek  (LS ), designates henna,
Lawsonia alba L., and features in the Bible (e.g. in Song :) and
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW : f.; SDA , Aram. ; KA : f., :; AEY :;
DAS :, :; FEB ff.; FM ; FO f.; FZ ; LF : ff.; cf.
as well Alef no. ).
Arabic hinn
. a" designates the same plant (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit , p. : ,
, IJ f., and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :). See as well IJS ::
-[ [F :,B
) . . . ] (Henna
. . . and in Hebrew [it is called]: ).
The vernacular term seems to be the Late Latin alchanna (DCECH
:b, documented for the first time in a text from the th century
written by G. of Cremona) or the O. Occ. al(a)quana (FEW :b,
RM , for the meaning arcanne, craie rouge, henn, i.e., henna, see
RM index among others) or alquana (DCECH :b). In Cat., the
following forms exist: alcanna Gnere de plantes boragincies que tenen
aplicacions tintries i medicals (i.e., genus of boraginous plants which
serve for dyeing and medical applications) (DCVB :a) and alquena
(DECLC :ab). For the identification of Arab. hinn
. a" as O. Cat.
alquena, cf. AdV , .

shem tov, synonym list

. 40
G
KWWS. , Arab. TSN
Hebrew or Aramaic KWWS. is derived from the root KWS. to curl,
shrink (JD ; LW :; SDA s.v. ; KA :), which features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g in bShab b. In medieval medical literature,
it has the specific meaning of spasm, for instance, in the Hebrew
translation of Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR IV, ,
) by Moses ibn Tibbon where it features as: .
Arabic tasannug means spasm, Spasmus clonicus vel convulsiones,
(D :; SN ) and features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III,
, , ; cf. BMMa , , ) and is translated by N and Z as:
and .
. 41
Arab. MTKMS
KMWS,
Hebrew KMWS means wrinkled and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in mSuk . (JD ; LW :, ; KA :, : f.; BM ).
Arabic mutakammas has the same meaning (L ).
. 42
KPYWN, Arab. S. R#, o.l. GWT"
.
Hebrew KPYWN, from the root KPH to bend, upturn, invert (JD ;
LW : f.; KA :, :), features in medieval medical literature
and means epilepsy (EM ); a Hebrew variant is: (cf. MD ,
KZ and below), while in Aramaic we find: (cf. SDA ).
Arabic s. ar# means epilepsy or falling sickness (L ; IR ) and
features in medieval medical literature, e.g. in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (IX, ; XVIII, ; XXI, ; cf. BMMb ), and is translated
by N as: / and by Z as: .
The vernacular term seems to be the O. Occ. gota type of illness
(RL :b; in CB among others for rheumatism). In O. Fr. (maladie de goutte, i.e. gout, FEW :ab), Lat. and O. Cat., we find the
meaning rheumatism (see DECLC :a). For the meaning indicated
40 : O V
41 : om.
42 :

kaf

by the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, see the O. Occ. expression mal de
cazer de gota for epilepsy (CB ) as well as for the morbo caduco.
morbus comitialis, epilepsia (Nebrija, see DECLC :a). For Cat.
gota del cor (malatia sobtada: morbus comitialis, epilepsia) or gota
coral (mal de caure: morbus comitialis; epilepsia: morbus caducus), see
DECLC :a; cf. also Sp., gota coral (DECLC loc. cit.).
.
KLWNSWT, Arab. RP"YD
Hebrew KLWNSWT or KLWNS"WT, from Latin columnas (KG : f.;
LR ), means beams of the loom or in general beams, poles
(JD ; LW :; KA :, : f.; KT :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. mZab ..
Arabic rafa"id, plur. of rafada, means supporting pillars or columns
(D :).
Maimonides on the mentioned Mishnah (MK :) translates
KLWNSWT as Arabic (a piece of wood), while KLWNS in mKel
. is explained by him as: (a long beam); cf. EG , :
(a long piece of wood like the shaft of a spear).
. 43
KH,
i.e. "SQNQWR, o.l. LDBYRT.
. Arab. HRDWN,
.
Hebrew KH
. designates a species of lizard and features in the Bible (e.g.
in Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in Targ. Lev XI, (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; BM ; FAB f.; LFa ; LZ f.).
Arabic hir
means a certain small reptile, a kind of
. dawn or hirdawn
.

lizard, chameleon
(L ; JAD :) or stellion (KSZ :, :,
:) and Arabic isqanqur or asqanqur means skink, Scincus officinalis
(D :; BAL ; JAD :; LFa ff.; StS f., ; cf. as well M ;
DT : and : possibly Chalcides chalcides or Chalcides ocellatus). The
term also features in Maimonides On Hemorrhoids (Cf. BMH VI, ), and
is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: and is transcribed by Z as:
.
For the identification of Hebrew KH
. as Arabic hir
. dawn, cf. Sa#adya
on Lev :: (the gecko, the land

43 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

crocodile, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the chameleon):


(S ), and IJ .
T. in the Vatican MS is the O. Occ. lazert
The vernacular form L" SYR
for lizard (RL :b), from Lat. LACERTUS (besides LACERTA, see
FEW :ab) with the variants lauzert (RL :b) and lausert
(RMM ).
The variant LDBYRT. (Paris MS) seems to be a non-documented form
*laduert or something similar; ladert exists in Modern Gascon (see
ALF, map , points , , ); alternatively, the spelling with -din Languedocian or Provenal could be a hypercorrection because of
the development of intervocalic Latin -D- to O. Occ. -z- (for example:
RADICEM > razitz). In fact, the voiced phoneme /z/ is often spelt as

Dalet in Hebrew-Occitan texts (see ShK


). The diphthong -uecould be the result of a metathesis (lauzert lazuert), cf. also the O. Cat.
form lluert (see RL :b and DECLC :a).
In the southwestern part of the Occitan speaking territory, there is
one area in which there are Modern Occ. forms with [m] (for example:
limber, lamber; see ALF, map , points , , , ). The variant
L"YNBYRT. (Oxford MS) strongly resembles the form laimber (ALF, point
), so that we may hypothesise an O. Occ. form *lainbert.
In GHAT :, we find the identification of Arab. HRDWN
as the
.
T. HGDWL for the big
Romance (O. Cat.), Hebrew mixed term LWS"YR
T. .
LWS"YR
. 47 46 45 44

KYS MQWH HMYM, Arab. MT"NH, o.l. WYSYG"


Hebrew KYS MQWH HMYM, not attested in secondary literature, designates the urinary bladder. The term is a variant for: /()
() / a.o. (cf. BM and MD ).
Arabic matana has the same meaning (D :; DKT , , ;
The term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
FAL :).
Aphorisms (e.g. in I, , , , ; cf. BMMa , , ) and is translated
by N as: and by Z as: /.

44 :
45 : om. O
46 :
47 :

O
V

kaf

The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS is the O. Occ.
ve(s)sig(u)a, vis(s)ig(u)a, viziga or the O. Cat. and O. Occ. vexiga for the
urinary bladder (CB , , , , , among others; RL :b;
FEW :a; DCVB :ab; DECLC :ab). The variant given in
the Vatican MS is its plural.
. 49 48
KHWT, Arab. KMWDH
Hebrew KHWT is derived from KHH, which features in the Bible (e.g.
Is :) and means ) to become inexpressive (eyes) or to be dim
(KB ; CD :; KA :). In Rabbinic literature (e.g. in bMeg a),
KHWT has the meaning of dimness and KHH as an adjective means
dim or faint, dull (JD ; LW :).
Arabic kumuda means pallor, paleness, dullness (WKAS :) and
features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ) as
,33
 W'Q lead-grey and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
. 51 50
KRWK, Arab. MTWY
.
Hebrew KRWK, part. pass. of KRK, means twined around, wrapped
up (JD ; LW : f.; KA : ff., :; BM ; KT :) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBer ., where it is explained by
Maimonides as Arabic (multaff ) (MK :).
Arabic mat. w means folded, folded up, folded together, rolled up
(L ).
. 52
KDWRYM, Arab. BN"DQ, o.l. BWDWQS
Hebrew KDWR, plur. KDWRYM, originally means ball, globe (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW : f.; SD ; KA :, :; KT : n. ),

48 : O
49 :

50 : k P
51 : V
52 :

shem tov, synonym list

and has, in medical literature, the secondary meaning of pill (LA :;


LF :).
Similarly, Arabic bunduq, plur. banadiq, means ball of any kind of the
size of a hazel-nut, but also a pill or suppository of the size of a hazelnut (L ; FAQ f.; cf. as well DT :; M ). Banadiq features in
Maimonides On Poisons (BMP XXXIX,), and is transcribed as:
by Moses ibn Tibbon.
The vernacular form seems to be a non-documented Romance loan
word from the Arabic term featured in this entry (masculine plural
*bu(n)ducs/*bo(n)ducs or feminin plural *bu(n)ducas/*bo(n)ducas).
From the same etymon, we have the O. Sp. loan word albndiga (< Arab.
bnduqa for ball, documented for the first time ) and from
there the late loan forms mondongilla in Cat. and mondeghli or mongadli in Lombardia (see DCECH :b).
.
KD, Arab. "PTS
.
Hebrew KD means arched or rounded and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bAZ a (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic aft. as means flat-nosed, having a wide and depressed nose;
(FL :: Simus, Depressum et latum habens nasum; = L f.); cf.
Dozy: zM-> hM (lancette pointe courte).
. 53

KSYL,
Arab. P"S

Hebrew KSYL
means a carpenters tool for chipping, axe (KB ;
CD :; JD f.; LW :; KA :; BM f.; KT :,,
f. n. ) and features in the Bible, e.g. in Ps ::
(with hatchet and pike they hacked away at its
carved work). In Rabbinic literature, the term features, for instance, in
mBQ ..
Arabic fas means a kind of hoe, adz, axe and the small protuberance
above the back of the neck (L ; cf. as well Mem no. below). In
medieval medical literature on surgery, the term fas designates a phlebotome (SpLA , f.). The Arabic term features in Maimonides

53 : !k

kaf

Medical Aphorisms (III, ; XII, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by


N as: and by Z as: .
Sa#adya translates the biblical verse mentioned as:
(ST ); (plur. of al-fas) is thus
a translation for Hebrew , and for Hebrew (see as
well IJ ). Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains as:
(MK :). See as well MCS :.
. 55 54
KLHWT,
Arab. HRM
.
Hebrew KLHWT,
a variant for KLH
.
. not attested in secondary literature,
means ripe age, old age and features in the Bible (Job :) (KB ;
CD :; BM ).
Arabic haram means old age, infirmity, senility (D :; IR :
decrepitude) and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, ; VII, ; XVII, , ; cf. BMMa and BMMb ) and
is translated by N as: / / and by Z as: /
.
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Job ::
(you will come to the grave in ripe old age, as shocks of grain
are taken away in their season):
(SJ ; BS ), IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ); SF :.
. 57 56
KHW
that is thick spittle
.
Hebrew KHW
. means phlegm, pus (JD ; KA :, :; BM )
and features in the Bible (Job :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in
bErub a; bBQ b). The text is quoted in a slightly different way in the
Arukh as part of a quotation from R. Hananels
commentary on bBQ b
.
, as: (cf.
KA :; EG ).

54 : om. V
55 : add.
56 :  P
57 : V

shem tov, synonym list

. 58
KLYL HMLK, Arab. "KLYL "LMLK, o.l. QWRWN" RY"L or MLYLWT.
Hebrew KLYL HMLK designates the plant melilot, Melilotus officinalis
L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab b (JD ;
LW :; SDA , Aram., /; KA :, :; AEY
:; LF : f.).
Arabic ikll al-malik designates the same plant (WKAS :; DT :;
M ; A. Dietrich in E.I.2 Suppl. ). The term is derived from Aramaic
kll malka (SDA ; LW :; LA :).
The first vernacular term seems to be a non-documented O. Occ. plant
name *corona rial or real not documented in our sources (note that the
same adjective appears in entry Yod , polieg rial). For the Occ. adjective
reial [], rial [] and real [], see FEW :b. An
O. Occ. term such as *corona rial is very probable. In fact, in an O. Cat.
aljamiado-text using Hebrew spelling, we find the form QWRWNH RY"L
as a synonym for Lat. MYLYLW[T]WM
(i.e., melilotum) and Arab. "KLYL
.
"LMLYK (GHAT :). The term seems to be a loan translation from
Arab. (perhaps via the Late Lat. corona regia (Sin , n. ), corona regis
(Sin :) and corona rregie: Corona rregie, i. melilotum (Sin :)).
We find various solutions for translating these terms in the different
Romance languages: In Modern Fr., the form couronne royale is documented for kind of melilot (FEW :b). Also cf. the Cat. plant
names corona de rei (DCVB :b), which can designate Melilotus
officinalis, and corona de reina (DECLC :b). In O. Sp., we find the
form corona de rrey, also identified as the Latin melilothum: Emesilie
(i. melilet[um]) i. corona de rrey (Sin :) and Mililotu[m],
i. paratela agrestis, i. corona rregis (i. corona de rrey) (Sin :
). The second vernacular term seems to be the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
mel(l)ilot (FEW :b [documented in ]; DAO :; RL :b;

DCVB :a), derived from the Lat. etymon MELILOTHUS


for melilot (FEW loc. cit.).
For the identification of Arab. ikll al-malik as O. Cat. mellilot, cf.
AdV , .

58 :

om. V

kaf

. 59
K"NWN", Arab. K"NWN, o.l. PWGYRWN
Aramaic K"NWN" (= KNWN") means a (fire) stand, a portable brazier and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ;
LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; BKH ; KT :, n. ,
n. ).
Arabic kanun means brazier, stove and is derived from Aram.
(WKAS :; FF ).
For the identification, cf. KA :, and EG .
The vernacular term represents the O. Occ. fogairon or fugairon for
Herd, Kamin or kleines Feuer (i.e., stove, fireplace or small fire; PSW
:ba). Mistral has the Modern Occ. forms fougueiroun and
fugueiroun for little stove (see TrFel :b). The spelling PYG"YYRWN
(with Yod in first syllable) in the Vatican MS could indicate the pronunciation [y], as in fugairoun ([fygaj'run]), or is a misspelling (for Hebrew
Waw). For the problem relating to the pronunciation of the O. Occ.
grapheme <u>, see the introduction. In O. Cat., we only find the form
foguar with the meaning foguera, foc que fa molta flama (i.e., open
fire, fire with a lot of flames; DCVB :ba) and the Occitanism
fogayr (DECLC :a).
. 61 60
KHL,
o.l. "WBYR
. Arab. DR#,
.
Hebrew KHL
. means udder, bag and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mHul
.
(JD ; LW : f.; KA :, :; BM ; KT :,
.
n. b).
Arabic dar#
. means udder (L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
(MK :).
The vernacular term that appears in the Paris MS represents the Lat.

UBER
for udder. The variant given in the Vatican MS could represent the
same word, but the spelling with -YY- normally indicates a diphthong
(see the introduction). As far as Romance is concerned, FEW :a

59 : O Y
60 : VO
61 :

P V

O e P V

shem tov, synonym list

mentions that the Latin word has survived only in a very limited area.
It is documented, for example, in Franco-Provenal as vr or ivre (see
ALF, map ). The variant in the Oxford MS might represent a nondocumented O. Occ word similar to the variants mentioned or could just
be an error.

LAMED
. 2 1

LPSN, Arab. PR"SYWN, o.l. PR" SYWM


Hebrew LPSN, from Greek  charlock, Brassica arvensis (LS
; KG : f.; LR ), designates the plant Sinapis arvensis L.,
field mustard, charlock (JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY ::
Sinapis incana L.; DAS :; FM ; KT :, n. ; LF : f.),
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil ., where the term is
explained by Maimonides as
(a plant that tastes like turnip and
that grows above the earth about a cubit and is known to the physicians
as ) (MK :); see as well Allony (SAM :).
Arabic farasiyun, from Greek  (LS ), designates the plant
Marrubium vulgare L., horehound (DT :; M ). The term features
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is transcribed by N and
Z as: .
The vernacular term is the Late Lat. prasium with the meaning Marrubium vulgare L. (NPRA ; Sin b). The second vernacular term in
the Oxford MS seems to be the O. Occ. marrubi (see entry Lamed ). Cf.
GHAT : for its identification as Arab. farasiyun (spelt as PRSYWN).
. 6 5 4 3
LPSN LBN, Arab. MRM" HWR,
o.l. MRBYW, that is HMRW HLBN
.
Hebrew LPSN LBN is not attested in secondary literature and literally
means white charlock. For LPSN see previous entry.
Arabic marmahur designates the plant Teucrium marum L., cat
thyme (DT :; M and ID :: Origanum maru L.).

1 : O V
2 :
3 :
4 :

O (cf. entry )
V
O "\ P V

5 : om. V
6 : P,

om. V

shem tov, synonym list

Hebrew HMRW HLBN is perhaps a Hebrew loan translation of the


Aramaic , white marjoram, Origanum maru L. (JD ; SDA
; AEY :, :; LA :), which features as an explanation
for in bShab b.
The vernacular term in the Oxford MS seems to be the O. Occ.
mar(r)ubi (CB , ) or marobi (CB ). In an O. Cat. aljamiado-text

that used Hebrew spelling, we find the entry MRWBY, that is PRSYWM
,

with the Arabic synonym MRW (GHAT :; for PRSYWM, see above
entry Lamed ). The variant used in the Vatican MS may be read as
*marrubium laban, a term composed of Lat. or O. Occ. marrubium (for
the O. Occ. form see DAO : and RL :b) and Hebr. laban for
white. This term seems to be a translation of Lat. marrubium album
for Marrubium vulgare L. (in contrast to marrubium nigrum for Ballota
nigra L., see Sin a). For a similar combination, see also the O. Cat.
form MRWBY LBN as a synonym of Arab. MWMKWR (GHAT :).
The variant used in the Paris MS should be interpreted as the Lat. or
O. Occ. marrubiu(m) with the loss of the final -m (for an explanation
of this phenomenon, see the introduction).
. 8 7

LSWN
HS. PWR, Arab. LS"N "L#S. PWR, o.l. LNG" "WYS

Hebrew LSWN
HS. PWR, sparrows tongue, which is not attested in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation
of Arabic lisan al-#as. afr and designates the fruit of the ash-tree, Fraxinus
excelsior L. Subsequently, we find the term as: in Judah ben
Solomon Natans Kelal Qaz. ar mi ha-Sammim ha-Nifradim (JNK :).
In addition to or , we find in medieval
Hebrew medical literature to indicate the fruit of the ash tree, for instance,
in the Sefer Ahavat nashim, .9
Arabic lisan al-#us. fur (sing.) or lisan al-#as. afr designates the fruit of
the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior L. (M ; LA :) and features, for

7 : O
8 : O   P V
9 Ed. C. Caballero-Navas. The Book of Womens Love and Jewish Medieval Literature on

Women. Sefer Ahavat Nashim, London . See as well L. Ferre and E. Garca Snchez,
Alimentos y Medicamentos en las tres versiones medievales de El Regimen de Salud de
Maimonides, Ciencias de la Naturaleza en al-Andalus II. Textos y Estudios, Madrid ,
pp. .

lamed

instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ). It is translated by


N and Z as: (see as well LF :).
The vernacular term is a literal translation of the Arab. term. It seems
to be a Romance-Latin blend linga/lenga avis (for the O. Occ. noun
lenga/linga, see entry Lamed ). The Lat. loan translation lingua avis
describes the plant Fraxinus excelsior L. (see Sin a). The term lingua
avis is documented in AdV , and identified as Arab. lisa n al-#as. afr
(ibid. ).
. 11 10
LWLBY GPNYM, Arab. " TR"P
"LKRM, o.l. BRWTS
.
.
Hebrew LWLBY GPNYM means sprouts of grape-vine and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBer a and bBQ a (JD f.; LW : f.;
KA :; :; LF : ff.). In bBer a, it is stated that its consumption
causes abdominal troubles ().
Arabic at. raf al-karm means sprouts (literally: outermost parts) of
vine (L ; D :) and features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms
(IX, ; cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as: and by Z
as: . In this aphorism, Maimonides recommends vine sprouts
as part of a treatment against shingles, while quoting from Galens Ad
Glauconem de medendi methodo.
The vernacular term in the Paris MS seems to be the O. Occ. brotz
(CB , ; RMA ; RPA ), the plural of brot (DAO :;
RL :b; FEW :a; CB , ), for junges Gezweige (i.e., young
branches) (PSW :b, Levy mentions the form brost with metathesis),
with the special meaning jeune pousse de vigne (i.e., young vine sprout)
(DAO :). The variants used in the Oxford and Vatican MSS seem to
be corrupt.
. 13 12
LBYBH, Arab. " TRYH,
o.l. MNWDYTS
.
.
Hebrew LBYBH means heart-shaped pastry (KB ; CD :; BM
; DAS : f.) and features in the Bible, namely in Sam :, , ,
as well as in medieval and modern literature.
10 : O
11 : O
12 : V
13 :

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic it. riya means a certain food, like threads, made of flour, noodles (L ; DAS : f.; RAP , n. : Itriya was a small soup
noodle of Greek origin which resembled the Italian orzo) and features,
for instance, in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (BMR I, ),
where it is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: (cf. MNWDTS).
.
In the Hebrew translations of Maimonides On Asthma by Joshua Shatibi, Samuel Benveniste, and an anonymous translator (III,; cf. BMA )
we find: , and respectively.
The vernacular term seems to be the plural of the O. Occ. word
menudet for tout menu, tout petit (i.e., fairly fine, fairly small) (RL
:b), which could have the special meaning eine Art Teig (i.e., a
kind of dough) according to the emendation of menuest by Levy in
the entry menudet 4 (PSW :a). Von Wartburg gives the unemended
O. Occ. form menuest (from ) with the meaning sort de pte (i.e.,
kind of pastry) and mentions the Modern Fr. word menudet (from )
for massepain (i.e., marzipan) (both FEW :b).
. 14
L#WNYN, Arab. QTP,
. o.l. "RMWLS
Hebrew L#WNYN or L#YNYM, sing. L#YN, designates ) garden sorrel,
Rumex acetosa (AEY :; DAS :; FM ; FZ : Artemisia;
LF : ff.) and ) garden orache, Artiplex hortensis L. (JD ; LW
:; KA :, :; LA :), and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in mKil ..
Arabic qat. af means garden orache, Artiplex hortensis L. (DT :;
M ; DAS :, , , :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on
the Mishnah cited above: : (MK :).
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. armol(h) (CB , ;
RMM , , th century) for arroche (i.e., orache) (DAO :).
DAO considers the appearance of armolhs in RMM as its first documentation (see DAO Suppl. :). In GHAT :, we find the Romance
which is identified as Arab. qat. af.
term "RMWLLS,

14 :

lamed

. 16 15
L#WNYN YMYYM, Arab. MLWHYH, o.l. MLB" D"WTR"MR
.

Hebrew L#WNYN YMYYM is not attested in secondary sources and


could not be identified. Note, however, that in Aram., means mallow (cf. LA :).
Arabic muluhiya, from Greek (LS ), means ) mallow,
Malva silvestrisL. and Var. and ) corchorus or Jewish mallow, Corchorus olitorus L. or Corchorus trilocularis L. (DT :; M ). The term
features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI,
) and is transcribed by both N and Z as: .
The vernacular expression seems to be an O. Occ. *malva do(u)tramar
(literally: mallow from overseas). For malva, see entry He of this
edition. The first element of the second word is outra or otra, which
has the variant oltra (cf. Lamed ), the second element is mar for sea,
for the compound expression outra mar oversea, see RL :b: Van
outra mar (i.e., they go oversea). The whole phrase *malva do(u)tramar
cannot be found in the sources we consulted.
For O. Cat., the form oltramar/ultramar has been documented, which
designates Near East, Orient (see DECLC :a) according to the
context (already in the most ancient Catalan documents): Dus no
volia que ells possehisen la Santa Terra dultramar (i.e., God did not
want them to possess the Holy Land of the Near East) (Ramon Llull,
La Blanquerna). See also the meaning Orient in the O. Fr. outre-mer
(FEW :b). Von Wartburg lists the Fr. plant name rose doutre-mer
(ca. ) with the vague definition esp. de rose (i.e., kind of rose)
(FEW :b). Summarising, we can conclude that *malva do(u)tramar
is a variety of mallow that grows in the Orient and was imported from
there to Western Europe.
. 19 18 17
ST,
that is, the excrements of chicken, Arab. ZBL "LDG"
G
LSL
ST
means secretion, chickens dirt, spittle (JD ; LW
Hebrew LSL
:; KA :, :; BM ; KT : n. ) and features in
15 : O V
16 :
17 : V
18 :
19 :

O
O V

O, om. P

shem tov, synonym list

Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab ., and bShab b, where it is stated:


(If [on Shabbat] dirt is upon it [i.e. a
cushion] one wipes it off with a rag). The Arukh explains the term
featuring in this text as: (chickens droppings) (KA :; cf.
Arabic entry), which is possibly the source for Shem Tovs explanation:
.
Arabic zibl ad-dagag also means chickens droppings (L , ).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned, Maimonides explains
ST
as: (dirt and filth) (MK :). It is possible that the
LSL
Arabic term zibl ad-dagag is part of an unknown Geonic commentary on
bShab b and hence was adopted in the Arukh in the Hebrew version
of it.
. 20
L#WNYN YMYYM, Arab. MLWKYH, o.l. MLBH DWLTRM"R
.
For Hebrew L#WNYN YMYYM and Arabic muluhiya, cf. no. above.
The vernacular expression seems to be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. *malva
doltramar, a variant of the term explained in entry Lamed .
.
LST, Arab. KD
Hebrew LST means cheek, jaw and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in bNid b (JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ; Low LVIII).
Arabic hadd means cheek (L ; DKT , , ; FAL :).

. 21
LQH, Arab. "#TL
For Hebrew LQH and Arabic i#talla, cf. Yod no. .
. 22

LSWN
TLH,
Arab. LS"N "LHML,
o.l. PLNT"
.
.
. GY

Hebrew LSWN
TLH,
literally lambs tongue, designates the plant plan.
tain, waybread, Plantago major L. (AEY :), and is possibly a loan
20 :
21 : O
22 :

O V

om. OV

lamed

translation of the Arabic lisan al-hamal


(see below). In addition to
.
we find (cf. BM ; JNK :) and (cf.
below).
Arabic lisan al-hamal,
a loan translation of Greek  (LS
.
), also designates plantain Plantago major L. (WKAS : f.; DT
:; M ). The term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. plant name plantage
(CB , among others; RMM , ; RM , , among others [see index ]; DAO :; RL :a; PSW :a; AdV ,
, , )/plantagi (RMA , , among others [see index ];
DAO :)/plantagge (RMM , , , )/plantatge (AdV ,
, ) for Spitzwegerich (i.e., ribwort) (PSW :a).
For the identification of Arab. lisan al-hamal
as O. Cat planta(t)ge cf.
.
for O. Cat. and
AdV , ; GHAT :, with the spelling PLNT. GY
LYS"N "LHM"L
for the Arab. term.
.
,

.
LT"H,
Arab. WZG"
.
Hebrew LT"H
means a species of lizard, gecko, Platodactylus muralis
.
(KB ; CD :; JD s.v. ; LW :; KA :; BM ;
BAL f.; BH see index; FAB f.; LFa ff.; LZ f.) and features in
the Bible (Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in mOhol .), where
it is translated by Sa#adya, Ibn Janah. and Maimonides as Arabic
(cf. IJ ; MK :; RJ ; S ).
Arabic WZG", read WZGH, i.e.wazaga, means a lizard of the species
called gecko, of a leprous hue (L ; BK ; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Se#adyah ibn Danan (SID :):
, :.
.
L#NH, Arab. "LQM
Hebrew L#NH means wormwood, Artemisia absinthium L., and features in the Bible, e.g. in Deut :, and Rabbinic literature (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA : s.v. ; BM ; AEY :;
DAS :; FO f.; LF : ff.).

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic #alqam designates either wild, or squirting cucumber, Ecballium elaterium, or colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis (L ; DT :,
; M ; DAS : f.).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Deut :: [ . . . ]
(perchance there is among you a stock sprouting poison
weed and wormwood): [ . . . ] (S ),
IJ and SF :.
. 23

LSWN
HSWR,
Arab. LS"N "LTWR, o.l. LNG" BWBYN"

Hebrew LSWN
HSWR,
possibly a loan translation of Arabic lisan at-tawr

(cf. below), designates the plant bugloss, Anchusa officinalis (BM ;


AEY :; LA f.:; LF : f.).
Arabic lisan at-tawr, literally ox-tongue, designates numerous types
particulary borrage, Borago officinalis L. or Italian
of Borraginaceae,
alkanet, Anchusa italica Retz. The term is a loan translation of Greek
 (LS ; WKAS : f.; DT :; M ; DAS :, ,
). The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI,
) where it is translated by N and Z as: .
The vernacular term corresponds to the O. Occ. linga bovina (DAO
:; CB ; RMA ) or lenga bovina (PSW :a; CB ) for
bugloss (DAO :), i.e. Anchusa officialis L. For the identification,
see the entry for O. Sp. lengua de buey in Sin b and the following
passage of RMA : A las aurelhas sordas es una herba que sembla
linga bovina que es buglossa et a flor blanca et semenssa blanca et
retunda et las rasis son petitas et las fulhas paucas (i.e., for deaf ears,
there is an herb which resembles linga bovina which is bugloss and
has white blossom and white and round seed and the roots are small
and it has few leaves). In AdV , we find (for O. Cat.) lingua bovina,
which is identified as Arab. lisan at-taur (AdV , ). See also

the Hebrew transcription of the same Romance


term in GHAT :
LYNGH BWBYNH (as a synonym for the Arab. lisan at-tawr transcribed

as LYS"N "LT"R).

23 :

VO

lamed

. 24

LWGMYW, Arab. SDQYH


LWGMYW, literally meaning his cheeks, features in Rabbinic literature
(e.g. in mYom .) as and means a mouthful, quantity of
liquid filling one cheek (JD ; LW : f.; KA :, :; BM ;
Low LVIII; PB ). The term is a loan word from Aramaic LWGM"
meaning cheek (cf. SDA ).
Arabic sidqayhi means the two sides of his mouth; or his cheeks;
cf. sidq or sadq the quivering flesh of the mouth, inside the two cheeks
or side of the mouth (L ; D :: joue (cheek)). Quoting from
the Vocabulista by Pedro de Alcal, Dozy (ibid.) also gives the meaning
mouthful for sadq.
is explained by Maimonides on mYom . (ed. Kafh
Hebrew
.
.) as: (that is,
that he drinks [such] a quantity that if he puts it in one side of his mouth,
that side protrudes and becomes visible) (MK :).
For the identification, cf. AQ, fol. b: . Cf. as well ShM
f.
. 25

LSWP,
Arab. YHK
.

Hebrew LSWP,
inf. of SWP,
means to smooth, rub, polish, sharpen; to
smear over, plaster and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPes .
(JD ; LW :; SD ; SDA ; KA :, :; KT see index).
Arabic yahukku
means he scratches, scrapes, rubs, grates, chafes,
.
frets (L ).

For the identification of the Hebrew root SWP


or respectively SPH,
as

the Arabic root hkk,


cf.
Maimonides
on
the
Mishnah
cited
above:
:
.
(MK :).
. 26
LWZYM, Arab. BNDQ, o.l. "WYL"NS
Hebrew or Syriac LWZ designates either almond tree, Amygdalus communis L., almond, or hazelnut, Corylus avellana L., and features in
24 : O
25 : j P V
26 :

V, om. O

shem tov, synonym list

the Bible, e.g. Gen :, where it is translated by Sa#adya (S ) and


Ibn Janah. (IJ ) as Arabic ((]), and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
bBekh a (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :;
BM ; FE ff.; FO ff.; LF : ff.; : ff.).
Arabic bunduq means hazelnut, Corylus avellana L. and is derived
from Greek (LS ; DT :; M ; DAS :). The term
features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, , ;
XXIII, ) and is translated by N as / / (HBNDQ,
and by Z as: .
i.e. "WWLNS)
For the identification, cf. David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :).
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. avelana (FEW :a;
DAO :; RL :b; CB ; RMA ), avilana (RL :b), avellana
(DAO :; RL :b; CB ) or avelhana (DAO :; CB ) for
hazelnut (DAO :). As the variants show, there were two main forms
in O. Occ., one with and one without the palatalisation of Lat. -LL-.
The Hebrew transcriptions in our MSS do not allow us to deduce if the
liquid sound is palatalised or not. This original name for hazelnut (<
Lat. ABELLANA) only survived in the south of the Romance world (see
FEW :a; for O. Cat. avellana, see DECLC :a; for O. Sp. auellana,
seefor exampleSin :; Cat. and Sp. both show palatalisation of
the Lat. -LL-; for O. Cat., a non-palatalised plural form avelanes is
documented in AdV , ). For the identification of O. Cat. avelanes
as Arab. bunduq, cf. AdV , . See also the Hebrew transcription
"BYL"NS in GHAT :, a Romance synonym given for Arab. BNDQ.
. 28 27
LB HLHM,
Arab. LB"B "LKBZ, o.l. MWL"DH DYP"N
.
Hebrew LB HLHM,
literally heart of the bread, i.e. the inside, the core
.
of the bread, is possibly a loan translation of Arabic lubb [al-hubz] (cf.

WKAS : f.) or lubab [al-hubz] (cf. WKAS : f., and below),


and

features as in Moses ibn Tibbons Hebrew translation of the


Arabic term lubab in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (BMR II,
).
Arabic lubab al-hubz means the inside, the core of the bread (see

above).

27 : V
28 :

VO

lamed

The vernacular term corresponds to O. Cat. mol(l)eda (crumb, DCVB


:b) with the addition de pa (of bread). The spelling with -n (pan)
shows that it is probably an analogous O. Occ. term which has not been
documented so far. In this case, the first element might have to be read
with the accent on the last syllable (*mol(h)ed), because, most probably,
the word MWL"DH/MWLYD" is related to the Modern Occ. mouleds,
documented in FEW :a with the meaning gros morceau de mie
de pain (i.e., a big piece of breadcrump). For the O. Occ. pan with the
meaning bread see the examples given by Raynouard (RL :b) and
Levy (PSW :bb).
. 31 30 29
LPLWP H#YN, that is, filth of the eye, Arab. QD" "L#YN, o.l. QS. YD", that
is, ophthalmia
Hebrew LPLWP H#YN means pus or purulent matter in the eye and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMiqw . (JD ; LW :;
KA :; BM ; Low LVIII, PB ). For Hebrew HLY
H"PR, cf. entry
.
Het
.
.
Arabic qada al-#ayn means any matter in the eye (L ; FL :).

For the identification,


cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
: (the dirt which
is inside the eye when it is ill) (MK :). The Geonic commentary on
Tohorot (EG ) translates the term as: (dirt).
For the vernacular term see entry Het
. .
. 32
LHYKH,
Arab. L#WQ
.
Hebrew LHYKH,
the verbal noun of , means licking (JD ;
.
LW : f.), and, via semantic borrowing from the Arabic term la#uq,
assumes the meaning of a medicine to be licked with the tongue, linctus
in medieval medical literature. It features in Moses ibn Tibbons Hebrew
translation of Ibn Rushds commentary on Ibn Snas Urgu za f t. -t. ibb

29 : V
30 : O
31 :
32 : V

om. V

shem tov, synonym list

(BM ; Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen, p. ; see


introduction to our edition).33
Arabic la#uq means the same (WKAS : ff.; FAQ f.) and features
in medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides On Asthma
(XII, , ; cf. BMA , ) and is translated by Samuel Benveniste as:
.
. 35 34
"BN, on which the Arabs bake bread in the deserts, Arab. RDP
LWH SL
.

Hebrew means plate made of stone; for LWH, cf. JD ;

LW : f.; KT :, : f., , .
Arabic radf
. means heated stones with which milk is made hot, fleshmeat is roasted and bread is baked (L ; DAS :, , f., , ,
).
. 36
LPT, Arab. LPT, o.l. NPS
Hebrew LPT means turnip, Brassica rapa L., and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :;
AEY :; DAS :; FH , ; FM ; FZ ff.; LF : ff.).
Arabic lift has the same meaning (WKAS :; DT :; M ;
DAS :, , ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. nap (DAO
:s; PSW :a; FEW :b; DECLC :b) for Brassica napus
(DAO :), Kohlrbe (PSW :a) or Steckrbe (FEW :b) (i.e.,
swede), documented for the first time in the th century (DAO Suppl.
:). In O. Cat., nap is documented for the first time in the th century
(DECLC loc. cit.). The additional term in MS O seems to correspond to
the plural of O. Occ. and O. Cat. rave for Raphanus sativus (DAO :;
DCVB :a).37
33 M. Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als
Dolmetscher, Berlin , repr. Graz , p. .
34 : om. O
35 : VO
36 : O "t P add. O
37 If we read a Nun instead of the Yod in the last syllable of this additional term the
form might represent the O. Cat. plural form ruens or rvens (DCVB loc. cit.).

lamed

. 39 38
LHH
. TPLH, Arab. H"M

Hebrew LHH
. means moisture, secretion and features in Rabbinic literature (JD ; LW :; KA :, :). In medieval medical literature, the term assumes the meaning of humour, i.e., one of the
four bodily humours or moistures, or especially white humour; i.e.,
phlegm (BM f.; KTP :). The term LHH
. TPLH, literally meaning tasteless, unsalted humour, is not attested in secondary literature and was possibly coined by Shem Tov to render the Arabic [hil
. t. ]
ham.
Arabic ham means crude (L ) and features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; cf.
BMMb ) as 7{ U}> (crude humours) and is translated by N and
Z as: .
.

41 40

LHY
. S. T HMN#L, Arab. DG
. T. "LKP, that is, the pressing of the footwear
against the foot until it swells and forms a blister

Hebrew LHY
. S. T HMN#L means pressing of the footwear (JD , ;
BM , ).
Arabic da
. gt. al-kaff means pressing of the foot (L ; WKAS
: ff.). Arabic da
. gt. features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III,
; IV, ; cf. BMMa , ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
/.
. 44 43 42
o.l. PLYQMH WYSQW

LHH
Arab. BLGM LZG,
SH
. HLWQH,
.
For Hebrew LHH
(read HLQH),
. see entry . The term LHH
. HLWQH
.
.
literally meaning smooth humour or phlegm, is possibly the result of
38 :
39 :
40
41
42
43
44

V
O V
: O
: VO
: VO
: O V
: O V

shem tov, synonym list

reading the Arabic or (viscous phlegm) as


(smooth phlegm).
Arabic balgam lazig means viscous phlegm (L ; KZ ) and
features in medieval medical literature, e.g., in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (VIII, ; XIV, ; cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as:
or and by Z as: or
(LYHH
. LBNH WWYSQWZH).
The vernacular term corresponds to O. Occ. or O. Cat. *flecma viscosa for viscous phlegm, documented in an O. Cat. variant fleuma
viscosa (DCVB :a). For the O. Occ. and O. Cat. flecma/flegma,
see RL :b and DCVB :b; for the adjective viscs, -osa see
DCVB :a and RL :.
. 46 45

LSWN
HYM, Arab. SBY",
o.l. SYPY"

Hebrew LSWN
HYM, literally meaning sea tongue, is not attested in
secondary literature and was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan
translation of Arabic lisan al-bahr
. ossa sepia (cf. below).
Arabic sbiya, from Greek  (LS ), designates the cuttlefish,
Sepia officinalis L., or the cuttlebone of a cuttlefish, also called lisan albahr
. (WKAS :; D :; DT :; M ; LFa ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. sepia or sipia for sepia
(RL :a; FEW :a; PSW :b, RM , DCVB).
. 47
LSTWT, Arab. KD"N, o.l. G"WT. S
For Hebrew LSTWT, plur. of LST, and Arabic hiddan, plur. of hadd, cf.

Lamed no. .
The vernacular term seems to be the O. Occ. plural gautas (CB ,
; RL :ba) of gauta for Backe, Wange, i.e. cheek (with the
variant galta, see PSW :b). In O. Cat., the form gauta existed too
(documented for the first time in ), with the form galta being
documented since the end of the th century, which then becomes the
common form in modern times (DECLC :ba).
45 : VO !a! P
46 : O V
47 : O

lamed

. 50 49 48
LWTM,
Arab. #LK "L"NB" T,
.
. that is the resin of the terebinth tree, o.l.
TRBYN
TYN"
.
.
Hebrew LWTM
. or LWT. features in the Bible (e.g. in Gen :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in mShebi .) and is wrongly identified as chestnut
by medieval commentators and translators (Arabic sahballut. , cf. Sa#adya
and Ibn Janah. on Gen :; IJ ; RJ ; S ; and Maimonides on
mShebi ., who adds Pinus pinea; p. ). Midrash Rabba
(:) explains the biblical LWT. as mastic, Pistacia Lenticus L. (cf. LA :; LF :). According to Maimonides, there is a
black type of mastic (Arabic mas. t. ika) which is called al-mas. t. ika annabat. (cf. M ). The correct identification of Hebrew LWTM
. or LWT.
is mastic gum, ladanum resin, Cistus ladaniferus (cf. FEB ff. and
KB f.; CD :; JD ; KA :, :; DAS :; FM ; FO f.;
LF : ff.). For Hebrew resin of the terebinth tree, see Shin
below.
Arabic #ilk al-anbat. designates, according to several Arabic authors
(e.g. Ibn al-Jazzar), the resin of the pistachio plant, Pistacia vera L. Others
(e.g. ar-Raz) declare that it is the resin of the terebinth tree, Pistacia
terebinthus L. (cf. D :; M ; ID :; LF :).
The vernacular term which also appears in entry Shin of this edition
is the (Med.) Lat. (resina) ter(e)binthina, literally (resin) belonging to the
terebinth tree (GH :a; DCC :a; derived from Lat. terebinthus
for Pistachia terebinthus L., see NPRA ), O. Occ. ter(r)ebentina, terbentina or trebentina or the Cat. terebentina for rsine qui coule darbres
appartenant la famille des trbinthaces et celle des conifres; surtout
rsine des pins (i.e., resin that drops from trees belonging to the family
of the terebinthaceous plants and to that of the conifers, especially resin
of the pine trees, DAO :; for further documentation, see RL :b;
FEW :b; CB , ; RMA , ; RPA , , among others; DECLC :b; DCVB :a). In O. Occ., these forms coexisted
with variants showing a labial nasal segment: termentina and trementina
or the like (DAO loc. cit., FEW loc. cit.; CB , ). In O. Cat., such
forms (trementina (), termentina () and tormentina ())

48 : j
49 : O
50 :

P V

shem tov, synonym list

seem to be older and more frequent than the variant with a labial
plosive -b-, which perhaps is a later readjustment to the Latin etymon
(see DECLC loc. cit.). In fact, GHAT : shows a form with -m(TRYMYN
TYNH),
labeled as vernacular, prob. Cat., whereas the form
.
.
with -b- (TRYBN
TYNH)
is indicated as Latin.
.
.
. 52 51
LWZYM HWDYYM, Arab. PWPL, o.l. "BYL"NH "YNDYG"
For Hebrew LWZYM, cf. Lamed no. . LWZYM HWDYYM is not
attested in secondary literature and was possibly coined by Shem Tov as
a loan translation of Arabic al-bunduq al-hind (cf. below).
Arabic fawfal, from Persian pupal (VL :), means areca nut, fruit
of the Indian palm-tree, Areca catechu L., which is, according to azZahraw (following DT : n. , al-Idrs (IJS :) and Maimonides
(M )), also called al-bunduq al-hind. Arabic fawfal features, for
instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is transcribed
by N and Z as: .
The vernacular term may be read as O. Occ. avelana *indiga or *endega,
as an Occitanised form of Late Lat. abellana indica, where the adjective
shows the result of Western Romance lenition. For O. Occ. avelana, see
Lamed . See also the O. Cat. synonym "BYL"NH "YNDY"NH, used as a
synonym for Arab. GWZ HNDY (GHAT :).
. 53
LPYTT H#S. B, Arab. "LTW" "L#S. B, that is, straining
LPYTT H#S. B is not attested in secondary literature. It was possibly coined
by Shem Tov as a loan translation of Arabic iltiwa" al-#as. ab (cf. below).
Arabic iltiwa" al-#as. ab means strained nerves; (WKAS :; ll.
: Greek:  (cf. LS )).

51 : V
52 :
53 : V

O V

lamed

. 55 54
LPYTH, Arab. "LTW"
Hebrew LPYTH hails from the root LPT, which features in the Bible (e.g.
Ju :) and Rabbinic literature meaning to touch and hold; to twine
around, clasp, cling to; to wrap up, insert, combine (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; KA :, :). The term LPYTH features in EM
as a modern term meaning a strong grasp. It is possible that it has the
unattested meaning of twisting or straining in our text.
Arabic iltiwa" means turn, twist, bend, curve, entwinement (WKAS
:).
For the identification of the Hebrew root LPT as the Arabic root c,
cf. Ibn Janah. and Se#adyah ibn Danan on Rt :: cT e&
(the man gave a start and pulled back) (IJ ; SID :).
. 57 56
LPWTY, Arab. MLTWY
Hebrew LPWT(Y) is a part. pass. of LPT and possibly means twisted,
strained.
Arabic multawin means turned, twisted, wound, bent, crooked, entwined, entangled (WKAS : f.).
. 59 58

LSWN
YM, Arab. BHYRH,
o.l. " STNYY
.
.

Hebrew LSWN
YM means gulf and features in the Bible (e.g. in Is
:) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bErub a (KB ; CD :;
LW :; BM f.).
Arabic buhayra
means lake, small sea (L ).
.
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(the LORD will dry up the tongue of the Egyptian sea):
(DS ).

54 : VO
55 : O
56 :
57 : V

om. O

58 : VO
59 : O 

shem tov, synonym list

The vernacular term is the O. Occ. estanh that means either tang, lac
(i.e., pond, lake) (RL :a, from the Lat. STAGNUM) or tain (i.e.,
tin) (RL :a, from the Lat. STANNUM; cf. also RPA ). Referring
to O. Occ. estanh for pond, lake, von Wartburg points out: Im occit. lebt
es nur in einem schmalen streifen lngs der grenze gegen das iberorom.
(i.e., In Occ., it exists only in a narrow strip along the border with
the Ibero-Romance languages) (FEW :ba). The corresponding
term in O. Cat. is estany (DCVB :b). Variants with a velar ending
(like, for example, estanc) seem to be more frequent in O. Occ. However,
the variants documented in our MSS clearly show the palatal ending.
Following Levy, estanh for pond, lake can have the meaning Hemmung,
Stillung (i.e., restriction, staunching) (PSW :ab): Et aias drap en
clara dou per far estanc (i.e., And you shall have a cloth impregnated
with the white of egg for staunching) (Chirurgie ). A synonym for
the term with this special meaning is the derivate estancament for arresto
(di un flusso) (i.e., the restriction of a flow) (CB ): A estancament de
sanc (i.e., for stanching of blood) (CB ).

MEM
. 1
MWKLH,
. Arab. HRM, that is, the old man who is extremely old
Hebrew MWKLH
. means ripeness, vigour and senile, aged and features in the Bible as the noun KLH,
. e.g. in Job : (KB ; CD :;
BM ).
Arabic harim means decrepit, senile, aged, old (W ; L ).
In Maimonides Medical Aphorisms, the term features as s
 j,F (very
old man; cf. X, ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
.
For the identification of Hebrew KLH
. as Arabic haram, cf. Sa#adya on
Job :: (you will come to the grave
in ripe old age, as shocks of grain are taken away in their season):
(BS ; SJ ; cf. as well IJ ;
SID : and SF :).
. 3 2
MRQHH,
. Arab. LHLHH

Hebrew MRQHH
. means pot of ointment, spice and features in the
Bible, e.g. in Job : (KB ; CD :; BM ).
Arabic lahlaha designates a kind of perfume (WKAS :; FAQ

f.).
Sa#adya (SJ ) translates the term in the biblical verse mentioned as: (having spices), Ibn Janah. (IJ ) as: yM~7
(cooking-pot), and David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :) as:
(cooked food).

1 : om. O
2 : J P
3 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 5 4
Arab. MLH
"YNDYG"
MLH
. SB",
. HNDY, o.l. S"L
Sabean salt is not attested in secondary literature (for
Hebrew MLH
. SB",
MLH
. cf. KT : f., ff. n. ff.; LFa ff.).
Arabic milh. hind means salt from India (D :; cf. as well GS
n. ; LFa f.). The Arabic term is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as:
in Maimonides On Poisons (II, ; cf. BMP ).
The vernacular term in the Vatican MS may be read literally as *sal
indica, for Indian salt (a variant of Late Lat. sal indicum, FEW :b
n. ; DuC :a), which belongs to the southern Gallo-Romance area,
including Piemont and Lombardia, and to Catalonia and Spain (see FEW
loc. cit.). The Lat. noun SAL, originally masculine or neuter, becomes
feminine in the locations previously mentioned and masculine in the
northern Gallo-Romance area, as well as in Italian, Sardinian, Retoromance and Portuguese.
The variant used in the Paris MS seems to be sal *indiga or *endega, an
Occitanisation of the Late Lat. form with lenition of the intervocalic velar.
This form is not documented in our sources.6 The variant used in the
Oxford MS shows the loss of the intervocalic velar: sal *india, sal *indeia,
sal *indiea, or similar. A similar form can be found in the compound term
*nos india (cf. entry Alef of our edition) and *avelana india (see entry
Lamed , MS ).
.

8 7

MKBSYN
"T HRYHYM
means sharpening the millstones with iron until
.
they are smooth to crush the wheat as with teeth

Hebrew MKBSYN
"T HRYHYM
means carving steps for the grain,
.
putting the millstones in working order (JD ; LW : f.; BM )
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bMQ a, where it is explained
4 : O P
5 : O
6 For the adjective, also see the entry

see GHAT :.
plural "YNDYQS,
7 : O

V
Lamed ; for O. Cat. we find the masculine

8 :
O
V

mem

as sharpening the millstones, or, according to another opinion, to cut the


hole out for the hopper (cf. as well DAS :).
. 10 9
MQBT, Arab. MNQ"R
Hebrew MQBT means hammer, mallet, pickaxe and features in the
Bible (e.g. in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; KT :, :).
Arabic minqar means beak, pickaxe, pick (L ); cf. Mem
below.
Ibn Janah. (IJ ) translates MQBWT in Kings : as: 56
7 (blacksmiths hammers); the same term is used by Sa#adya (RT ; S ) on Is
:. In his commentary on mKel . (MK :), Maimonides translates the term as: (iron handle), and, in his commentary on mKel . (MK :), he translates Hebrew (beak, a
tool for whetting mill-stones) as Arab. (cf.
Mem below).
. 12 11

MRTK", Arab. MRTK, o.l. LYTR


. GY
Aramaic MRTK", from Middle Iranian murtak, an older form of murdah
(VL :), means silver dross and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in bGit b (JD ; LW :, ; SDA ; KA :, :; BM ;
KT :; Low LXII; PB , ).
Arabic martak has the same meaning (L ; GS f., , , ,
; RS ). The term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI,
) and is translated by N as: (LYTRGYR)
and by Z as:
.
(MRTK, i.e. LYTRGYR).
.
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit b, p. : ,
; see as well BTJ .
The vernacular term is O. Occ. or O. Cat. litargi (RPA ; FEW :a;
PSW :b; DCVB :ab) or litarge (CB ; DCVB :a) for lead
oxide, derived from the Gr. ! (FEW :a). The Occ. and
9 : M

10 : O
11 : j P
12 :

VO

shem tov, synonym list

Cat. forms litargi or litarge are documented relatively late (for O. Cat. in
, cf. DCVB loc. cit.; for Occ. litargi , cf. FEW loc. cit.), meaning
that our text represents a new first documentation. By contrast, in both
languages the form litargiri is documented already in the th century
(see FEW loc. cit. and DECLC :b).
.

MWR, Arab. MSK, o.l. MWSQ


Hebrew MWR, from Greek , means myrrh, gum resin of Commiphora abessinica, and features in the Bible (e.g. in Ps :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMiqw . (KB f.; CD :; JD ; LW
: f.; KA : f.; BM ; FO ff.; LF : ff.; Low LIX; PB ).
Arabic misk designates Moschus moschiferus L., a gland secretion of
the male musk deer (DT : n. ). The term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; cf. BMMb ) and is transcribed by N as:
and is translated by Z as: .
For the identification of MWR as misk, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above (MK :), Sa#adya on Ex : (S ), IJ and
SID :. However, this identification was rejected by others, such
as, for instance, the famous Spanish scholar Moses ben Nahman
(Nah.
.
manides) (), who remarks in his commentary on the Bible
verse mentioned: The commentatorsincluding Harav Rabbi Moshe
[ben Maimon]have agreed that mor is that perfume which is called
musk [an animal perfume]. But Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra objected to
this interpretation, since [musk] is not a spice . . . , even though it has a
pleasant odour . . . Yet despite all this [that we have written to justify the
opinion of Rabbeinu Saadia Gaon and Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, that
mor mentioned here is musk], it appears to me from the words of our
Rabbis that mor is not musk . . . Thus all languagesHebrew, Aramaic,
and also Arabicare alike in the usage of this term (i.e. mor). In Latin
as well it is called myrrha. The consensus of the languages on this term
would thus indicate that [the mor of the Torah] is indeed that substance
[called myrrh or its equivalent in the above-mentioned languagesand
not the musk mentioned by Saadia Gaon], and that it is counted among
the spices.13 See next entry.

13 Perushei ha-Torah le-R. Moshe Ben Nahman. Ed. by Hayyim Dov Chavel. vols.,
.
.
Jerusalem , vol. , pp. ; English translation: Ramban (Nachmanides).

mem

The vernacular form must be the O. Occ. musc or the O. Cat. mosc for
musc (RPA , , , ; RL :b; PSW :a; FEW :b;
DCVB :a). In O. Cat., the forms mesc or almesc (documented for the
first time at the end of the th century) exist, derived from the Arabic
misk (DECLC :a), whereas forms like mosc seem to be very rare
Latinisms or Italianisms (for this line of reasoning, see DECLC :b,
for the first documentation of mosc in the th century see DCVB loc.
cit.).
. 14
MR, Arab. MWR, o.l. MYR"
Hebrew MR, i.e. MWR (cf. V) is myrrh, see previous entry.
Arabic murr means myrrh, the gum resin of Commiphora abysinnica
Engler and Var. (cf. previous entry) (DT :) and features in medieval
medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI,
) and is translated by N and Z as: (MYR").
Shem Tovs reproduction of two different identifications of MWR,
namely as misk and murr respectively, reflects two contrasting opinions
held at the time in medieval scholarship concerning the true nature of
MWR, as stated in the previous entry.
The vernacular term is the Lat. myrrha (NPRA ) or the O. Occ. and
O. Cat. mi(r)ra (CB , ; RPA , RMA , ; RM ; CB ;
RL :a; DAO :; FEW :a; DECLC :a; DCVB :a) for
myrrh. The same transcript appears in the Hebrew Macer Floridus (see
MF and ). For the identification of Arab. murr as O. Cat. mirra,
cf. AdV , . See also GHAT :, where we find the Romance
(O. Cat.) synonym MYRRH for Arab. MR.
. 16 15
MLPPWN, Arab. QT", o.l. PWQWSS
Hebrew MLPPWN, from Greek  (LS ; KG : f.),
means muskmelon, Cucumis melo L., and features in Rabbinic liter-

Commentary on the Torah. Translated and Annotated by Charles B. Chavel. Exodus. New
York , pp. .
14 :  P V
15 : om. O
16 : O

shem tov, synonym list

ature, e.g. in mKil . or mTer . (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :;


AEY :; DAS :; FH , ; FM ; FZ ff.; LF : ff.;
SB f.).
Arabic qitta" means cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., and was often
pumpkin and melon. In Egypt, the term qitta" designates
confused with
DT :;
different varieties of melon, such as Cucumis melo L. (L ;
; M ; DAS :, , , , , ; cf. as well Qof no.
below).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mTer ., where he gives two
explanations for Hebrew MLPPWN: and (MK :).
Sa#adya (SAM :) mentions as the Arabic counterpart.
According to Dietrich (DT : n. ), hiyar is the same species of
cucumber as qitta", namely Cucumis sativus L., except that it is smaller.
term could not be retrieved.
The vernacular
.
o.l. "LWM
MGBY", Arab. SB,
Aramaic and Hebrew MGBY" means alum and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA : f.,
:; KT :, n. ; LA :).
Arabic sabb has the same meaning (M ; GS f.).
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bShab a, p. ; EG and
BT :.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. alum for alum (FEW
:ba; DCVB :a; DECLC :a; RL :a; DAO :;
CB ; RMA , ; RMM ).
.

19 18 17

22 21 20

MRBKT, Arab. MTRWDH, i.e. to put dry bread in a bowl and to put broth
on it and to leave it covered for a while and to eat it; or to put dry bread
17 : Y% P V
18 : V add.
19 : O
20 : add.

OV

21

: om. V
22 : O

mem

in a pot when [the broth] is cooked and to stir it and to take it from the
fire and to eat it
Hebrew MRBKT, part. pass. fem. Hof#al of RBK, means mixed (of
dough) (KB ; KA :, :) and features in the Bible, e.g. Lev
:.
Arabic matruda means bread, crumbled or broken into small pieces,

with the fingers,


then moistened with broth, and then piled up in the
middle of a bowl (L ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev ::
(shall be prepared with
oil on a griddle. You shall bring it well soaked, and offer it as a meal
offering of baked slices, of pleasing odour to the LORD):
(cf. n. : :
) (S ); see as well SID :, and IJ : ( Chron
:): ?
_ }3 () 5
2 s}Q D
) W
_ c Q
'L).
. 24 23
Arab. M" "LS. "BWN, o.l. LSYB

MY HDSN,
means ) fatness and ) fatty ashes of burnt wood mixed
Hebrew DSN
with fat on the altar and features in the Bible, e.g. in Lev :. Hebrew
is not attested in secondary literature and is possibly a loan
MY HDSN
translation of Arabic ma" ar-ramad, cf. D :, s.v. ma" awwal or also
ras as. -s. abun: leau tide qui a pass pour la premire fois travers une
couche de cendres de bois (lukewarm water which has passed through
a bed of wood ashes for the first time); Dozy then quotes the following
explanation of this term from Ibn al-Ha
. ssas commentary on ar-Razs
K. al-Mans. u r: W7
 N7 7 )
MK ) * ( '  (This is [the
substance] that is called ras as. -s. abun and it is the first dripping of the
ash-water (ma" ar-ramad)). Dozy explains that this detergent has thus
become alcaline and is capable of dissolving fatty substances. Once it is
heated it can be used to wash linen. See as well Wiedemann, Aufstze
:.25
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. word for Laugenwasser (i.e., lye
water) (FEW :b) which is documented in the forms lissiu (RPA ;
23 : O
24 : O !" P V
25

E. Wiedemann, Aufstze zur Arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. vols., Hildesheim

shem tov, synonym list

RMM ; RL :a), lesiu (PSW :a; CB ), leissiu (RL :a),


leisiu (CB ; FEW :b), lissieu (CB ), licieu (CB ), lixieu
(CB ), lisieu (CB ), among others. The Paris MS may represent
a form with an /e/, while the other MSS may represent either an /e/ or /i/
or a diphthong in the first syllable.
. 26
M#WTR
Arab. MPRWS B"LRY" HYN
. BRYHNYM,
.
.
Hebrew M#WTR
means flavoured with aroma/spices (JD
. BRYHNYM
.
, ; BM ff., ).
Arabic mafrus bi-r-rayah
. n means covered with aromatic plants
(L , f.). Arabic rayah
. n features in Maimonides On the Regimen
of Health (BMR IV, ) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as:
(cf. KZ ). It also features in Maimonides On Asthma (VIII, ; cf.
BMA ) and is translated by Samuel Benveniste as: and by
an anonymous translator as: .
. 27

MZLPYN, Arab. YRSWN


#LYH B"LYD
Hebrew MZLPYN means dripping, sprinkling (JD ; LW :;
BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab ., in the
context of circumcision, with the meaning of sprinkling by hand and
not by means of a vessel.
Arabic yarussu n #alayhi bi-l-yad means they sprinkle it by hand
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
. 29 28

MGBY" GYL", Arab. SBYM"NY,


o.l. "LWM DYPLWM"
Aramaic and Hebrew MGBY" GYL" means liquid alum and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; LW :; SDA ;
26 :
27 : V
28 :  P
29 : O

mem

KA : f., :; KT :, n. ; LA :; cf. as well no.


above).
Arabic sabb yaman (= yaman) means alum from Yemen, which had
the best reputation among the Arabs (L ; M ; GS f.).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. compound expression alum de pluma/ploma for #alun naturel
impur quon trouve en petits filaments blanchtres (i.e., natural impure
alun which we find in small, whitish filaments, FEW :a; for further
documentation see PSW :ab; DCVB :ba; DAO :). In
GHAT, we find the transcription "LWM DPLWM" for the O. Cat. alum de
YM"NY (GHAT :).
ploma, identified as Arab. SB
The variant in the Oxford MS seems to be corrupt.
. 30
M"YRWT, Arab. DR"RYH,
. o.l. QNTRYDY
.
Hebrew M"YRAH, plur. M"YRWT, means curse and features in the Bible
(e.g. in Deut :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBer b (KB ;
JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :; BM ). The term also features in an
agricultural context in a prayer by a farmer: May blessings come unto
the provisions and may curses stay away from them. (KT :).
Arabic dararh. means cantharides, or Spanish flies (L ; cf. as well
BK ; IR; StS ). According to ad-Damr, one of its species breeds
in wheat (JAD : f.).
Perhaps the Hebrew term M"YRWT was used for this insect in reference to its potentially devastating effect on the wheat harvest.
The vernacular term means Spanish fly. There is no documentation
of a corresponding word in O. Occ. In O. Cat., the word cantrida exists,
documented for the first time in the middle of the th century (see
DECLC :b). The variant used in the Oxford and Vatican MSS could
be read as the plural of the Cat. word or an analogous hypothetical
O. Occ. variant. It could also be read as cantharides (see Sin :), the
nominative and accusative plural of Latin cantharis, cantharidis (FEW
:b).
For the identification of the Arabic DR"RYH
. as the Romance (O. Cat.)

QNTRYD"
S, see GHAT :.
.

30 : B

P VO

shem tov, synonym list

The form that features in the Paris MS is unclear; it might be read as


Medieval Fr. cantharide (documented since the th century; see FEW
:ba).
. 33 32 31

MSMR HGR#, Arab. MBD#


. "LP" S. D, o.l. LNSYT"
. D"LSGNDWR
Hebrew MSMR HGR# means blood letters lancet (for MSMR, cf. JD
; LW :; KA :; Low LXI; PB ; for GR#, cf. JD ; LW :;
KA : f.; Low XLV; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mKel .: (A blood letters lancet is susceptible to
uncleanness).
Arabic mibda#
. fas. id has the same meaning (L ; ; SpLA, p. .
s.v. al-mibda# an-nashl).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
The vernacular term must be read as O. Occ. *lanceta/lanseta del
sagnador. The first element lanceta or lanseta (both documented in
RL :b) is an instrument de chirurgie qui sert percer, etc. (i.e.,
a chirurgical instrument that serves to pierce, etc., FEW :a). The
second element sagnador means bloodletter (PSW :b), first documented in in a text from Limoges (see FEW :a). In O. Cat., the
instrument is mentioned in the context of the practice of bloodletting in
a text from the end of th th century: sagnar lo malalt [ . . . ] la llanceta [ . . . ] (i.e., to bleed the patient [ . . . ] the llanceta, see DECLC :b;
the word shows here the typical palatalisation of initial L-, one of the
characteristics which distinguishes Catalan from Occitan, see the introduction).
. 35 34
HBRZL, Arab. MGNYTS,
MWSK
. o.l. L"PYS QR"MYTH
.
HBRZL or "BN MWSK
HBRZL, literally stone attracting
Hebrew MWSK
iron, refers to the magnetic stone and reflects its property to attract

31 : VO
32 : O
33 :
34 : V

?[ . . . ] O V

35 :

O V

mem

iron. The magnetic stone is called in Rabbinic literature and


medieval literature (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; LFa ff.),
while in the Middle Ages we find a variant of this entry in Abraham Ibn
Ezras longer commentary on Ex :: (ed. J.Z. Fleischer,
Vienna , repr. Tel Aviv , p. ), cf. LFa .
Arabic magnt. is or ha
. gar al-magnt. is, from Greek  (LS ),
means magnetic stone as well (L f.; GS ; RS f.; cf. as well
Alef no. ). The Arabic term ha
. gar al-magnt. is features in Maimonides
Guide of the Perplexed : and is translated as: by Samuel
ibn Tibbon.36
The vernacular term seems to be composed of Latin lapis for stone
and Late Lat. or Romance *caramita/caramida for magnetic stone. For
lapis, see its occurrence in the expression lapis magnetis for magnetic
stone in the entry Alef . For *caramita/caramida, magnetic stone, see
the entry Alef .
. 38 37
o.l. LSYBH

MY HSPWN, Arab. "NSY",


Hebrew SPWN or S. PWN, from Greek  (KG :; LS ),
means soap (JD s.v. , LW :; KA :, and KT :,
n. ) and MY HSPWN literally means soap water.
is possibly corrupt and should be read as " SN"N,

Arabic "NSY"
usnan,
designating glasswort, which is used for washing ones hands or clothes
(M ; DT :; LF : ff.; SDA : Aram. : alkali, from
Neo Persian usnan). According to Lw (LF :), it is actually a ghost
word, originally > . is Hebrew (JD : a
kind of alkali, or mineral used as a soap) which is identified by Maimonides in his commentary on mShab . (MK :) as . Cf.
Samekh .
The vernacular term seems to represent a feminine form *lessiva or
the like, which is not documented in O. Occ., or a Late Lat. form such
as (aqua/cinis) lixiva (for the form aqua lixiva, see the interpretation of

36 Moses ben Maimon, Dal


alat al-h
. a"irn. Arabic text established by S. Munk and
edited with variant readings by I. Joel, Jerusalem , p. , l. ; Sefer Moreh
Nevukhim, Hebrew Translation by Samuel ibn Tibbon and the Commentaries by Efodi,
Shem Tov, Crescas and Abrabanel, Vilna, , fol. b.
37 : O
38 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

the feminine in Sp. and Fr. by Coromines in DECLC :ba; for the
Late Lat. etymological basis *cinis lixiva, see FEW :ab). According
to von Wartburg (FEW loc. cit.), the Lat. adjective LIXIVUM became
masculine only in Gallo-Romance and in Catalan (see FEW loc. cit.). In
the rest of the Romance languages, we only find feminine derivations:
the FEW (loc. cit.) explains that Latin had the adjective lixivus ausgelaugt (i.e., leached), derived from LIX Lauge (i.e., leach), besides lixius,
and, as a more recent form, lixivius. The variation in gender is explained
by assuming that the nominalisation of the adjective is based on *cinis
lixivum/lixiva, with the noun cinis varying in gender. The FEW further
remarks that the feminine nouns were lixivia and *lixiva and that masculine and feminine forms coexist in Gallo-Romance and Catalan, with the
masculine forms being almost exclusively restricted to Laugenwasser
(i.e., lye water, see entry Mem ). The semantic difference between the
masculine and the feminine form might be reflected by the different
Hebrew and Arabic meanings given here and in Mem .
. 40 39
MDWH HBYS. H, Arab. D" "LBYS. H
Hebrew MDWH HBYS. H means contagious sickness of the testicles (for
MDWH see BM ) and is possibly a loan translation of Arabic da" al
baida
. (cf. below).
Arabic da" al-bayda
. means disease of the testicles (for da" see L ).

.
MWRS", Arab. WRM
Aramaic MWRS" means abscess, boil and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :;
BM ; Low LIX; PB ).
Arabic waram means swelling, tumour (D :; IR ; MH f.;
SN ) and features in medieval medical literature, for instance, in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XVI, ; XIX, , ; XX, ) and is
translated by N and Z as: .

39 : V
40 :

mem

. 41
MWGL", Arab. QYH,
. o.l. BR" G
Aramaic MWGL" means pus and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
bHul
. a (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; BM ; EG ;
Low LIX; PB , ).
Arabic qayh. means thick purulent matter unmixed with blood (L
; D :: suppuration), features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (e.g. II, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by N and Z as: .
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ.
brach (CB , ), its variant in the Oxford MS the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
brac (RL :b; RM ; FEW :ab; CB , , among others;
DCVB :b; DECLC :b) for pus (RL :b). The final -G in the
Paris and Vatican MSS may represent the voiceless alveolar affricate in
the O. Occ. brach; the Oxford MS features the velar variant brac.
. 42
MPS. LYM, Arab. MP" S. L
Hebrew MPS. LYM means articulations and features in medieval literature, namely in the Sefer ha-Sha#ashu#im (Book of Delight) composed by
Joseph ben Meir ibn Zabara (th century)43 (cf. BM ), and is possibly a loan translation of Arabic mafas. il (cf. below).
Arabic mafas. il means any place of meeting or juncture of two bones
of the body and limbs or members, articulations (L ; FAL :;
cf. as well DKT , , , : ) Articulation, noeud; ) Phalange
de doigt (internodium)) and features in medieval medical literature,
e.g. in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (BMR IV, ; cf. as well
KZ ) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: , and in
Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ,), where it is translated by N and Z as:
.

41 : O
42 : O

43 Ed. H. Davidson, New York , p. , l. ; Davidson suggests emending the


term as: .

shem tov, synonym list

. 44
MWZY, Arab. MWZ, o.l. PWM" S PYRYWS
Aramaic MWZY, from Middle Persian moz (MC ), plur. of MWZ",
means bananas, Musa paradisiaca sapiens, and features for the first time
in the Geonic period (SDA ; KA : (Supp. Kohut); AEY :;
LA :; LF : ff.).
Arabic mawz means fruit of the banana tree, or Musa paradisiaca
(L ; DAS :). The Arabic term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is transcribed by N
as: and by Z as: / .
For the Arab. mawz also cf. the Alphita passage Musa, fructus est
in quo dicunt primum parentem pecasse (Sin ). Accordingly, the
banana is called Adams apple, as in the O. Fr. poume de paradis (FEW
:b). Analogously, the variant in MS O should be read as a nondocumented O. Occ. or O. Cat. compound expression *poma de paradis
(for O. Occ. and. O. Cat. poma, apple, see FEW :b; DCVB :b; for
O. Occ. and O. Cat. paradis, paradise, see FEW :a; DECLC ). In
O. Fr., besides the form paradis, we find another derivation from the same
etymon, namely parevis or parvis (FEW loc. cit., besides pares or paras),
so that the vernacular expression found in the Vatican MS could be read
as pome/pume/poume [de] parevis.45 However, the first element in the
might also be interpreted as the plural of Occ. or Cat.
Paris MS (PWM" S)
poma. As for the second element, in O. Occ., we only find one variant,
namely parazis (FEW loc. cit.), whereas in O. Cat. the variant paras is
frequent (DECLC loc. cit.). Neither of these forms fit our MS due to the
presence of the letter Waw. Coromines suspects, however, that the variant
with -v- existed in O. Occ., at least in Gasc., because of the existence of
toponyms.46 If the term is O. Occ. rather than Middle Fr., the Sefer haShimmush would provide the first documentation of an O. Occ. variant
with -v- of the word paradis (outside toponymy). As for the meaning
44 : O V
45 For another case in our text in which the preposition

de is missing, see Alef .


En Bearn, un mas, avui dit Paradis, a Navarrencs, apareix com a Paravis el ; i
un altre encara dit Parabis, en el cant de Sauveterre (ja Paravis, a. ) (i.e. In Bearn, a
grange located in Navarrencscalled Paradis todayappears under the name of Paravis
in ; and there is yet another one called Parabis in the canton of Sauveterrealready
mentioned as Paravis in , DECLC :). Corominas also mentions the O. Cat.
paravys, which appears in one document but seems to be due to French influence (the
document at issue is a translation from French).
46

mem

banana present in O. Fr., DAO mentions the O. Occ. poumiero de


paradis or poumeta de paradis only with the meaning aubpine (i.e.,
hawthorn).
. 47
MLWH,
o.l. "WRTYSY
. Arab. HRYQ,
.
.
Hebrew MLWH
. is a salty plant featured in the Bible, e.g. in Job :, and
Rabbinic literature (bQid a), which is generally identified as orache,
Atriolex Halimus L., or saltwort, mallow, Mesembrianthum forskalii
(KB ; CD : f.; JD ; LW :; SDA s.v. Aram. ;
KA : f., : f.; AEY :; LF : f.). According to the Arukh
(KA :), the term MLWH
. designates the nettle (Hebr. ) (cf. as
well LF :).
Arabic hurrayq
means nettle, Urtica pilulifera L. and Var. (DT :;
.
M ).
In correspondence with the Arabic term, the vernacular synonym
seems to be the genitive singular or nominative plural of Lat. urtica for
nettle (FEW :b; NPRA ), urtic(a)e (see the Late Lat. genitive
urtice, for example, in Sin , n. ; See also the Lat. word "WRTY
. S. Y,
given as a synonym for Romance (Catalan) "WRTYGH,
i.e. ortiga, in
.
GHAT :).
. 49 48
S
MLHH
. GLLNYT", Arab. MLH
. GRY
Aramaic MLHH
. GLLNYT" means salt in lumps, rock-salt and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bHul
. a and bQid a (JD , ;
LW :; SDA ; KT :, n. ; LFa , ).
Arabic milh. gars means bruised, brayed, or pounded salt (for gars,
cf. L ).

47 : V
48 :
49 : VO

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 50
MKHL,
. Arab. MRWD
Hebrew MKHL
. means staff, stick used for painting the eye and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; SDA :
Aram. : paint-stick used for applying kohl to the eye; BM ;
EG ; KT :; Low LX; PB f.).
Arabic mirwad means a certain well-known instrument, with which
the black powder called kuhl
. is applied to the eyes (L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :).
. 52 51
MPRQT, Arab. RQBH, that is, the end of the neck
Hebrew MPRQT means neck, nape and features in the Bible, namely in
Sam :, where it is translated by Ibn Janah. as (K- vertebra (IJ ;
SID :), and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bHul
. a (KB ;
JD ; LW :; BM ; Low LXI; PB , ).
Arabic raqaba means neck, or the base of the hinder part thereof,
or the hinder part of the base of the neck (L ; DKT , ;
FAL :). The term features in medieval medical literature, for
instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (I, , ; III, ; VI, ; cf.
BMMa , , and BMMb ) and is translated by N and Z as: .
For the identification of MPRQT as raqaba, cf. SF :.
. 53
Arab. TN

MRH
. ST,
. GYR
means baking pan with lid (KB ; CD :; JD ;
Hebrew MRH
. ST
LW :; BM ; BKH ) and features in the Bible (e.g. in Lev :)
and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMen ..
Arabic t. ingr means a certain vessel of copper or brass (L ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev ::
(If your offering is a meal offering in a pan, it shall be made of
50 : " P
51 : O
52 : V
53 : VO

mem

choice flour in oil):


(S ; see as well IJ , SID :, and SF :).

. 54

MHBT,
Arab. T"
.
. GYN
Hebrew MHBT
means plate or pan and features in the Bible (e.g. in
.
Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMen . (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ; BKH f., ).
Arabic t. agin means frying-pan (L ; DRD ) and is derived
from Greek  (LS ).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. on Sam : (IJ ):
M )  :; Maimonides on mKel . (MK :)
explains Hebrew (a tightly covered pot, stew-pot (JD )) as .
Ibn Janah. on Lev : explains MHBT
as Arabic , just like Sa#adya on
.
Lev : (S ), David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :), and Maimonides
on mMen . (MK :).
.

MRWSS, Arab. MHSM


Hebrew MRWSS, part. Pu#al from RSS, means cracked, crushed and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab b (JD ; LW :;
BM f.).
Arabic muhassam has the same meaning (L ; W ).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ ): 7)
Con7 c  C 7 =
 ^2'- (The great house
shall be smashed to bits (Amos :); it means to break, crush, just as it is
said in the Mishnah (mShab .): if it be thick or cracked, i.e. muhassam).
Cf. Se#adyah ibn Danan (SID :).
. 55
MSS, Arab. RM"NH "LKRS
Hebrew MSS means manyplies, omasum, the rennet bag and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHul
. . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM ; Low LXI; PB ).
54 : VO
55 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic rummanat al-karis means third stomach, manyplies of the


stomach (WKAS :; L ).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned, Maimonides explains
the term MSYS (= MSS) as: (the organ that has
the shape of a pomegranate) (MK :).
. 57 56
MR"H S. YNYT, Arab. MR"H S. YNYH
Hebrew MR"H S. YNYT means Chinese mirror (for MR"H cf. KB ;
JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ; for S. YNYT cf. BM ).
Arabic mir" ah s.nya has the same meaning (for mir" ah cf. L and
E.I.2 : f., s.v. mir" at (Ch. Pellat) and for s.nya L ).
.

MZLG, Arab. NSL


Hebrew MZLG means (meat) fork (for taking meat out of the cauldron)
and features in the Bible, e.g. in Ex : (plur. ). In Rabbinic literature, the term features, for instance, in mKel . (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; KA :; KT :). In medieval medical literature,
Hebrew MZLG also designates the instrument for taking the child out of
the womb (forceps?) (BM ).
Arabic nasil means lancet in medieval Arabic medical literature
(SpLA f., f.).
Sa#adya on Ex : translates as Arabic (S ) and Ibn
Janah. as 0o (IJ ).
. 58
H
B"BR, Arab. MZG G
MSW
. WSW#
H,
Hebrew MSW
. part. Pass. of MSH,
. which features in the Bible (e.g. Ex
:) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. mHor ., means smeared, anointed
(KB f.; CD : ff.; JD f.; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :;

BM f.). SW"
means plastered, polished, smoothed and features
in Rabbinic literature (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : ff., :;
56 : P
57 : O
58 :

(cf. entry ) O V

mem

BM ). "BR means lead (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA : f., :;


H

BM ). The expression MSW


B"BR means plastered, glazed
. WSW#
with lead (cf. KZ ff.).
Arabic muzaggag means glazed (D :).
. 60 59
MSPHT,
. Arab. QRH
. "LQWB"
Hebrew MSPHT
. means a non-contagious disease, scaling, sore; skinrash and features in the Bible (e.g. in Lev :) and Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in bNeg b (KB ; JD s.v. ; BM ; Low LXI; PB ff.).
Arabic qarh. al-quwaba" means pustules, or small swellings of ringworm, or tetter (L , ).
For the identification, cf. IJ : K 
 .
. 61
MM#K, Arab. Y#S. R
Hebrew MM#K, part. Pi#el masc. sing. from the root M#K, means crushing, pressing (JD ; LW : f.; KA : f., :; BM f.) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bKet b.
Arabic ya#s. iru or yu#as. s. iru (cf. O and V) has the same meaning
(L ). The term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV,,; XXIII,,; XXV,,) and is translated by N as: /
// and by Z as: //.
.
MMRS, Arab. YMRWS
Hebrew MMRS, part. Pi#el masc. sing. from the root MRS, means crushing, stirring, rubbing (JD ; LW : f.; SD ; KA :; BM )
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi ..
Arabic yamrusu means he steeps, macerates, or rubs and presses
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
59 : om. O
60 :
61 : VO

V, for O, cf. previous entry

shem tov, synonym list

.
MSTLD, Arab. MTQBS.
Hebrew MSTLD, part. Hitpa#el masc. sing. from the root SLD, has the
meaning of bounded, shrunken (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM f.). The Hitpa#el is not attested in the current dictionaries.
Arabic mutaqabbad. means contracted, shrunk (L ).
. 62
M#S. D, Arab. P"S
Hebrew M#S. D means adze, hatchet; tool, billhook and features in the
Bible (e.g. Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBQ . (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ; EG ;
KT :, , ; Low LXI; PB ).
Arabic fas means a kind of hoe, adze, axe (L ; cf. as well
Kaf no. above). In medieval medical literature on surgery, the term
designates a phlebotome (SpLA , ).
For the identification, cf. IJ ; SID :; Maimonides on mKel
. (MK :). Sa#adya (SAM :) identifies it as: .
. 65 64 63
MTPSYM,
Arab. QW"LB, o.l. PWRMS
.
Hebrew MTPSYM,
which is not attested in secondary literature, is possi.
bly derived from frame, mould (JD ; LW : s.v. ), which
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mDem ., where it is translated by
Maimonides as Arabic (MK :).
Arabic qawalib, plur. of qalab, means a model according to which
the like thereof is made, or proportioned; a mould into which metals are
poured (L ; cf. as well Dalet no. ). The singular form features, for
instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XV, ) and is translated
by N as: and by Z as: .
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ./O. Cat. forma, see entry
Dalet .
62 : # P
63 : !"!

P V

64 : O
65 : O,

om. V

mem

. 67 66
MZRQ, Arab. ZR"QH
Hebrew MZRQ means syringe and features in medieval medical literature, e.g. in Nathan ha-Me"atis Hebrew translation of Ibn Snas K. alQanun (following BM ). The term was possibly coined by Shem Tov
as a loan translation of the Arabic zurraqa.
Arabic zurraqa means pipe, syringe (D :). The word originally
meant shooter or projector and, in medical literature, designates
a syphon or syringe, a plain syringe [ . . . ] consisting of a straight
continuous cylindrical barrel with a long narrow nozzle; and, within, a
piston and handle all in one piece (SpLA ).
. 69 68
M#Y H"BTY
. H,
. that is, everything inside it, the seed, the moisture, the
water
Hebrew M#Y H"BTY
. H
. means the core of the melon (JD ; LW :)
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mEduy ., and is explained by
Maimonides as (the seeds and the juice inside
the melon) (MK :).
. 71 70
MHWDDWT,
Arab. MKRWTH,
.
. o.l. PYT. S "BTWRN
.
Hebrew MHWDDWT,
part. Pu#al fem. plur. from the root HDD,
means
.
.
sharpened (JD ; LW : f.; SD ; BM ) and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bQid a as MHWDDYM.
.
Arabic mahrut. a means shaped, rounded, polished (L f.; D

:).
The vernacular term represents an O. Occ expression *faitas a(u)
torn, literally for (things) made on the lathe or similar instruments,
which appears in the plural form in the MSS Paris and Oxford (with
au as a contraction of the preposition a and the masculine definite
66 : V P
67 :

VO
O

68 :
69 : O

70 : VO
71 :

O " P V

shem tov, synonym list

article). For the perfect participle, see RL :a. For O. Occ. torn lathe,
see PSW :bb (with many other meanings), and for the Cat.
equivalent DECLC :b: En grec era purament el subst. 15, nom
de laparell [ . . . ] El diccionari Aguil ja va aplegar-ne molts testimonis
medievals: un exemple, del segle XIV, dun torn de fuster o boter [ . . . ]
(i.e., In Greek, the substantive 15 was a name of the instrument [ . . . ]
The Aguil dictionary provides many medieval examples, one example
from the th century is the torn of a carpenter or a cooper [ . . . ]). For
further documentation, see entry Gimel .
The variant given in the Vatican MS is the singular *faita al torn.
. 72
MTHL
. HL,
. Arab. MTHLHL"

Hebrew MTHL
. HL,
. part. Hitpa#el masc. sing. from the root HL
. HL,
. means
permeated, affected, injured, weakened or trembling (JD ; LW
: f.; KA : f.; BM f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mMiqw .. In medieval medical literature, it has the meaning of
porous.
Arabic mutahalhil means uncompact, incoherent (L ) and means
literature.
porous in medical
The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, ;
cf. BMMa ) as LyLyT s> (porous bodies) and is translated by N
as: and by Z as: . And, in VII,
(cf. BMMb ), we find 0yL (porousness) which is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
. 74 73
Arab. MWGYT, o.l. "YGY"H

MWSY#,
means deliverer, saviour; protector, aider and features
Hebrew MWSY#
in the Bible (e.g. in Deut :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSanh a
(KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; BM ).
Arabic mugt has the same meaning (L ).

For the identification,


cf. Sa#adya on Deut ::
(he came upon her in the open; though the
72 : VO
73 : om. V
74 :

VO

mem

engaged girl cried for help, there was no one to save her):
(S ); see as well IJ ,

gloss Rouen (n. ).


The vernacular term seems to be a non-documented O. Occ. form
like *aij(i)a for help (see the entry ajuda in RL :ba; here we
only find the variant ahia). Besides these two variants, we also find the
O. Occ. form aida (influenced by French, see FEW :a). In O. Cat.
and O. Sp., the equivalent term ajuda/ayuda can take the meaning
enema (DCECH :a) orin a metonymical mannerinstrument
for applying enemas (see DCVB :a). This special medical meaning
is not documented in the Gallo-Romance languages.
. 75
MS. WYYRT, Arab. MRQWMH
Hebrew MS. WYYRT, part. Pu#al fem. sing. from the root S. YR, means
formed, shaped, painted, engraved and features in the plural form
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD f.; LW :; BM
).
Arabic marquma means written, sealed, stamped, imprinted (L
).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :), Maimonides translates the Hebrew (portrayed scroll
wrappers)76 as: .
.
MKSH HBTN,
. Arab. MRQ "LBTN
.
Hebrew MKSH HBTN
. means cover of the belly, peritoneum and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in yHor I, a (JD ).
Arabic maraqq (read: maraqq) al-bat. n means the thin, or delicate,
and soft, or tender, parts of the belly; or the lower part thereof with
what surrounds it, that is thin or delicate, or the lower part of the belly
in the region of the H3 (peritoneum) (L ) and abdominal wall,
the skin and superficial fascia of the abdominal wall, the hypogastric
region of the abdominal wall (DKT , ; FAL :; cf. as well
75 : O V
76 Cf. H. Danby, The Mishnah. Translated from the Hebrew with introduction and brief

explanatory notes. London , Repr. , p. .

shem tov, synonym list

HA ff.). The common Arabic term for peritoneum is s. ifaq, which


features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (I,; VII,; IX,; XV,;
XXIII,,,; XXIV,; XXV,; cf. BMMa and BMMb , ) and is
translated a.o. as: /// by N and as: /
by Z.
. 77
MDBRYWT, Arab. BRYH
Hebrew MDBRYWT is a adj. fem. plur. from MDBR, i.e. pasture, steppe,
wilderness, desert, which features in the Bible and Rabbinic literature (KB f.; CD : ff.; JD ; LW : f.; SD ). The term
MDBRYWT features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBez. ., in the special
sense of pasture animals (JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ) which,
unlike domestic animals (), dont spend the night in the town but
stay in the pasture grounds for the whole year except for the winter (for
, cf. Bet no. ; cf. as well DAS :, and KT :).
Arabic barr or barriyya means belonging to, or relating to, the desert
or waste; growing, or living, or produced, in the desert or waste or simply
wild (L ; cf. as well DAS :).
Hebrew MDBR is rendered as Arabic barrya by Sa#adya and Ibn Janah.
(IJ ) on Ex :.
.
MGWRGR, Arab. MHBB
.
Hebrew MGWRGR was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation
of the Arabic muhabbab
in the sense of administered in the form of
.
a pill. The term MGWRGR is derived from , which features in
Rabbinic literature in the sense of to grow berries, to ripen into full
berries (JD ; LW :; BM ), and which is a denominative
verb from (gargar) meaning berry, and pill in medieval medical
literature (BM ) after the Arabic habba.
.
Arabic muhabbab
means
administered
in the form of a pill in me.
dieval medical literature, and is derived from habba
meaning pill (D
.
:).

77 : X"E P

mem

In Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XIII, ), the term habbaba


(to
.
administer in the form of pills) is rendered by N as: and by Z as:
.
. 78
MQWR, Arab. MNK" S
Hebrew MQWR means beak, a tool for whetting millstones, an instrument for boring (JD ; LW : s.v. Aram. ; SD ; KA :,
:; BM ; DAS :; KT :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel .. It is possible that the term was used by Shem
Tov as a loan translation of the Arabic minkas in the sense of forceps.
Arabic minkas or more often minqas designates an instrument with
which variegated, or decorated or embellished work is done or a kind
of tweezers, an instrument with which one extracts, or draws or pulls out
or forth, thorns (L ). Arabic minqas also designates an instrument
for whetting millstones (DAS :). In medieval surgical literature, the
term designates a forceps (SpLA ).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :), Maimonides renders MQWR as: (beak, pick-axe, pick, L ); cf.
Mem above.
. 81 80 79
MNPH, Arab. MRWHH,
. o.l. WYN"YYL
Hebrew MNPH means fan, flabellum and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ).
Arabic mirwaha
. has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification, cf. EG , KA :, and Maimonides on the
Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular term seems to be a non-documented variant *venalh
or *venaylh of the O. Occ. ventalh (RL :a) for fan (orthographic
variants: ventailh, FEW :a/ventaylh, RL loc. cit.). For the use of this
term in O. Occ. medical terminology (among others), see the quotation
78 :
79 : " P

80 : V
81 : O "

P V

shem tov, synonym list

given in RL (loc. cit.): Pulmo es un ventalh del cor. Eventar [ . . . ] com


un ventaylh per mitigar sa gran calor (Eluc. de las propr. fols and ,
i.e., The lung is the fan of the heart. To make wind [ . . . ] with a fan in
order to get alleviation from great heat). The form seems to be derived
from the O. Occ. noun ven (a variant of vent) for wind (RL :b).
In O. Cat., we also find only the form ventall with -t- (DECLC :a;
DCVB :a).
. 83 82
MLWY W#RWY, Arab. TML" "L"NYH B"LM" WTPRG
Hebrew MLWY W#RWY means filling and emptying. Hebrew MLWY
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in mPar ., and Hebrew
#RWY features, for instance, in yMaas I, b (JD , ; LW :,
; BM , ).
Arabic tamalla" al-aniya bi-l-ma" wa-tafrg means filling the vessel
with water and emptying [it] (L , ).
. 86 85 84
MZRH, Arab. MZWD, that is, a small provision bag, in which one puts
provisions for the journey
Hebrew MZRH should be read as MZWDH and means travelling bag
containing provisions (JD ; LW :, f.; KA : f., : s.v.;
BM ; cf. as well KA : f. s.v.). The Hebrew term features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel ..
Arabic mizwad means a bag, or other receptacle, for travelling provisions (L ).
For the identification, cf. EG ; the Arukh (KA :).

82 :
83 :

VO
V

84 : T" U
85 : O

P U  O

86 : O
V

mem

. 88 87
MPSPS, Arab. YTDLK
Hebrew MPSPS, part. Pi#el masc. sing. of the root PSPS, featured in
Rabbinic literature means separating, parting, tearing, as in mShab .
(JD ; LW :; BM f.). In the context of bodily care, it can also
mean to part the hair of the head as in mNaz .: (a
Nazarite may wash his hair and part it [with his fingers]).
Arabic yatadallaku means he rubbes or presses his body in washing
himself (L ). It features as dalaka in medieval medical literature,
for instance, in Maimonides On the Regimen of Health (IV, ) and is
translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: .
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned, Maimonides explains
the term as: rubbing with ones hands (MK :).
. 90 89
MHWL,
Arab. TNBWR,
o.l. TMBWR
S
.
.
.
Hebrew MHWL
means ) dance, dancing, ) chorus of singers and
.
dancers and ) a certain musical instrument (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f.; BM f.) and features in the
Bible (e.g. in Ps :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bTaan a.
Arabic t. unbur, plur. t. anabr, denotes the pandore and various types
of long-necked musical instruments. It can generally be distinguished
from the lute by its smaller sound-chest and longer neck (E.I.2 : ff.
(J.C. Chabrier); Palmer, History (see index);91 L ).
For the identification of Hebrew as Arabic t. unbur, cf. Sa#adya on
Ex ::
& (then Miriam the prophetess, Aarons sister, took a timbrel
in her hand, and all the women went out after her in dance with timbrels):

ah. (IJ ) on Ex
(S ; cf. as well SID :). Ibn Jan
: explains as: I (drums).

87 : t" P
88 : j P
89 : om. O
90 :
91

V, om. O
H.G. Palmer, A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. London .

shem tov, synonym list

The vernacular term is the O. Occ. plural tambors (Paris MS; see PSW
:aa) or its graphical variant tanbors (Vatican MS; see RL :ab)
for drums. The FEW only shows the O. Occ. form tabor (FEW :a
b). In O. Cat., the word tanbor/tambor is documented for the first
time in the th century, with Coromines considering it a loan word from
the Arabic term featured above (DECLC :ab).
. 92
MWK, that is S. MR GPN, Arab. QTWN
.
Hebrew MWK means a soft, spongy substance, hackled wool, rag, lint;
cotton wadding; pad; sponge; tow and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in mShab . (JD ; LW : f.; KA :, :; BM ;
DAS :, , , ; Low LIX; PB f., ; cf. as well Samekh
no. and Sade
no. below). Hebrew S. MR GPN means cotton, cotton
.
tree, Gossypium herbaceum L. or Gossypium arboreum L. (JD ;
LW :, ; KA :, :; AEY :; FM ; LF : f.).
Arabic qut. n designates the cotton bush, Gossypium arboreum L.
and Gossypium herbaceum L., and the product obtain from it, cotton
(DT : n. ; M ; DAS : ff., , , ; cf. as well Samekh no. ;
Pe no. and Sade
no. below). Arabic qut. na features, for instance, in
.
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
For the identification of Hebrew MWK as S. MR GPN, cf. the Arukh
(KA :): , for the identification of MWK as qut. n,
cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned above: :
(MWK: a piece of wool or cotton or something similar to
them) (MK :). For the identification of S. MR GPN and Arabic qut. n,
cf. Maimonides on mKil . (MK :).
. 93
MTQLQL, Arab. MPSWD
Hebrew MTQLQL, part. Hitpa#el masc. sing. of the root QLQL, means
disarranged, spoiled, ruined and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
mDem . (JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ).

92 : VO
93 : O

mem

Arabic mafsud means bad, corrupt, unsound, wrong, spoiled, injured,


impaired, deteriorated, infacted, ruined etc. (L ).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned above Maimonides
translates as: (MK :; cf. as well SID :).
. 94

MSPY#YN,
Arab. MWPYYN

means )
Hebrew MSPY#YN,
part. Hif#il masc. plur. of the root SP#,
making slanting, ) pouring abundantly, selling in large quantities and
) giving overmeasure and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mDem
. (JD f.; LW :, ; KA :, :; BM ff.).
Arabic muwaffin means giving and paying straight away and completely (prorsus totumque dedit aut solvit (FL :)).
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK:)
Maimonides explains as: (those who
give more than the [required] measure).
. 95
GYM"

MLH
. MH
. S. BY, Arab. MLH
. "NDR"NY, o.l. S"L
Hebrew MLH
. MH
. S. BY literally means mineral-salt. The term is not
attested in secondary literature and was possibly coined by Shem Tov to
render the Arabic milh. andaran.
Arabic milh. andaran designates rock salt (GS n. ; LFa ).
Cf. Mem no. .
Correspondingly, the vernacular term is the O. Occ., O. Cat. or Late
Latin salgema (CB ; RMM ; RL :a)/sal gema (PSW :b;
DAO :; RPA , ; DCVB :a; CA )/salgemma (RMM ,
; RL :a) designating rock salt (PSW :b).
. 97 96
MRY", Arab. G"MWS, o.l. BRWPWL
Hebrew MRY" means fatted steer and features in the Bible, e.g. in Is :
(KB ; CD :; KA :, .; BM f.; FAB f.; KT :).
94 : ! P
95 : VO
96 : O
97 :

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic gamus means buffalo (L ; BK ; JAD : f.; StS f.).


For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
[ . . . ] (What need have I of all
your sacrifices? says the LORD. I am sated with burnt offerings of
rams, and suet of fatlings, [ . . . ]):
[ . . . ] (DS ; cf. as well
SID : and IJ ).
The vernacular term featured in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the
O. Occ. brufol for buffalo (FEW :b; PSW :b). In O. Cat., we
find the same form, brfol, which is documented for the first time in
(DECLC :b). The etymon of this term is the Late Lat. BUFALUS
(< Classical Lat. BUBALUS < Gr. , see DECLC :b), with
the epenthetic -r- only documented in Occ. and Cat. The variant of the
Oxford MS seems to be a non-documented or accidental form *brfol
with metathesis of the epenthetic -r-.
. 98
MRYHH,
. Arab. TMRYK
Hebrew MRYHH,
verbal noun of the root MRH
.
. to smear (BM ),
means smearing, rubbing and features in medieval literature (KA :,
:; BM ).
Arabic tamrh has the same meaning (L ). The term features in

Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XVIII, ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
. 100 99
MDBYQ HZHB, Arab. TNK"R, o.l. BWRYYS
Hebrew MDBYQ HZHB literally means sticking of gold and is not
attested in secondary literature. It was possibly coined by Shem Tov as
a loan translation of Arabic lis. aq or lizaq ad-dahab, which designates

malachite, basic
chrysocolla, from Greek 7 gold-solder,
copper carbonate (LS ; WKAS :; GS ff.), which is also called
tinkar in Arabic (cf. below and M ).

98 :
99 : om. P
100 : U

V
P VO

mem

Arabic TNK"R means borax or tetraborate of impure potassium. It was


used to solder gold and as an antiseptic remedy for diseases of the mouth
(cf. GS f. and RS :, :).
The Hebrew term features in Nathans Hebrew translation of Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ) as a translation of Arabic lis. aq
ad-dahab, while Z has: .
The
vernacular form is the O. Occ. term borais for borax (RPA ;
also see the article DAO :). In O. Cat., the form borraix exists and
is documented for the first time in (DECLC :b). See also (for
the Late Lat. borrax) the Arab. synonym atincar given in the Alphita (Sin
:) or, without the definite article, tincar given in the Lat. translation
of Ibn Snas K. al-Qanun (Sin :).
. 101
MTHRT,
Arab. HW
.
. D
. "LMTHRH
.
Hebrew MTHRT
means water pipe of a bath, gutter and features in
.
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMiqw . (JD ; LW :, : ein
Reinigungsgefss (a vessel for cleaning); KA :, :; BM ;
KT :, ).
Arabic haw
. d. al-mat. hara means cistern or tank of the bath (L ;
2
f.; cf. haw
. d. in E.I. : ff. (A.B.M. Husain)).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
, : (and its form with
them was such that it had two tanks) (MK :).

101 :

VO

NUN
. 1

or " SQ,
o.l. "LMWNY"Q
NSDWR,
Arab. WSQ

Hebrew NSDWR,
Persian nausadur (VL :), means gum ammoniac and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit a (JD , s.v.
, LW :; SDA : Aramaic Sal ammoniac; KA :,
:).
Arabic wussaq or ussaq also designates gum ammoniac, a product
obtained from Dorema Ammoniacum Don. The North African and
Moroccan gum ammoniac is derived from the plant Ferula communis L.
var. gummifera Battandier or Ferula tingitana L. The Arabic term, which
is written in ten different ways, is derived from Persian usa (VL :)
(D :; DT :; M ; LF :). In Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, , ), the term features as iF& and is translated by
N as: ("RMWNY"Q) and by Z as: ("MWNY"Q).
The vernacular term in the Vatican and Oxford Mss is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. armoniac(h) for gomme ammoniaque, sorte de gomme-rsine
employe en mdicine pour faire empltres (i.e. gum ammoniac, a kind
of gum resin used in medicine for making plasters) (DAO :; for other
references: cf. RMA ; RPA ; AdV , among others). This word is

based on the Lat. etymon AMMONIACUS


from Gr.  (DAO
loc. cit., DCVB :b, DECLC :a). The epenthetic -r- might be
explained through the influence of words referring to medical substances
imported from Armenia and which were thus designated by the adjective
armenic (DECLC :a; see, for example, entry Tet
. : bol armenic). In
O. Occ., the term is documented for the first time around , in O. Cat.
in the year (DAO loc. cit., DECLC loc. cit.). For the identification
of Arab. ussaq /wussaq as O. Cat. armoniac(h) and its transcription in
Hebrew characters as "RMWNY"Q cf. AdV , ; GHAT :. The
variant given in the Paris MS, *almoniac, is not documented in our
sources. The -l- could be explained as a hypercorrection based upon
loan words from Arab. with the definite article (see, for example, the

1 :

VO

shem tov, synonym list

forms in the entry Kaf : alaquana, alquana, etc.) or a shift between the
liquid sounds -r- and -l-, which is very frequent in Romance languages
(see, for example, the shift in the opposite direction: Late Lat. calamita >
O. Occ./O. Cat. caramida, in the entry Alef ).
. 3 2

NTP,
o.l. MSTYQ
. Arab. MS. TKY,
.
Hebrew NTP
. means drops of stacte; incense (from the aromatic plant
Commiphora opobalsami) (KB f.; CD :; JD s.v. ;
LW : s.v. ; KA :; BM ; DAS :, ; KT :;
LF : f.) and features in the Bible in Ex :.
Arabic mas. t. ika, from Greek  mastic (LS ), means mastic gum (D :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Ex ::
(And the LORD
said to Moses: Take the herbs stacte, onycha, and galbanumthese herbs
together with pure frankincense; let there be an equal part of each):

(S ),

IJ and SF :.
The vernacular term in the Vatican and Paris MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat mastec (CB , , and others; RMA ; RM ; RMM ;
RPA , , ; RL :a; FEW :b; DECLC :a), mastech
(CB , , and others; DECLC loc. cit.), orexclusively Occ.mastic
(RMA , , ; RL :a; FEW :b) for resina del llentiscle,
pasta que la imita usada per tapar forats etc. (i.e. resin of the mastic
shrub, paste which imitates it, used to cover holes) (DECLC :a).
Its variant in the Oxford MS with an ending indicated by the Hebrew
spelling -GY may represent either mastech (with the pronunciation [t]),
mastegue (where -gu- represents a velar pronunciation; see CB , ,
; RMA ; RPA , ; FEW :b; PSW :a) or mastege
(where the -g- represents either a velar or a palatal pronunciation; see
RM ; FEW :b). All these forms are based upon the Gr. ;
the forms with an ending -ge or -gue are explained via the Arabic mas. t. ika
(see FEW :a and our explanation of the Arabic term above), the
other forms via the Gr.  (DECLC :ab).

2 : O V
3 : O V

nun

For the identification of Arab. mas. t. ika as O. Cat. mastech, cf. AdV ,
; see also the Romance term MSTYQ,
which is given as the synonym
.
for the Arabic term (spelt M" S. TKY)
in GHAT :.
.
. 5 4
NYNY", Arab. N"NKH, o.l. "MY"WS
Aramaic and Hebrew NYNY" means Bishops Weed, Ammi copticum
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b (JD ; LW :;
SDA f.; KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; KT :,
n. ; LF : ff.).
Arabic should be read as , i.e. nanahwah, and means
Bishops Weed, Ammi visnaga [L.] Lam. (DT :; M ). The Arabic
term features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX,
; XXI, ) and is translated by N and Z as: /. ("MY"WS/

"MY"WS).
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit b, p. : ,
.
The vernacular term is the Late Lat., O. Occ., O. Cat. or O. Sp. ameos
(FEW :b; DCVB :b; DCECH :a; RMA ; Sin :,
:, and others) for sorte dombellifre (kind of umbellifer) (FEW
loc. cit.). In O. Occ., this form is documented for the first time in
(see FEW loc. cit.). According to FEW :a, the term was borrowed from the language of pharmacists in the genitive case (((),
Latin ameos); cf. the following quotation given in the FEW: Ameos,
vulgus pharmacopularum vocat, quod recte dicitur Ammi (Est. ).
In Sin , it is stated that Ammi visnaga Lam. is a particular meaning of M. Lat. ameos that might have been restricted to Spain, but
note that the synonymy of ameos and the Arabic nanahwah already
see Sin ,
appears in the Alphita, which is of French origin (nenuche;
n. ).
For the identification of Arab. nanahwah as Lat./O. Cat. ameos, also cf.
AdV , ; see also GHAT :, where we find the O. Cat. synonym
"MY"WS for the corrupted spelling of the Arab. term NNWKH.

4 : V
5 : O

shem tov, synonym list

. 8 7 6
RMWN, Arab. GLNR, o.l. BL"WSTY"
NS. SL
.
RMWN means pomegranate blossom and features in
Hebrew NS. SL
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBer b (JD , ; LW :, :;
SDA : Aramaic ; KA :; BM ; LF : ff.).
Arabic gullanar, from Persian gul-i anar pomegranate rose or blossom (VL :; : ff.), has the same meaning (DT :; M ). The
term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is trans and by Z: (BL"WSTY"Y).
lated by N as: (BLWSTY"
. S)
.
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mShebi . (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Paris MS is the M. Lat. balaustia (as used,
e.g., in the Alphita, instead of the original BALAUSTIUM indicated in
ThLL :, ff.; DuC :c; see Sin ,; Sin ba; CA ),
which also existed as a loan word in O. Occ. and O. Cat. for fleur du
grenadier sauvage (blossom of the wild pomegranate tree) (DAO :
[i.e. RMA ]; CB ; DCVB :a). This word could also refer to
the fruit or the plant itself, e.g. in O. Occ. (DAO :; RL :b). The
variant in the Vatican MS is the plural of the Romance word; the variant
in the Oxford MS must be corrupt.
For the identification of Arab. gullanar as Late Lat. balaustia and its
O. Cat. loan word cf. AdV , ; see as well GHAT :, where we
find the Arab. term and its O. Cat. synonym in the plural form BLBSTY"
. S
(the second Bet represents the diphthong -au-).
.
NS. HHLB,
Arab. MHLB
.
.
The Hebrew term NS. HHLB
is variously explained as ) spurge, )
.
ornithogalum, ) Asphodelus microcarpus, ) Orchis anatolicus and
) parsley (JD s.v. ; LW :; KA :, :; BM esp.
n. ; AEY :; DAS :; FM ; FZ f.; LA :; LF : ff.,
:; cf. as well Het
. no. ) and features, for instance, in mShebi
..
Arabic mahlab
designates plum tree of mahaleb (black cherry tree),
.
Prunus mahaleb seu cerasus L. and Var. (DT : n. ; M ; DAS :).
6 :
7 : VO

8 : O V

nun

In his commentary on mShebi . (MK :) and . (MK :),


Maimonides identifies NS. HHLB
as parsley (cf. DT :
.
n. ; M ); according to Kohut (KA :), should be corrected to = +BW7 (a spurge variety, cf. FL :, s.v. T?:  W7
(sic)).
According to Kafih. (MK : n. ), Maimonides wrote in
the first version of his commentary, possibly because of a similarity in
terms, but then corrected it to . Lw (LF :) assumes that
Maimonides read wrongly instead of reading (sahlab),
which
.
designates Orchis hircina L. (LF :; ID :; cf. as well D :).
See as well AQ, fol. b:
(NS. HHLB
is and this is a plant that is very well-known with
.
the physicians) and ShM : ,

(NS. HHLB
.

and KRYSY SDH is and one commentator (i.e. Maimonides) says


it is , but this is not correct, because in the whole Halakhic literature
it is only mentioned together with edible herbs and plants, while is
neither a herb, nor is it edible).

.
NRD, Arab. ND
Hebrew NRD, from Greek  (LS ), means nard, Nardostachys Jatamansi D.C., which was used for perfumes. The term features
in the Bible (e.g. in Song :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bKer a
(KB f.; CD :; JD ; LW :, ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY :; FO f.; KT :, n. ff.; LF : ff.).
Arabic nadd means a certain kind of perfume with which one fumigates; a certain wood with which one fumigates; a compound of aloeswood aromatised with musk and ambergris (L ; M ; Wiedemann, Aufstze :: Parfum aus Ambra, Aloe und Moschus).9
Ibn Janah. (IJ ) identifies NRD as (rose; M );10 but cf. gloss
MS Rouen (n. ): () 0,), likewise al-Fas (SF :) and Sa#adya (Song
9 E. Wiedemann, Aufstze zur Arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. vols., Hildesheim-New York .
10 Cf. Joseph Ben Judah Ben Jacob Ibn Aknin (), Hitgallut ha-Sodot weHofa#at ha-Me"orot. Perush Shir ha-Shirim. Ed. A.S. Halkin, Jerusalem , p. , l. :
: .

shem tov, synonym list

:; SH ) translate it as: (M ). Ibn Quraysh (IQR :)


identifies it with: (fragrant nard; M ).
. 11
NK"T, Arab. KRWB, o.l. KRWBY" S
Hebrew NK"T means ladanum resin, Astragalus tragacantha or Astragalus gummifer, and features in the Bible, e.g. in Gen : (KB ;
CD :; KA : f.; BM ; AEY :; FO f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic harrub or harnub is a loan word from Hebrew or from

SDA ; FF ). The Arabic term refers to the


(JD ;
Aramaic
carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L. and Var, and its fruit the carob (DT :;
M ; DAS : f., , , ; :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Gen : (S ); IJ , and
SID :. See as well MCS :.
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. car(r)obia for Johannisbrot (carob) (FEW :a; DAO :), a loan word from the Arabic harrub. It existed alongside the forms courroubia (first doc.: ),

carobla,
carruba, carova, garrova, among others (DAO loc. cit.). In O.
Cat., the forms with an initial /g/ (like garrofa) seem to be much more
frequent than forms with an initial /k/ (see DECLC :ba).
. 15 14 13 12
NMYYH, Arab. SNWR, i.e. the wild cat, o.l. Q"NPYR
Hebrew NMYYH means marten and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in bHul
. b (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; BH index,
s.v.; FAB f.: mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon; LZ f.; cf. as well for
Herpestes ichneumon BAL and for marten, Matres foina, BAL ).
Arabic sinnawr means cat (L ; BK ; JAD : ff.; StS f.).
For the identification of NMYYH as sinnawr cf. the explanation of the
term NMYYH in the Arukh (KA :): (a small animal
like a cat).

11 :
12 : V

O  P

13 : VO
14 : O
15 : om. PV

nun

The vernacular term seems to be an O. Occ. or O. Cat. compound


expression *can fer, literally wild dog, non-domesticated dog (for can,
quan, qan, chan dog, see DAO :; FEW :a; RL :a;
DCVB :a; for fer wild, see FEW :a; RL :a; DCVB :b).
Neither in O. Occ. nor in O. Cat., any documentation of this term could
be found, but, in O. Cat., the synonymous expression ca salvatge, which
also literally means wild dog, can be retrieved in a text from Majorca
(; see DECLC :b). This term does not necessarily refer to a nondomesticated dog: for O. Occ., there exists an Old Languedocian can
salvage chien de forte taille servant la chasse (dog of big size that serves
for hunting) (DAO :). The adjective fer is, however, not unusual for
designating wild animals: until today in the Pyrenees, people frequently
use porc fer wild boar or gat fer wild cat (see DECLC :b).
. 16

NHRT
HHZH,
Arab. KSWNH
"LS. DR
.
.
Hebrew NHRT
(read NeHiRuT)
means roughness and is attested in
.
.
Hebrew medieval medical literature (cf. BM ), while NHRT
HHZH
.
.
means roughness of the chest.
Arabic hasu nat as. -s. adr also means roughness of the chest (for hasu f.).

na see L
The term hasu na features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VI, ,

; VII, ; XXV,
; cf. BMMb , ) and is translated by N as: and
by Z as: .
. 19 18 17
NRTYQ, Arab. S. DPH, o.l. QWQYLYH
Hebrew NRTYQ, from Greek ! (LS ; KG :; LR
), means case, casket and esp. a physicians medicine chest and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in yBer V, b (JD ; LW : f.;
KA :, :; BM ; KT :, , n. ; :; Low LXV;
PB f.). The term is also used to designate a snails shell (cf. LW :,
:, s.v. ; KA :). The Hebrew term features in book thirty of
16 :
17 : V
18 : VO
19 : O

O V

shem tov, synonym list

the Sefer ha-Shimmush (MS Paris BN hb. , fol. a, col. ) for


Arabic s. adafa in the non-attested sense of a pan used for boiling butter
into which cotton wool should be dipped and then applied to an aching
tooth.
Arabic s. adafa means pearl oyster, sea shell (L ).
The meaning of the Arabic term is confirmed by the vernacular word,
which is is the O. Occ. and O. Cat. cauquilha/cauquila shell (only
documented in FEW :b; AdV :). Note that the Oxford MS
uses Bet instead of Waw, which is the usual spelling for the diphthong
-au- (see the introduction), in contrast to a possible reading -u- or -osuch as in Fr. coquille.
For the identification between the Arabic and the O. Cat., see GHAT
:.
. 21 20
NRTQYM, Arab. " S. D"P
For Hebrew NRTQYM, plur. of NRTYQ, cf. no. above.
For Arabic as. daf, plur. of s. adafa, cf. no. above.
. 22
NWS. T HPYRWT, Arab. ZGB
Hebrew NWS. H means feathers, down (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,
.; BM ), while NWS. T HPYRWT, which is not attested in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov to designate the
down, that is the soft, short hairs on some fruits.
Arabic zagab means down, or the yellow small hairs upon the feathers
of the young bird, or small and soft hair and feathers (L ; FL :).
But as the elative azgabu, the root zgb also occurs in the sense of down,
upon certain fruits, cf. L : IP6& N_ (A species of cucumber having
upon it what resembles the IP6 [or down] of fur [ . . . ]). Cf. Sade
.
.

20 : V
21 : O
22 :

nun
. 27 26 25 24 23
NHMYM,
Arab. MTSKNYN, and this [features] in Isaiah [as]:
.
(You who inflame yourselves among the terebinths)

Hebrew NHMYM,
part. Nif#al plur. masc. of HMM,
means inflaming
.
.
themselves and features in the Bible, e.g, in Is : (KB ; CD :;
BM ).
Arabic mutasahhanin means warming themselves (D :).

For the identification,


cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
[ . . . ] (you who inflame yourselves among the terebinths):
[ . . . ] (DS ), and IJ .
.
NS. , Arab. B"ZY
Hebrew NS. means falcon, hawk, and features in the Bible (e.g. in Lev
:) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHul
. . (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; SDA : Aramaic falcon; KA :; BM ;
BAL , ; BH index, s.v.; FAB f.; LZ ).
Arabic baz means several varieties of the hawk or falcon (L ;
JAD : ff.; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev : (S ), SID :
and IJ : c6  . See as well SF :.
. 28
NYMY HMYM, Arab. #LQ, o.l. "YRWG S
Hebrew NYMY HMYM means leeches and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bAZ b (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ;
LZ f.).
Arabic #alaq has the same meaning (L ; D :; JAD :; StS ;
cf. as well Ayin no. below).
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit b, p. : ,
. For = NYMY HMYM, see JD ; SDA .
23 : ! P
24 :
25 :
26 : O

O
VP

27 : ! P
28 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

The vernacular term seems to be the plural of the O. Occ. word eruge
for grub (RL :a), and especially for leech (PSW :a). See the
quotation Qui pren eruges et aranhas com apela fadas estranhas (Auz.
Cass. ) (i. e., Who takes leeches and spiders that are called fadas
estranhas (a kind of spiders, lit. strange fairies)). The form in the MS
clearly shows a palatal sound indicated by the Rafe over the Gimel, so we
cannot read it here as the O. Occ. variant or the O. Cat. equivalent erugas
larva of certains insects (DECLC :a; DCVB :a) pronounced
with a velar [g].
. 29
NMLK, Arab. BDYLH
Hebrew NMLK, Nif#al of the root MLK, means ) to take council, to
ask advice or permission, ) to reconsider, change ones mind and )
to debate with someone, think over and features in the Bible (e.g. in
Neh :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBer b (KB f.; CD :;
JD f.; LW : f.; KA : f.; BM f.). The term NMLK in
the sense of the object of ones reconsideration, i.e., substitute, is not
attested in Hebrew secondary literature and was possibly coined by Shem
Tov as a translation of the Arabic badl.
Arabic badl means a substitute; a thing given, or received, or put, or
done, instead of, in place of, in lieu of, or in exchange for, another thing;
a compensation (L ).
. 32 31 30
NPWS, Arab. "SPN"RYH, o.l. PSTYN"GH
.
Hebrew NPWS or NPWS. designates ) radish, Raphanus sativus L., and
) rape, Brassica napus L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
mKil . (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :; DAS :;
FM ; LA f.:; LF : f.).
Arabic isfannariya means carrot, Daucus carota L. (DT : n. ;
M ).

29 :
30 : V

VO

31 : O
32 : VO

nun

Sa#adya (SAM :) explains as: (carrot), while, according to EG , it is identical to (= Aramaic ; cf. SDA
s.v. : long radish). Maimonides on mKil . explains the term as:
7o 0A- (Syrian radish).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. word pastenaga for carrot (DAO :; DAO Suppl. :; RL :a; DCVB :b; FEW
:a; or, in another spelling, pastenagua, see RMA ; CB ).
.
NQ#, Arab. NQW#
The Hebrew NQ# is, according to KB , a by-form of , and only
occurs as K cleft, cavity, ravine in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil .
(JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ); Shem Tov probably uses the
non-documented verb NQ# in the sense of to macerate via semantic
borrowing from the Arabic naqa#.
Arabic naqa# means to macerate, soak, steep (L ).
The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; cf.
BMMb ) and is translated by both N and Z as: .
. 34 33
NRTYQ HHLZWN,
i.e. the covering/shell above it and in the language of
.

the Bible it is SBLWL


and in Arab. HLZWN
.
Hebrew NRTYQ HHLZWN
means snail shell (for HLZWN,
cf. BM
.
.

; for Hebrew NRTYQ, cf. Nun no. and above). Hebrew SBLWL
means snail and features in the Bible, e.g. in Ps : (KB ). For
Hebrew and Arabic HLZWN,
cf. Het
.
. no. above.
. 36 35
N#S. WS. , Arab. SDR, o.l. "WNGL" QBLYNH
Hebrew N#S. WS. designates camel thorn, Alhagi camelorum Fisch., and
features in the Bible, e.g. in Is : (KB ; CD :; BM f.;
AEY : s.v. ; DAS :; FO ; LF : ff.).
33 : O V
34 :

V
35 : e P
36 : O V

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic sidr means Christs thorn, Rhamnus spina Christi L. (DT :;


M ; DAS :, , , , : Zizyphus spina Christi).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(and they shall all come and
alight in the rugged wadis, and in the clefts of the rocks, and in all the
thornbrakes, and in all the watering places):
(DS ;
RT ; IJ , and SID :). According to David b. Abraham alFas (SF :), it is a herb called (squill), also called
(borax). See as well MCS :.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. ongla cavalhina or ungla cavalina
for Tussilago farfara L. (documented for the first time around
(DAO :; DAO Suppl. :; FEW :a; CB ; CB )), a loan
translation from the M. Latin ungula caballina (see Sin , n. ; Sin
a for further references). In Cat., we could only find the terms ungla
dase or ungla de cavall to describe this plant (see DCVB :b and
DECLC :b).
.
NWP, Arab. "QLYM
Hebrew NWP means, amongst others, height and features in the Bible,
e.g. in Ps : (KB ; CD :; BM ). In medieval Hebrew
literature the term also features, in addition to the Arabic loanword
, in the sense of climate (BM f.; KTP :).
Arabic iqlm means province, district, climate (D :; HaF ).
For the identification, cf. IJ , SID :, and SF :.
. 38 37
NDL, Arab. #QRB"N or SQWLWPNDRYWN, o.l. STR"Q
.
Hebrew NDL means polyp, centipede and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bErub b (JD ; KA : f.; BM f.; BAL f.;
BH :; :, ; FAB f.; LZ f.; cf. as well SB :). The term,
which comes from Syriac dandala also occurs in a botanical sense,

37 : V
38 :

VO

nun

referring to the plant Ceterach officinarum Willd. or Scolopendrium


vulg. (KA :; LA f.:; Nldeke, Beitrge f.).39
Arabic #uqruban means scorpion, or a certain venomous reptile
(L ; BK , JAD : ff. and StS s.v. #aqrab) and also designates
the plant Asplenium Ceterach L. (= Ceterach officinarum Willd. and
Var.) (D :; DT :; DAS :), which is also called squlufandriyun, from Greek (= (, so called because of a perceived similarity to the scolopendra (Arab. squlufandriyun)) (LS ;
D :), or the plant Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Scolopendrium
vulgare SW., harts tongue (M ; ID : and : cf. as well Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, )).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. word satarac for Minzkraut, Ceterach officinarum Willd. and Var. (DAO :; PSW :a;
FEW :a; DECLC :b), taken from the Arabic sit. arag (FEW
:a) or the Persian sat. rak (DECLC loc. cit.). According to DECLC
(loc. cit.), in O. Cat, the plant name is documented in the middle of the
th c. and appears as the variant seterac (ceterach, ceterac, cidrac are
modern forms).
. 40
NPH, Arab. MNHL

Hebrew NPH means fan; winnow; sieve and features in the Bible (e.g.
in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMen . (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW :; SDA s.v. ; BM ; BKH ff., ; KT :,
n. ).
Arabic munhal or munhul means sieve; flour bag (D :; W ;
ff.).

DAS : f.,
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).

39

Th. Nldeke, Beitrge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, Strassburg .


VO

40 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 42 41
NKWT, Arab. ZM"NH, o.l. QWNTRYY
T.
.
Hebrew NKWT, from  (cf. KB f.; CD : ff.; JD ; LW : f.;
SD f.; BM ), means invalidity and is only attested for modern
literature (EM ).
Arabic zamana means disease, or an evil affection; a disease of long
continuance: such as cripples, or deprives of the power to move or to
stand or to walk (L ). The Arabic term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (VIII, ; cf. BMMb ) as DL +TB74 (with that
chronic illness) where it is translated by N as: .
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ.
or O. Cat. adjective contreyt/contrait for paraltic, esguerrat (i.e. paralyzed, mutilated) (DCVB :a; DECLC :a), geschwcht, gelhmt
(i.e. weakened, paralyzed) (PSW :b). The form used in the Oxford
MS must be read as the O. Occ. variant contrach (FEW :b;
DECLC :a; PSW :b), where -YYG represents the sound [t] in
analogy to possible O. Occ. and O. Cat. spellings of this sound.
. 44 43
NQYWN, Arab. BHR"N,
i.e. the fight of nature against the disease
.
Hebrew NQYWN features in the Bible (e.g. Ps :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in bBer a) and means, besides other things, cleanness
(KB f.; CD :; JD ; LW :). In medieval medical literature,
the term means crisis (of an illness) and features, for instance, in Moses
ibn Tibbons Hebrew translation of Ibn Rushds commentary on Ibn Snas
Urgu za f t. -t. ibb (BM ; Steinschneider, Die hebrischen bersetzungen, p. ; see this introduction).
Arabic buhr
. an means crisis of a disease (L ). The Arabic term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (II, ; III, et passim;
cf. BMMa and ) where it is translated by N a.o. as: ///
and by Z as: /// //

S/
TYRMYNY/
(BHR"N/
BWHR"N/
BHR"N,
o.l. QRYSYZ/
QRYSY
.
.
.
.
TYRYMYNY"W).
.
41 : VO
42 :
43 : V
44 : O

O V

nun

. 46 45

it is a Persian name, meaning digesting, o.l.


NQLWWS, Arab. GW"R
S,
LYQTW"RY
.
Hebrew NQLWWS or NQLBS, named after Nikolaos ( ) of
Damascus, designates a variety of the date, nicolaos dates and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mAZ . (JD s.v ; LW :;
SD ; KA :; FE ; FM ; FO ; KG : f.; LF : ff.).
Concerning the meaning of the term cf. bAZ b: As to Nikolaus,
when
.
R. Dimi came he said in the name of R. Hama
b.
Joseph
that
it
is
kuria
t. i
.
(cf. JD , s.v. : cariota, caryota, a species of dates, from Greek
5 (LS : date)). Said Abaye to R. Dimi: We learn nik. olaus,
and we do not know what it is, so you tell us it is kuriat. i which we
do not know either, where then have you benefited us?Said he: I have
benefited you this much: were you to go to Palestine and say nik. olaus
no one would know what it is; but if you say kuriat. i they will know and
will show it to you.
Arabic gawaris, from Persian guwaras or kuwaris (VL :, :),
means a thing that causes food to digest (L ; cf. FAQ , quoting
Galen: gawaris(n) ist ein persisches Wort mit der Bedeutung verdauend
[ . . . ]) and designates a medicine called stomachic (FAQ ff.). The
Arabic term features as '[ Y( (the cumin stomachic) in Maimonides On Asthma (XIII, ; cf. BMA ) and is transcribed both by
Joshua Shatibi and Samuel Benveniste as: .
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned, Maimonides explains
the term as: (also an important kind of
herb) (MK :).
For the identification, cf. the Arukh (:), s.v. :
(Another explanation: Mix it with
spices, and prepare a theriac from it. According to some, it is a
(stomachic)). Cf. ShM :
.
( is, according to the Mishnah, a kind of rare and
expensive herb, which they used for their cultus during their festivals.
And in the Arukh, it is said that it is something mixed with spices and
that some explain it as ).

45 : VO
46 :

shem tov, synonym list

For the vernacular term, the variant used in the Paris and Vatican MSS
is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. lectuari/lectoari for lectuaire (i.e. electuary)
(RL :b; CB , , , ; RPA ; RMM ), preparat
farmacutic que forma una massa pastosa, compost de plvores o pulpa
aglutinades amb mel o aixarop (i.e., pharmaceutical preparation that
forms a mushy mass, composed of powders or pulps agglutinated with
honey or sirup) (DCVB :a and :b). This is an adaptation from
the Late Lat. ELECTUARIUM (DuC :a) mentioned for the first time
by Isidore of Seville (FEW :ab). The form used in the Oxford MS
could be identified as the O. Cat. variant lletuari (DCVB :a), where
LY- seems to represent the initial palatal l- that is typical for Catalan (spelt
ll in Latin-based writing).
.
NTQ, Arab. KLP
Hebrew NTQ means Trychophytosis, a fungus in the hair or beard and
features in the Bible (e.g. in Lev :) or Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNeg
. (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :; Low LXV; PB ,
).
Arabic kalaf means reddish-brown, reddish-black, colour; freckles,
pimples of face, skin (WKAS :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev ::

(the priest shall examine the affection. If it appears to go


deeper than the skin and there is thin yellow hair in it, the priest shall
pronounce him unclean; it is a scall, a scaly eruption in the hair or beard):

(S ; cf. as well

IJ ).
. 47
NY#, Arab. MK" T,
. o.l. MWQ, i.e. the phlegm which flows from the nose
Hebrew NY# means nasal mucus and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mNid . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ) and medieval
medical literature (cf. below and BM ).

47 :

nun

Arabic muhat. means mucus; snivel; what flows from the nose (L
features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Apho). The term
risms (IX, ; cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as:
and by Z as: .
In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :), Maimonides explains (= ) as: (saliva, spittle; cf. WKAS : f.).
In his commentary on Maimonides Mishneh Torah, Tanhum
Yerushalmi
.
remarks that, according to some, NY# is , while, according to others,
it is (ShM ; cf. as well KA :).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. word moc for Rotz,
Nasenschleim (i.e. snot, nasal mucus) (FEW :b; PSW :b),
humor esps segregat per les glndules mucoses (i.e., thick liquid secreted by the mucous glands) (DCVB :b; DECLC :b).
. 49 48
SRWP,

i.e. a piece of copper, o.l. QWBRY "RS


NH
Arab. RWSKTG,
. ST
Hebrew is not attested in current dictionaries and was possibly
coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation of Arabic nuh
(cf.
. as muharraq
.
below) in the sense of burned copper.
Arabic #Ty%)( (rusahtag) means burned copper and is, according to
Ibn Bayt.ar (IBF :, no. ), a synonym for Arabic nuh
. as muharraq
.
(D :; GS n. ), which also features in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N and Z as: . Arabic
had
. dat al-hark
. us (= al-harq
. us) means a piece of copper (for Arabic

(LS ), cf. D :).
harq
u
s,
from
Greek
.
The vernacular term seems to be the O. Occ. compound term coure/
covre ars, which literally means burned copper (for O. Occ. coure/covre,
see DAO :; PSW :b; FEW ,b; for the O. Occ. past
participle ars, see the feminine form, arsa, documented in RL :b).
.
NQWDWT, Arab. BRS
Hebrew NQWDWT means speckled and features in the Bible, e.g. in
Gen : (KB ; CD :; BM ):
(But that same day he removed
48 :
49 : P

VO

shem tov, synonym list

the streaked and spotted he-goats and all the speckled and spotted shegoats).
Arabic baras means small specks, differing from the rest of the colour;
a whiteness that appears upon the nails; white specks in the skin (L ).
The Arabic term is also used, in addition to baras. , for leprosy (L ibid.),
for which the common Hebrew term is .
The term baras is used by Ibn Janah. (IJ ) as the Arabic equivalent
to Hebrew , which features in Zech : (see Samekh no. ), and
is explained by him as: v,)
 FKB (red and white specks); Tanhum
.
Yerushalmi on Zech : remarks that, according to some, is baras,
while according to others, it is balaq (cf. L : Blackness and whiteness
[together, generally in horses]).50 The same term balaq is used by Sa#adya
(S ) as an explanation of (spotted) in Gen :. See as well
MCS :.
. 51
NY#YY, Arab. MK" TY
.
Hebrew NY#YY, from NY# (cf. above Nun no. ), means slimy and
features in medieval medical literature (cf. BM ).
Arabic muhat. means slimy, mucous (cf. above Nun no. ) and

features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; XX, ; cf. BMMb
) and is translated by N as: and by Z as: /
.

50 Tanhum ha-Yerushalmis Commentary on the Minor Prophets. A critical edition with


.
an introduction translated into Hebrew and annotated by Hadassa Shy, Jerusalem ,
pp. .
51 : O

SAMEKH
. 1
SMLK, Arab. Y"SMYN
Hebrew SMLK means jasmine, jasminum sambac, Jasminum Sambac L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBer b (JD ;
LW :; KA : s.v. , :, :; AEY :; FEB ; LF
: f.; :).
Arabic yasamn also designates jasmine, jasminum officinale (D
:; DT : n. ; M ; DAS :, ; LF : f.).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bBer b, p. .
. 2
SM", Arab. ZRNYK, o.l. "WRPYMNT.
Aramaic SM" means drug, pigment, essence (JD ; LW :; SD ;
SDA ; KA :, :; BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. mHul
. .. The Aramaic term is explained by Rashi on bMeg b as:
(cf. as well KA :).
Arabic zirnh or zarnh, from Persian zarnh or zarnq or zarniy or

arsenic, a well-known

zarnah (VL :),


means
kind of stone (or
mineral), of which there are several species; one species is white (white
arsenic); another is red (red arsenic, also called sandarac); and another is
yellow (i.e. orpiment, or yellow arsenic) (L ; GS ff.; RS :).
The Arabic term features in medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides On Asthma (XII, ) and is transcribed by Joshua
Shatibi as: and translated by Samuel Benveniste as:
("WRPWMYNT)
. (cf. BMA ).
For the identification, cf. the Arukh (KA :) which gives the Arabic
synonym and ("WRPYMYNTW)
as a Romance syn.
onym.
The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS is the O. Occ.
or O. Cat. aurpi(g)men(t) or orpiment for natural arsenic sulfide
1 : O V
2 : O

shem tov, synonym list

(DAO :; RL :b; RM , ; RPA , ; CB , , ;


DECLC :a; DCVB :a). The spelling with Bet instead of Waw in the
first syllable in the Vatican MS clearly indicates the diphthong /au/ and
does not allow the reading orpiment, which is more frequent in Cat. (see
DCVB :a; DECLC :a).
For the identification of Romance (O. Cat.) "WRPYMYNT. as Arab.
ZRNYK, see GHAT :; see also AdV , , where Arab. zirnh

or zarnh is identified as O. Cat. orpiment.

. 4 3
SQR", Arab. MGR", o.l. SNPYRH or L"PYS MGN" TY
. S
Hebrew SQR" means red paint and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mShab : (JD ; LW : f.; SDA s.v. ; KA :, :;
BM ; DAS :).
Arabic magra means red earth, with which one dyes; rubric (L ;
M ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mShab . (MK :):
,.
The first vernacular term could not be clearly identified, but it is
certainly related to the Lat. CINNABARIS for cinnabar, vermillion
(FEW :ba), or rather the M. Lat. cinabrium, for which a
variant cinaprium is documented in Sin , n. . If we assume that
the position of the Yod is an error, we might obtain a reading *cinapria.
Alternatively, as the Pe is more usual than the Bet in Latin and Romance
(see below), this might indicate that SNPYRH corresponds to one of
the numerous M. Latin adaptations of the Arabic zungufr, for which we
may quote zinfur and vzifur (see Sin s.v. aziniafor; CA ). As for
O. Occ., we only find the forms cynobre, cinobri and cinabrion (FEW
loc. cit.; DAO :), for Cat. only the form cinabri is attested and
this very late (DCVB :b; DECLC :b). The synonymy with the
Hebrew and Arabic words stems from the color of the substance; see
entry Samekh of this edition.
The second vernacular term is the Lat. expression lapis magnetis for
magnetic stone (for the commentary see entry Mem , see also the
entry Alef , caramita). This synonym was probably added because

3 : VO
4 : V

samekh

of the reddish colour of a certain kind of magnetite (cf. ALap ; LXIX


:d; Sin ).
. 6 5
SRQ, Arab. ZRQWN, o.l. WYRMYLYWN
Hebrew SRQ, means paint, yellow paint; bright red; cosmetic paint and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSanh a, bKet a (JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; BM ; DAS :; KG :; KT :,
n. ; Low LXVIII; PB ). In addition to , we also find (cf.
JD ) and the adjective ] (e.g. in Zech :) in the sense of sorrel,
foxy-red, light red (KB ).
Arabic zarqun, originally sarqun (cf. Persian VL :: sarqun), is
derived from Greek lead oxide (LS ) and means Minium
(red lead) (D : couleur de feu, ou bien de Q(6, couleur dor
(colour of fire, respectively of Q(6, colour of gold); M ; GS f.).
For the identification, cf. the Arukh (KA :), and SID ::
.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. vermelhon or vermilhon for red
makeup (PSW :a; RPA ; for the Marsilian vermilhoun, varmilhoun for sulfide, documented for the first time in , see DAO :).
The O. Cat. verme(y)l(l) means sulfur vermell de mercuri, usat en pintura (i.e., red sulfide of mercury, used in painting), documented for
the first time in (DCVB :b; for further documentation see
DECLC :a) and is glossed by the Latin minium in Onofre Pou7 (see
DECLC loc. cit.).
In GHAT :, we find the Romance (O. Cat.) WYRMYLW (vermell for red paint, see also entry Samekh of this edition) as a synonym for the Arab. entry ZNGP"R. Cf. also the O. Sp. bermejon, which
regularly appears in the Sin as a synonym of the Latin version of the
Arabic term (Sin a: Cinabrio reducido a polvo, que toma color
rojo vivo, i.e. cinnabar reduced to powder, which takes a bright red
colour).

5 : add. O
6 : O
7

V
Onofre Pou, Thesaurus puerilis, Valncia , p. .

shem tov, synonym list

. 10 9 8

SPWN, Arab. S. "BWN, o.l. SBWN


Hebrew SPWN or S. PWN, from Greek  (LS ; KG :;
LR : Neubildung), which in turn comes from Latin sapo (GH
:), means soap (JD , ; LW :; KA :; DAS :;
KT :; Low LXXV; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
bNid a or bBQ b.
Arabic s. abun, also from Greek  (LS ), has the same meaning (L ; M ; DAS : f.; E.I.2 :, s.v. s. abun (A. Dietrich)). Cf.
Mem no. .
For the identification, cf. KA :: () .
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. sabon (< Lat. SAPO < Germanic *saipn-, cf. FEW :b) for
soap (PSW :a; FEW :b; RMA ; RPA ; DCVB :b;
DECLC :b). In O. Cat., the form sabon existed alongside the more
frequent form sab and is documented for the first time in (see
DCVB loc. cit.). The variant in the Oxford MS with the spelling Yod
instead of Waw seems to be corrupt.

For the identification of Romance (O. Cat.) SBWN


as Arab. S. "BWN,
see GHAT :.
. 14 13 12 11

SYG HKSP, Arab. KBT "LPDH,


DRGNT
. i.e. "QLYMY", [o.l.] " SKWRYH

Hebrew SYG means dross, base metal; refuse; galina, silver dross and
features in the Bible in the plural form, e.g. in Is :, and in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bBekh . SYG HKSP means silver dross and features
in the Bible, e.g. in Prov : ( ) (KB ; JD ; LW : f.;
KA :; BM ; KT :).
Arabic habat al-fid. da
. means dross of silver when it is molten (for

habat see L ; D :) and is also called iqlmiya al-fid. da


. (cf. GS
following

al-Kind). Arabic iqlmiya or qlmiya, from Greek 


8 : V
9 :

10 : O V
11 :
12 : O P
13 :

O V

14 :

O V

samekh

(LS ), generally designates cadmia (D :; M ; GS ff., ,


). Arabic iqlmiya features in medieval medical literature, for instance,
in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as:
and by Z as: .
Sa#adya (SM ) translates (Prov :) as:
(spurious silver), while David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :) translates the same term as: (adulterated silver); cf. as well
SID :: : (Prov :) (impure
silver dross).
The vernacular term has to be read as O. Occ or O. Cat. *escoria
dargent, literally silver slag, where escoria is an adaptation of the Lat.
scoria metal slag (see FEW :a; GH : scoria (< Gr. )).
Since we have no further documentation of this word either in O. Cat. or
in O. Occ., we cannot tell if it is a spontaneous formation created by our
author or if it was already established in one or both of these languages
note that in Cat., the word is documented for the first time in (see
DECLC :a). However, it was not unusual for Romance languages in
the Middle Ages to use escoria as a loan word, see. e.g., its widespread
use in O. Sp. texts (see DCECH :ab; Sin :, : as escoria
de oro, :; DETEMA :c). For the O. Occ. or O. Cat. argent silver,
see DAO :; FEW :a; RL :a; PSW :a; DCVB :a;
DECLC :a.
. 16 15

SYG HBRZL, Arab. KBT "LHDYD,


o.l. " SKWRYH
DY PR" or PRWGY
.
Hebrew SYG HBRZL means iron dross (for Hebrew SYG, cf. references
above no. ).
Arabic habat al-had
. d means dross or rust of iron (GS , ).
vernacular

The first
term given in this entry here is *escoria de ferre
for slag of iron (for escoria, see entry Samekh ; for ferre, see entry Het
.
). The second vernacular term seems to be a non-documented O. Occ.
form *ferruge, a variant of ferruga for filings or cuttings of iron (RL
:b).

15 : O
16 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 21 20 19 18 17
SPGNYN, Arab. QT"YP,
and this is a pancake with honey or a doughnut
.
with honey and almonds, o.l. BWNYYT. S
Hebrew SPGNYN means cakes made of spongy dough, a sort of cracker
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; DAS :, ; KT :)
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel ..
Arabic qat. a"if means pancakes with honey and butter (D :;
DAS :,; RAP , n. , ) and features in medieval
medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides On Asthma (III, ) and
is translated as: by the anonymous translator (cf. BMA).
Maimonides on mKel . identifies SPGNYN as "isfing: sort of fritters
eaten with honey (D :) and zalabiyya fritters or puff pastry with
honey or almond (cf. Het
. no. above). For the identification of
Hebrew SPGNYN as Arabic zalabiyya, cf. EG and LO Perushim
on bPes a, p. . Cf. as well ShM : [ . . . ]
[ . . . ] ( is and are also called
).
The vernacular term in the Vatican MS is the O. Occ. bonheta for cake,
pastry (PSW :b; for further documentation see DECLC :b).
In Northern Catalan (Conflent, Vallespir), the diatopic variants bunyeta
and bonyeta exist alongside the standard bunyol for massa de forma
rodonenca, feta de pasta de farina ben batuda i mesclada amb alguna
altra substncia (patata, bacall, etc.), i fregida amb oli o sam (i.e. pastry
of roundish shape, made of flour dough, which has been well stirred and
mixed with some other substances (potatoes, stockfish, etc.) and fried
with oil or lard) (DCVB :a and b). The variants in the Paris and
Oxford MSS have to be interpreted as its plural. In the variants used in
the Vatican and Paris MSS, the palatal sound -nh- is clearly indicated by
the spelling -NYY-.

17 : ! P
18 : P

19 : O
20 : V
21 :

O V

samekh

. 23 22
SWLTNYT, Arab. SLHPH,
o.l. TR
.
. TWGH
.
Hebrew SWLTNYT means a small fish; anchovy, sardine; herring; sandsmell (JD ; LW :; KA :, :, : s.v. ; LFa ;
LZ f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bHul
. a, bAZ
a.
Arabic sulahf
. a or sulhaf
. a or sulahf
. ah or silahf
. ah means the tortoise
and also the turtle or sea-tortoise (L ; D :; BK ; JAD : ff.;
KSZ :, :; StS , ; E.I.2 :, s.v. sulahf
. a (F. Vir)). According
to the Arukh (KA :), is Arabic (?), and Romance
(TR
. TWG").
.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. tartuga for tortoise
(RL :b; PSW ba; CB , , , among others; RM ;
DECLC :a; DCVB :b). In O. Cat., the word is documented for
the first time in the th c. (see DECLC loc. cit.).
In GHAT : we find the same Romance term transcribed in the
same way as in MSS O and V, namely TR
. TWG".
.
. 24
SQYPS, Arab. MNMS

The Hebrew term SQYPS or SQYPS


designates an occipital deformity
flatness or one whose occiput has the shape of a lintel (JD ;
LW :; KA : s.v. , : s.v. , :; Low LXVII; PB ;
SB : f.). The term features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBekh ..
Arabic munammas means freckled (D :).
We cannot explain the identification of the two terms.
. 25
SQP, Arab. NMS

Hebrew SeQeP or SeQeP


(cf. MS P), from the root SQP or SQP
to go
around, means lintel, threshold (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in Targ. O. Ex. XII, .
22 : O
23 : VO
24 : emendation
25 : L P

editors L" P OV

shem tov, synonym list

Arabic namas means: ) white and black specks or spots in the


skin differing from it in colour, ) lines, or streaks, of variegations or
decorations in variegated or figured cloth, ) whiteness in the roots
or lower parts of the nails which goes away and returns (L ), )
freckles, red fleck, redness (D :) and ) reddish suffusion with
blood (rtliche Blutunterlaufung) (SN ).
The term namas features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (VII, ;
cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as: and by Z as: .
We cannot explain the identification of the two terms.
. 29 28 27 26
Arab. S. "RH LHYH
SHY
"LTYS, o.l. "YBWQWSTYDWS
. TT
. ZQN HTYS,
.
.
Hebrew SHY
. TH
. literally means pressing, wringing and, in this context,
juice that has been extracted, or expressed (JD ; LW :; KA :;
BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a. Hebrew
is possibly a loan translation of Arabic lihyat
ZQN HTYS,
at-tays (cf.
.
below and Zayin no. ).
Arabic #us. ara means expressed juice (L ) and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXV, ) and is translated
at-tays is ) goatsbeard,
by N as: and by Z as: . Arabic lihyat
.
Tragopogon porrifolius L. or Tragopogon pratensis L., ) hypocist,
Cytinus hypocistis L., ) rock-rose, Cistus villosus L. and other varieties,
) field horse-tail, toadpipe, Equisetum arvense L., and ) greater
plantain, Plantago maior L. (cf. Zayin no. ).
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the Late Lat.
hypoquistidus (see NPRA ), which also existed in O. Occ. as a learned
word ypoquistidos; its meaning is Cytinus hypocistis L. (see NPRA loc.
cit.; Sin b; RMA : ypoquistidos es lo fungus de lerba, aquella que
dis que e manieira de salvia et apella rosa canina (i.e. hypoquistidos is
the fungus of the herb, the one that is said to be similar to sage and is
called rosa canina), RMA , ; RPA ) or the juice of this plant
(RAlph : Ipoquistidos est succus fungi qui crescit ad pedem rosae
caninae, cf. also Sin :; CA ). The variant given in the Paris MS is
a non-documented form of the same O. Occ. word that shows Western
26 : O
27 :

28 : VO
29 : VO

samekh

Romance lenition of the plosive in the second syllable. The spelling with
Waw in the third syllable seems to be a corruption on the part of the
copyist.

The same word features in GHAT : as "YPWQYSTYDW


S.
.
.
SWP, Arab. BRDY
Hebrew SWP means reed, bulrush (KB ; JD ; LW :; BM
; AEY :; LF :, f.) and features in the Bible (Ex :,;
Is :) and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSot a.
Arabic bard means papyrus, Cyperus papyrus L. and Var. (L ;
D :; DT :; M ; LF :).
For the identification, cf. IJ and SID :. Sa#adya on the
verses mentioned translates SWP as: (rush).
. 30
o.l. " SPRY

SSY, Arab. " HR


. S,
The term is unclear; theoretically, it could be a plural of or
sharp-toothed bristle; awn or beard of grain (JD ; SDA ,
KA :; BM ; FH ; KT :) but that does not correspond to the
synonyms mentioned, cf. as well Alef no. : .
Arabic ahra
. s means rough, harsh or coarse (L ; cf. Alef no. ).
For the Romance term see entry Alef no. .

. 34 33 32 31
SWM"Q, Arab. SM"Q, and this is sumac and it was already mentioned in
the letter Alef
Aramaic SWM"Q means red, dark (SD ; SDA ; BM ) and
features in the latter sense in medieval medical literature, e.g. in Asaf s
Book of Medicines (AV :, : ) and is possibly a
loan translation of Arabic summaq (cf. below). See as well entry Alef .

30 : V
31 : P
32 :
33 : O
34 :

shem tov, synonym list

For Arabic summaq, sumac, Rhus coriaria L. and Var., or its berry,
Anacardiaceae, cf. Alef no. above. The term features in Maimonides
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ; XXII, ) and is transcribed by N and Z as:
or .
. 35
SKSWK, Arab. THYG
Hebrew SKSWK means conflict; confusion (BM ; EM ) and
features in Rashis commentary on the Bible (Is :) and the Talmud
(bBQ ). The verb SKSK means to provoke and features in the Bible,
e.g. in Is : (KB s.v. ).
Arabic tahayyug means excitement, agitation, emotional disturbance,
irritation, inflammation (L ).
For the identification of the Hebrew root SKSK as Arabic G, cf.
Sa#adya on Is :: (I will incite Egyptian against
Egyptian): (DS ; RT ), and IJ . Ibn
Janah. (ibid.) translates the term as: +A\ ) q A,.
. 37 36
SHWS,
Arab. GDRWP
"L"DN, i.e. the earlobe
.
.
Hebrew SHWS
or HS
means the cartilages forming the ear, helix
.
. HWS
.
(JD f.; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; HA ; Low LII) and
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in mBekh . (a).
Arabic gudr
. uf al-"udn has the same meaning (L f.; HA ;
FAL :). Arabic gudr
. uf features in medieval medical literature, for
instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (I, , ; cf. BMMa and )
and is translated by N as: and by Z as: .
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above: : (MK :) or on mPes .: :
(MK :).

35 : VO
36 : VO
37 :

samekh

. 38
SPHT,
. Arab. QW"BY
Hebrew SPHT
. means scabs, flaking skin (KB ), rising on the skin,
sore (JD ), psoriasis, pityriasis capitis (BM ; Low LXVII;
PB , ) and features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :) and in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShebi b, bYeb b.
Arabic qawab is the plural form of quwaba or quwaba" and means
ringworm or tetter, a cutaneous eruption in which scabs peel off from
the skin, and the hair comes off (L ; D :; SN : ichthyosis).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ ), who identifies Hebrew
, a synonym for Hebrew SPHT
. (KB ; BM ), with Arabic
quwaba": K 
 .
. 39
o.l. GRWT. S
SPYR, Arab. M" S,
Hebrew SPYR designates Moors pea; French vetch, Vicia Narbonensis L. (JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY :; DAS : f., ;
FM ; FZ f.; LF : ff.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
mKil ..
Arabic mas, possibly from Persian mas (VL :), means Indian
pea, Phaseolus max L. or Phaseolus mungo L. (D :; L ; DAS
:; ID :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
(MK :); see as well LF :, no. ; Sa#adya (SAM :) explains
as: (a kind of vetch).
The Romance term could not be identified.
. 41 40

SY"H, Arab. G#DH,


o.l. PWLYWM MWNT"NWM
.
Hebrew SY"H means savory, Satureia Thymbra L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMaas ., bShab a (JD ; LW :; KA :,
38 : V
39 : VO
40 : VO
41 : O

shem tov, synonym list

:; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, :; FM ; LA :;
LF :).
Arabic ga#da means germander or mountain pennyroyal, Teucrium
Polium L. (D :, DT :; M ; DAS :).
The term SY"H is explained in the Arukh (KA :) as (It.
poleggio, puleggio, from Lat. pulegium) or (It. sisimbro-sisimbrio,
from Lat. sisymbrium). In his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned,
Maimonides translates the term SY"H as: (mint) (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the Late Lat.
polium montanum, a compound term which is used in contrast to polium
marinum, Teucrium Creticum L. (see Sin a; NPRA ; the genitive
singular poli montani features in RPA ).
The variant given in the Oxford MS has to be read as polium montani
(for the lack of agreement between the noun and the adjective in Lat.
compound terms, see also the introduction). For the meaning of this term
see entry Yod . The same term (transcribed as PWLY"WM MWNT"NY)
.
features in GHAT : and is identified as Arab. ga#da.
. 44 43 42
BGYR MTPY,
SYD HY,
o.l. Q"LS WYW"
. Arab. GYR
.
Hebrew SYD means lime, plaster and features in the Bible (e.g. Num
:) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (KB ; JD ; LW
:; SDA : ; KA : s.v. , :; BM ; DAS :, ;
KT : f., ; Low LXVI). Hebrew SYD HY,
. which is attested in EM
() as modern, was possibly coined as a loan translation of Latin calx
viva. That is how the Hebrew term features in the Sefer Keritut by Hillel
ben Samuel of Verona.45
Arabic gr bi-gayr mut. fa" means quicklime (M ; GS : gr = calx
viva in Latin; cf. as well Gimel no. ).
For the identification of Hebrew SYD as Arabic gr, cf. Maimonides on
mShab . (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Vatican and Oxford MSS is the O. Occ.
or O. Cat. calz viva/cals viva, literally living lime, for calcium oxide

42 : O V
43 : P

44 : P V
45 See G. Bos: Medical

Terminology in the Hebrew Tradition: Hillel Ben Samuel of


Verona, Sefer ha-Keritut (forthcoming: Journal of Semitic Studies).

samekh

which has not been in contact with water (for calz/cal, see RL :b;
DCVB :a; DECLC :b; for the compound O. Occ. term caus viva,
see RMA ). The variant used in the Paris MS with the spelling WYD"
is corrupt.
. 46
SMDR, Arab. PQ" H
.
Hebrew SMDR means flower buds of the vine or (berry) in the building stage (KB ; JD ; LW :; KA :; BM f.; DAS :;
KT :; LF : f.) and features in the Bible (Song :) and in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mOrl ..
Arabic fuqqah. means a flower or blossom of any plant (L ).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janah. (IJ ) on the Bible verse mentioned: s
[ K- , and Maimonides on mOrl . (MK :). In his
translation of the same verse, Sa#adya (SH ) uses the Arabic equivalent
for Hebrew . See as well MCS :.
. 47
SGRYR, Arab. ZMHRYR
Hebrew SGRYR means cloudburst; severe rain storm (KB ; JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; BM ; DAS :; KT :) and features
in the Bible (Prov :) and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in yMeg I, d.
Arabic zamharr means intense cold (L ; D :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Prov ::
(An endless dripping on a rainy day and a contentious
wife are alike):
(SM f.), and IJ .
.

STWNYWT, Arab. STWYH


Hebrew STWNYWT means ) winter fruits, late fruits (JD ; BM
), ) hibernae sc. uvae, grapes, which become ripe in winter,
and which are used to produce vinegar (LW :; KA :, :;

46 : V
47 : O

shem tov, synonym list

DAS :; KT :) and ) late figs (LF :, :, ) and features


in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . or mTer ..
Arabic sitaw means signifying of, or relating to the winter season
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mShebi .: :
(MK :).
. 49 48
SNDL, that is, a piece of meat in the form of a shoe
Hebrew SNDL means, among other things, a deformed (flat, fishshaped) foetus (JD ; BM ; LW :; KT : n. ; Low
LXVII; PB ; SDA s.v. Aram. : aborted foetus in the shape of
a flat fish) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNid . and bNid
b.
. 50
SWGY", Arab. NS.
Aramaic SWGY" means walk, course, practice (JD ; LW :;
SDA ; BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSanh a.
Arabic nas. s. means a thing or statement plainly or explicitly declared
or made manifest by God and his Apostle; an expression or a phrase or
a sentence in the Koran, indicating a particular meaning; a statute, or an
ordinance indicated by the manifest or plain meaning of words of the
Koran and of the Sunna; an evidence or a proof (L ; D :).
. 53 52 51

SDN, Arab. ZBRH, o.l. "YNGLWG"


Hebrew SDN means ) a block of wood, ) trunk, ) anvil and )
axis (JD ; LW :; SDA s.v. (Aram.); KA : ff., :;
BM ; DAS :; KT :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
mKil., mShab ..
48 : V
49 : O
50 : om. O
51 : A P V
52 : V, om.
53 :

O
V, om. O

samekh

Arabic zubra means ) a (big) piece of iron, ) an anvil of a blacksmith, or ) the upper part of the back, next the neck; or the part
between the two shoulder-blades; or the part where the neck is joined
to the back-bone (L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mShab . (MK :).
The vernacular term of the Vatican MS corresponds to O. Occ. engluge
anvil (PSW :b). The variant of MS P shows a form ending with -a,
similar to the Cat. encluya / encluja (DCVB :a).
. 55 54
G,
[which means in] translation: one who refuses,
SRBN, Arab. LGW
declines
Hebrew SRBN means ) one who waits to be coaxed, declining, )
persistent and ) rebellious, stubborn (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; BM ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBer ..
Arabic lagu g means stubborn, intractable, persistent; obstinate, pigheaded, importunate, annoying, of humans (WKAS :; L ;
D :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned:
, , (MK :).
. 58 57 56
SYP H#WRB, Arab. SYP "LGR"B
Hebrew SYP H#WRB, literally meaning the sword of the raven (JD ,
) and not attested in secondary literature, was possibly coined by
Shem Tov as a loan translation of Arabic sayf al-gurab (cf. below).
Arabic sayf al-gurab (the sword of the raven) designates the plant
Gladiolus communis L. (L ; D :; DT :; M ; DAS :;
LF :).

54 : VO
55 : O

56 : V
57 : om. O
58 :

VO

shem tov, synonym list

. 59
SPSL, Arab. MNBR
Hebrew SPSL means frame, bench, stool (JD ; SD ; SDA
(Aram. ); KA :; BM ; BKH , , , ; DAS
: f.; KT : f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel .,
bQid a.
Arabic minbar means a chair, or the pulpit of the preacher in a
mosque (L ; D : f.).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :).
. 62 61 60

SM HS. MR GPN, Arab. DW" "LQTNH,


i.e. one puts the remedy in the
.
cotton when healing with it
Hebrew SM HS. MR GPN means a remedy [applied in] cotton (for SM
cf. JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM f.; see as well Samekh
no. : Aram. SM"; for S. MR GPN, cf. Mem no. and Sade
no. ).
.
Arabic dawa" al-qut. na has the same meaning (for dawa" see L ;
D :; for qut. na, cf. Mem no. , Pe no. and Sade
no. ).
.
For the identification of Hebrew SM as Arabic dawa", cf. IJ on
the Biblical verse (Ex :): [ . . . ] ?)W C1?  53)
UK/) (it is more correct to translate [] as: ?)W or UK/). For the
identification of Hebrew S. MR GPN as Arabic qut. n, cf. Maimonides on
mKil . (MK :).
. 65 64 63
SGY" RGLY, Arab. BSB"YG, o.l. PWLYPWDYWM
Aram. SGY" RGLY, literally meaning having many legs and not attested
in secondary literature, is possibly a loan translation of the Arabic katr

59 :
60 :
61
62
63
64
65

V
O
: O V
: O
: VO
: V
: V

samekh

al-argul and designates the plant polypody, Polypodium vulgare L.


(DT :; LF :; LA f.:).
Arabic basbayig, from Persian bas-payak having many legs (VL
:), designates the same plant (DT :; M ; LA f.:), which
is also called katr al-argul (having many feet), a loan translation of
(cf. WKAS :).
Greek
In Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), the Arabic / Persian
term features as #`H and is translated by N as: (PWLYPWDY)
and Z as: (PWLYPWDY"W).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS is the Lat. polypodium for Polypodium vulgare L. (NPRA ; also see Sin :), taken
from the Gr. (DECLC :). The variant in the Vatican MS
is the O. Occ. or O. Cat pol(l)ipodi with the same meaning (RL :a;
DAO :; CB ; RM ; DCVB :b), documented for the first
time in the th c. (DAO Suppl. :), or perhaps the genitive singular
polipodi(i) of the Lat. polipodium.
For the identification of Arab. basbayig as Lat. polipodium/O. Cat.
polipodi cf. AdV , ; see also the GHAT :, where we find
the Romance term PWLYPWDY as the synonym for the Arab. term

mentioned, in a corrupt spelling as BSBG.


. 66
67

#MY H"RS. , i.e. such [a kind] that common people use, because
SPWN SL
there is [another] kind of it which kings and princes use
#MY H"RS. literally means soap of common people.
Hebrew SPWN SL
For SPWN, cf. Samekh no. .
.

SRYS HMH
is someone in whom the heat that awakens his penis ceased,
.
and it makes him infertile and it (his penis) never becomes erected since
the day it was created. And one says eunuch from the time of seeing the
sun as one says under the sun

66 :
67 : om. V

O V

shem tov, synonym list

Hebrew SRYS HMH


means eunuch from the time of seeing the sun,
.
i.e. born without visible testicles (JD ; BM ; KT :; PB )
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mYeb ., bYeb a, a. Another
explanation of the term SRYS HMH
is eunuch through fever (KA :;
.
BM ).
.
SRYS "DM is the one who was castrated by people
Hebrew SRYS "DM means someone emasculated by man (JD ;
BM ; KT :; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
mYeb ..
. 69 68

SNWRYM, Arab. S
Hebrew SNWRYM, plural of SNWR, means dazzling, deception (KB
f.; KA :; BM ; PB n. ; Low LXVII) and features in the
Bible, e.g. in Gen :.
Arabic #asan means weakness of sight or sightlessness by night with
ability to see by day or badness of sight by night and by day (L ;
D :; SN ).
For the identification, cf. SE : :, and Sa#adya on Gen
::
(And the people who were at the entrance of the house, young and old,
they were struck with blinding light, so that they were helpless to find
the entrance):
(S ); see as well SF :.
. 71 70
o.l. " SPWNG"

SPWG, Arab. "SPNGH,


Hebrew SPWG, from Greek (LS ; KG : f.; LR ),
means ) a porous luxuriant growth, mushroom and ) sponge (JD
; LW :; SD ; KA : f.; BM ; KT :; LFa ; Low
68 : V
69 : P V
70 :
71 :

O V
O V

samekh

LXVII; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMiqw


..
Arabic isfung or isfinga has the same meaning (D :; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :); the Arukh (KA :) states that SPWG is called
something similar in Greek, Latin and Arabic.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. esponja or (e)sponga for
sponge (RL :b; FEW :a; CB ; DCVB :ab; DECLC
:a), derived from the Lat. SPONGIA or *SPONGA respectively.
According to FEW :b, a part of the Romance territory has forms
derived from *SPONGA besides those stemming form SPONGIA, which
has survived in the whole Gallo-Romance territory as well as in Northern
Italy. Still, according to FEW loc. cit., this form is most probably a
modification of SPONGIA under the influence of the Greek ,
in which the word preserved its gender (fem.), but lost the suffix -ia in
favour of the usual ending -a.
For the identification of Arab. isfung as O. Cat. esponga, cf. AdV ,
, .

as a synonym
In GHAT : we find the Romance (O. Cat.) " SPWN
GH

of Arab. "SPN" G.
. 74 73 72
SRYGYM, and it is written with Sin, Arab. QDB"N
.
Rabbinic Hebrew SRYG, plur. SRYGYM, means grate, lattice (JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; BM ; DAS :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mOhol .. Its biblical counterpart , plur. ,
means tendrils of the grapevine (KB ) and features, for instance,
in Gen :.
Arabic qudb
. an or qidb
. an (cf. MS O), plural of qad
. b, means branches,
twigs, shoots, stalks (L ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Gen :: (on
the vine were three branches): (S ); IJ , and
SID :.

72 : V
73 : om.
74 :

V
O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 76 75

SNH, M.l. SYNYM, Arab. SN", o.l. S"N"


Hebrew SNH means prick, thorn, briar and also designates the plant
thorn bush, Rubus sanctus Schreb.-Rubus discolor W. and N., and
features in the Bible (e.g. in Ex :) and in Rabbinic literature, e.g
mKil ., bShab a (KB ; JD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY
:; DAS : f., :; FE ff.; FO ; KT :; LF :, :).
Hebrew SYNYM features in the Mishnah (Kel .) and is explained
by the Geonim as wood of SNH (EG ; cf. as well KA :; BM
).
Arabic sana designates the plant senna and its numerous species,
such as Cassia angustifolia VAHL or Cassia obovata COLL (D :;
L ; DT :; M ; DAS :; ID :, :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Ex ::
(an angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire
out of a bush): (S ); see as
well WB . Ibn Janah. (IJ ) identifies SNH as: i,L/ (bramble),
and David b. Abraham al-Fas (SF :) as: (lycium). See as well
MCS :.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. sene (a loan word
stemming from the Arabic word mentioned above) for Cassia officinalis,
a bush of the Levant, the leaves of which are purgative (DAO :;
for further documentation see PSW :b; FEW :b; CB , ;
DCVB :a; DECLC :b).
For the identification of Arab. sana as O. Cat. sene, cf. AdV , .
. 77
SYTNY,
Arab. MPLQ
.
The term SYTNY
could not be explained satisfactorily. According to
.
KA : and LW :, the term features in Tos. Yom Tov : as a
corruption of (= ; pearl-barley) (see as well KG : f.),
and, according to Lieberman, it is a metathesis of .78

75 : O
76 : om. P

(cf. entry )

77 : (cf. entry ) add. P


78 S. Lieberman, Tosefta Mo#ed, New York

, p. , l. .

samekh

Arabic mufallaq is a peach, and an apricot, and the like, that splits, or
cleaves, from its stone, and becomes dry (L ) or a sort of peach
(D :; LF :).
.
SYB, Arab. LYP
Hebrew SYB means fibrous substance, bast of the palm tree (JD ;
SD ; KA : f., :; BM f.; FE ; FEB ; KT :; LA
:) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mUqz ., bYom a.
Arabic lf is fibre, bast (D :; WKAS :; LA f.:).
For the identification, cf. Hananel
on bYom a: (sic),
.
and Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
. 80 79
SYBYY, Arab. LYPYY"
Hebrew SYBYY, from SYB (cf. Samekh no. ), means fibrous and is
attested in EM as modern. It was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a
translation of the Arabic lfyun.
Arabic lfyun has the same meaning (WKAS : f.) and Arabic
lfya designates a plant of uncertain identity, possibly a species of colocynth (WKAS :).
. 82 81
SRTNYM,
Arab. SR" TNYN,
o.l. QMBRYS
.
.
Hebrew SRTN,
plur. SRTNYM
means crab, Cancer (JD f.; LW
.
.
:, ; SD ; KA :, :; BM ; LZ ). The term features
in Rabbinic and medieval medical literature (for numerous references, cf.
BM f.).
Arabic SR" TNYN
must probably be read sarat.n and is the plural form
.
of sarat. an crab, Cancer (L ; D :; BK ; JAD : ff.; StS ).
The term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXII, : tBI
?
n) and is translated by N as: and by Z as:
.
79 : V
80 :

81 : V
82 : V

shem tov, synonym list

The vernacular term seems to be a non-documented variant *cambres


of the O. Occ. chambres for crayfish (FEW :ab), a derivation of
the Late Lat. cambarus. According to FEW (loc. cit.), in Gallo-Romance,
derivations of this Late Lat. form are only documented in Provence,
the Rhne Valley, and the surroundings of Lyon; in the rest of GalloRomance, we only find derivations of the Lat. cammarus. It has to be
noted that the documented form chambres presents the palatalisation of
initial /ka-/, usual in the northern group of Occ. dialects, whereas the
form documented in our texts preserves the velar pronunciation and thus
belongs to the southern Occ. region (i.e., among others, Languedocian
around Toulouse and Provenal, east of the Rhne along the coast (POc
)). In Ibero-Romance, we only find derivations of Late Lat. camberus,
but with the sonorisation of the initial velar: gambre, gamba, gmbaro
(for all this, see FEW loc. cit.). The FEW also remarks that the meaning
(marine) crab was preserved at the coast, whereas further to the north,
that is, in the inland, the meaning changed to crayfish. This meaning
then extended to the south, i.e. the Occ. forms were imported from the
north, leading to the elimination of the more ancient derivates from Lat.
CANCER.
. 84 83
SYGLY, Arab. S#D", o.l. SYPRWM
Aramaic SYGL", plur. SYGLY, means ) violet and ) Cyperus, root
of the Cyperus rotundus (JD ; SDA ; KA :, :; FEB ;
LF :; LA :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bSanh b,
bShab b.
Arabic su#da or su#d means long galingale, Cyperus longus L. and Var.
(L f.; D :; DT :; M ; LF :).
For the identification of SYGLY as su#d, cf. LO Liqut. t. ei Geonim on bBer
b, p. : % . For the identification as su#da, cf. AT .
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the Lat. cyperum
for root of a type of rush (NPRA ; ThLL :). The form cyperum
was also used in O. Occ. with the meaning sedge (DAO :; RPA ).
The variant in the Oxford MS could be read as the genitive singular of
this word, as well as O. Cat. ciperi, which existed alongside the form
iper (DCVB :a: Aygua de cocci de ciperi, i.e. water that results
83 : VP
84 : O

samekh

from boiling of ciperi, Caudiliach Coll., ll. , d. a, ), as O. Cat ciperii


(AdV ) or as O. Fr. cyperi for Cyperus longus (FEW :b).
For the identification of Arab. su#d or su#da and O. Cat. ciperii, cf.
AdV , ; see also GHAT :, where we find Arab. S#DY/ S#D"
identified as Romance SYPRYR.
. 85
HKRM, Arab. PQ" H
SMDR SL
. "LKRM
HKRM means the blossom of the vine (for KRM
Hebrew SMDR SL
cf. KB ; JD ; KA : f., :; BM f.; DAS :; FE ;
KT :; LF :; for SMDR, cf. Samekh no. ). In the Bible both terms
feature as: (Song :).
Arabic fuqqah. al-karm has the same meaning (for karm see D :;
DT :; M ; for fuqqah,
. cf. Samekh no. ).
For the identification of SMDR as fuqqah,
. cf. Samekh no. . For the
identification of KRM as karm, cf. Sa#adya on Is : (DS ).
. 86
Arab. DRQH KSNH

SMRTW
. T. QSH,
means a hard rag (for SMRTW
Hebrew SMRTW
. T. QSH
. T. cf. JD ;
LW :; SDA (s.v. Aram. ); KA : f.; BM ; Low LXVII;
PB ). Hebrew SMRTW
. T. features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mShab
., bShebi a.
The Arabic term is corrupt and should be read as hirqa hasina, which
hirqa
cf. L ).
means a rough rag or ragged, patched, garment (for

For the identification of SMRTW


. T. as hirqa cf. the Geonic commentary
) [ . . . ] .
on Tohorot EG : (corr. Epstein)
Note that the Geonic text reads: just like OV.

85 :
86 : VO

O V

AYIN
. 2 1
#YNBY HDS, these are its seeds, Arab. HB
. "L RYH"N
.
Hebrew #YNBY HDS are berries of the myrtle, Myrtus communis L.
(for #YNB cf. KB ; JD ; LW : f.; KA :, : f.; BM ;
for HDS cf. KB ; JD ; KA :; BM ; AEY :; FE ;
FEB ; FM ; FO ff.; KT :; LA :; LF :; for the Aramaic
term for myrtle, cf. Alef no. ). The phrase features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. yMaas III, d.
Arabic habb
ar-rayh
.
. an means seeds or berries of the myrtle (L ;
D :; M ; DT :; ID :). Rayh
. an originally meant any
odoriferous plant, and subsequently came to designate the myrtle in the
Maghreb and basil in the East (DT :).
For the identification of Hebrew HDS as Arabic rayh
. an, cf. David b.
Abraham al-Fas on Esther : (SF :): (He was foster
father to Hadassah): , and al-Idrs (IJS :);
cf. Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), where 
 ) Do'AB
HB
K (basil(?) which is the same as ar-rayh
. an al-qaranful) is translated
by Z as: . For the identification of
Hebrew HDS as Arabic as, cf. Alef no. .
. 4 3
#DS HMYM, Arab. T. HLB,
o.l. LYNTYLY"SH
.
.

Hebrew #DS HMYM designates duck weed, Lemna L. (BM : #DSY


HMYM). The term also features as
HMYM (cf. V); AEY :: #DST
in the Sefer Zedat
ha-derakhim, i.e. Moses ibn Tibbons Hebrew
.
translation of Ibn al-Jazzars Zad al-musafir, which Moses ibn Tibbon
completed in the year .5 Subsequently we find the term in the Sefer
1 :
2 : O

VO

3 : V
4 :

O V
Cf. Ibn al-Jazzar on Skin Diseases and Other Afflictions of the Outer Part of the Body.
A New Parallel Arabic-English translation of Bk. chs. with a Critical Edition of
5

shem tov, synonym list

Magen Avot written by Simeon ben Zema


h. Duran ():
.
HMYM is called at. (#DSY
t. uhlub
and it is conferva, Chaetomorpha linum) (Jacob :; following
.
BM ) (cf. mShab .; AEY :; LF :, :).
Arabic t. uhlub
designates the plant Lemna minor L. and Var., water
.
lentil (L ; D :; DT :; M ; ID :; LA ff.:), and
is also called adas al-ma (cf. DT :). The Arabic term features in
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; XXI, ; XXV, ; cf. BMMb
) where it is translated as: / by N and as: /
by Z.
The vernacular variants have to be interpreted as augmentative forms
of the O. Occ. lentil(h)a/lentilla and/or O. Cat. l(l)entilla for lentil
(DAO :s.; RL :b; CB , among others; RMA ; RM ;
DCVB :a; DECLC :b). Such forms are documented for the
modern stages of the languages in question: Occ. lentillasso (in an Occ.
variety in the Piedmontese Alps, FEW :b), which should have been
*lentilhassa in O. Occ.; Cat. llentillassa (besides llentillarra and llentillatxa, see DCVB :b). It remains unclear in the dictionaries if the
meaning is indeed water lentil, as has to be supposed on the basis of
the Arabic and Hebrew synonyms. For O. Occ., only the name lentilla
(Lemna minor L., DAO :) appears to have been the form known for
this plant up until now. The Romance names for the water lentil usually more or less follow the model of the Med. Lat. lenticula aque (e.g. Fr.
lentille deau), probably taken from the Arabic term mentioned above (see
Sin b), cf. also Mod. Occ. lentilho daigua (DAO, loc. cit.), Mod. Cat.
llentilla daigua (DCVB :a). Note that the Latin term as well as O. Sp.
lantejuela del agua (Sin b; DETEMA :c) are diminutive forms, so
that, for the word in question here, it seems strange at first glance that an
augmentative form should have been used to designate this plant; but it
has to be considered that [t]he suffix [i.e. -AS and -ASA < Lat. -ACEUS,
-ACEA] gave an idea of quantity to the simple word, or greatness in size
[ . . . ] (WfP ).

Moses Ibn Tibbons Medieval Hebrew Translation by G. Bos and a study of the Romance
terminology by Guido Mensching and Julia Zwink (forthcoming).

ayin

. 7 6
#RMWNYM, Arab. QSTL,
S
. o.l. QSTNY"
.
Hebrew #RMWN, plur. #RMWNYM, means plane tree, Platanus orientalis L. (KB ; JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ; AEY :,
:; DAS :; FE n. ; FEB ff.; FO ; LA :; LF :;
M ), and features in the Bible (Gen :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in bBB a. In the Rabbinic tradition, #RMWN was also called DWLB (cf.
FEB ff.). In the Middle Ages, Rashi mistakenly identified #RMWN/
DWLB as: chestnut (following FEB ).8
Arabic qast. al or qast. aniya means chestnut (D :; DT :; M ;
ID :).
For the identification of #RMWN as qast. al, cf. SID : on Gen
:: . . , and Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ), where 0M is translated by N as: /
and by Z as: / (QSTNGY).
For the identification of #RMWN
.
as dulb, cf. IJ , SF : and Sa#adya on Gen : (S ).
The meaning chestnut is confirmed by the vernacular term, which
is the plural of O. Occ. casta(i)nha or O. Cat. castanya for chestnut
(DAO :; RL :a; FEW :a; CB , , , ; DCVB
:b; DECLC :b).
. 9

#NB HSW#L,
Arab. #NB "LT#LB, o.l. MWRYLH

Hebrew #NB HSW#L


means common/black nightshade, Solanum nigrum L. (SDA , Aram.: / ; BM ; AEY :;
LA f.:; LF : f.) and features in the Aramaic form YNBY T"L
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit a.
Arabic #inab at-ta#lab designates the same plant (L ; D :;
:; LA :; LF : f.), and features in
DT :; M ;ID
Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), where it is translated by N
as: and by Z as: .

6 : O V
7 : O

V
Lw (LF :), however, remarks that the faulty identification already occurred in
the early Rabbinic tradition.
9 : O V
8

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of the Aramaic YNBY T#L as the Arabic #inab
at-ta#lab, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit a, p. : ,

.
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ.
maurel(h)a or maurella for Solanum nigrum L. (DAO :; RL :b;
PSW :a; FEW :a; CB , , , , ; RPA ;
RMM , ). The form in the Paris MS with only one Waw in the
first syllable could also be read as the O. Cat. more(l)la, a form which also
existed as a variant in O. Occ. and shows the result of monophthongation
(DECLC :b; DCVB :a; AdV ; FEW loc. cit.; PSW loc. cit.;
RL :b; DAO loc. cit.; CB , among others).
For the identification of Arab. #inab at-ta#lab as O. Cat. morela cf.
a Romance synonym for
AdV , ; see also GHAT, where we find
the same Arab. term spelt as in MS V (GHAT :).
. 10
#RWD, Arab. HM"R
"LWH
.
. S
Hebrew #RWD means wild ass, Equus heminous onager (KB ; JD
; LW :; SDA , Aram. ; KA :; BM ; BAL ;
BH index, s.v.; DAS :; FAB ; KT :; LZ ) and features in the
Bible (Job :) and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mKil ..
Arabic him
. ar al-wah
. s designates the same animal (L ; DAS :;
JAD : ff.; KSZ :).
For the identification, cf. IJ ; SID : and Maimonides on
mKil . (MK :). See as well MCS :.
. 12 11
o.l. QRDW, this is the DRDR, which features in
#KBYWT, Arab. KRSP,
the Torah
Hebrew #KBYT, plur. #KBYWT, means a species of edible thistles, cardoon, Cynara Cardunculus L. or Cynara Syriaca Boiss. (JD ; LW
:; KA :, :; AEY : s.v. ; FEB ; KT :
n. ; LA ff.:; LF : ff.) or Gundelia Tournefortii (DAS :;

10 :
11 : O

O V

12 :

O, om. V

ayin

FM ; LF :; cf. Qof no. ). The term features in Rabbinic literature,


e.g. mUqz ..
Hebrew DRDR means thistle, artichoke (KB ; JD ), features
in the Bible in Gen : and is explained in Genesis Rabbah as #KBYWT
(cf. Gen.R. :; ed. Mirkin, p. ); and IJ : pF
{) )
5[2 ?
? .
Arabic har
. saf, harsaf, hursuf, or hursu f means artichoke, Cynara

Cynara cardunculus

Scolymus L., or cardoon,


L. (D :; DT :;
M ; DAS :; ID :; LA :; LF : ff.). Arabic pF
]
features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) as well and is
translated by N as: (QRDWN) and by Z as: (QRDY).
For the identification of #KBYWT as har
. saf, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot: (EG ): ( =) [ ], and Maimonides
on mUqz . (MK :): (the Andalusians call

it "LKRSP).
The vernacular terms correspond to the meaning thistle. The form in
the Paris and Vatican MSS is either the Lat. cardo (NPRA ) or the
O. Occ. or O. Cat. card for thistle (DAO :; RL :b; DCVB
:ba; DECLC :a), from the Lat. CARDONE(M) (derived
from cardu(u)s, see Ayin ). In Cat., the form card only exists in the
extreme north of what is Spanish Catalonia today and in the Roussillon
(see DECLC loc. cit.). The variant in the Oxford MS is the O. Occ.
cardo(u)n with the same meaning (DAO loc. cit.; RPA , ). It might
well be that the O. Occ. and O. Cat. word also had the meaning artichoke
suggested by the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, cf. O. Occ. cardon petit,
indicated as a variety of artichoke in DAO :, or M. and Mod. Fr.
cardon artichoke (a loan-word from Occ., FEW :a). Also cf. the
next entry.
. 14 13

#WLSYN,
Arab. HNDB", o.l. QRDYLS

Hebrew #WLSYN
means endive, Cichorium intibus L. (JD ; LW
:; KA :, : f.; BM ; AEY :; DAS :; FM ;
FZ f.; KT :; LA f.:; LF : ff.) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mShebi ..
Arabic hindaba" or hindiba" means chicory, endive, and designates
several species of Chicoraceae, such as Cichorium intibus L. and Var. and
13 : O
14 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

Cichorium endivia L. and Var. (D :; DT :; M ; DAS :,


, ; ID :; LA :; LF :). The term hindiba" is the
Arabic form of the Syriac ant. u biya (BLS ), derived from the Greek
name  (LS ). The Arabic term also features in Maimonides
On Asthma (XII,) and is transcribed by Joshua Shatibi as: and
translated by Samuel Benveniste as: (cf. BMA ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on
the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Paris MS might be read as the plural of
a non-documented O. Occ. *cardel(h) or O. Cat. *cardell, diminutive
forms of the word card (from the Lat. cardus thistle) documented only
in O. Cat. (DECLC :b). The form cardell exists in Mod. Cat., at least
as a dialectal variant (see below). The variants in the Oxford und Vatican
MSS seem to be the plural of a feminine form *cardel(h)a/*cardella, a
derivation of an O. Occ./O. Cat. *carda (< Lat. *carda; see FEW :).
Von Wartburg points out that many of the plant names derived from the
Lat. cardus or *carda had edible kinds of leaves, so that they used to be
collected in the south from early times onwards (cf. FEW loc. cit.). Thus,
the M. and Mod. French carde could designate, for example, the edible
part of the cardoon/the artichoke or the edible part of the (Swiss) chard
(cf. FEW :). In Majorquin, the form cardell designates the shoot
or the twig that grows from the stem of the cardatxa (DCVB :b),
i.e. Dipsacus silvestris (cf. DECLC :b). It cannot be ascertained
whether the words that we have been discussing were used to designate
endive plants, as indicated by the Hebrew and Arabic terms; usually other
terms were used for this type of plant, e.g. sicoreia (DAO :), endivia
(DECLC :b).
. 16 15
SDH,

S
#WLSY
Arab. HNDB" BRY, o.l. QRDYLS SLW"
GY
Hebrew means field endive, wild chicory (JD ; LW :;
KA :, : f.), Cichorium divaricatum Schusb. (AEY :; LA
f.:) or Cichorium pumilum (FM ) or Cichorium intybus L.
(LF : f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, eg. in mKil ..
Arabic hindaba" barr is wild chicory (M ; DT :; ID :).

15 : VO
16 :

O V

ayin

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :). In his commentary


on mKil ., Maimonides explains the Hebrew term as follows: ,
(MK :).
The vernacular term in the Paris MS is a compound expression,
*cardel(h)s salvajes, parallel to the Hebrew and Arabic terms. The variants
in the Oxford and Vatican MSS seem to be the plural of the feminine
form *cardel(h)a salvaja. Both appear to designate the wild variant of
the plant mentioned in the entry Ayin , where we give an explanation
about *cardel(h)/*cardel(h)a. For the adjective salvaje, salvaja wild, see
the entries Alef and Qof .
. 18 17
o.l. S"P"

#SYS H#NBYM, Arab. MYBKTG,


Hebrew #SYS H#NBYM means must, young grape wine (for #SYS cf.
KB : grape juice; JD ; KA :; BM f.; DAS :).
Hebrew #SYS features in the Bible (e.g. Is : or Am :) and in
Rabbinic literature (e.g. Targ. Es ,), while #NBYM features in the Bible
(Amos :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in bPes a) as well. However,
we could not find another example of the combination #SYS #NBYM. In
the Bible, we find both terms separately in Am ::

(A time is comingdeclares the LORDwhen the plowman


shall meet the reaper, and the treader of grapes him who holds the [bag
of] seed; when the mountain shall drip wine and all the hills shall wave
[with grain]).
Arabic maybahtag or maybuhtag means concentrated must or grape

juice and is an Arabicised


form of the Persian may puhtah (VL :)
meaning cooked must (D :; M ; FAQ f.; cf. as well Maimonides Medical Aphorisms XXIII, ).
The term #SYS is translated by Sa#adya in Is : as rubb rob,
thickened juice, and by SID : as: .
The vernacular term is the Lat. sapa, which was used as a learned loan
word in O. Occ. and other Romance languages, meaning eingekochter
most (der zum trinken oder zum verstrken des weines gebraucht wird)
(i.e., must which has been boiled down (used for drinking or making
wine stronger), FEW :aa). For Lat., see: e[t] ssapa fit de musco

17 : V
18 : VO

shem tov, synonym list

cocto et cum cotaniis integris et cum ficubus passis et datilis et ramis


iuniperi de eneldo et de feniculo et de apio et debet qoquere usque
ad tertiam partem (Sin :). For O. Occ., see: sapa fagha de
vendimias cuegh a la terssa part (i.e., sapa, boil down the grapes to
one third; RPA ). Cf. also a similar passage taken from the Alphita
in Sin :. In O. Occ. (thth century) and in O. Cat. (first
documentation in ), the more frequent form is saba which, as a
heriditary word, has undergone Western Romance lenition (FEW :;
DECLC :).
For the identification of maybahtag/maybuhtag as the Lat. (or Ro
mance loan word) S"P",
cf. the firstterm in the Latin column of GHAT
:.
. 20 19
QN, o.l. QRYTH
GLH SL
.
QN is unclear. It literally means wagon made of reed
Hebrew GLH SL
(KB , ; JD , ; BM , ); alternatively, one might
read the term QN" as QN"H or QYN"H from Arabic  or S to forge
QN would thus mean: a wagon
iron (cf. KA : s.v. ). GLH SL
made from iron.
The vernacular term perfectly corresponds to the Hebrew #GLH, representing the O. Occ. or O. Cat. carreta for cart, wagon (RL :b; FEW
:a; DCVB :b).
. 23 22 21
S or P"NYQ"LD
#RQBLYN, Arab. QRS. #NH, o.l. "YRYNGY
Hebrew #RQBLYN, a variant for #RQBNYN or #QRBNYN, probably refers
to a scorpion-tailed plant, i.e. one of the heliotropes, Heliotropium L.
(KA :, :; LW :, ; DAS :; AEY : ( );
FM ; FZ f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mErub .. The
term #RQBLYN is interpreted in bErub b as ()
prickly creepers on palm trees, palm ivy (JD ; KA : f.) and by
19 : O
20 : VK P VO
21 : O
22 : VO
23 :

O V

ayin

R. Hai Gaon as a very thick plant with heads like needles, ATWN
in
.
Arabic (LO Perushim on bErub b, p. ; LA :; LF :).
Arabic qirs. a#na, from Syriac and Aramaic qers. a#anna respectively (cf.
BLS and LA : f.), means eryngium, Eryngium campestre L.
and Var. (DT :; M ; DAS :, ; ID :; KZ ; LA f.:;
LF : f.). The term features in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI,
; XXII, ) and is transcribed by N as: and by Z as: .
In his commentary on mShebi ., Maimonides translates #QRBNYN
as: (MK :; cf. LA :; for Arabic #uqruban, cf. Nun
no. above).
The first vernacular synonym mentioned in this entry seems to correspond to something like *yringis, *eringes related to the Lat. eryngium (cf.
NPRA ), which appears in M. Lat. as iringus (see Sin b: yringus); the
genitive singular iringi is used as a lemma in the Alphita (Sin , n. ),
cf. also the spelling yringi in Sin :. The same fossilised genitive
form, yringi, is used in an O. Occ. text (see RPA ). Alternatively, it
could be the plural of the O. Fr. iringe (see FEW :b).
The second vernacular synonym given in the Vatican MS is the O. Occ.
panic(h)aut or O. Cat. panicau(t) for Eryngium campestre (RMM ;
CB , [here we also find the identification of panicaut as the Lat.
yringo]; DAO :; DECLC :a). The second vernacular synonym
given in the Paris and Oxford MSS seems to correspond to the O. Cat.
variant panical(t) (DECLC :b; DCVB :a; for the problem of the
graphical representation of word final devoiced obstruents in O. Cat. see
the introduction of this edition).
For the identification of Arab. qirs. a#na as O. Cat. PNYQ"LT,
. which is
panicalt, cf. GHAT :.
.
or KNGR, o.l. QRDW
#R#R, Arab. KRSP
Hebrew #R#R means juniper, Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus phoenicea (KB ; BM ; AEY :; FEB ff.; FO f.; FZ ;
LF : f., ) and features in the Bible (e.g. in Jer :) and Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in Tosefta Ketub :.
Arabic harsaf means artichoke, Cynara Scolymus L., or cardoon,

Cynara cardunculus
L. (cf. Ayin no. and Qof no. ).
Persian kangar means artichoke (VL :; D :) and also features in Arabic as kankar, artichoke, Cynara scolymus L. (WKAS :;
M ; DT :).

shem tov, synonym list

For the identification of Hebrew #R#R as Arabic and Persian kangar


respectively, cf. RJ . The identification of Hebrew #R#R as Arabic harsaf

is probably based on the translation of with in the Targum


on Jer :, which was, in turn, identified as harsaf (cf. Ayin no. )

(cf. RJ and LF :). Cf. AT , f.:
( is , and
it is called kangar and it is [also] called r#r [which is translated in the]
Targum [of the verse] (Jer :) as: ). See as well
IJ .
For the vernacular term cardo see the entry Ayin no. .
. 24

#WZRDYN, Arab. Z#RWR, o.l. SWRB


S
Hebrew #WZRDYN or #WZRRYN is the plural form of #WZRD or #WZRR
meaning medlar; hawthorn; crab apple; sorb apple; azarole, Crataegus
azarolus L., or Mespilus Azarolus All. (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ; FZ ff.; LA
f.:; LF :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil
..
Arabic zu#rur means medlar; azarole (L ; D :; DT :;
M ; DAS :, ; ID :; LA :; LF :). The term features
in medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as: and translated by

and in Maimonides On Asthma (III, ), where it


Z as: (SWRBY),
is translated by Samuel Benveniste and Joshua Shatibi as: /
and transcribed as: by the anonymous translator (cf. BMA ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM f.:), see as well Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. plural form sorbas (RMA ;
PSW :a; DAO :), which is Sorbus domestica L. It does not
seem to be O. Cat., because in O. Cat. we could only find forms such as
cerbes, sserbes or the like (see DECLC :b ff.); see also the Romance

(O. Cat.) term SYRWY


S which features as the synonym for Arab. zu#rur
(in Magdalena Nom de Dus edition Z#RWD) in GHAT :.

24 :

VO

ayin

. 26 25

#S. Y QTP,
BLSMY
. Arab. #WD BLS"N, o.l. SYLW
Hebrew #S. Y QTP
. means balsam tree, Commiphora opobalsamum (cf.
Gimel no. above, Qof no. below).
Arabic #ud balasan designates the same plant (cf. Gimel no. above,
Qof no. and Shin no. below).
For the identification of QTP
. as balasan, cf. Gimel no. above.
The vernacular term corresponds to the Lat. xylobalsamum wood of
the balsam tree (NPRA , transcription of , wood
of Commiphora opobalsamum Endl.) in the genitive case in MS P. Cf.
the Lat. form in SinB : xilobalsamum lignum balsami et huiusmodi.
The variant given in MS P is documented as xilobalsami in an O. Occ. text
from the th century (RPA ); see also the transcription into Hebrew

as SYLW
B"LSMY
(PJP ). In O. Cat. we find the form xiloblsam,
documented for the first time in (DCVB :b; DECLC :b),
which is not reflected in our text. The variant in MS V most probably
corresponds to xilobalsamum, where the -M is not spelt out.
. 29 28 27
#TRN,
Arab. QTR"N,
o.l. "LQTR"
.
.
.
Hebrew #TRN
is a sort of resin, tar (JD ; LW :; SDA : Aram.
.
; KA :, :; DAS :; FEB ; KT :; LF :) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mShab ., bShab b.
Arabic qat. ran or qit. ran means tar or liquid pitch, that has been
obtained by distilling the wood of different Coniferaceae (L ; D
:; DT :; M ; DAS :) and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), where it is transcribed by N as:
and by Z as: .
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :).
The vernacular term is the O. Cat. alquitr for substncia resinosa de
color nerenc o vermell (i.e., resinous substance of blackish or red colour)
25 : M P
26 :
27 : O
28 :

29 :

shem tov, synonym list

(DCVB :a), documented for the first time in (DECLC :b).


In O. Occ., we only find the spelling with final n, a form which also
existed in O. Cat.: alquitran for tar (RMM ; RL :ab; DAO :;
DCVB :b; FEW :ab). In addition to this, we also find (in
both languages) forms without the agglutinated Arabic article, such as
quitra(n) (FEW loc. cit.; DAO loc. cit.; DECLC loc. cit.).
For the identification of Arab. qat. ran or qit. ran as O. Cat. alquitr cf.
GHAT :, where we find the O. Cat. term in the Latin column
transcribed as "LQYTR".
.
. 31 30

#RBH, Arab. GRB or S. PS. "P, o.l. SLZY


Hebrew #RBH features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :, Is :) and Rabbinic
literature, e.g. mSuk ., bSuk a, and designates willow (KB ;
JD ; LW :; SD ; SDA : Aram. ; KA :; BM ;
AEY :; DAS : n. , ; FEB ff.; FM ; FZ ff.;
KT :; LF : ff.; M ).
Arabic garab means ) in general willow, and particularly the species
Salix babylonica L. (L ; D :; DT :; M ; DAS :, n. ,
; :) or ) poplar, Populus Euphratica Oliv. (FEB ; LA :;
LF :).
Arabic s. afs. af designates the plant Salix safsaf Forsk. (D :; DT :;
M ; DAS :; :, , ; FEB ; LA :; LF : f.).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(and they shall sprout like grass, like willows by watercourses):
(DS ), and Ibn Jan
ah. on
Lev : Z*H* ) 5
l (IJ ). Cf. as well MCS :
and WB .
The vernacular term in the Vatican MS seems to represent the O. Cat.
sal(t)ze for salix, documented for the first time in (DECLC :a).
The variant given in the Oxford MS may represent the same O. Cat. word
(for the representation of the voiced /z/ by the Hebrew letter Dalet, also
see the entries Alef and Gimel and the introduction to this edition).
In O. Occ., we only find the forms sautz, sauze or sause with a shift of the
syllable final liquid to a velar off glide after back vowels, a phenomenon
which is common in Gallo-Romance (FEW :b; DAO :;
30 : O
31 : O

ayin

RL :ab; CB , , , , ; RMM ). The spelling with


Waw in the Paris MS seems to be corrupt.
Cf. GHAT : for the identification of Arab. s. afs. af (without Alef

in the Hebrew transcription) as the O. Cat. sal(t)ze transcribed as S"LZY.


. 34 33 32
or KWP" S,
o.l. R" TH
#TLP,
Arab. PR" SH
.
. PYN"DH
Hebrew #TLP
. means bat, Chiroptera (KB ; JD ; LW :, f.;
KA :; BM ; BAL ff.; BH index, s.v.; FAB ; Low LXVIII:
mole; LZ ff.) and features in the Bible (Lev :; Is :) and
Rabbinic literature, e.g. bSanh b.
Arabic farasa means moth (L ; D :; JAD : ff.; StS )
and Arabic huffas means bat (L ; BK f.; JAD : ff.; StS f.).
features as: YH{ 7W (brain of a bat) in Maimonides
The latter term
Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ), where it is translated by N as: .
For the identification as huffas, cf. Sa#adya on Lev :

(the stork; herons of every variety;


the hoopoe, and the bat):
(S ), and IJ ; see as well SF :: (= ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. rat(t)a pen(n)ada for
bat (RMA ; CB , , ; RMA ; DCVB :a; RL :b;
DECLC :a; FEW :a).
. 36 35
TH,
#NYBH, Arab. "NSW
. o.l. LS
Hebrew #NYBH means fastening with a loop, necktie (JD ; LW
:; SD (Aram.); KA :, s.v. ; BM ) and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bShab a in a Halakhic discussion about
different kinds of knots and whether they fall under the category of
labour with regard to the Sabbath.
Arabic unsu t. a designates a knot tied with a bow, or with a double bow,
so as to form a kind of slip-knot (L ; D :). For the identification,

32 : V
33 : O

34 :
35 : VO
36 :

VO

O V

shem tov, synonym list

cf. ShM ff.: [ . . . ]


( a knot and the other half is called [for as a
possible variant reading of unsu t. a, cf. D :, s.v. IF] and it is called
).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. lac, laz, latz or the O. Cat. lla for
loop, bow, slipknot (RMA ; FEW :a; RL :b; DECLC :b).
For the palatalization of word initial liquids, see the introduction.
.
#S. YS. , Arab. QS. RYH
Hebrew #S. YS. means a common earthen vessel, especially a flower pot
(JD ; LW :, ; SD ; SDA f. s.v. : a type of pot;
KA :, :; BM ; BKH f.; DAS :; FH f., , ,
; KT :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. mKet ., bGit
a.
Arabic qas. riyya is an earthen vase for plants, a flower pot, a chamber
pot (D :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :): [ ]
( =) (cf. SAM :), LO Perushim on bGit b,
p. . According to the Arukh (KA :), the Arabic equivalent is
(= V,3&). Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :) remarks
that it is a dirty earthen vessel ( ).
. 37

#KSWB,
Arab. RTYL"

The meaning of Hebrew #KSWB


is uncertain. It can mean a species of
spider, tarantula (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; FAB ;
LFa f.; LZ ) or horned viper or adder, Cerastes cornutus (KB ;
BAL ; LFa f.) and features in the Bible (Ps :) and Rabbinic
literature, e.g. Tos. Par. IX, .
Arabic rutayla designates the spider species phalangium or tarantula
(L ; D :; DT :; JAD : f. s.v. rutayla; StS ).
(ST ):
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Ps :
(They sharpen their tongues like serpents;

37 :

ayin

spiders poison is on their lips):


, and IJ ; see as well Jephet ben #Eli on the same
Psalm.38
. 39
Arab. #NKBWT
#KBYS,
Hebrew #KBYS means spider (KB ; JD ; KA :; BM f.;
BH index s.v.; FAB ; LZ ) and features in the Bible (Is :, Job :).
Arabic #ankabut means spider (L ; BH , ; JAD : ff.;
KSZ f.:; StS f.) or a spider-web (D :).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Job ::
(Whose confidence is a thread of gossamer, whose trust is a spiders
web): , (SJ ); IJ . See
as well MCS :.
. 40
#RQWB, Arab. #RQWB
Hebrew #RQWB, also spelt #RKB, means hough, ham, the inner part of
the knee or the inner angle of the joint which unites the thigh and
the leg of an animal (JD ; LW :; SDA : Aram. ;
KA : f., :; BM f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
mBekh ., bBekh a.
Arabic #urqub is the tendo Achillis, the heel tendon or the hock
tendon (L ; DKT ; FAL :; HA ).
For the identification, cf. the Arukh (KA :) on mTam .:
([He did not use to break the leg], but he made a hole
in it at the joint, and suspended it from there): (The
calf of the leg is called #urqub in Arabic).

38 Kit
ab al-zabur. Libri Psalmorum David Regis et Prophetae. Versio R. Yapheth ben
Heli Bassorensi Karait, auctore decimi seculi, arabic concinnita. Ed. by J.J.L. Bargs,
Paris , p. .
39 : V
40 : e P

shem tov, synonym list

. 41
#WRQYM, Arab. DL
.
Hebrew #WRQYM features in the Bible, namely in Job : as:
in the sense of (my pains) gnaw away (cf. KB f.), but
was subsequently interpreted as referring to nerves (KB ibid.), or to
vessels (cf. Dunash ben Labrat, Teshuvot, s.v. :
).42 In medieval literature, the term #WRQ features in the
sense of vein; artery (BM f., Low LXVIII; PB ) after Arabic

/, but also in the sense of muscle (KTP :) after Arabic 0J/ (cf.
Efros, Philosophical Terms, p. ).
Arabic #adal
. means muscles (L ; DKT , , ; FAL :).
For the identification of #WRQ as #adal,
. cf. Samuel ibn Tibbons Hebrew translation of Maimonides Dalalat al-h
. a"irn (Guide of the Perplexed) :.43 For the identification of Hebrew as Arabic ,
see MCS :.

. 44
#GWR, Arab. KRKY
Hebrew #GWR means crane, Grus grus (KB ; BM f.; BH s.v.
index; FAB ; LZ ) and features in the Bible, e.g. in Is :.
Arabic kurk designates the same bird (WKAS :; BK ; KSZ
:; f.:; StS f.).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is ::
(I piped like a swift or a swallow, I moaned like a dove):
(DS ; RT ). In his explanation
of Jer :: (And the turtle dove, swift and crane) Ibn
Janah. (IJ f.) wrongly translates as: ZM{ @) ,B%, following the
Targum: (which swaps around the swift and the
crane).
41 : VO
42 Teshuvot de Dunash

Ben Labrat. Critical edition with Spanish translation by A.


Senz-Badillos, Granada , pp. ; see as well Efros, Philosophical Terms, p. :
muscle is, according to Dunash, classical Hebrew and Rashi on Job . accepts
this view (note Louis Ginzberg).
43 Dal
alat al-h
. a"irn. Arabic text established by S. Munk and edited with variant
readings by I. Joel, Jerusalem , p. , l. ; Hebrew translation by Samuel Ibn
Tibbon (Moreh Nevukhim), ed. Ibn Shmuel, Jerusalem , p. .
44 : (cf. no. ) V

ayin

. 46 45
#NWH, Arab. GRZH
Hebrew #NWH or #NBH means stalk of grapes; crop and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPeah . (JD ; LW :; SD ;
SDA : Aram. ; KA :; BM ; FH , n. , ; KT
:).
Arabic gurza means sheaf; bundle (L ; D :).
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains the term #NWH as:
(answer) and the variant #NBH as: (grain) (MK :).
. 47
#RLT HGRWN, Arab. LH"H, o.l. LBL"
Hebrew #RLT HGRWN means uvula (KA :, s.v. ; BM )
and features in medieval literature, for instance, in R. Hananels
explana.
tion of the term (cf. JD ; SDA ; LO Perushim on bShab
a, p. ). This term features in a Halakhic discussion in bShab a
concerning the question whether one may cause a newborn baby to vomit
by putting its finger into its mouth on the Sabbath, or whether this is to
be considered as equal to the administration of an emetic, which is forbidden on the Sabbath.
Arabic lahat has the same meaning (D :; WKAS : ff.; DKT
, ; FAL :) and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (III, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by Z as:
("WBWL") and transcribed by N as: .
The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS is the O. Occ.
leula uvula, documented for the first time in th century Provence
(FEW :ab). The variant given in the Vatican MS might be read
as something like O. Occ. *liuoleta, *libuleta, *liboleta or similar, since, in
Mod. Occ., we find the form liboureto and, in Provenal, niouletto with
the same meaning (see FEW loc. cit.; note that the shift from a liquid to
a vibrant and vice versa is a very frequent type of variation in Romance).
Cf. the Hebrew fragment of Macer Floridus, where we find the form
LW" T",
. interpreted as the O. Occ. lueta, as another variant meaning uvula
(MF , ).
45 : om.
46 : cf. no. V
47 :

O V

shem tov, synonym list

. 49 48

RQ, Arab. #LQH, o.l. "YRWG"


Aramaic RQ means leech, Hirudo medicinalis, and features, in addition to various synonym forms such as #LWQH, #LQH, LQ, LQT, in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bBekh b, bAZ b (KB ; JD ; LW :;
SDA ; KA :; :; BM ; BH s.v. index; LZ ).
Arabic #alaqa has the same meaning (L ; D :; JAD :;
StS ; cf. as well Nun no. ).
For the identification, cf. EG n. and KA :.
The vernacular term is the singular of the word in entry Nun .
.
#PRY, Arab. "GBR
Hebrew #PRY means dusty, dirty, earth-like (BM ; EM ; KTP
:) and features in medieval literature, for instance, in Bahya
. ibn
Paqudas On the Duties of the Heart, Hebrew translation: Judah ibn Tibbon, Sefer Hovot
ha-Levavot, as for Arabic: .50
.
Arabic agbar means dust-coloured (L ; cf. as well Tet
. no. ).
. 52 51
#RWGWT, Arab. " HW"
. D. "LBS"TYN "LDY YZR# PYH"
Hebrew #RWGH, plur. #RWGWT, means planting area; garden bed
(KB ; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM f.; DAS :,
, ; FH , ; KT :, ). The term features in the Bible
(e.g. in Ez :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil ..
Arabic ahw
. ad. al-basatn allad yuzra#u fha means garden beds in
(for ahwad see L ).
which someone grows [vegetables]
. .
For the identification of Hebrew #RWGWT as Arabic ahw
. ad,
. cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
, ([if] you make square garden beds to
grow vegetables in them, they are called #RWGWT) (MK :).
48 : VO
49 : O
50
51
52

V
Ed. A. Zifroni, Jerusalem , p. .
: V, om. O
: VO

ayin

. 54 53
PYTYD"
#LY "YLN HHLTYT,
Arab. "NGD"N, o.l. PWLY D" S"
.
.
Hebrew #LY "YLN HHLTYT
designates the leaves of the plant Ferula
.
asafoetida L., asafedita fennel (for HLTYT
see. Het
.
. no. above) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in Tos. AZ . as:
(one may only take drops of
asafoetida from a specialist [as they are poisonous] but its leaves may be
taken from anywhere).55
Arabic angudan or angudan is Ferula asafoetida and, according to
Names, the leaves of asafetida (cf. He
Maimonides Glossary of Drug
above).
For the identification of HLTYT
as angudan, cf. Maimonides on
.
mTevul . (MK :): ; see
as well EG .
The vernacular term in the Vatican MS is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. folh/full
das(s)afetida, literally leaf of asafetida. The variant PYYWL" given in the
Oxford MS clearly shows a diphthong in the first syllable and must be
read as O. Occ. fuelha/fue(i)lla/foilla (RL :b; DAO :). For
further comments on folh/fulh and as(s)afetida (including the variant in
MS P), see He and Het
. .
PTYD"
For the identification of Arab. angudan or angudan as " S"
.

(found in the Latin column), cf. GHAT :.


. 56
#WWT HPH, Arab. LQWH
Hebrew #WWT HPH means facial paresis and features in medieval
literature, namely in Shabbetai Donnolos Sefer Hakhmoni
(following
.
BM ).
Arabic laqwa means paralysis of the facial nerve, facial paresis, paralysis of one side of the face, crooked mouth (WKAS : ff.; SN )
and features, for instance, in Maimonides Medical Aphorisms (XX, )
and is translated by Z as: and transcribed by N as: (cf. as

53 : O
54 : O
55 Ed. M.S. Zuckermandel, repr. Jerusalem , p. .
56 :

shem tov, synonym list

well for further references KZ ). In Book of the Sefer ha-Shimmush


(MS Paris BN hb. , fol. a), Shem Tov uses the unattested
as a translation of the Arabic laqwa. See as well: Bos, G., Isaac Todros
on facial paresis (forthcoming: Koroth).
. 57
#RYS, i.e. "L#RYS and that is a vine climbing against a wall or a [wooden
frame]
Hebrew #RYS means arbour, espalier and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in mPeah . and mKil . (JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ;
KT :).
Arabic #ars means trellis of a grape vine; structure made for a grape
vine of sticks or pieces of wood in the form of a roof, upon which are put
the branches or shoots of the vine; structure made for grape vine to rise
upon it (L ).
The explanation of the term is a literal quotation from Maimonides on mKil . (MK :):
.
. 58

#RYBH, Arab. GPNH


"L#GYN
Hebrew #RYBH means trough, tub, kneading trough and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,
:; BM f.; BKH , ff., , f., , , , , ,
; KT :, , , , , n. , n. , :, , ,
).
Arabic gafnat al-#agn means kneading bowl (L f., ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
(MK :): :; cf. EG :
(The tanners trough, that is, a wooden
vessel that looks like a boat and that is used by the tanner, in Arab. gafnah)
(cf. mKel .).

57 :
O
V
58 : VO

ayin

. 59

"LS. NWBR
#S. Y SMN,
Arab. KSB

Hebrew #S. SMN,


plur. #S. Y SMN,
designates pine wood, Pinus halepensis,
and features in the Bible (e.g. in Is :) and in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mRH . (KB , ; JD , ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM ; DAS : f., , ; FEB ff.; FM ; FO f.; FZ :
Elaeagnus Angustifolius L.; LF : f.).
Arabic hasab as. -s. anawbar has the same meaning (DT :; M ;
LF : ff.).
For the identification, cf. KA ::

(#S. SMN
is a kind of as. -s. anawbar) and SID :. Sa#adya
(DS ; RT ) translates the term in the biblical verse mentioned as:

. The plur. #S. Y SMN


features in mRH . but is not commented
upon by Maimonides.
. 61 60
#WGYWT LGPNYM, Arab. HPR
L" S. WL "LKRM
.
Hebrew #WGYH, plur. #WGYWT, means a cavity dug around a tree and
#WGYWT LGPNYM means cavities dug for grape-vines and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMQ . (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; BM ; FH f.).
Arabic hufar
li-us. u l al-karm means cavities for the roots of grape vine
.
(for Arabic hufar
cf. L and for Arabic karm cf. WKAS : f. and
.
DT :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
(MK : f.) who explains #WGYWT LGPNYM as:
(he digs holes around the roots of a tree to gather
water in them).

59 :
60 : e P
61 :

shem tov, synonym list

. 62

#PR SPRD, Arab. TPL,


o.l. TYR"
DSP"NYH
.
.
Hebrew #PR SPRD literally means earth from Spain and possibly refers
to a kind of fullers earth used for dyeing clothes. The term does not
feature in secondary literature, but may have been coined by Shem Tov
as the equivalent for the Arabic t. afl. In Rabbinic literature the term
was possibly used for fullers earth (KT :, n. ).
Arabic t. afl means fullers earth, which is used for scouring cloth, and
is sometimes used in the bath, instead of soap; a certain yellow earth, well
known in Egypt, with which cloths are dyed (L ; cf. as well M :
t. afl t. ulait. ul Saponaria earth of Toledo).
The vernacular term is most probably to be read as O. Occ. *terra
dEspanha or O. Cat. *terra dEspanya, literally for earth from Spain,
in correspondence with the Hebrew term (this compound expression is
not documented in our sources). In Med. Latin, we find the term terra
hyspanica for terra sigillata (cf. Sin , n. ), translated into Spanish
as greda de Spanna [read: Espanna] (Sin :). O. Sp. greda designates
a tierra bituminosa y muy blanca (i.e., bituminous and very white soil)
(DETEMA :c).
. 63

#YQRYN, Arab. #Q"QYR, o.l. " SPSY"


S
Hebrew #YQR, plur.#YQRYN, means root; essence; essential portion;
major part; main object and features in the Bible (Job :), Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mKil . (KB ; JD f.; LW : f.; SD ;
SDA ; KA : f.; BM ff.), and medieval philosophical literature
(KTP : f.). The term features with the meaning the root of a plant
which is used medically, for instance, as: (a rootdrink as a
contraceptive) in Tos. Yeb . (cf. KA :; BM ).
Arabic #aqqar, plur. #aqaqr, means a simple, a drug; any of the
elements of medicines; what is used medically of plants and of their roots
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Qiz. z. ur al-Kafi (AQ, fol. a):
[ . . . ] (a root drink, i.e.

62 : O "D P
63 : O """ P V

ayin

collect either roots or foods, pound them and drink them in wine [ . . . ]).
Cf. as well ShM f., s.v. .
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. especia for spice,
according to RPA, which quotes the DDS: pices ou espces; [ . . . ]
mdicaments prscrits par le mdecin et dont le pharmacien fait la dispensation (i.e., spices or species; medicines prescribed by the physician and prepared and dispensed by the pharmacist; RPA , ; for
the O. Cat. form espcia see DECLC :b). Von Wartburg points out
that in Late Lat. species was often used with the meaning drugs, spices
(FEW :b).
. 64
#WQS. HHW
Arab. TRP
"L"NP
. TM,
.
.
Hebrew #WQS. HHW
. TM
. literally means end, point of the nose (JD ,
; BM , ) and was possibly coined by Shem Tov
as a loan translation of Arabic t. arf al-anf (cf. below).
Arabic t. arf al-anf, literally end, extremity of the nose (L , ),
designates the wing of the nose (FAL :).
. 67 66 65
TR
o.l. Q"BSY"

#DL, Arab. SY
. G,
Hebrew #DL or "DL means peppergrass, cress, Lepidium latifolium L.,
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mUqz . (JD ; LW :;
KA :, :; AEY :; DAS : f.; FM ; LF : f.).
Arabic st. arag designates the same plant (DT :; M ).
For the identification, cf. EG : () , and Maimonides
on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :).
The vernacular term is most probably to be read as capsia; the variant
in MS V seems to be corrupt. See the index to the Latin translation
of Ibn Snas Kitab al-Qanun, quoted in Sin b: Seitaragiem herba
similis nasturcio, i. capsia; Setaragi, i. capsia. Cf. also Sin :.
Without any doubt, seitaragiem and setaragi represent the Arabic term
discussed above, whereas DuC interprets capsia as Indicum piper
64 : O V
65 : A P :
66 : V
67 : V

om. O

shem tov, synonym list

(:a). According to the Alphita, capsia is an unknown plant or root


which features in the Viaticum Konstantini, see CA who also states
that capsia is Sambucus ebulus L. It is not clear whether capsia has, at
least in some texts, been confused with t(h)apsia, see CA loc. cit. and Sin
, n. .

Also cf. the Hebrew spelling Q"BSY"H


of the term documented in the
Latin column and identified as Arab. st. arag in GHAT :.

PE
. 1

PSTQYM, Arab. PSTQ, o.l. PSTWQ


S
Hebrew PSTQ, plur. PSTQYM, from Middle Iranian pistak (cf. SDA ),
means pistachio, pistachio nut, Pistacia vera L. (JD f.; LW :;
SD ; SDA f.: Aram. ; KA :, :; AEY :;
FE ; FO ; LF : ff.; LA ff.:; cf. as well Bet no. above) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit a.
Arabic fustuq or fustaq designates the same plant (L ; D :;
DT :; M ; ID :; LA :) and features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in Maimonides On Asthma (III, ; cf. BMA )
and is transcribed by Samuel Benveniste as: .
For the identification of the Aramaic form , cf. LO Perushim on
bGit a, p. : .
The vernacular term is the plu