“LATEST MATERIALS COMMONLY USED BY TODAY’S BUILDING
STEEL & IRON
A material having a high strength in tension & compression that is able to resist bending and axial
loads w/ equal facility. It is twenty times stronger than timber & 10 times stronger than concrete.
Preferred structural material for tall buildings &
enclosures having long spans.
Crucial to the development of the glass-clad
Strength: has a high ratio of strength to weight
Manufactured under conditions of strict quality
Has an appearance characterized by slender
elements, smooth surfaces & straight sharp
Assembled from prefabricated components
which are produced off-site allowing their
dimensions and quality under control
Shorter on-site construction time required
Poor durability as they are easily corroded
Poor performance in fire (around 500 degrees
Difficulty of shaping it into useful components
Large ecological costs in terms of
transportation of raw materials
High energy consumption and pollution
associated w/ its manufacture
High density thus affecting its weight requiring
the use of machines i.e. cranes to assemble it
Its cost is greater compared to timber and
A) Tensioned Cables: The Hangar and the Tie Example
Millenium Wheel, London, England, U.K. (2000)
Architect:Marks Barfield Architects; Structural Engrs: Jane Wernick of Arup
*The rods provide only means of Support for outer trussed ring
*Socket-type anchorages for tensioned Cables. Small attachments are dampers to minimize vibrations.
*Museum for the History of Hamburg, Germany (1989): iconographic “fan” connection detail used to anchor
radiating tension cables stabilizing vault over museum’s courtyard.
B) Adjustable Steel Canopy: the Beam and the Slab “Steel and Glass” combination
Yarakucho Subway Station Canopy, Tokyo, Japan (1996); Architect:
Dewhurst Macfarlane and Partners
* Overlapping Glass Plates gradually increase in depth toward
cantilevered canopy’s base support
Baijing China (2008)
Architect: Herzog & de Meuron
Structural Engineer: Arup
*Axon showing how trussed steel frames make up the backbone of
the complex pattern of structural lines which is perceived as a
“Nest. It is alloyed with
copper. Spain (2002)
Architect and Structural Engineer: Santiago Calatrava
Nearly Paraboolic Profile Of light Steel Arch Ribs corresponds to
Uniform-along-the-arch loading Produced by self-weight of ribs and
(ALUMINUM ALLOY) steel: Additional Lesson
A silvery white metal easily forged. Beijing National Stadium. Valencia. TPR
D) The Bird’s Nest: Beyond Surface and Geometric Purity Example
The Bird’s Nest.
. Spain (2006)
Archits: Richard Rogers Prtnership and Estudio Lemela
Structural Engrs: Anthony Hunt Associates.
D) Steel Arch and light relationship: the Arch and Vault Example
City of the Arts and Sciences.
reflecting changing bending moment demand.” Note the variation in the dimension of an individual truss. manganese. zinc.C) Form Follows Diagram: the Beam and the Slab “Steel and Plastic” combination
Madrid-Barajas Airport. silicon and magnesium if to be used for construction purposes. Madrid.
A material that is 100% recyclable and requires
Actual production of structural elements
require less energy and far cheaper than the
Excellent anti-corrosion attributes
Used more on household Fixtures and furniture
Extracted at an extremely energy-consuming
Greater thermal expansion & lower fire
resistance than steel
Structural capability in handling tension and
compression forces are limited. OTEP internacional. It has an
elastic modulus E about 1/3 that of steel. light with a favourable strength to weight ratio.
Structural Engr. The Netherlands (1994)
Atchitect: Dirk/Jan Postel/Kraaijvanger Urbis
Structural Engr: AGT/Rob Nisse
B) Glass Bridge: the Frame and Lateral Stability example
Glass Bridge for Kraaijvanger Urbis. Rotterdam. and
lime. James Carpenter Design
Assoc. & brittle material with a much high compression than tension
A material that allows visual penetration
Unmatched resistance to deterioration
Weak load bearing capacity
Intensive. Mary Axe.K.
An inorganic.S.: WSP Cantor Seinuk. and Merrill.. Bergermann und Partner. N.U.schlaich.
*Glass wall is suspended from truss above performance space. Exterior cable is
also anchored at sides and bottom edges..Y. U. for glass wall.A. Owings. (2004)
Architect: Foster + Partners
Structural Engr: Arup
II. energy-consuming manufacturing
Special protection against alkaline emitting
materials such as concrete or lime mortars
A) Jazz on Central Park: the Hangar and the Tie example
Time Warner Center and the Allen Room of Jazz at Lincoln Center. Its productions starts with melting together quartz sand (silica).APPLICTIONS:
A) Aluminum Finished Façade: The Frame and Lateral Stability Example
30 St. sodium carbonate. London. transparent/opaque.
FIBERS AND FABRICS
Mineral and synthetic fibers are materials of crucial importance in contemporary light-weight tensile
membranes and in polymer (plastics) composites. in w/c woven fabrics commonly form doubly curved structural shapes. the Watercbe. Beijing.
Weak compression strength
Weak against moisture. Glass
III. UV radiation & fungus
A) Pneumatic Membranes: The inflated new type Vault Example
Allianz Arena. Germany (2004)
Architect: Herzog and De Meuron
Structural Engr: Arup
*Air-inflated Cushions of EFTE foil
Mobile Performance Venue (2009)
Structural engr: Ramboll Whitby-Bird
*Air-inflated Tubes in hexagonal Pattern as skin structure
. China (2008)
Architects: PTW Architects
Structural Engr: Arup
*Space Frame Structure Based on Weaire & Phelan bubbles. glass
to further strengthen its structural property
High tensile strength
Pre-stressed during manufacturing
No appropriate aging and weathering
properties. Their tensile strength is exploited in pre-stressed
Can be combined with other materials i.C) Beijing National Aquatics Center: Space Frame Structure Example
Beijing National Aquatics Center.e.
It lends strength to polymer that envelops &
holds them in place.
Composites consists of two or more different material components w/c are joined to give a
combination of properties that can’t be attained by the original materials independently. U.
IV. PTFE. COMPOSITES
Plastics are large chain-like molecules that are based on carbon atoms. which means that where
deformations are a critical issue. They are recyclable materials that
regain their properties after cooling. PVC. polycarbonate
discolours if left untreated
Burnt plastics release toxic fumes fatal to all
Its manufacture can create undesirable
V. Edinburgh. It is grouped into two:
the thermosetting plastics and the thermoplastics.
Thermosetting plastics-have a complex molecular structure that resists being reshaped by heating
i. epoxy and polyester.B) Dynamic Earth: Hyper Shells Example
DynamicEarth. Its most important material is oil. better than float glass having the
Very durable and degrade slowly
High strength-to-weight ratio
Good anti-corrosion and weather resistant
Design can have a great influence on material
properties such as strength & stiffness. & are present in such
substance as plastics.it deforms under heat and pressure.e. & can thus be given new shapes multiple times
i.e. as well as acrylic glass and polycarbonate.
Good substitute for glass material
Some have good optical properties having a
density about half of the glass of the same size
Acrylic glass have 2-3 times the tension
strength of a glass
Thermoplastics experience both elastic and
plastic deformation when subjected to stresses.K. larger
structural thickness are needed
Even if weather resistant. & adhesives.
Polycarbonate displays good strength to resist
A) Acrylic Glass: Irregular Domes and Shell Example for Plastics
One-twentieth elastic modulus compared to
that of a glass. ETFE. (1999)
Architect: Michael Hopkins and Partners
Structural Engr: Arup
*Steel Mast-supported membrane stretched over a steel
skeleton covered in a tensile structure.
. Cornwall. Graz. England. Bazey. Architektur Consult
Structural Engr: Bollinger + Grohmann
B) Fiber-Reinforced Plastic: Wall façade Example for Composite
Chanel Mobile Art Container (2008)
Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects
Structural Designer: Arup
Manufactured by: Stage One
B) The Eden Project: Plastic Domes and Shell Example
The Eden Project. (2001)
Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners
Structural Engr: Anthony Hunt and Associates
*Bubble-like Domes nestled into landscape. Exterior surface covered by inflated EFTE pillows whose relative
transparency to UV rays promotes the Growth of Plants in one of the world’s largest greenhouses.Kunsthaus Graz. St. U.K. Austria (2003)
Architect: Spacelab Cook-Fournier.