You are on page 1of 28

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

ENERGY DISSIPATORS
by:
Dr. Zahiraniza Mustaffa

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

General Contents:
Introduction
Energy Dissipators
Stilling Basins
Design considerations

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

Damn you dam!

Recall the layout of a dam!

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

Typical Layout of a Dam


Q

Reservoir
Dam

Hydraulic jump

Energy Dissipator
Structures
ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

Introduction
Problem Statement:
When water is released through the
spillway, it carries a significant amount of
energy.
If no structures were built at the downstream
section of the spillway, this huge amount
of energy will destroy the river bed (or
anything located near the area).

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

Solutions:
Use energy dissipators, which are able to:
Dissipate the amount of energy released
from the spillway.
Slow down (reduce the velocity) the
tailwater flow
Protect any structures located at the
downstream section of the dam

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

High flow
(supercritical)
Hydraulic Low flow
(subcritical)
jump

Energy Dissipator
Structures

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

10

Energy Dissipators
Examples of energy dissipators:
Stilling basins
Drops/Steps e.g. Stepped spillway
Roller/Flip Buckets

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

11

Baffle Blocks

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

12

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

13

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

14

Pergau Dam, Kelantan


ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

15

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

16

Stilling Basins
Stilling basin is a basin comprises small
structures like baffles, sills and chute blocks.
When heavy flow (from u/s of dam) hits these
structures, the energy of the water will be
dissipated. Thus, water flowing d/s will be
weaker than the u/s. Is it good? Why?

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

17

Why do we need to have the basin?


The basin is a platform used to convert
supercritical flows into subcritical flows. This
condition will form a hydraulic jump. Is it good
to have a hydraulic jump?

Hydraulic jump equation,


y2
1

y1
2

1 8 F12 1

F1

ZM UTP

v1
gy1

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

18

F1
y2
Q

ZM UTP

y1

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

19

There are FIVE types of stilling basins Basin


I, Basin II, Basin III, Basin IV and Basin V.
They are designed with respect to Froude
number (F) of the flow at the downstream
section of the spillway.

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

20

BASIN TYPE

Basin I

1.7 < F < 2.5


No special stilling basin required

Basin II

F > 4.5 and V > 15 m/s


Chute blocks (u/s end) and dentated sill (d/s end).
Used at high dam, earth dam spillways & canal structures.

Basin III

F > 4.5 and V < 15-18 m/s

Chute blocks (u/s end), baffle blocks (middle) and end sill
(d/s
end).

The basin length is 60% shorter than Basin II.

Used at small spillways, outlet works & small canal


structures.

2.5 < F < 4.5

Chute blocks (u/s end) and end sill (d/s end).

Used at low dams (small spillways), small outlet works &


diversion dams.

Hydraulic jump not fully developed but lots of waves formed


from the jump.

Basin IV

Basin V

ZM UTP

DESCRIPTION

Built on sloping aprons


Used at high dams spillways
ENERGY DISSIPATORS

21

Design Considerations
Some concerns when designing stilling basin:
To determine basin width and elevation so that
a stable hydraulic jump is formed within the
basin.
To avoid the jump neither swept out of the
basin nor drowned.

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

22

What are the stilling basin parameters that


you need to design?

ZM UTP

Chute block dimensions


Baffle block dimensions
Dentated sill dimensions
End sill dimensions
Length of the basin
Distance between the blocks
Number of blocks
etc.

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

23

How do you design these parameters?


i.

Determine the Froude number, F of the


approaching flow before the placement of
the stilling basins.

ii.

Determine the corresponding hydraulic jump


conjugate depths (y1 and y2) by using the
hydraulic jump equation.

iii. Determine the tailwater depth located at the


d/s of the basin (TW).
iv. Use the graphs given to find the parameters.
ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

24

What do you need to know?


Q

F1

v1
gy1

y2

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

TW

25

Now, fun time!


Q1. Select and design the type of stilling basin for a
spillway with crest length of 100 ft, discharge of
15,000 cfs with elevations as shown in the
figure.

Elev. 100 ft

Elev. 50 ft
Elev. 20 ft

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

26

Q2. Select and design the type of stilling basin for a


spillway that discharges flow with Froude number of
5.0 and velocity of 55 ft/s.

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

27

ZM UTP

ENERGY DISSIPATORS

28