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Proposed residual stress model for roller bent steel wide flange sections

R.C. Spoorenberg a,b, , H.H. Snijder b , J.C.D. Hoenderkamp b

a

Materials Innovation Institute M2i, P.O. Box 5008, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

article

info

Article history:

Received 28 July 2010

Accepted 13 January 2011

Keywords:

Residual stress model

Curved steel

Roller bending

Wide flange section

abstract

The manufacturing process of structural wide flange steel sections introduces residual stresses in the

material. These stresses due to hot-rolling or welding influence the inelastic buckling response of

structural steel members and need to be taken into account in the design. Based on experimental data

standardized residual stress models have been proposed for inclusion in inelastic buckling analyses.

By incorporating these residual stress models their effect on the resistance of beams and columns can

be obtained. Residual stress models for roller bent steel sections are currently not available. Roller

bent wide flange sections are manufactured by curving straight members at ambient temperature. This

manufacturing technique, which is also known as roller bending, stresses the material beyond its yield

stress, thereby overriding the initial residual stresses prior to bending and generating an entirely new

pattern. This paper proposes a residual stress model for roller bent wide flange sections, based on

earlier conducted numerical investigations which were validated by experimental research performed

at Eindhoven University of Technology. The proposed residual stress model can serve as an initial state of

a roller bent steel section in fully non-linear finite element analyses to accurately predict its influence on

the inelastic buckling response.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

residual stresses into the material. The residual stresses influence

the structural behavior of steel structures since their presence

causes early yielding of the material in specific locations of the

member. Especially for steel structures prone to inelastic buckling,

residual stresses are of major importance due to their detrimental

influence on the maximum resistance. The availability of a large

experimental database of residual stress measurements has led

to the development of residual stress models for different section

types, manufacturing procedures (e.g. hot-rolling, welding) and

material properties (mild steel, high strength steel). A residual

stress model comprises a simplified pattern and magnitude of

the residual stresses over the cross section of the profile. The

influence of residual stresses on the maximum resistance has been

investigated by employing residual stress models as an initial state

in a finite element model. Extensive computational work has led

to design rules which make allowance for the effect of residual

stresses on inelastic buckling.

The residual stresses in hot-rolled steel sections are caused

by differential cooling after roll forming. For a large number of

wide flange sections with different height-to-width ratios and steel

grades these stresses have been measured and published by Beedle

and Tall [1], Mas and Massonet [2], Lay and Ward [3], Daddi and

Mazzolani [4] and Young [5]. The results were summarized and

several residual stress models were proposed by Lay and Ward [3],

Young [5], Mazzolani [6] and ECCS [7], These models are featured

by compressive stresses at the flange tips and tension stresses

at the web-to-flange junctions. The webs of hot-rolled sections

are subject to either tensile or compressive stresses (Fig. 1(a)).

Throughout the paper tensile and compressive residual stresses

will be annotated by (+) and () respectively.

Although the proposed models suggest rather straightforward

residual stress patterns which are not significantly influenced by

the size of the section, the variability of the hot-rolled residual

stress patterns was emphasized by Young [5] and Tall and

Alpsten [8]. Section dimensions and cooling conditions have an

influence on hot-rolled residual stresses.

Architecture, Building and Planning, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB

Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31 40 247 2948; fax: +31 40 245 0328.

E-mail address: r.c.spoorenberg@bwk.tue.nl (R.C. Spoorenberg).

0143-974X/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.01.009

Welded sections are manufactured by welding different plates

together. Due to the large amount of heat-input for the welding

(a) Hot-rolled.

(b) Welded.

993

Fig. 1. Indicative residual stress patterns for hot-rolled, welded and roller straightened sections.

cooling of the sections. The residual stresses in welded sections

have been measured in mild steel members by Tebedge et al. [9]

and in high strength steel by Beg and Hladnik [10]. The

experimental results are characterized by large tensile stresses,

with a magnitude of nearly the yield stress of the material in

the vicinity of the weld and smaller compressive stresses in the

remaining areas to equilibrate the tensile stresses. Models for

residual stresses in welded sections were presented by Young and

Robinson [11], see Fig. 1(b), and Chernenko and Kennedy [12].

resistance reduction due to residual stresses depends on the type

of buckling, reflecting the complex interaction between residual

stresses and inelastic buckling. Current design codes take into

account the detrimental influence of residual stresses for beams

and columns which buckle in the inelastic range. Design codes

distinguish between welded and rolled sections for both minor and

major axis flexural buckling and lateral torsional buckling.

After rolling and cooling in the mill, hot-rolled members may

possess an out-of-straightness in excess of the specified tolerances.

These members can be roller straightened or rotorized to meet

the fabrication tolerances for hot-rolled wide flange steel sections.

During this process the member is fed through a series of rolls,

thereby reducing its initial deformations. It has been found by

Alpsten [13] that the initial stresses due to differential cooling are

altered due to roller straightening. A new residual stress pattern

emerges with smaller values for the stresses when compared

to hot-rolled residual stresses, especially in the flanges. The

residual stress pattern depends to a large extent on the degree of

straightening forced on the section.

It was shown by Alpsten [13] that roller straightened wide

flange sections have a higher resistance than their non-rotorized

counterparts as a result of their lower residual stresses and

improved straightness. The influence of the roller-straightening

process is, however, not implemented in current design rules. A

distinctive residual stress pattern proposed by ECCS [7] (Fig. 1(c))

can be used for numerical computations for rotorized wide flange

sections, irrespective of their height-to-width ratio.

expanding area of application. Curved steel has been frequently

used for roofs and bridges, combining architectural demands

with structural merits. Curved steel is often fabricated by

bending straight hot-rolled sections at ambient temperatures,

Bjorhovde [14]. The member is placed between three rolls, which

are positioned in a triangular arrangement, and a combination of

movement of the rolls and feeding the member between these rolls

induces a permanent curvature. This manufacturing technique is

better known as the roller bending process. Wide flange sections

can either be curved about the weak or strong axis into different

shapes, e.g. ellipse, parabola or circle. This paper is limited to

circular arches curved about the strong axis. When bent about the

strong axis the top flange and bottom flange experience plastic

elongation and shortening in longitudinal direction respectively.

Since the roller bending process involves plastic bending, the initial

residual stresses prior to roller bending are altered due to the

curving process [15,16].

The proposed indicative stress models shown in Fig. 1 have been

employed as initial states of stress in structural steel members for

computer analyses to assess their influence on the resistance and

loaddeflection characteristics. All these residual stress models are

based on the membrane component (averaged residual stress over

web thickness and flange thickness) without bending (residual

stress gradient over web thickness and flange thickness). Nonlinear finite element analyses have shown that the maximum

resistance is significantly influenced by the magnitude and pattern

of the residual stresses, as summarized in ECCS [7]. In general it

was observed that especially large compressive residual stresses in

the flange tips are detrimental to the inelastic buckling resistance

of beams and columns. For these members premature yielding

takes place at the flange tips, resulting in a stiffness reduction

Due to their slenderness and in-plane force distribution

which is characterized by large compressive actions, arches are

susceptible to either in-plane (Fig. 2(a)) or out-of-plane buckling

(Fig. 2(b)). The inelastic buckling behavior of steel arches has

mainly been investigated by means of finite element analyses,

incorporating geometrical imperfections, material non-linearities

and residual stresses. The residual stress models were based

on either typical welding residual stresses (Fig. 3(a) and (b)

for which fy = the yield stress) or hot-rolled residual stresses

(Fig. 3(c)). Studies on in-plane buckling have been presented by

Pi and Trahair [17] and Pi et al. [18]. Finite element analyses on

inelastic out-of-plane buckling were carried out by Komatsu and

Sakimoto [19], Sakimoto and Komatsu [20], Pi and Trahair [21],

Pi and Bradford [22] and Pi and Bradford [23]. The finite element

computations led to the development of design rules to obtain the

resistance for steel arches.

994

Sakimoto [19].

Komatsu [20].

bending.

Fig. 3. Adopted residual stress patterns for studying inelastic buckling behavior of steel arches.

magnitude of the residual stresses was not implemented in the

finite element models. A classical cold bent residual stress pattern

as initially proposed by Timoshenko [24] for solid rectangular

sections and suggested by King and Brown [25] (Fig. 3(d)) to be

applicable to roller bent wide flange sections, was mentioned by Pi

and Bradford [23] and Pi et al. [18]. In Fig. 3(d) Mpl is the full plastic

moment and Mel is the elastic moment of the cross section. The

study of the structural behavior of steel arches subject to in-plane

loading necessitates a detailed knowledge of residual stresses in

roller bent steel sections bent about the major axis in view of

their influence on the inelastic buckling response of steel arches.

In the research program on the behavior of steel arch structures

at Eindhoven University of Technology, residual stresses were first

measured in a number of roller bent and straight wide flange

sections of different steel grade, section type and bending radius.

The results have been published earlier by Spoorenberg et al. [15].

The experimental phase was followed by the development of a

finite element model to estimate the residual stresses in roller bent

sections, [16]. This finite element model was used to simulate the

complete roller bending process. Experimental values were used

to corroborate numerical results. Good agreement in averaged

residual stresses over the flange thickness and web thickness was

observed, demonstrating the validity of the finite element model.

Subsequently, it was found that residual stresses in roller bent

wide flange sections display a pattern that is significantly different

from a typical hot-rolled pattern (Fig. 3(c)) or cold bent pattern

based on the proposal by Timoshenko (Fig. 3(d)). Considering the

observations from the first research phases, the final step is an

examination of all numerical data to arrive at a residual stress

model for circular roller bent wide flange steel sections bent

around the major axis. The proposed residual stress model will be

compared against the experimental and numerical data as a final

check on the accuracy.

thickness and the flange thickness. The finite element model was

not developed to simulate the residual stress gradients over the

web thickness and the flange thickness. However, it yields averaged residual stresses over the web and flange thickness for the entire cross section. An experimental approach for obtaining residual

stresses cannot yield data for the entire cross section due to placement requirements of the strain gauges. It was therefore decided

to employ finite element analyses to generate residual stresses

which can be used in the development of a proposal for a roller

bent residual stress model, thereby ignoring residual stress gradients over the web thickness and the flange thickness. In view of

earlier developed residual stress models [4,10] for straight steel

members, which also ignored the measured residual stress gradient over the web thickness and the flange thickness, this simplification was considered appropriate. Residual stresses were obtained

for a total of 18 wide flange steel sections by simulation in the

finite element environment. Two steel grades, four different sections and five bending radii were used which yielded 8 different

bending ratios (Table 1). The bending ratio equals the radius of the

circular arch divided by the nominal height of the cross section. An

increase of the bending ratio means a decrease of the degree of cold

working, when the height of the section is kept constant. As part of

the experimental procedure to measure residual stresses, tensile

tests were performed on coupons taken from the flanges of straight

reference sections to obtain the yield stress and ultimate tensile

stress, according to NEN-EN 10002-1 [26] and EN 10025 [27]. These

straight sections were originally attached to the roller bent specimens and give information on the state of the material prior to

roller bending. Dividing the numerically obtained residual stresses

by the measured yield stresses of the straight material gives normalized residual stress values.

analysis of all 18 wide flange sections are presented in Fig. 4 at

normalized locations. The residual stresses in the top flange range

from 0fy to 0.2fy at the tips and at the web-to-flange junction

they range from 0.2fy to 0.2fy . The bottom flange is featured by

compressive stresses at the flange tips that range from 0.1fy to

It has been shown by Spoorenberg et al. [16] that close agreement can be attained between finite element analyses and experimental results for the averaged residual stresses over the web

995

Table 1

Mechanical properties and bending ratio of steel members.

Section type

Steel grade

S235

HE 100A

S355

S235

HE 100B

S355

HE 360B

S235

S355

S235

IPE 360

S355

Yield stress fy

Tensile stress ft

1910

2546

3820

1910

2546

3820

322

279

433

418

364

566

1910

2546

3820

1910

2546

3820

248

285

411

412

386

390

492

495

8000

8000

269

357

389

534

22.22

22.22

4500

8000

4500

8000

297

414

361

528

12.5

22.22

12.5

22.22

19.89

26.52

39.79

19.89

26.52

39.79

19.1

25.46

38.2

19.1

25.46

38.2

analyses are consistently located in the bottom flange at the webto-flange junction and flange tips respectively. It was therefore decided that the residual stress patterns across the bottom flange,

which was subjected to compressive actions during roller bending, would be used to investigate the influence of bending ratio and

original yield stress.

2.2. Influence of bending radius

The amount of cold work or plastic straining applied during

roller bending may affect the magnitude of the residual stresses.

For steel exhibiting a clear hardening stage, a decrease of the

bending ratio is expected to induce higher residual stresses. For

each steel section as presented in Table 1, the numerically obtained

maximum tensile and maximum compressive normalized residual

stresses in the bottom flange are displayed as a function of the

bending ratio in Fig. 5(left). It can bee seen that the bending ratio

has no clear influence on the extreme residual stresses within

the examined range of 12.5 R/h 39.79. Consequently a

residual stress model can be developed which is independent of

the bending radius, and applicable to a bending ratio range of

approximately 10 R/h 40.

Fig. 4. Normalized residual stresses in 18 roller bent wide flange sections.

from 0.4fy to 0.7fy . The web shows a large scatter when compared

to the stress characteristics in the flanges. Although consistent

trends from the web stresses cannot readily be observed, it can

be concluded that the upper part of the web is in tension with

an average maximum stress of approximately 0.3fy . The lower

part of the web is mainly subject to compression with an average

maximum stress of approximately 0.4fy . Steep stress gradients

are observed at the web-to-flange junctions, as reflected by the

large difference between the stress values in the top and bottom

of the web and in the middle of the top flange and bottom flange

respectively.

In Table 1 it can be seen that the numerical calculations comprise a wide range of bending radii and steel grades. For the development of a single residual stress model the influence of the

bending ratio and the yield stress of the original material on the

numerical residual stresses were studied first. It was observed that

the maximum tensile and compressive residual stresses from all 18

The yield stress of the original material may also affect the

magnitude of the residual stresses. Structural steel with a higher

yield stress prior to roller bending may have higher residual

stresses after bending when compared to steel with low yield

stress levels. Residual stress measurements published by Gardner

and Cruise [28] on press braked angles and cold-rolled box sections

have shown a clear relationship between material yield stress and

magnitude of residual stresses.

Fig. 5(right) shows the maximum tensile and compressive

residual stresses in the bottom flange versus the measured yield

stress of the material before roller bending. The residual stress

values are not normalized, in order to display the influence of the

yield stress on the magnitude of the residual stress.

3. Roller bent residual stress model for wide flange sections

Based on the numerically obtained roller bent residual stresses,

a model of these stresses for wide flange steel sections is suggested.

This proposal is intended to be generally applicable, independent

996

Fig. 5. Normalized maximum tensile and compressive residual stresses in the bottom flange versus bending ratio (left) and maximum tensile and compressive residual

stresses in the bottom flange versus yield stress of original material (right).

(a) Dimensions.

web.

Fig. 6. Proposed residual stress model for roller bent wide flange steel sections.

and linearly related to the magnitude of the original yield stress

for S235 and S355 steel sections (Section 2.3). The magnitudes and

pattern for the residual stress model are determined to best fit the

finite element results.

3.1. Residual stress pattern and magnitudes

The residual stress model is based on the numerically obtained

residual stresses as shown in Fig. 4 and the trend lines as shown in

Fig. 5 and is shown in Fig. 6.

A symmetric bi-linear stress pattern along the half bottom

flange is suggested with a maximum tensile stress value of 0.7fy

at the web-to-flange junction and 0.35fy compression at the flange

tip. These stress values are based on the gradient of the trend

lines as shown in Fig. 5. A somewhat larger compressive stress

value for the flange tips that shown in the trend line of Fig. 5

has been proposed, since numerical data could not be obtained at

the flange tips but at a distance away from the ends (integration

point location). Using the gradient of the trend line would therefore

result in an underestimation of the compressive stresses at the

flange tips.

For the top flange a linear stress gradient is suggested based

on a qualitative fit with numerical data, featured by 0.2fy tensile

stresses and 0.2fy compressive stresses at the flange tips and flange

center, respectively (Fig. 6(c)).

For the web two triangular stress blocks are suggested. The

tensile and compressive stress peak of the triangles are located at a

distance of 1/4h0 and 3/4h0 from the web-to-flange junction of the

top flange, respectively. The stress values are equal to zero at the

top and bottom of the web. The maximum tensile and compressive

residual stress values in the web are annotated by wrt and wrc

equilibrium requirement.

Equilibrium conditions for residual stresses consist of the axial

force, major moment and minor moment equilibrium requirement

as stated earlier by Lay and Ward [3] and Szalai and Papp [29].

Equilibrium about the minor bending axis is automatically satisfied

due to the symmetric pattern of the suggested residual stress

model about this axis. The bi-linear residual stress pattern in

the bottom flange yields a net tensile force, which is balanced

by residual stresses in the web, according to the equilibrium

requirements. The two unknown web stresses, wrt and wrc ,

can be obtained from the two remaining equilibrium equations:

the normal forces and the major bending moment requirement

Fig. 6(c). The equilibrium equations are simplified by neglecting the

fillets in the wide flange section.

Axial force (N ) and major moment (M ) equilibrium equations

can be set up by summing forces for all stress blocks and summing

the product of these normal forces and their distances to the center

of the top flange, as depicted in Fig. 6(c):

+

wrt

8

4

1

1

+

+

wrc

fy = 0

8

4

7

1 1

1

5

M =

btf h0 + tw

h0 + h0

wrt

80

8 6

4 12

1

7

1 5

+

h0

+ h0

wrt

fy = 0.

N =

80

btf + tw h0

12

(1)

wrt + wrc

fy = 0

8

1

7

1

h0 fy = 0,

M =

btf h0 + h0 tw

wrt + wrc

N =

80

btf + tw h0

80

(2)

N

M

3

8

= fy h0 tw

1

h0

3

8 wrt

1 wrc

h0

fy

btf

80

80

0

.

0

(3)

wrt =

7btf

30h0 tw

fy ,

wrc =

14btf

30h0 tw

fy .

of the strain gauges, average values could not be obtained close

to the junction of the flanges and web. Similarly to the numerical

stress values, the experimental results were normalized with respect to the measured yield stress of the straight material (Table 1).

The proposed residual stress model agrees well with the measured

residual stress value for the HE 100A, HE 100B and HE 360B sections, although less coherence is found in the web of the IPE 360

series.

4.2. Comparison to numerical analyses

btf h0

997

(4)

With these values the residual stress model for roller bent wide

flange steel sections is complete.

3.2. Residual stress model features

From Eq. (4) it is clear that the requirement of internal

equilibrium renders the proposed model to be different per section

geometry. The residual stress values in the web are governed by

the ratio between the area of the flange and area of the web.

The proposed model is qualitatively identical for all wide flange

sections but the magnitude of the residual stresses in the web is

dependent on the geometry of the cross section.

Fig. 4 shows that the numerical residual stress pattern is

featured by a sharp stress gradient at the web-to-flange junctions

of the roller bent wide flange sections. This sharp stress gradient

has been approximated in the proposed residual stress model by a

so-called stress jump at the web-to-flange junctions (i.e. the stress

value at the top of the web or bottom of the web is different from

the stress value in the middle of the top flange or middle of the

bottom flange, respectively). A stress jump is a stress change over

an infinitesimal distance and can also be found in residual stress

models for welded sections, [20] (Fig. 3(b)). Modeling the large

stress gradients instead of the stress-jumps in the web-to-flange

junctions in a residual stress model would significantly complicate

the stress pattern in the web and improve its accuracy only

marginally as the pertaining section areas are extremely small.

The stress jump provides therefore a simplification to the residual

stress model and enhances the simplicity of the equilibrium

equations and ease of applicability when employed in numerical

models.

4. Discussion

4.1. Comparison to experiments

Residual stress measurements were performed on both straight

and roller bent sections using the sectioning method. Measurements taken from both sides of the flanges and the web were used

to obtain the average residual stress values. Residual stresses in

HE 100A, HE 360B and IPE 360 sections were published earlier

by Spoorenberg et al. [15]. A full overview of the averaged experimental results compared with the suggested residual stress

model is shown in Fig. 7. The averaged experimental results for

roller bent sections and the suggested residual stress model are

plotted against the location over the section normalized by the

element patterns and magnitudes from all wide flange sections

as summarized in Fig. 4 and the trend lines shown in Fig. 5.

However, in order to meet the internal equilibrium requirements,

the suggested model will be different for all wide flange steel

sections. The proposed residual stress model is therefore compared

to the finite element residual stresses in all 4 different section

types; see Fig. 8. A good correlation of results can be observed for

the HE 100A, HE 100B and HE 360B series but larger discrepancies

are found in the top flange of the IPE 360 series.

4.3. Comparison between existing hot-rolled and proposed roller bent

residual stress models

It was mentioned in Section 1.1.4 that compressive residual

stresses in the flange tips are detrimental to the resistance of

members susceptible to either flexural or lateral torsional buckling.

Compressive residual stresses in the flange tips reduce the flexural

stiffness during inelastic arch buckling and subsequently will cause

early collapse of the arch. A hot-rolled residual stress model is

featured by compressive stresses in all four flange tips, whereas

the proposed model displays only compressive stresses in the tips

of the bottom flange. From a qualitative comparison between the

hot-rolled model and the proposed roller bent model it can be

concluded that the proposed residual stress model for roller bent

wide flange steel sections will be more favorable to the resistance

of steel arches, when either failing by in-plane or out-of-plane

inelastic buckling.

4.4. Range of applicability residual stress model

Good coherence between the residual stress model and

experimental results for various roller bent wide flange sections

can be observed in Fig. 7. This allows the application of the residual

stress model to other wide flange sections that did not make

part of the experimental program. In addition, since the residual

stress model can be expressed as a function of the yield stress

of the straight material, it can be applied to other steel grades

(e.g. steel grade S275). Under the assumption that for bending

ratios R/h > 40 the required amount of cold work on the section

will be marginally smaller, the reduction in residual stresses will

be of minor influence. Application of the residual stress model

to roller bent arches with larger bending ratios than currently

investigated seems appropriate but is probably conservative.

5. Conclusions

After manufacturing wide flange steel sections by the hotrolling process, additional cold working such as roller bending

has a significant influence on the residual stress patterns.

Earlier publications by Spoorenberg et al. [15,16] demonstrate a

significant difference between residual stresses in hot-rolled and

roller bent wide flange sections. In this paper residual stresses

obtained from finite element analyses by Spoorenberg et al. [16]

have been summarized and normalized with respect to the yield

stress of the material before roller bending to develop and present

998

Fig. 7. Normalized measured averaged residual stresses and proposed residual stress model.

a residual stress model. It was found that the bending ratio does

not influence the magnitudes of the residual stresses, allowing for

a residual stress model representing all examined bending radii

for 10 R/h 40. The residual stresses were found to be

linearly dependent on the yield stress of the original material and a

single normalized residual stress model could therefore represent

all roller bent sections, for steel grades S235 and S355.

Based on a best fit of the finite element data, the proposed

linear stress gradient along the width of the top flange (the

flange that is plastically elongated in longitudinal direction during

roller bending) is featured by stress magnitudes of 0.2fy in

tension and 0.2fy in compression at the flange tips and flange

center respectively. The residual stress in the bottom flange (the

flange that is plastically shortened in longitudinal direction during

a maximum compressive stress of 0.35fy at the flange tip, zero

stress at the quarter points of the flange width and a maximum

tension of 0.70fy at the web-to-flange junction. The residual stress

pattern over the height of the web can be represented by two

triangular stress blocks: tensile stress in the upper region of the

web near the top flange and compressive stress in the lower region.

The maximum value for the two zones can be determined from

internal equilibrium which results in 0.20.4fy for tension and

0.40.8fy for compression residual stresses. The residual stress

model was compared to experimental and numerical residual

stress measurements and good agreement was observed. The

suggested residual stress model can be implemented in finite

element models with beam or shell elements to assess its influence

999

Fig. 8. Normalized computed residual stresses and proposed residual stress model.

detrimental influence of compressive residual stress at the flange

tips it is expected that the proposed residual stress model will

yield higher resistances compared to finite element analyses using

models for hot-rolled residual stresses when investigating inelastic

arch buckling.

Acknowledgements

This research was carried out under the project number

MC1.06262 in the framework of the Research Program of the

Materials innovation institute M2i (www.m2i.nl).

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