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Husserl and the Japanese

Author(s): Donn Welton


Source: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Mar., 1991), pp. 575-606
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HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


DONN WELTON

ist ein Ausdruck


f?r das Verm?gen
und vor allem f?r den
Freiheit
zu dem, was sich, zu
Habitus
kritischer
erworbenen
Stellungnahme
als praktisch
n?chst reflexionslos,
als wahr, als wertvoll,
seinsollend
zwar
und
als
f?r
das
daraushin
gibt,
Grundlage
bewu?tseinsm??ig
sich vollziehende
freie Entscheiden.1
Der autonome Mensch will sich also diese neue Welt bauen, und letzlich
fordert das eine prinzipielle
Kritik
und dazu eine letzte Besinnung
selbst ?ber die Prinzipien,
?ber letzte Prinzipien,
die Kritik m?glich
machen
und die andererseits
ein wahres
Vernunftleben
m?glich
machen.2

Die Menschheit
Die Idee wird

E continue

philosophizing

ist auf ihre Idee wie ein K?nstler


stets bestimmt
in der Vollendung.3

auf seine gerichtet.

TO BE surprised
that the only pieces of sustained
that Husserl published in the 15 years between Ideas

and Internal
Time-Consciousness
/(1913)4
a Japanese
in Kaizo,
that appeared

three articles
(1928)5 were
in
1923
and 1924.6
periodical,

1
und Vortr?ge
Edmund
ed. Thomas
Husserl,
(1922-1937),
Aufs?tze
27
Nenon
and Hans
Bd.
Kluwer
Academic
Husserliana,
Sepp,
(Boston:
to this work will be given as
citations
Publishers,
1989), 63. Hereafter,
UAV (1922-1937)"
2
107.
3 Ibid.,
119.
Ibid.,
4
Ideen zu einer reinen Ph?nomenologie
und ph?nomenologischen
Phi
in die reine Ph?nomenologie,
Einf?hrung
losophie, Erstes Buch: Allgemeine
ed. Walter
Bd. 3 (The Hague: Martinus
Biemel, Husserliana,
1950);
Nijhoff,
to a Pure Phenomenology
Ideas Pertaining
and to a Phenomenological
Phi
to a Pure Phenomenology,
trans.
losophy, First Book: General Introduction
In all citations where
Fred Kersten
(The Hague: Martinus
1983).
Nijhoff,
are given,
translation
pages of both the German
original and the English
it is the latter that is being quoted.
5
Zur Ph?nomenologie
des inneren Zeitbewu?tseins,
ed. Rudolf Boehm,
Bd. 10 (The Hague: Martinus
Husserliana,
1966); Phenomenology
Nijhoff,
of Internal Time-Consciousness,
newly translated
by John Brough
(Boston:
Kluwer Academic
Publishers,
forthcoming).
6
in German
Of the three only the first was published
and Japanese;
the next two appeared
translation
and thus were not
only in a Japanese
Review

of Metaphysics

44

(March

1991):

575-606.

Copyright

1991

by

Metaphysics

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the Review

of

576

DONN WELTON
also

We

follow
are

find well-written
in the

drafts

but were

series

even more

we

when
intrigued
never
themes
touched
up

takes

again until his very


contain
continuous

and

social

life and

and

other

completed
realize

that

his

on

attack

texts Husserl

and not

analyses
of ethical
normativity,

the Kaizo

new Weltanschauung

and Transcendental

the

second

our

and

third

yet
the Greek

how
would
role

he

of

question
could define
and

proceed,
in the account

science

of cultural

the The Crisis

slender,
indeed,
in Japan
and that
translation.
Yet

Philosphyf

were

ethical

a society
not have

and

knowledge
And
diversity.

life

how

the human

that

he gives.

in this
and

context,
social

in his

philosophy"

published
in Japanese
appeared
only
with
for we have
anticipation,

conception

the

poses

articles

is coupled
would
say to the Japanese,
a culture
not Western,
that does

intrigue
what Husserl
and

the

of

articles

on these topics be

1911 Logos article8 and the 1934-37 texts surrounding


Sciences
of European
we think
when
that

touched

his manuscripts
of the essential
forms

extensive

"the

to
We

submitted.7

in these

build the only slender bridge actually published


tween

that were

articles
and

in publications
before
we know that
While

late work.

cultural

of two

never

long wondered

highly
developed
its beginnings
in
and which

we

have

how
sciences

clearly
wondered

the

analysis
could play

even available
in German
until Nenon
and Sepp's outstanding
edition of
Husserl's
1922 and 1937; see AV(1922-1937),
essays and lectures between
3-43.
as "Renewal:
in English
translation
Its
Only the first has appeared
Problem
and Method,"
trans. Jeffner Allen,
inHusserl:
Shorter Works, ed.
P. McCormick
and F. Elliston
of Notre Dame
(Notre Dame: University
For the sake of continuity
all translations
of the
Press,
1981), 326-31.
Kaizo
in this essay are my own.
articles
7
See editors' comments
in AV(1922-1937),
xiv-xv.
8
als
Wissenschaft
und Vortr?ge
strenge
"Philosophie
(1911)," Aufs?tze
Bd. 25 (Boston:
(1911-1921), ed. Thomas Nenon and Hans Sepp, Husserliana,
as Rigorous
Martinus
in Phe
1987), 3-62; "Philosophy
Nijhoff,
Science,"
and
the
Crisis
trans.
Lauer
nomenology
of Philosophy,
Quentin
(New York:
and Row, 1965), 71-147.
This attack
is taken up again, but much
Harper
more
in the 1931 lecture he gave to three different
audiences
indirectly,
entitled
und Anthropologie,"
164-81.
"Ph?nomenologie
AV(1922-1937),
9
See AV (1922-1937),
introduction
to Ed
184-244; see also the editor's
mund Husserl,
Die Krisis
der europ?ischen
und die tran
Wissenschaften
szendentale
ed. Walter
Bd. 6 (The
Ph?nomenologie,
Biemel, Husserliana,
to
introduction
Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff,
1954), xiiiff.; and the translator's
The Crisis of European
Sciences
and Transcendental
trans. Da
Philosophy,
vid Carr (Evanston: Northwestern
Press, 1970), xivff.
University

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577

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


I
moves

What
imates

these
them

and gives

earlier
beyond
an urgency
not found

in the wake of the First World War,

is the fact that, written


as

resonate

to

respond

they

an
what
formulations,
in previous
publications,

texts

the

threat

of

a shattered

ken

faith.

stood

earlier work
that Husserl's
It is true, of course,
as a response
to skepticism
which,
suggestively,
in order
then
to belief
of perception
reduction

the

His

of doxa.

toration
one that
its various

first

not only describes


in terms
strands
and

pendence
strands

in terms

of

relations

of the various

can

be under

of

some
by which
in all its rela

transformations

and then orders


of experience
that they rest upon our ordinary

knowledge

a way

in such

fields

to fields

and

gagement with things, what he freely calls belief.

is

truth

in ordering
and inde

but also,
of dependence

world
treats
the perceptual
others,
support
connects
as an integral
Husserl
part of this web.

tivity

bro

to it
grants
res
a
to effect

account

phenomenological
the web of knowledge

they

and

of

fields

of experience
en

everyday

This initial notion

of faith, which would


is not a notion
carry us beyond
then,
a belief
in
can be naturally
It is actually
known.
the pale of what
of our everyday
in the integrity
the world,
engagement
perceptual
an
reha
effect
His
first
world.
the
with
writings
epistemological
of belief,

the

ever-recurring
In the texts

the edifice
It is his

before

of skepticism.
us,

of his

He

Husserl

understands

the
not

loss

so much

affecting
culturally,
epistemologically
as the very city in which
that edifice stands.
of knowledge
out of his
wrenches
that
Husserl
full
of
suffering"
"present

he moves

domain

however,
but

with
preoccupation
concurrent
interest

earlier

time

threat

not

of faith

a reply to

of belief and it is this that provides him with

bilitation

from

issues
cognitive
in Fichte's
ethical
theory.10
a crisis
to a crisis
in thought

of European
culture.
as
if Western
writes

lack of redemptive

narrower

culture

has

been

and

even

For
in the

stripped,

out

the first
entire

exposing

powers:

to [Europe] and, since


The war, which,
since the year 1914, laid waste
in place of military
force the "more refined" force of
1918, found
10
Three
lectures held during
und Vortr?ge
(1911-1921),
Aufs?tze

the war
267-95.

in 1917 and

1918, published

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in

578
torture and economic
need,
the inner lack of truth and

psychological
has disclosed

DONN WELTON

itself morally
depraving,
the senselessness
of this

culture.11

in two letters from 1920 we read:

And

What
the war disclosed
is the unspeakable
not only moral and religious
but also philosophical
of
mankind.12
poverty
This war, the most universal
and deepest
sinful fall of mankind
in all
known history,
has displayed
all the guiding
ideas in their impotence
and inauthenticity.13

But we quickly discover that this "sinful fall" is itself reinscribed


into

Husserl
resists
the views
of many
rationality.
not
for
he
does
find
culture
itself
poraries
European
eral if glossy
surface
beneath
which
dance
the gods

of his

contem

to be an ephem
who determine

our fate.

Nor did he find it inherently impotent, a trickling stream


lacking sufficient force to turn the heart of a people toward the path

of peace

He
is not even willing
to view
the powers
harmony.
as mixed,
as containing
culture
both wheat
and tares,
of both liberating
ideals and of destructive
The
impulses.

and

of Western
the seeds

fall did not really


per se but almost
recent

rather

into

inherent

the

limits

or weaknesses

its opposite:
what
is "the enchainment

barbarism

[Schwungkraft]."14
released.
The
was

reveal

The
darkness

lack, a privation,
into
blindness,
in cultural

liberating

Husserl

inability

of its true,
of this

progressive
was
culture

us

itself

force

surrounding
an absence.
an

of European
culture
sees
in the
ultimately

is not

power
never

a power

Correspondingly,
to see the generative

the

but
fall

powers

life.

A nation, a humanity
lives and works
in the fullness
of power when
it is borne by a belief, keeping
it inmotion,
in itself and in the meaning,
beautiful
and good, of its cultural
life.15
This belief, which
lifted us and our fathers and which was delivered
to nations, which
nations
such as the Japanese
first embraced
in the
more
recent era of the work of European
culture, we ever so many
people have lost.16
It is because
speaks

not

of this
salvation,

that Husserl's
of faith be
notion
reinscription
as it did for Karl Barth's
1919
groundbreaking

11
S.
12AV(1922-1937),
to William
Letter
in A V (1922-1937), xii.
Hocking,
quoted
13
Letter
to Winthrop
in A V (1922-1937), xii.
Bell, quoted
3.
14AV(1922-1937),
15
Ibid.
16
Ibid.

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HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE

579

nor revolution,
as in Rosa
of Romans,17
in 1918,18 but rather
work
"reform"19
up to her death
Luxemburg's
or "renewal":
but
without
what
has be
new,
making
overturning,
come old, finding what
what
has been lost, recovering
has been bur
on

commentary

ied.
but

"collapsed,"
of the potential

a vision

texts

surrounding
of Western
integrity

that

civilization

contrast

to the current

disarray

and

complex

analysis,
between

tionship
and insists

itself

that

mediated

an

by

the
for

culture.

comments

here

and

is his

of counterposing
of culture

of

the

saves

argument

must

structures"20

in the

be

set

in

state

of European
in
civilization,21
presently
own
a
of
his
is
critical
His
analysis.
object
the internal
and dynamic
it recognizes
rela

such

structures

and

the

in this

the analysis
sphere
of
the
of
forms
analysis

carefully.
proceed
For Husserl,

culture

a straightforward
affirmation
with
its ideals.
But what

strategy

"formal

is not Western

in Western

in Husserl's

the Crisis

a simplistic
universal

from
the

argues,

inherent

to find

is tempting

Husserl

Husserl

has

What

It

book

the

culture

is society

viewed

course

of human

action,
is necessarily
We must
action.

of norms
such

as an

interrelated

cluster

of values.
live under mere
mankind
instincts,
all the types of acts of consciousness
Throughout
mative
interwoven with them.22
consciousness
Animals

norms.
also under
there runs a nor

then,

Culture,

is not [just] a general multiplicity


and achievements,
of social activities
into a general
into unities
of developing
type and fusing
coalescing
cultural forms, but rather a unified norm guides all these formations,
mints
for them rules and laws. And this norm is alive in the social
consciousness
and historically
itself, is itself progressively
shaped and
as

objectivated

culture.

. ,23

17
to the Romans,
trans. Edwyn Hoskyns
The Epistle
(London: Oxford
Press,
1933).
University
18
ed. Dick Howard
Selected Political Writings
of Rosa Luxemburg,
(New
York: Monthly
Review Press,
1971).
19
6.
20AV(1922-1937),
10.
Ibid.,
21
111.
22 Ibid.,
is convinced
that while
animals
have societies,
Ibid., 59. Husserl
are not guided by conscious
for their actions
they do not have cultures
values;

23

see

p.

97.

Ibid., 63.

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580

DONN WELTON

The

notion

find

in Husserl's

ture

of culture

the

of culture

this

and
ture.
the

the most

creative

we

tensions

of the formal

struc

phenomenology
in the analysis
of the values
its center
and
of a society.
And
if these values
constitutive

ideal

norm

Yet

of

The

writings.
will find

normative

one

yields

can

we can speak of true cul


be rationally
justified,
human
which means
is a historical,
that
complex,
create
and interactions
of a people
actions
the norm

culture

existing

that defines its essence.


to see values

and

the

It is this dynamic quality that leads Husserl


social

norm

as open:

Should we wait to see if this culture does not become healthy


by itself
of value-productive
and value-destructive
in its accidental
interplay
of the Occident"
billow over us
forces?
Should we let "the decline
as a [finished] fact?
obser
This fact exists only if we act as passive
vers.

.24

The
toward its idea as an artist toward his.
Mankind
is directed
in [the process of] being completed.25
determined
is continually
The

very

essence

to realize

jects
yet this norm
ate" it.26
This

of culture

idea

involves

the struggle
free sub
by active,
and
their
guides
actions;
justifies
in those
actions
in turn,
"cre
that,

a norm which

clearly
is found

tension

cannot
that

is human

only

be resolved
in its course

we

that
by arguing
can find certain

human

action

transcendent

striving,
the multiplicity
the process,
and that among
of avail
leading
of continuous
ethical
able
ideals we find "the possibility
progress
cannot
of ideals of reason."27
Husserl
under
the guidance
simply
we
can
as
one
which
choose
several
from
this
among
options
present
ideals

status.
its binding,
The
at will,
undercut
for this would
normative
must
life guided
ideal of an ethical
by "a true practical
rationality"28
of an absolute
ethical
take on the character
itself
requirement.29
Without

re
there could be no "rational
is convinced,
no "rational
of human
and human
science
being
areas
in
the
of
social
and po
rationality
ground

this, Husserl

of culture,"30
that would
society
and
litical practice

form

24
25AV(1922-1937),
119.
26 Ibid.,
4.
Ibid.,
27
Ibid.
28
6.
29 Ibid.,
4.
Ibid.,
30
5-6.
31 Ibid.,
Ibid.

that would

ground

rational

political

4.

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technique."31

581

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


are we

how

But

to move

from

as

values

ethical

facts

cultural

as binding
norms?
cultural
to values
Or, to cast the issue in terms
how can Husserl
of phenomenological
of the question
give
method,
the
that
account
of normativity
a phenomenological
incorporates
without
into the account
of values
historical
making
development
to a particular,

of appealing
as normative?

the mistake
uration

factual

historical

config

II
Husserl
we

approaches
speak of cultural
in general
spirit

can

human

familiar
using
that produces,
science
serl

task by taking a step backwards.


to describe
the nature
life we need

his

in a rigorous
fashion.
contrasts.
Phenomenology

for a grounded

in terms of values.
phenomena
an
but rather
science
human
"in pure

and
this

At

society
a shift
juncture
found after
often

something
fact and essence,
between
and

the

device,

one

an

inductive

effects

studies
will

"a priori"
discipline
formal
universality."32

to a deeper
Ideas I: he

level

his

account

an empirical
treats
the

that

the relative
the a priori,
as a heuristic
almost
in opposition
and provides

the analysis
from fact

a transition

of

of analysis
intervenes,
these stark contrasts

treats

and
the contingent
as a first
introduction,

of nature,
never yield
account

rational
is not

Phenomenology

absolute,
only
him to "place"
enabling
before
he then reframes

dition,
tion of how

find Hus

is not

and

of the

first we

as do physical
and biological
are only probable.
Induction

laws that
empirical
laws necessary
the essential

individual

At

Before

to essence,

to the

tra

a descrip
from the

to the absolute.
For
a priori,
from the relative
Husserl
in his published
something
presents
writings,
to account
an inexplicable
for our appre
Wesensschau
to the

contingent
the first time
more
hension

than

of essences.33

He

speaks

of a twofold

process

of Besinnung,

32
10.
AV (1922-1937),
33
some ten years before but
Book of Ideas, written
Third
the
Already
see Ideen zu einer
never published,
the seeds of this new analysis;
contains
Drittes
Buch:
und
reinen Ph?nomenologie
Philosophie,
ph?nomenologischen
ed. Marly
der Wissenschaften,
und die Fundamente
Die Ph?nomenologie
The
Bd. 5 (The Hague: Martinus
1952), lOlff.
Nijhoff,
Biemel, Husserliana,
in his published
comes to the notion of eidetic variation
closest Husserl
work before 1922 is found in Part Four of Ideas I; see Ideen I, 365-6; Ideas
which we can also find in yet
of "ideation,"
But the concept
I, 357-8.
the theory of
for what becomes
did serve as a placeholder
earlier works,
eidetic variation.

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582

DONN WELTON

of "drafting"

the concept

as

under
of

as clearly
and precisely
even
it "ab
variation,"35
calling
invariant
structure
the
throughout

consideration

"free

and,
then,
possible,34
an
which
discovers
straction,"36
course
of changing
and determining
exemplars,
thereby
enriching
the provisional
under
In this way we turn
consideration.
concept
our attention
from
the
accidental
content"
of the
away
"empirical
or universal.
in play to focus on what
is general
all
factual
"concrete
circumstances
pirical
differences,
life" become
variable."37
thereby
"indeterminate,"
"freely
concepts

and

This
rates

three

One.

Step

"We

it gains

examples.
about
judgment

may

of

concept

"use"

the

empirical

into mathematical

insight

mere

might

our

orient

Mathematics

matics."38

phenomenology
actually
call "possibilizing,"

we

what
moments,
and "normalizing."

tializing,"

as

constitutive

expanded

concepts,
the mathematician

"In principle

realities.

empirical
that

can

refrains

be manipulated

em

incorpo
"essen

a priori
on mathe
or shapes
bodies
but
serve as
such things

count

They

All

of earthly

for

him

from

any
only as

at will

in free phan
In
serve
could
fact,
purely
imaginary
examples
tasy."39
equally well,
of pure mathematical
for "the thematic
is not real
sphere
thought
nature
nature
in general."40
or complexes,
but possible
Real objects
contingent

examples

are

then,

Step
bilities,"
in "the

treated
Two.
which

pure

as actual

as possible
real objects.
Pure phantasy
is not interested
in "singular
possi
result
from
but
in
essential
step one,
possibilities,
not

'idea' or

'essence'

but

and

'essential

laws'."41

the thing but its condition; such thinking Husserl


of

the

which
essence,"42
the process
of variation:
Through
bodies.
through

he

now

explains

as

the

It thinks

terminal

... we are aware of an open infinity


free variation
That which
is fixed as identical
in such variations,
and overviewing
the open infinity of variations,

34
AV (1922-1937),
35
Ibid., 11.
36
Ibid.
37
Ibid.
38
13.
Ibid.,
39
14.
Ibid.,
40
Ibid.
41
15.
42 Ibid.,
Ibid.

not

calls the "intuition

10.

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point

of

of possible
in running
is fixed in

583

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


as a pervading

evidence
.

. . their

Three.

Step

(in mathematics,
"out
knowledge
of their

that

is involved

their

'idea',

with

is
laws

mathematics

comparison
that is appropriate
of explanation
to describe
the kind
but rather

culture

the contrast

to substantiate

and

or rules

knowledge
out of
of realities

the

form

the

laws

general
Rational

"knowledge
Yet

possibility."
to prescribe
of human
to a science

concepts,

produced.

of principles,"

pure

insight

of such
are

axioms)

not

is used

'essence',

. . ,43

the basis

On

as their general

identity,

concept".

"pure

between

of
the

on the starting
the purely
Depending
conceptual.
purely
to call the "interest"44
under
will
Husserl
and what
begin
point
case
as
we
can
in
of
the
the
natural
and
the
have,
study,
girding
with
human
different
regional
analyses
paradigmatically
sciences,
factual

and

models

different

of

"the

explanation:

and the
method
particular
and can be quite different."45
of concepts
the construction

theory must
type of the a priori
account
of
this
"epistemic"
an "ontological"
Husserl
proposes
counterpart.
on the
rests
laws "to factual
essential
reality
whole

To

in
contains
evidentially
contains
natural
complex
adds

Husserl

achieve

manifolds
that within
as

sence'

an even

a single
its rational

itself

pure

a defined
the

"course"

only
unity
discursive

field,
of

content,

essence

the
the

drawing

that

of
application
each reality

each
Indeed,
in itself.
To this

from

his

belief

that

a single
limit,
they approach
its pure
'es
has
field "each reality
demands
and
its
each makes
possible

knowledge."47
('exact')
and "the
of an endless manifold

for

possibilities

thesis,
in that

rational

within

possibilities."46

countless

stronger

The
fact

possible

In prescribing
ideal possibility
simultaneously
comprehension

a rule for the unity


of its completeness"
a rule
prescribes
of

that

manifold

in ideas.48
of eidetic
of the notion
this
introduction
breakthrough,
we must
de
to add, does not overturn
but rather
hasten
variation,
that
Husserl
first
constitutive
the
notion
of
phenomenology
velops
This

proposed

in Ideas I.

Thus

43
15.
AV (1922-1937),
44
78.
Ibid.,
45
18.
46 Ibid.,
Ibid., 16.
47
Ibid.
48
Ideen I, 366-7; Ideas

it supplements

his first articulation

I, 357ff.

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of

584

DONN WELTON
there.
Yet
theory
norms
ethical
does make

transcendental
culture

and

to questions
of
in that
tensions

its application
visible
certain

method.
Husserl
cess

that

clearly
recognizes
will
variation

of eidetic

the

of the pro
point"
ideas and different

"starting
different

produce
same natural

can be appre
complex
relationships.49
or as a social
or a political
or lived-body,
as physical
unit
on our point of orientation.
The starting
point, however,
depending
or
the
the
the
intuition
not
evidence
itself
enclosed
is
raising
by
essential

The

hended

to the

analysis
thing
the notion
serl's

analysis
in which

text

with

tension
character

draws
a given
Husserl's

regional
insistence

a true

it is to produce
it strives.

the

closure

the

into

the

absolute

Husserl

recog

if
(Bindung)50
or
essence.
idea
This

before
the essence

have

such

produces
duction

"object"

do not merely
concepts
selves
constitutive
of

enumerate
the

of the analysis
culture
Furthermore,

character

that

by his

suggested
a perceptual

object,

their
under

field

is rendered
itself

serl, for we are dealing with

a way

of what

culture

cannot

analysis

based

that

appears

the

special

and what

the

it is.

of ad

absolute

for Hus

quite different
of appearances.

as a phenomenon

theoretical

first

provisional
are them

problems

characterization

culture

be comprehended
on the correlational

49
AV (1922-1937),
50
Ibid., 19.

but

a kind of complexity

standard

which

the

consideration,
uncertain.

presents

process
can

How

like a notion
that

extensions

evolving and changing on the basis of principles


is in such

the

insight
binding
seen
is produced?
of variation
process

to be

the
guide
to something
Recourse
the essence?
to
but
the extent
is quite
plausible,

insight

part

and

difficulty.
be "bound"
of an

"differentiation"

can we

how

But

of variation

Unlike

on

is guided by insight into the essence for which

that variation

from

The

us to a theory

analysis.
of this first
is another
aspect
must
of variation
the process

that

means

itself

of his

There
nizes

not

but

nature
of Hus
perspectival
con
of interests
the
articulating
in
This
arises.
stands
discipline

evidence.

of absolute

a surd, some
covered
by

It remains

science.
of rigorous
the
for
process
necessary

level

in excess,

is itself

self

internal to what

representations
This
suggests

of

it become

that perhaps
a
structural
phenomenological
by
model
of acts and profiles
pre

17.

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it

585

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


an object,
precisely
senting
that
of normalizing
praxis
and

hand,

be gleaned

both

throws

on the other,
into
the world,
a
of
their
particular
study
by
this

Additionally,
cludes
the social

first

is an

field
intervening
on
one
the
consciousness,

culture

because

a development
correlational

of eidetic

notion

that

cannot

features.

variation

ex

actually

rea
simple
as
son that he views
studies
them as "empirical"
and thus
incapable
he
for
evidence.
did not
of providing
Except
apodictic
psychology,51
to pos
inductive
studies
the movement
envision
empirical
beyond
structural

sible

stitution
call

sciences

and

for

that

studies

incorporation.

into

He claims
being."
ation of all moments

that

this

for the

of his

notion

of con

that
with
analyses
phenomenology
of a path through
the social sciences
Husserl

analysis,
analysis.
we derive

account

an analogue

utilize

present
In place

thereby

phenomenological
of conceptual
pieces
for example,
beings,

from Husserl's

gives
free

raw,

almost

trivial

to human

variation

Applying
the general
idea of a "bodily-soulish
is derived
notion
from "the freest vari

of variation
in the individual
humans
capable
as
A
of
"differentiation"
further
process
functioning
examples."52
breaks
down the concept
into, for example,
life, leisure
occupational
so
we
are
on.
analo
This
works
and
process,
told,
life,
"exactly

can be used to generate


to the way
the idea of a figure
the
gously"
so
and
forth.
Somehow
ideas of closed figure,
straight-lined
figure,
a single
or socio
all of this, without
anthropological,
psychological,
on
rests
not
word
but "in
thoughts"
investigation,
logical
"empty
of essences."53

knowledge

sightful

Ill
It would
theory

be

on the basis

as Husserl
possible,
of the constitutive

did,

to construct

phenomenological

an

have described thus far. Roughly put, such an ethics would


the

values

the

basis

exhibited
of

their

in social
conceptual

acts

and

content,

actions,
and

ethical

categorize
them
organize

identify
them

on

into

an

51
See Ph?nomenologische
Biemel,
(1925), ed. Walter
Psychologie
1968); Phenomenological
serliana, Bd. 9 (The Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff,
Nijhoff,
(The Hague: Martinus
chology (1925), trans. John Scanion
on the development
of "phenomenological
psychology."
52
19.
AV (1922-1937),
53
Ibid.

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we

method

Hus
Psy
1977),

586

DONN WELTON
system

axiological

placing

to higher,

lower in relation

What

almost

the Kaizo

articles

eludes

us but

is the fact that, beginning with


on

then

catches

of a new

at the threshold

us by surprise
breakthrough

in

limited

to unlimited,
in relation
to independent
and dependent
we have
But then the problems
still
ues.54
just raised would
to haunt
such a system.
relation

val
come

and places
for Husserl

the third article, the entire analysis

a different

We
from an important
know
plane.
in 1921, just one year before he began
written
to compose
manuscript
came to see the transcendental
these essays,
that Husserl
phenom
of Ideas Jasa
method.55
enology
piece of "static"
phenomenological
is positioned

He explicitly
the first
cultural

tells us that this method

two articles
values.56

and
But what

provides

the framework

of

his approach
there to the study of
shapes
we find in the third article
is not a labor

of "descriptive"
but of "explanatory"
but of "genetic"
static
phenomenology,
the first time in Husserl's
published

not a piece of
phenomenology,
as such for
and it is named
writings.57

us attempt
to develop genetically
the ethical form of life as an a
of possible
formation
human
priori and essential
life, i.e., out of the
reasons
motivation
to the ethical form of life.58
leading for essential
Let

Thus

Husserl

shifts

his
what

of not

focus

to the

a human

"genesis

of renewal,"59
to the
essence
but
its
how
is,

society
only
question
can be understood
development,
only "through
in the unpublished
This method
prevails
ing."60
Kaizo

articles

through
fourth

a becom
and

fifth

as well:

Thereby we note right away that all of this is not to be understood


but dynamically
and genetically.
Strict science
is not the
statically
54
For Husserl's
earlier work on ethical
theory see his Vorlesungen
ed.
Ullrich
Bd. 26
?ber Ethik und Wertlehre,
Meile, Husserliana,
1908-19U,
Kluwer
Academic
Publishers,
1988).
(Boston:
55
as "Statische
und genetische
is published
The manuscript
ph?no
zur passiven
in
Aus Vorle
Methode,"
Analysen
Synthesis:
menologische
Hus
1918-1926, ed. Margot Fleischer,
sungs- und Forschungsmanuskripten
The reference
1966), 336-45.
serliana, Bd. 11 (The Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff,
to Ideas I is on p. 345.
56
to the transcendental
of Ideas I
Note the reference
phenomenology
on p. 18 of AV (1922-?937).
51
340.
29. Cf. Passiven
Synthesis,
58AV(1922-1937),
29.
Ibid.,
59
Ibid.
60
Ibid., 44.

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HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE

587

if it is such
of an ideal objectivity;
being but the becoming
objective
then also the idea of true humanity
only in the process of becoming,
and its method
of giving shape to itself is such only in the process of
becoming.61

is little doubt, then, that the third, fourth, and fifth ar

There
ticles

carry

static

and

a task

out

first

in the

projected

on

1921 manuscript

method:

genetic

all of this there is bound up the questions


With
of the sense in which
can reach into the genesis
the genesis
of a monad
of another,
and in
can lawfully bind a multiplicity
sense the unity of genesis
which
of
on the one hand, there is the question
monads:
of passive
genesis,
of an anthropological
in the case of the constitution
which,
(or ani
and the
processes
world, points to constitutive
physiological
malistic)
a
in which
the unity of a physical world with
way
they condition
lived body; on the other hand, there is active genesis
in
counterposed
the form of the motivation
of my thinking,
valuing, willing
through
the other.
of the individuality
Thus the consideration
of the monad
of a multiplicity
leads to the question of the individuality
of coexisting
one
bound
with
another.62
monads,
genetically
We

have

terms

of the

ation.

Both

the
as

excluded,

the

ego performing
extracts

it then

to analysis.
social world

sets
activity
view toward
transforms

of Besinnung
they are

the analysis
forms.

essential

restores

the

and

As

social

but

a genetic
phe
tie between
the activity
But

it does

activity
structures
it is.

to an

in opposition

in
analysis
eidetic
vari

not, on phenomena
has been methodically

on something
which
of the human
and
activity

reflexively
articulates
what

itself

static

define

works

history,
that is part

it becomes

What

which

texts

that

something

and

is a process
submitted

our

that
processes

on

of society,

nomenology
of analysis

view

interrelated
work

from which

seen

already

To

it itself

its development

not

just reflectively
the world
it views.

the

extent

social

existing

it

is, for

that

state

this
a

with

a genetic

other
Besinnung

possibilities,
into critique.

of society
phenomenology
is the process
of ex
Critique

plicating as it itself embodies and exhibits the essential values latent


in the

actual

and

possible

movement

from

one

cultural

complex

another.
The
in these

notion
texts.

of critique
In a move

combines
equally

with
surprising,

a second

powerful

Husserl's

61
55.
62AV(1922-1937),
Passiven
342.
Synthesis,

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thesis

application

to

588

DONN WELTON
to cultures

of genetic
analysis
human
existence

as

"forms

(1) treats
of

life,"

of our

the

essential

traits

(2) finds

in one

of those

forms

a "protoform" of ethical life, and (3) discovers in the transformation


of the protoform to ethical life traits that establish its normative
status.

moves
which
in
bridges
analysis,
developmentally,
essence
one
Ideas I treats
the
for
here
is
antithetically,
of becoming.63
The genetic
in the process
account
of

This

praxis
of the

what

ethical

life

facts

but with

related

values

ethical

individuals.

critique
the many

essential

kinds
and

tion,

the

very

process

to reflective

self-evaluation)
isolates
Husserl

for goals),
ulation.
We

can

overview

set goals
or a value

possibilities,
of a norm

on the character

existence,

then

our

current

of

Among
from dif
self-inspec

action,

striving
of self-reg
its actualities
and

describes

and we

goal

the notions

the form

life, both
and bring them under the control
Such a value
takes
set.64
freely

for ourselves,
that we have

of a general

inter

responsible

ranging

(self-consciousness,
action
(free

and

of

account.

in his genetic

awareness

of reflective

in which

the way

of human

features

a categorization
of becoming

with

can only briefly


touch upon
and of forms of life interlace

We

ferent

so much

not

is concerned

feel

that without

attaining

it we will not be satisfied.


on self-regulation
(such as vocational
in that we freely
"animal
choose
naivety"
But
to
in a
it
is
be
goals.
caught
possible

life-forms
Certainly,
are a step beyond
goals)
follow
such
and actively
second
choose

naivety
to reach

cerned

only

with

a "critique
is missing.

in which
them"65

with

cases

individual
of avoiding

questions

sure.

based

further

the goals

and

goals

that

critique

striving for a full and complete


its activities.66

our whole

life,

As

humans

our possible

and

At

first, critique
be simply
and may
or
pain
maximizing

that we will

But there is also the possibility

particular
all

of

will

become

the paths we
be con
may
preoccupied
future
plea

reach beyond

part

of

a general

life, a life that can order and justify


we

activities,

have
and

to "overview"
ability
their consequences.
As

the

a result

63
On

the opposition

J,5ff. 64
65AV(1922-1937),
Ibid., 30.
66
Ibid.

between

fact and essence

see Ideen

26-7.

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I, lOff.; Ideas

589

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE

not only the


of individual
in the progress
development
and
the
activities
of
the
and
projects
practical
complexity
multiplicity
the inner lack of cer
them but also, in increasing measure,
executing
care for authentic
and abiding goods,
tainty of the person, the pressing
to
that can be secured from all critique and exposure
for satisfaction
arises

there

devaluation.67

Notice also that the notion of critique is internal to the very


notion of human life and that it is this which provides the crucial
to ethical

life.

eral

conditions

must

other

will

which

pragmatics"68
but they are

1. When
at

realization

values

by accounting

for and

thus

ethical

life:

into

offer

values
multiple
time
the same

call

life-form

but
the

consequence

the

choice

for a higher
competing
"law of absorption."69

bad"

when

this

the

of

the

practical

lesser

of

good

laws

trans

collective
the

lesser

This has the

value

good.

the

of ethical
the

their

is absorbed by the good of the higher values.


of making

three

grounding

themselves

is impossible,

at

of "formal

interconnected,

I will
the

not

still
laws

are

values

to what
to present

attempt

of self-regulation

formation

all

sev

transition

are
two

propose

that

connected

immediately
which
of transformation
life as normative

does

show

this

for we

be described,

Husserl

man."

of "ethical

level

to reach

in order

But

transition

"practically
Husserl
calls

are necessarily
to other
conjoined
a larger good than any one of
this larger good
is of "higher
values.
the particular
Furthermore,
to
it.
is the "law
This
than the particular
value"
goods contributing
of summation."
2. Values

chosen

values

3. The
produce

chosen

and

realization

"an enduring
satisfactions

particular
true values)

but

and

realized

to produce

realized

of particular
satisfaction,"
(even

is grounded

limited

or finite

will

arises

not

be pure

and

related

of the

largest

for "satisfaction

though
they
in the certainty

values

not
from
to

possible,

67
account really is an anal
that Husserl's
31. Notice
AV(1922-1937),
we
are
structure
of
human
of
the
i.e.,
clearly beyond the account
living,
ysis
will call "Dasein."
and in the realm of what Heidegger
of consciousness
for a full and
will "break" the binding power of this striving
Heidegger
at
death
his
that
of
life
introduction
point where
precisely
by
complete
for his part,
Man.
And Husserl,
will place the ideal of Western
Husserl
will view death in a very different
light (see p. 98). But nevertheless
they
are dealing with the same phenomenological
field.
68
31.
A V (1922-1937),
69
Ibid.

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590

DONN WELTON
in the whole

satisfaction

perduring
call this

the

law of maximal

of

value.

life

The

whole of life will not be those guiding


that

rather

those

to the

realm

4. The

have

survived

of the unlimited,
of submitting
activity
them

transcending
awareness

in our

this

limited

the

can

We

to the

the limited goals of life but

of the
the critique
of "what
is without

and belong

limited
end."71

to criticism

goals
or larger goals
of higher
Husserl
what
also calls

in favor

of responsibility,"
Let us call
conscience."72

process
reason

in general."70
values
appropriate

and

"creates
the

of
the

"ethical

law

of responsibility.
In the
we become
aware
as creatures
of critique
of ourselves
of
as
and therewith
for what
is correct
and incorrect
responsible
are unsatisfied
our activities
activities.
We
when
lack cor
or reasonableness.

rectness

And

this

it a general

with

brings

in

terest:
of this there arises, as a possible motivation
that can be under
.
. . namely,
a
to
a wish
wish
will
and
rational
stood,
self-regulation
and will to shape anew the whole of our life with all of its personal

Out

activities

to

according

reason.73

5. Still, we are not yet clear as to just what


these
larger goals
or values
Husserl
are, ones larger than, say, our choice of a career.
that out of the above
there
arises
the "possibility,
not yet
argues
as

determined
completely
From
one's
ability.74
rational

person

and

to make

this work

to

this
the

Husserl

idea

its content,"
comes
there
of true

needs

and

what

of acting
"the form
authentic

we

can

to the
of

best

life"

of

of
the
But

call

humanity.
a "law of com

is found
in the special
form of self
key to this
occurs with
in
in our
persons
community.
Operative
we discover
a "limit,"
an "ideal border"
of life and practice
forms
an absolute
that
"rises
above
the relative
ideal of completeness,

pleteness."
reflection

The

that

ideal of completeness."75
for

in critical

authentic

and

self-valuation
essential

70
A V (1922-1937),
71
Ibid., 32.
72
Ibid.
73
Ibid.
74
Ibid.
76
Ibid., 33.

This limit extends beyond the individual,


and
graduality

determination
of

the

"there
completeness

31.

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arises

the

of man

591

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


kind

as

must

draw."76

This

is the

crowned

of a person

ideal
absolute

by

all

which

from

such,

we to think of him
divine attributes.77

also

as subject
...

reason,

construction

justifiable

of

of

of all personal

a person,that

as omnipotent

and

ideals

capabilities

would

have,

"all powerful,"

were

all

the

A limit that is itself a "difference," the idea of God establishes the


"absolute limit" beyond all finitude that is the pole of all true human
frail
however
striving,
the telos: the absolute
omous

And

individual.

that might
This provides
limited
be.78
the idea of the auton
of completeness,
it transforms
this one form
into a univer

and

idea

sal norm.
this Husserl

With

rational

solutely

Essence

effects

person

is causa

is defined by existence.

closure.
sui

the

On

in reference

one hand,
"the ab
to its rationality."79

On the other hand, it is the ideal

us as persons
that brings
into the condition
of being
of rationality
as the ideal of a process
of becoming
that serves
rational
persons,
essence.
is defined
Husserl's
ethical
rational.
Existence
theory
by
in a self-referential

culminates
at

same

the

and,
an infinite

time,

process

object
of becoming,

ideal
of his
whose

of autonomy:

"He

is subject
the work
in

striving,
[ethical]
he himself
craftsman

is."80

IV
The

last

section
universal

normativity,

of given

velopment
that it operates

to the
critique
applied
in scope and detached
societies.

of ethical
generation
from the concrete
de

in
is still abstract
analysis
of culture.
of the notion
When
Hus
Genetic

independently
we find a significant
of culture,
up the question
however,
nature
of
the
of
the
and
the
both
scope
reframing
genetic
analysis:
are fashioned
its analyses
that it traces are historical;
developments
as historical
in that
Genetic
becomes
historical
analysis
critique.81
serl

takes

16
35.
77AV(1922-1937),
33.
Ibid.,
78
Ibid.
79
36.
80 Ibid.,
37.
Ibid.,
81
This point has interesting
implications
Husserl's
It entails
that his deeper
writings.

for our understanding


of
to Dilthey
is not

response

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592

DONN WELTON

culture

is treated

not

as a "factor"

but

as a "field"

of development;

it begins with are not unbound but are real historical

the possibilities

At the same
time we recognize
that it is only with
of phenomenology
that the scope
by genetic
analysis
can cover the field of culture.
of phenomenology
At each step along
the way we continually
meet
The
surprises.
first set of genetic
as
a
as
an
treated
the
person
analyses
subject,
configurations.
the expansion

individual

"in general"

structural
this
person

to ethical

of certain

development
is supplemented

study
is drawn

comes

that

forms

by another,

into and

life on the basis

of personal
life.
which
recognizes

of the

But

now

that

each

by a society:

enveloped

that his life is ordered


into the life of a society
[T]he circumstance
has its consequences,
which
from the very outset determine
ethical
conduct and give further formal characteristics
to what is categorically
required.82

In this

as a field of values
of society
is what
the
definition
of
It
is
culture.83
that
Husserl
provides
suggestive
does not take his Cartesian
into the analysis
of the other, with
way
its machinery
of empathy
and introjective
but simply
perception,84
takes

account

up

the

the person

treatment

in social

in a culture.

relations,

His

starting

1911 Logos article


earlier
als strenge Wissen
"Philosophie
the later 1931 lecture "Ph?nomenologie
und Anthropologie"
reason that both remain on the plane of "constitutive
phe
(cf. A V[1922-1937],
164). Of all the published work it is only
and the Crisis that, using the resources
of his genetic
phe
a reply that appropriates
and systematically
inte
nomenology,
provide
work
into his phenomenology.
I think this explains
his
grates Dilthey's
toward Dilthey
in a letter responding
to one from him after
open attitude
the Logos article:
found in the
schaft" or in
for the simple
nomenology"
these articles

Now I would like to refer to your attempt to point out, on the basis of
the all too few suggestions
in my article, the boundaries within which our
philosophical views agree and in which they differ.
All things considered, I would much prefer not to acknowledge
these
boundaries,
whatsoever
complete

Allen,

and
between
agreement.

it truly
us.

seems
I think

("The

to me
a

that

lengthy

Dilthey-Husserl

there

are

no

consideration

serious
would

differences
lead
trans.

Correspondence,"

to our
Jeffner

in Shorter Works, 205).

45.
S2AV(1922-1937),
83
48-9.
Cf. AV(1922-1937),
84
und Pariser
Cartesianische
Meditationen
Vortr?ge,
Bd. 1 (The Hague: Martinus
Husserliana,
1963),
Nijhoff,
trans. Dorion
Cairns
Meditations,
(The Hague: Martinus
89ff.

ed. S. Strasser,
121ff.; Cartesian
Nijhoff,
1969),

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HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


is not
point
not attempt

but

consciousness
a reconstruction

593
In the Kaizo

life.

of the pure

a description
of the
but, rather,
before we even come to raise the

social
issue

of other

evidence
and

he

articles

cultural

of evidence

ties
and

does

subjects
that exist

justification.

If you will allow a distinction that cannot be maintained


for long,
the bond is not epistemic but ethical. At least we can say that it
is a bond not of theoretical perception but of "practical will," a bond
not

reason

of pure

but

of "true

human

Notice

life."85

how Husserl

it:

describes

In the social relationship


he sees that the other, in so far as he is a
a use-value
but a value in
good, is also for him a value, not merely
in the ethical self-work
has a pure interest
himself;
he, accordingly,
. . . the best possible
of the other.
and realizing
of
being and willing
to my own being and willing
the other also belongs
and realizing,
and
so the other way around.86
"Zu meinem
sph?re,"
already
veloping.
Cartesian

to what will be called


"die Eigenheits
Sein,"
of ownness
in the Cartesian
there
Mediations*1

eigenen

the

sphere
the
belongs
In a way
way,

as value

other
that

Husserl

completely
of the

speaks

and

in himself
reverses

as

de

ethically

the

of his

priorities
or, more
accurately,

individual

the ethical form of individual life as having an absolute but yet only
a "limited"
falls

or "relative

to a good

"The

society.

depends
[achievement]
or of the ego
individual

of intentional

cognition

in a genetic
phenomenology
"all cultural
predicates"90
an
replaced
by
emphasis
munication,

of "willfully

turn, is internally
"wherever

practical

to the "higher"
value that
compared
entire plateau
of value of the individual
on that of the other."89
of the
The priority

value"88

by a constitutive

required

phenomenology

is here displaced by the priority of the other


of social

The
praxis.
by Husserl's

from

"abstraction"

is
Cartesian
way
stipulated
on the irreducibility
of the process
of com
to an understanding,"91
in
coming
which,

linked to the definition


clashes

85
Cf. A V (1922-1937), 46.
86
Ibid.
87
Cartesianische
Meditationen,
ss
AV (1922-1937),
47.
89
Ibid., 48.
90
Cartesianische
Meditationen,
91A V (1922-1937), 46.

result

of the ethical

in social

124ff.; Cartesian

127; Cartesian

practice

individual:
in the

Meditations,

Meditations,

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same

92ff.

95.

DONN WELTON

594
a process

then

environment,

of coming

to ethical

in

understanding

tervenes."92

The

account

of

analysis

of ethical

Coming

to ethical

of "rigorous
as we
normativity,

to draw

Husserl

the account

of science

(Wissenschaft).
of bringing

process

of cultural
genetic
analysis
a
one
to
that
is
combines
show,
try
one con
of science with
structural
historicity

to derive
in order
the nor
of science
priority
results
of this
of science.
One of the most
powerful

the historical

cerning
mative

priority

effort is that science is defined not as a body of knowledge


of human

kind

and

cultural

activity,

The Structural Historicity


in all forms

operative
handles
At

an "ethical

plays

quiry

the

under

inquiry,

now

will
the

concerning

the

together

Husserl's

science."

domain

thesis

allows

and

is a cultural
understanding
normative
of
critical,
jurisdiction

in the

issues

culture

norms

the

the possible
time
it also

in so doing
"first creates
form of strict
science."94
has

of Scientific

of

inquiry.

Inquiry.

treats

itself

as one

of those

the practical
possibilities
as activity,
Thus
science

an essential

in

Scientific

role" in discovering
the normative
of individual
and social activity
and
of culture
and their normative
regions

same

philosophy,

as a mode

but as a

principles
"therewith
forms."93

activities

and

of realizing

the
in

culminating

historicity:

of the universal
theory of science (theory of reason
[T]he development
and logic) is an organ and itself a consequence
[Zug] of mankind's
as mankind
itself to higher self-realization.
On
development,
brings
the other side, the theory of science and the strict science
coming
about through
this development
is itself a basic component
of higher
culture
in the objective
sense, in the sense of the objective,
spiritual
world of value building
itself up as the correlate
of the development
of the reason of mankind.95
Husserl
a process
truth.

thinks

of the

sciences

as cumulative

and

progressive,

as

in

moves
to a fuller disclosure
of change which
closer
of the
norm
a
seems
to tie the
of
But here he
rational
to
society

92
93AV(1922-1937),
Ibid., 56.
94
Ibid.
95
Ibid.

46.

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595

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


the process
by which
such a norm
to arise
what

he

says

about

and

in the context

of this

the

"form"

and

even

to allow

it is achieved

of

We quote again
a true human:

process.
of being

norm

content

the

Thereby we note right away that all of this is not to be understood


but dynamically
and genetically.
Strict science
is not [an]
statically
of an ideal objectivity;
if it is such
being but the becoming
objective
then also the idea of true humanity
only in the process of becoming,
of giving shape to itself is such only in the process of
and its method
becoming.96

The

issue will

crucial

be, then,

how Husserl

this process

understands

of becoming.

The Historical

Priority

of Western

culture

opment
in the
both
Husserl,
mythic

of religion

realm

like many
religions.

The actual devel

of Scientific Inquiry.
comes
and

from

historical

in the

contemporaries,
But he resists

realm

of scientific

inquiry.
as arising with

of culture

thinks
the

transformations

older

of
approach
reason
of
triumph

positivist

as

that views
science
the
this sphere
devaluing
an
over fables.
is
there
internal
Rather,
development
awareness
and even contributes
itself that complements
in the movement
For example,
from
the
of science.
in which
culture"
level of mythic
as
are
in
understood
turn,
who,

"higher

forces

become

to religious
to the shape
lower to the
transcendent

of absolute
prescribers
of
"which
in
has
find
norms,
development
as a goal that is objectively
idea serving
constituted
itself a unified
a
and that actively
in the consciousness
of
its devel
guides
society
or
are
not
in
These
random
ideas
fashion
present
goals
opment."97

gods

we

a remarkable

the

form

a progressive
of view,
observe
point
by an axiological
in a [cer
of values
and a culmination
development
[Werterh?hung]
we
come
to
when
the
of Jesus
person
Only
tain] value-gestalt."98
for we,

Christ
the

"led

do we
course

find more
of history,

of an eruption
a fundamental

than

a steady

paradigm

in
development
that
shows
shift

96
A V (1922-1937),
55.
97
61.
Ibid.,
98
In saying that this is "an external point of view" (p. 62),
Ibid., 62.
he frees his analysis
that there is a
from the metaphysical
presumption
or the collective
in the minds
of a people
unconscious
spirit operating
or
them
toward
this
inevitable
end.
"drawing"
"pushing"
Indeed, other
forms of religious
the priest rules by arbitrary
culture are possible where
will and not a "consciously
constituted
and where
the people
goal-idea"
are

oppressed.

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DONN WELTON

596
deeper
in Him

with what
than continuity
discontinuity
we find an "individualized
idea," a concrete

in the

course

of our

"fundamental

"hierarchical

or a "restoration"

of primary

whose

experience103
Husserl
of religion
ideals
and higher
While

belief

ancient

before.104

The

Greeks.

philosophy
in natural
place

running

"theoretical

"belief."102

just
but also

and while

curiosity
life as an intrusion

we

through

as a reaction

The
to the

as a "recovery"

find

religious
discussion
rationality"
nascent

ra

that gives rise to science in


Greek
spawning
has its original
course
liv
of 'serious

interest"105

or wonder,

us a fairly

related

"a concealed

finds

religion,

from

tells

Husserl

the development
not Aristotle.107
Zug],

viability
transposes
than came

and

are

of an originary
in the
Yet even

endures.

undergirds

comes

ing'."106

Ages
sources
and

there, it is a different attitude

tionality
the

not

of the Middle

culture"

for
before,99
universal
unique

through

religious
experience,"101
in turn, he understands

Reformation,

we

to which

history,100

came

into

standard,

"which
the

if one-sided,

story

about

in which
but
he discusses
science
of rigorous
Plato,
to universalization
"The tendency
[universalistische
the
science
and natural
from
mathematics
through

character
of modern
the general
on, designates
philosophy
beginning
the role of critique
It is this tendency
combined
with
and science."108

that finally draws religion under its domain:


to which all norms are bound,
The Reformation
placed final authority,
belief
For philosophy,
in belief.
is, at best, one of the sources
however,
comes under free
of knowledge,
of knowledge
and, like all sources
critique.109

99AV(1922-1937),
100
101.
101Ibid.,
Ibid., 66.
102
101.
103Ibid.,
Ibid., 72.
104
Ibid., 101.
105
Ibid., 78.

66, and esp. Beilage

IV, 100-103.

332; Crisis, 285.


106Krisis,
107
to Ar
references
80-1.
A V (1922-1937),
There are a few scattered
istotle in a very late piece; see pp. 193ff.
108
93.
109Ibid.,
further: "This 'modern' stance to belief does
Ibid., 91. He explains
nor does it mean
belief as religious
not mean
experience,
overthrowing
.
.
the autonomy
its
belief-content..
essential
But,
obviously,
overthrowing
of the duty, itself exempt from [rational]
of reason does mean a rejection
of
of belief on the basis of the authority
to accept the contents
decision,
of belief itself prior to free critique"
the church or the authority
(p. 92).

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HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


The Normative
historicity
the crowning
for

Priority

science

of

form

its normative

combined
of knowledge

597

of Scientific
with

Inquiry.

its emergence

is what

enables

The essential

as
historically
Husserl
to argue

priority:

This means
less than that we grant to European
culture?
nothing
we have described
as realizing
whose
of
development
type
precisely
of itself and its world by pure autonomous
reason,
[the transformation
to all his
relative
position
by scientific
just the highest
reason]?not
torical cultures,
but rather we see in it the first realization
of an
one that is called to the task of revo
absolute norm of development,
in the process of development.110
all other cultures
lutionizing

For Husserl

this entails

critical distance

a distance
of other
cultures,
knowledge
on any
based
take without
arguments

he

from the bodies of

seems

detailed

to
quite willing
historical
investi

gations:
If one takes the concept of science and the concept of philosophy
that
coincided with
it, then the ancient Greeks are the creators
originally
one calls sciences among the Baby
of philosophy,
What
i.e., science.
even
and
Indians may contain
lonians, Egyptians,
Chinese,
[elements
that strict science can confirm, whose
content
it can
of] knowledge
take over, whose
it can draw in, but
kind of method
and attitude
make a radical divide between
the two and
basically we legitimately
and [at
finally we must call the [very] same [elements
of] knowledge
or unscientific,
on the one side,
tempts at] self-grounding
prescientific
on the other.111
and scientific,
This
lecture

to one that we find


is very close
passage
of 1935.
Once
distances
again, Husserl

sciences

of other

cultures,

only

a little more

in Husserl's
himself

Vienna
from

the

sympathetically:

It is understandable
that this mythical-practical
world-view
and
can give rise to much knowledge
of the factual world,
world-knowledge
as known
the world
scientific
that can later be
through
experience,
used scientifically.
But within
their own framework
of meaning
this
are and remain mythical
world-view
and world-knowledge
and prac
a falsification
of their sense, for those raised
tical, and it is a mistake,
in the scientific ways of thinking
created
in Greece and developed
in
the modern
and
period to speak of Indian and Chinese
philosophy
science
i.e., to interpret
mathematics),
(astronomy,
India, Babylonia,
China in a European
way.112

110
A V (1922-1937),
111
Ibid.
U2Krisis,

73.

331; Crisis,

284-5.

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598

DONN WELTON
VI
It is always
at this
tempting,
cultural
traditions
and what

other

to bemoan

the devaluing
of
to be a program
of cultural

point,
seems

Husserl's
as mere
Kaizo
articles
be treated
imperialism.
might
tracts
the Japanese
"to join in the work
of European
encouraging
seem
Even more
culture."113
to
devalue
damning,
they
indigenous
cultural
and religious
traditions
and to be overt
efforts
to colonize
of a nation
whose
sector
commercial
intelligentsia
in the process
advanced
of adopting
Western
commercial
the

ufacturing
techniques.
Yet we know
from

his

short

review

of Neumann's

of the sayings of the Buddha, published

was

well

and man

translation

only two years

(1925) after

this was

these

not Husserl's
that
attitude.
We find in these
articles,
a
Husserl
of
the
world
way
recognizes,
sayings,
op
seeing
"fully
our European
can be "paralleled"
Yet Buddhism
posite"
way.114

with the "highest formations

of the philosophical

of our European
He even senses
culture."115
utes to the ethical,
and
religious,
philosophical
a thinker
ture."116 As is always
the case with
we

must

if we

look

deeper
of his approach.
poverty
What
Husserl
deals
the

fact

can

even

that

that

they

Keep

can

inmind

scientific
to

have

be mistaken,

to find

for

they

that Husserl

but with

In these

the

in these

to culture,
that
as veridical,

rather

texts

societies

than

that

they
but

What

is a strategy

is not with
problem
context
of knowledge:

liberate.

science

but

society.

Husserl

is

between European

and

civilization,

cul

articles

counts

enchain

own

contrib

of our

as powerful
as Husserl,
the richness
and the

time

as to what

just mythic-religious
the accepted
ideas of his
to put it negatively,
inquiry,
the

both

are wedded
can

text

this

"renewal

the first

not

and

that

clearly distinguished

and European

by scientific
an edifice
of beliefs.
the first
that
time,
judgments

with

of knowledge
systems
a social consensus

culture

scrutiny

ialism"117

are

and religious spirit

the

opens

"imper
he means

for dismantling

realizes,
particular

3.
113AV(1922-1937),
114
125.
Ibid.,
115
126.
116Ibid.,
Ibid.
117
Cf. Ibid., 53 and 90.

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perhaps
claims

for
or

599

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE

of such a science rests not


The intersubjective
solidity and objectivity
on the fact that its confirmations
are rooted in individually
changing
or emotional motives
but on the fact that they are rooted in
material
convictions
coming from old, well-worked
general, deeply entrenched
are de
and religious motives
In particular,
traditions.
mythological
the decisive
force.118
termining
and, in a given culture, are generally
by a particular
certainty"
possessed
to a confirmation
to "evidence,"
he opposes

The

of knowl
system
that overturns
the

"absolute

edge
to traditions
and requires
appeal
and factual
interconnections."119

the
Thus

of facts

"original
givenness
authentic
science

is much

of judgments,
for we find this al
the "systematization"
is the
in
of
belief.
"True
prescientific
systems
knowledge
ready
not for certainty
in general
fulfillment
of a striving
but for certainty
motivated
and
and
from
intuitive
truth."120
arising
by
self-given

more

than

This joins the notion of critique to that of intersubjectivity:


are objectively
motivated
valid,
i.e., intersub
Factually
judgments
as
see
can
see. Over
I
shared
insofar
what
others
validities,
jectively
and above all differences
between
and . . . tra
individuals,
nations,
. . [stands] the common
ditions, stand things that are had in common,.
so
is constituted
in the exchange
of experiences
factual world, which
the other and each take recourse
to what
that each can understand
we

Thus

all

see.121

science

is not

of certainty

the dominion

but

. . . the kingdom
of truth, which each can bring into view, which each
can intuitively
realize in himself,
each from every circumscribed
cul
child of God's people or
ture, friend and enemy, Greek or barbarian,
child of the god of a hostile people.122
The

of

genuine
strength
or philosophy
science
but

purchase
to the truth.
this

is achieved,

not

as

a set

account
of

as a style of inquiry,
Whatever
the limitations

rather

the focus

investigation
convictions
and

nsAV
(1922-1937),
119
Ibid.
120
Ibid.
121
77.
122Ibid.,
Ibid.

seems
that we

of critical
blind

of Husserl's

attempt

that

in his
others

view
must

as a procedure
of coming
of his actual
view of how

it is only in a process
our traditions
and
beyond
accounts.
Yet
it
conflicting

legitimate,
can move
to settle

results

is found

for

76.

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DONN WELTON

600
true

is also

that

on treasured

the attack

can be deeply

ideas

disrup

tive.
of national
culture can proliferate,
So the upheaval
first of all when
the advancing
universal
the common property
science becomes
of na
tions that were formerly
alien to one another
and the unity of a sci
of the educated
entific
and the community
community
spreads
the
of
nations.123
throughout
multiplicity

The diversity

of beliefs,

celebrated

overcome.

but

the plurality
"In

the

of the gods,
of God

concept

is not

then,

the

is

singular

essential."124
But
to

to a procedure
tied critique
really
a specific
a specific
than
content,

has Husserl

the

truth

rather

of coming
conception

of truth?
assumes

account

His

of critique
a
on
converge
single norm,
to identity.
The multiplicity
itself
law of completeness,
is this

that

and

orders

ever,

there

are

cieties

but

rather

not

of rational
becoming
tory, we

in the

values

subordinate

saw

is under
above,125
course
of reflection.

ideals we

for

similar

different

construct.

How

individuals

or

It

so

is a single "absolute
limit
ideal," an absolute
essence
of the person
is clarified
by the telos

The

or,

to put it metaphorically,
this account
blends

Husserl

by
with

the

ideal

that

of

of his

norm
is none
than what
is
other
general
Yet
his
Western
science.
embodied
law
by
even on his own grounds.
be mistaken
might
means
of factual
and
examples
(1) convergence

that

find

historically
is necessarily
we

the

justifies
ideals

different

autonomy,
When
God.

diversity
of values,

generated

then

there

for all.

normative

that

that

this

and uniquely

specifically
of completeness

Completeness

ideal

upon

gradations
absolute

and

with

by showing
in a closed
system

order

(3), difference

by the absolute,
of science, many

cultures

the many
as a totality,

123
Krisis,
124
Ibid.
125

See

rending

335; Crisis,

above,

are
cultural

telos:

their
framed

the

addition

subordinated
worlds
their

ideal

to recursively
its ability
other
limits.
Notice

enu

all

is controlled by identity, the relative

and, with

upon

of one of the ideal limits into an

established

norm,

merate

of types

(2) the convergence

types,

limits, and (3) the transvaluation

of the

that

is overcome

essential

historicity
to the one culture
forming
on a single world
converge

diversity

rationally

288.

591-4.

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intelligible.

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


I want

to argue,

working
that
thought,
that
in principle

own

Husserl's
is a notion

and

sciences,

positive

characterization

logical

with

601
a tension

that

as

sense.
that

is, changes
of changes

midst

presentation
certain
interest,

of

and

notion

briefly

trace

perceptual
in perceived
are uniform

this.

as teleological
in a limited
experience
occur
in an ordered
fashion,
objects
for all things
In the
of the same type.

a certain

order produces
(repeatable)
The
presentation
optimal
object.
what
the experience
tends towards
and
the

their

of a single

tends,

From

an optimal
a
is, given
thus is priv

of ordinary
analysis
perception
moves
to an account
Husserl
of the objects
are the changes
one world.
What
that give rise
this

to the world of physical and thus scientifically


The

the

must

ileged or normative.126
in ordered
environments
of science

possible

to

that the conception of

history

views

Changes

makes

in

found

as totality
only for the

is itself a product of historical

We

transformations.
Husserl

which

totality,

telos toward which

be

conception
if at all,
could
function,
in opposition
to a phenomeno
it stands
that
What
of the world.
this tension
brings

the fore is the fact that the Crisis recognizes


the world

can

of the world

the

of variation,
process
To
of "idealization."127

deter minable

objects?

is transformed

traced,
by the pro
cess
the treatment
of the "shape"
stay with
or the spatial
are "like"
form of objects,
that
appear
things
"typical"
or "the same as" other
can think
We
about
their
things.
shapes
and
various
how
each
compare
compares
abstractly
samples,
asking
to the
that

abstract

of greater

just

can be characterized
as
"This gradualness
shape.
or less perfection."128
But we can also press beyond

the typical:
. . . out of the praxis of perfecting,
of freely pressing
toward the ho
rizons of conceivable perfecting
[in the] "again and again," limit-shapes
the particular
series of perfectings
emerge toward which
tend, as to
. . . Through
a method
ward
and never attainable
invariant
poles.
. . . these limit-shapes
of idealization
have become acquired tools that

126
Ideen

zu einer reinen Ph?nomenologie


und ph?nomenologischen
zur Kon
Zweites Buch: Ph?nomenologische
Untersuchungen
Philosophie,
4
Martinus
Bd.
ed.
Husserliana,
Biemel,
(The Hague:
stitution,
Marly
to a Pure Phenomenology
and to a
1952), 58-61; Ideas Pertaining
Nijhoff,
in the Phenomenology
Second Book: Studies
Phenomenological
Philosophy,
and A. Schuwer
trans. R. Rojcewicz
(Boston: Kluwer Ac
of Constitution,
63-6.
ademic Publishers,
1989),
127
22; Crisis, 25.
Krisis,
128
Ibid.

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DONN WELTON

602
can be used habitually
an infinite and yet
for

new?
and can always be applied to something
as a field
world
of ideal objects
self-enclosed

study.129

than a redescription
of the everyday
world.
The very
as spatiotemporal
as
of objects
mathematizable
shapes,
a construction
as "an infinite
of the world
entails
of
totality

is more

This

idealization

objects,
ideal objects

are

which

determinable

univocally,
methodically,
"nature
itself
Thereby

for everyone."130
quite universally
the guidance
ized under
of the new mathematics;
to express
it in a modern
mathematical
way?a
Husserl's
of the world
appropriate

last

nature

and
is ideal

becomes?

manifold."131

studies

that

recognize,
however,
as totality
is, at best, an ontological
to the sciences:

the

conception

characterization132

is new, unprecedented,
is the conceiving
of this ideal of a rational
What
mas
infinite totality
of being with a rational
science systematically
a
it.
An
infinite
world
here
of
is
conceived
world,
idealities,
tering
not as one whose
to our knowledge
objects become accessible
singly,
as
were
as one which
it
but
and
is attained
imperfectly,
accidentally,
coherent method.
In the infinite pro
by a rational,
systematically
of this method,
attained
every object is ultimately
gression
according
to its full being-in-itself.133
But

this

sciences

a guiding
the question
of whether
ideal for the
only raises
as the guiding
is not uncritically
ideal for phenom
adopted
the "forgotten
the
life-world
is
If, indeed,
analysis.

enological
then applying
of natural
the notion
meaning-fundament
science,"134
runs the risk of an unjustifiable
trans
to it immediately
of totality
we
assume
a
that it, too, is
should
Why
totality,
especially
position.
our
notion
of totality
the
would
when
any rigorous
require
treating
as a mathematical

world

It was
tinction,
natural
trast

not

always
that

sciences
to deepen

manifold?

the
far
and
the

case

that Husserl

from

Dilthey's,
of the human

questions

we

worked

sciences.
are

raising.

a basic

with

the methods

between
We

can

dis
of

the

use

this

con

In a 1934

text

that

129
23; Crisis, 26.
Krisis,
130
30; Crisis, 32.
Krisis,
131
20; Crisis, 23.
Krisis,
132
sect. 51 of the Crisis.
Cf. especially
133
19; Crisis, 22.
Krisis,
134
?Crisis, 48; Crisis, 48.

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603

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE

in Pra
of Philosophy
Congress
of
to "nature,"
of "spirit"
a reduction
against
to
world
human
the
of
to the natural
sciences,
International

to the Eighth
cautions
Husserl
gue,
sciences
the human
he

sent

seems

He

world.

the natural

in the
world,
placed
We must
of the spirit.135
and
sciences
of the natural
the world

are
spirit
mathematization
and

tween

rendered,
work
descriptive

concrete

his/her

we

of objectivity
to all domains.
and

spirit

can no

dimension."137

bring
thereby
conclusion
His

maintain

a contrast

same

view

cannot

scientist

notion

The

terms.136

be generalized
from nature
the world
cannot

longer compose
on either
the sciences

into a single
are raising:

side
we

the question

accents

be

world."
the "prescientific
as "indexes"
of an ideal

sciences

in the natural

find
"One

result

the human
in the

is a

he warns,

bodies

takes

is mathematically

that

and

scientist

natural

the

While

If nature

our questions.
the

to anticipate
same

for the sense


becomes questionable,
in philosophy
The world-problem
One cannot bring the intuitive
of the world has become problematic.
which a human being "lives" as ego, as active and suffering
world?"in"
as

subject,

not

treat

world

...

In fact, what
the

as

and

of the person
facts

natural

Husserl

nature.

mathematical-objective

person?under

the being

proposes

in universal,

of personal

can

One

societies

in this

nature.138

objective-exact

is just the opposite.


to "mathematical,
world

Having

rejected
na
objective

of the human
he takes
of what
into the domain
sciences
he pulls the natural
"This
world.
into the prescientific
merely
the "subjective,"

reduction

ture,"
to be

subjective being is, thus, the a priori for the being of nature
exact

sense."139
world.

tural
ization

of

the

phenomenology.
to psychology140

is relativized

Its totality
The fatal difficulty,
prescientific

world

to the

totality
is that this

however,
is not a piece

of

in the

of the

cul

character

transcendental

that
Husserl
recognizes
Immediately
Thus
the difference
or anthropology.141

135
195.
AV (1922-1937),
136
212.
Ibid.,
137
Ibid.
138
Ibid., 213.
139
Ibid.
140
Ibid.
141
214.
Cf. Ibid., 164,180,

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it belongs
between

604
the

DONN WELTON

as totali
worlds?both
framed
prescientific
the province
of the "positive
sciences."142
this difference
that Husserl
handles
between
the nat

scientific

and

the

lies within

ties?clearly
We know

ural and the human worlds not by placing one in the other but by
placing the intentional and historical achievements by which the
natural

in the

is substructed

world

if we

But

life-world.143

are

to

a
with
science,
analysis
positive
confusing
phenomenological
one that carries
of the world
is required,
characterization
us beyond
of nature
At one
and spirit."144
the "painful
oppositions
us
text
to
nature
in
he
the
the
urges
Prague
recognize
special
point
avoid

different

of the world

understood

in the

of referents

order

phenomenologically
but in the order

as horizon,
of meaning:

defined

not

not beings externally


This is not a collective Allness,
bound with one
but an All whose
is inseparable
and to one another,
another
unity
The
universe
from their ties of meaning
is, however,
[Sinnbez?gen].
of beings,
endless open horizon of the pre-validity
for us a standing,
a horizon of the certainty
of possible appropriation
through experience
and

knowledge.

.145

I am

is that the characterization


of the
then,
suggesting,
as totality
but an ontological
is not a phenomenological
char
world
as totality
treatment
The
of the world
is required
acterization.
once
of the world,
in the hands
initiated
of
the mathematization
What

Galileo

and

completed

of infinity with
that
the
as

physics,

brought

a notion

together

that of a finite and closed system of rules or laws


the

characterize

definitively
universe,

by modern

and

once

its "counterconcept,"146

the

human
as

endless
world

a yet more

number
was

of

true

construed

encompassing

facts

in

positively
totality.147

208.
142AV(1922-1937),
143
224.
Ibid.,
144
Ibid., 219.
145
Ibid., 227.
146
Cf. Ibid., 194.
147
one might
be able to
Even here, even for an ontological
analysis,
to
use Godel and Cantor's
results to argue for a necessary
incompleteness
or
true
facts
state
to
all
would
that
include
any system
attempt
possibly
is mistaken.
All
ments
of facts and thus argue that the notion of totality
at all, then it
here is that if the notion has application
that is suggested
is in simply arguing,
Our interest
sciences.
will be only to the positive
in an on
the notion of totality
of theoretical
problems with
independent
it
is
to
the
that
the
world
relevant
of
positive sciences,
fundamentally
tology
from the notion of the world as horizon.
different

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605

HUSSERL AND THE JAPANESE


The

culture

but

difference

rather

which

that

is the
have

things

life-world,
presence.

which

through
other
profiles

become

same

at the
with
and

sets.

spirit.
the nexus
Presence,

that

of meaning

in and

through
but
given

is not

the profiles

can well

as

resonate

implicate
they
act of fulfillment

sets

up

of significance,
often
"contra
nexus
of significance
the
the world

of referential

cannot

thus

There

to the

rise

lines

As

time.

strands

of

the whole

gives

however,

present
The very

objects
not yet given.
several
that follow

protentions

orders

and

at

however,

In the interplay of intending and fulfillment,

achieved.

dictory,"
is woven

the world,
nor
things

of significance

order

nature

of

the whole

neither

between

The world

of

characterization

phenomenological
to articulate
tempts

implications
to a single

be reduced

of significance,
a rule-governed
means

be families

without
of significance,
to the other or of hierarchically

ordering

cross

that
set

different

or to a set

even

of all

different

orders
one

of assimilating
one under
the other.

The

world is thereby described as horizon. What Husserl did not fully


realize is that the horizon is such that it is always multiple, that it
functions in cognitive syntheses not by a principle of unity but by
an operation
and absence
as

tured
meaning

the

that

it makes

and

plurality
of their

ting one
cultures.

genetic
in the

analysis
not a single

synthetic
then, cannot

closure,

And with

of

diversity

analysis
direction

critique

as

the

ideals

operative

of

of overcoming

between

the

in theory

worlds
norm

rational

is precisely
of interests

of norm-guided
are nevertheless

justification
In his
critique.

148
Cf. AV(1922-1937),

cultural

as the single

the world

The

situated

various

of a theory
goal of autonomy

telos, not a single


of a process
the possibility
sufficient
conditions,
lacking

gumentation.
norm
requires

The very notion


of com
unity.
to this notion
be applied
of the

this is lost the possibility

and

The

the necessary
of presence
interplay
means
can
never
that it
be cap
possible
as horizon
is a nexus
of
The world

"phenomenon."148
lacks
that itself

pleteness

world.

that

of deflection,

what

by posi
for all

shifts

and, thus,
before
us, but

places
rather

transformations
open

the

to rational

that,
ar

a single
lacking
guiding
of
last writings
Husserl
thought

of values

"natural

attitude,"

175.

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serving

the

606 DONN WELTON


natural
constitutive
as a new

of life, and the "theoretical


Thus
of the positive
sciences.149
as
form of praxis,

interest

attitude,"
he speaks

necessarily
of critique

. . . the universal
of all life and all life-goals,
all cultural
critique
have
and
that
arisen out of the life of man; and thus
systems
products
a critique of mankind
itself and of the values which
it also becomes
or implicitly.150
guide it explicitly
because
precisely
Critique,
for
revaluation
strives
ory,
the

rational

interests

it lacks
at the

that make

completeness
level of praxis
renewal

at the

by opening

329; Crisis,

of the
to view

possible.

The University

149
Krisis,
150
Ibid.

level

at Stony Brook

283.

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