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DEFINITE INTEGRALS-SYNOPSIS

INTEGRATION: If differential coefficient of a

d F x
=f(x), then F(x) is
dx

function F(x) is f(x) i.e

called Integral or ANTI DERIVATIVE OR a


PRIMITIVE of f(x) and is written as
f x dx =F(x)

INTEGRATION is the reverse process of Differentiation.


Differentiation deals with instantaneous changes, whereas
integration deals with the total change. The process of the
differentiation and Integration are inverses of each other in
the sense of the following results

d
f x dx =f(x); and
dx

f ' x dx

=f(x)+c

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
a

Definition: An integral is the area under a curve.

g)

TERMNOLOGY: We have the following terminology

f x dx

even funtion of x
=0 if f(x) is an odd funtion of x

f x dx
a

Upper limit
of
Integration

2a

h)

Integrand
X is the
variable of
Integration

f x dx

Integral
sign

THEOREM 1: (First Fundamental theorem of Integral


calculus)(exluded in state syllubus)
If f is continuous on [a, b], then

2a

i)

f x dx

f x dx

j)

dF
d
=
f t dt =f(x), a xb
dx
dx a

and

The theorem says that


1. Integration and differentiation are inverse processes
of each other.
2. Every continuous funtion f(x) has an anti

f t dt

SECOND FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF


CALCULUS:(included in state syllubus)
Let f be a continuous funtion defined on the closed interval
[a, b]. Let F(x) be an antiderivative of f. then

na

f x dx

=F(b)-F(a)

a)

f x dx

=-

f x dx

=0

a
a

b)

a
b

c)

dx
=
a 2 cos x+b
2
sin x 2ab
0

2
0

3.

0
b

e)

a
c

5.

f ( x) dx

f ( x)+ f (a x) dx
0
1

6.

f x dx

x (1x) dx =

a
2

x n ( 1x )dx
1
(n+1)(n+2)

1
dx =
(
xa)(
xb)

1
dx= a<b
( xa)( xb)

f (ax)dx

ii)

f ab x dx

iii)

0
b
a

ba
2

I)

1
n

7.

f x dx
a

a
a

0
b

f)

f ( x) dx

f ( x)+ f (a+bx ) dx

a f (sinx)+b f (cosx ) = (a+b)


4
f (sinx)+ f (cosx)

f x dx= f x dx f x dx
a

f (sinx)
= 4
f ( sinx)+ f (cosx )

2.

f x dx= f t dt
a
b

d)

f x dx

**(AIEEE)

f x dx

SHORT CUTS:

4.

Note: Every definite integral has a unique value.


PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS:

=n

f x dx

dx**

l)If f(x) is a periodic funtion with period a, then

d
NOTE: It is not always true that
f x dx =f(x)
a dx

[ f x f x ]

1.

f x dx =

-derivative, viz.

f x dx

a
f x dx if f(a-x)=f(x)

2 0

k)

=2

a
2

2a

has a derivative at every point on [a, b]

if f(2a-x)=f(x)
=0 if f(2a-x) = -f(x)

f t dt

f x dx f 2a x dx

Lower limit
Integral of f from a to
of Integration
b

F(x)=

f x dx =

if f(x) is an

associated with the symbol

f x dx

=2

( xa )( xb)dx= 8 (ba )2
a
b

( xa)
dx= (ba) a<b
( xb)
2

1 BY KH VASUDEVA GPUC SAGAR

a<b