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Hashing & Hash Tables
Hashing & Hash Tables

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

111111

Overview  Hash Table Data Structure : Purpose  To support insertion, deletion and search
Overview  Hash Table Data Structure : Purpose  To support insertion, deletion and search

Overview

Overview  Hash Table Data Structure : Purpose  To support insertion, deletion and search in
Overview  Hash Table Data Structure : Purpose  To support insertion, deletion and search in

Hash Table Data Structure : Purpose

To support insertion, deletion and search in average-case constant time

Assumption: Order of elements irrelevant

==> data structure *not* useful for if you want to maintain and retrieve some kind of an order of the elements

Hash function

 Hash[ “string key”] ==> integer value
 Hash[ “string key”] ==> integer value

Hash table ADT

Implementations, Analysis, Applications

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

22222

Hash table: Main components key value Hash index “john” h(“john”) ke y Hash function Hash
Hash table: Main components key value Hash index “john” h(“john”) ke y Hash function Hash

Hash table: Main components

Hash table: Main components key value Hash index “john” h(“john”) ke y Hash function Hash table
Hash table: Main components key value Hash index “john” h(“john”) ke y Hash function Hash table
key value Hash index “john” h(“john”) ke y Hash function Hash table How to determine
key
value
Hash index
“john”
h(“john”)
ke y
Hash
function
Hash table
How to determine … ?
(implemented as a vector)
3
TableSize

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

Hash Table  Hash table is an array of fixed s i z e T
Hash Table  Hash table is an array of fixed s i z e T

Hash Table

Hash Table  Hash table is an array of fixed s i z e T a
Hash Table  Hash table is an array of fixed s i z e T a

Hash table is an array of fixed size TableSize

key Element value
key
Element value

Array elements indexed by a key, which is mapped to an array index (0…TableSize-1)

Mapping (hash function) h from key to index E.g., h(“john”) = 3

Hash Table Operations Hash Wh h  Insert Hash key function  T [h(“john”)] =
Hash Table Operations Hash Wh h  Insert Hash key function  T [h(“john”)] =

Hash Table Operations

Hash
Hash
Hash Table Operations Hash Wh h  Insert Hash key function  T [h(“john”)] = <“john”,25000>

Wh

h

Insert

Hash key
Hash key
function
function

T [h(“john”)] = <“john”,25000>

Delete

T [h(“ jo

Data record
Data
record

hn)] = NULL

Search

T [h(“john”)] returns the

element hashed for “john”

appens

if h

( jo

h

n )

== h “

( joe )

?

appens if h “ ( jo h ” n ) == h “ ” ( joe

at

collision

Factors affecting Hash Table Design

Factors affecting Hash Table Desi gn  Hash function  Table size  Usuall y fixed
Factors affecting Hash Table Desi gn  Hash function  Table size  Usuall y fixed
Factors affecting Hash Table Desi gn  Hash function  Table size  Usuall y fixed
Factors affecting Hash Table Desi gn  Hash function  Table size  Usuall y fixed

Hash function

Table size

Usually fixed at the start

Collision handling scheme

Hash Function  A hash function is one which maps an element’s key into a
Hash Function  A hash function is one which maps an element’s key into a

Hash Function

Hash Function  A hash function is one which maps an element’s key into a valid
Hash Function  A hash function is one which maps an element’s key into a valid

A hash function is one which maps an element’s key into a valid hash table index

h(key) => hash table index

a valid hash table index  h(key) => hash table index Note that this is (slight

Note that this is (slightly) different from saying:

h(string) => int

Because the key can be of any type

E.g., “h(int) => int” is also a hash function!

But also note that any type can be converted into an equivalent string form

h(key) ==> hash table index
h(key) ==> hash table index
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A hash function maps key to integer
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A hash function maps key to integer

Hash Function Properties

h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A hash function maps key to integer
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A hash function maps key to integer

A hash function maps key to integer Constraint: Integer should be between [0, TableSize-1]

A hash function can result in a many-to-one mapping (causing collision)

Collision occurs when hash function maps two or more keys to same array index

Collisions cannot be avoided but its chances can be reduced using a “good” hash function

h(key) ==> hash table index
h(key) ==> hash table index
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A “good” hash function should have the
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A “good” hash function should have the

Hash Function Properties

h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A “good” hash function should have the
h(key) ==> hash table index Hash Function Properties  A “good” hash function should have the

A “good” hash function should have the properties:

1. Reduced chance of collision

Different keys should ideally map to different indices Distribute keys uniformly over table

2. Should be fast to compute

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

99

Hash Function - Effective use of table size

Hash Function - Effective use of table size  Simple hash function (assume integer keys) 
Hash Function - Effective use of table size  Simple hash function (assume integer keys) 
Hash Function - Effective use of table size  Simple hash function (assume integer keys) 
Hash Function - Effective use of table size  Simple hash function (assume integer keys) 

Simple hash function (assume integer keys)

h(Key) = Key mod TableSize

For random keys, h() distributes keys evenly over table

What if TableSize = 100 and keys are ALL multiples of 10?

Better if TableSize is a prime number

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for String Keys

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys A very simple function to
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys A very simple function to
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys A very simple function to
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys A very simple function to

A very simple function to map strings to integers:

Add up character ASCII values (0-255) to produce integer keys

E.g., “abcd” = 97+98+99+100 = 394

==>

h(“abcd”) = 394 % TableSize

Potential problems:

Anagrams will map to the same index

h(“abcd”) == h(“dbac”)

Small strings may not use all of table

Strlen(S) * 255 < TableSize

Time proportional to length of the string

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for String Keys

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 2  Treat
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 2  Treat
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 2  Treat
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 2  Treat

Approach 2

Treat first 3 characters of string as base-27 integer (26 letters plus space)

Key = S[0] + (27 * S[1]) + (27 2 * S[2])

Better than approach 1 because … ?

Potential problems:

Assumes first 3 characters randomly distributed

Not true of English Apple

Apply

Appointment

Apricot

 Not true of English App le App ly A pp ointment Apr icot collision Cpt
 Not true of English App le App ly A pp ointment Apr icot collision Cpt

collision

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for String Keys

Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 3 Use all
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 3 Use all
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 3 Use all
Different Ways to Design a Hash Function for Strin g Keys  Approach 3 Use all

Approach 3

Use all N characters of string as an N-digit base-K number

Choose K to be prime number larger than number of different digits (characters)

I.e., K = 29, 31, 37

If L = length of string S, then

h S

(

)

L 1

i 0

S [ L i

 

 i 1] 37 mod  TableSize  
i
1] 37 mod
TableSize

Use Horner’s rule to compute h(S)

Limit L for long strings

rule to compute h(S)  Li mit L for l ong s tri ngs Problems: potential
Problems: potential overflow larger runtime
Problems:
potential overflow
larger runtime

“Collision resolution techniques”

Techniques to Deal with Collisions

techni q ues” T ec hni ques to D ea l w ith Collisions Chaining Open

Chaining Open addressing Double hashing Etc.

Resolvin g Collisions  What happens when h(k 1 ) = h(k 2 )? 
Resolvin g Collisions  What happens when h(k 1 ) = h(k 2 )? 

Resolving Collisions

Resolvin g Collisions  What happens when h(k 1 ) = h(k 2 )?  ==>
Resolvin g Collisions  What happens when h(k 1 ) = h(k 2 )?  ==>

What happens when h(k 1 ) = h(k 2 )?

==> collision !

Collision resolution strategies

Chaining

Store colliding keys in a linked list at the same hash table index

Open addressing

Store colliding keys elsewhere in the table

Ch aining Collision resolution technique #1 Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 16
Ch aining Collision resolution technique #1 Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 16
Ch aining Collision resolution technique #1 Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 16
Ch aining Collision resolution technique #1 Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 16

Chaining

Collision resolution technique #1

Chaining strategy: maintains a linked list at every hash index for collided elements

n k e d li s t a t every hash index for collided elements Insertion
n k e d li s t a t every hash index for collided elements Insertion
n k e d li s t a t every hash index for collided elements Insertion
n k e d li s t a t every hash index for collided elements Insertion

Insertion sequence: { 0 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 }

Hash table T is a vector of linked lists

Insert element at the head (as shown here) or at the tail

Key k is stored in list at T[h(k)]

E.g., TableSize = 10

h(k) = k mod 10

Insert first 10 perfect squares

 E.g ., TableSize = 10  h(k) = k mod 10  Insert first 10
 E.g ., TableSize = 10  h(k) = k mod 10  Insert first 10

Implementation of Chaining Hash Table

Vector of linked lists (this is the main hashtable) Current #elements in the hashtable Hash
Vector of linked lists
(this is the main
hashtable)
Current #elements in
the hashtable
Hash functions for
integers and string
keys
Current #elements in the hashtable Hash functions for integers and string keys Cpt S 223. School
Current #elements in the hashtable Hash functions for integers and string keys Cpt S 223. School
Current #elements in the hashtable Hash functions for integers and string keys Cpt S 223. School
Current #elements in the hashtable Hash functions for integers and string keys Cpt S 223. School

Implementation of Chaining Hash Table

Implementation of Chaining Hash Table This is the hashtable’s current capacity (aka. “table size”) This is
Implementation of Chaining Hash Table This is the hashtable’s current capacity (aka. “table size”) This is
Implementation of Chaining Hash Table This is the hashtable’s current capacity (aka. “table size”) This is
Implementation of Chaining Hash Table This is the hashtable’s current capacity (aka. “table size”) This is
This is the hashtable’s current capacity (aka. “table size”) This is the hash table index
This is the hashtable’s
current capacity
(aka. “table size”)
This is the hash table
index for the element
x
Duplicate check Later, but essentially resizes the hashtable if its getting crowded Cpt S 223.
Duplicate check
Duplicate check
Later, but essentially resizes the hashtable if its getting crowded
Later, but essentially
resizes the hashtable if its
getting crowded
Each of these operations takes time linear in the length of the list at the
Each of these
operations takes time
linear in the length of
the list at the hashed
index location
All hash objects must define == and != operators.
All hash objects must
define == and !=
operators.
All hash objects must define == and != operators. Hash function to handle Employee object type
Hash function to handle Employee object type
Hash function to
handle Employee
object type

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

22

Collision Resolution by Chaining: Analysis

Collision Resolution by Chainin g : Analysis  Load factor λ of a hash table T
Collision Resolution by Chainin g : Analysis  Load factor λ of a hash table T
Collision Resolution by Chainin g : Analysis  Load factor λ of a hash table T
Collision Resolution by Chainin g : Analysis  Load factor λ of a hash table T

Load factor λ of a hash table T is defined as follows:

N = number of elements in T

M = size of T

λ = N/M

(“current size”) (“table size”) (“ load factor”)

i.e., λ is the average length of a chain

Unsuccessful search time: O(λ)

Same for insert time

Successful search time: O(λ/2)

Ideally, want λ 1 (not a function of N)

Potential disadvantages of Chaining

Potential disadvantages of Chainin g Linked lists could get long  Especially when N approaches M
Potential disadvantages of Chainin g Linked lists could get long  Especially when N approaches M
Potential disadvantages of Chainin g Linked lists could get long  Especially when N approaches M
Potential disadvantages of Chainin g Linked lists could get long  Especially when N approaches M

Linked lists could get long

Especially when N approaches M

Longer linked lists could negatively impact performance

More memory because of pointers

Absolute worst-case (even if N << M):

All N elements in one linked list!

Typically the result of a bad hash function

O pen Add ress ing Collision resolution technique #2 Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
O pen Add ress ing Collision resolution technique #2 Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
O pen Add ress ing Collision resolution technique #2 Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
O pen Add ress ing Collision resolution technique #2 Cpt S 223. School of EECS,

Open Addressing

Collision resolution technique #2

Collision Resolution by An inplace approach Open Addressing

l a c e ” a p p r o a c h Open Addressing When
l a c e ” a p p r o a c h Open Addressing When
l a c e ” a p p r o a c h Open Addressing When
l a c e ” a p p r o a c h Open Addressing When

When a collision occurs, look elsewhere in the table for an empty slot

Advantages over chaining

No need for list structures

No need to allocate/deallocate memory during insertion/deletion (slow)

Disadvantages

Slower insertion – May need several attempts to find an empty slot

Table needs to be bigger (than chaining-based table) to achieve average-case constant-time performance

Load factor λ 0.5

Collision Resolution by Open Addressing

Collision Resolution by Open Addressing  A “Probe sequence” is a sequence of slots in hash
Collision Resolution by Open Addressing  A “Probe sequence” is a sequence of slots in hash
Collision Resolution by Open Addressing  A “Probe sequence” is a sequence of slots in hash
Collision Resolution by Open Addressing  A “Probe sequence” is a sequence of slots in hash

A “Probe sequence” is a sequence of slots in hash table while searching for an element x

h (x)

0

,

h (x)

1

,

h (x)

2

, …

Needs to visit each slot exactly once

Needs to be repeatable (so we can find/delete what we’ve inserted)

Hash function

h i (x) = (h(x) + f(i)) mod TableSize

f(0) = 0

==> position for the 0 th probe

f(i) is “the distance to be traveled relative to the 0 th probe position, during the i th probe”.

Linear Probing i th probe 0 th probe index index = + i  f(i)
Linear Probing i
th
probe
0 th probe
index
index =
+ i
 f(i) = is a linear function of i,
Linear probing:
0 th probe
E.g., f(i) = i
i
occupied
1 st probe
occupied
2 nd probe
h
i (x) = (
h
(x) + ) mo
i
d T bl
a
e
Si
ze
occupied
3 rd probe
Probe sequence: +0, +1, +2, +3, +4, …
unoccupied
Populate x here

Continue until an empty slot is found #failed probes is a measure of performance

i th probe index =
i th probe
index =
0 th probe index
0 th probe
index
i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)
+ i
+ i
i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)
i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)

Linear Probing

i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)
i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)
i th probe index = 0 th probe index + i Linear Probin g  f(i)

f(i) = is a linear function of i, e.g., f(i) = i

h i (x) = (h(x) + i) mod TableSize

Probe sequence: +0, +1, +2, +3, +4, …

Example: h(x) = x mod TableSize

h 0 (89) = (h(89)+f(0)) mod 10 = 9

h 0 (18) = (h(18)+f(0)) mod 10 = 8

h 0 (49) = (h(49)+f(0)) mod 10 = 9 (X)

h 1 (49) = (h(49)+f(1)) mod 10

= (h(49)+

1 ) mod 10 = 0

Linear Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58
Linear Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58

Linear Probing Example

Linear Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58 ,
Linear Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58 ,

Insert sequence: 89, 18, 49, 58, 69

time

Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58 , 69 time #unsuccessful
Example I nser t sequence: 89 , 18 , 49 , 58 , 69 time #unsuccessful

#unsuccessful

probes:

0

01

33

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

7 total 30
7
total
30
Linear Probin g : Issues Probe sequences can get longer with time Primary c l
Linear Probin g : Issues Probe sequences can get longer with time Primary c l

Linear Probing: Issues

Linear Probin g : Issues Probe sequences can get longer with time Primary c l us
Linear Probin g : Issues Probe sequences can get longer with time Primary c l us

Probe sequences can get longer with time

Primary clustering

Keys tend to cluster in one part of table

Keys that hash into cluster will be added to the end of the cluster (making it even bigger)

Side effect: Other keys could also get affected if mapping to a crowded neighborhood

Linear Probin g : Analysis  Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search
Linear Probin g : Analysis  Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search

Linear Probing: Analysis

Linear Probin g : Analysis  Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search 
Linear Probin g : Analysis  Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search 

Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search

Example (λ = 0.5)

Insert / unsuccessful search

1

2

 

1

1

(1 )

2

Expected number of probes for successful search

1

2

1

1

(1 )

2.5 probes

Successful search

1.5 probes

Example (λ = 0.9)

Insert / unsuccessful search

50.5 probes

Successful search

5.5 probes

Random Probin g : Analysis  Random probing does not suffer from clustering  Expected
Random Probin g : Analysis  Random probing does not suffer from clustering  Expected

Random Probing: Analysis

Random Probin g : Analysis  Random probing does not suffer from clustering  Expected number
Random Probin g : Analysis  Random probing does not suffer from clustering  Expected number

Random probing does not suffer from clustering

Expected number of probes for insertion or unsuccessful search:

1

1

ln

1

Example

λ = 0.5: 1.4 probes

λ = 0.9: 2.6 probes

Linear vs. Random Probing Linear probing Random probing good bad # prob es U -
Linear vs. Random Probing Linear probing Random probing good bad # prob es U -

Linear vs. Random Probing

Linear vs. Random Probing Linear probing Random probing good bad # prob es U - unsuccessful
Linear vs. Random Probing Linear probing Random probing good bad # prob es U - unsuccessful
Linear probing Random probing good bad # prob es
Linear probing
Random probing
good
bad
# prob es

U

- unsuccessful search

S

- successful search

I - insert

Load factor λ

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

34

… Quadratic Probin g i  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) i
… Quadratic Probin g i  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) i

Quadratic Probing

… Quadratic Probin g i  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) i
… Quadratic Probin g i  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) i

i

Avoids primary clustering i

f i

( )

i

d

s qua

ra

ti

c

i

n

e.g., f(i) = i 2

h i ( x ) TableSize

=

(h( )

x

+

i 2 )

d

mo

Probe sequence:

+0, +1, +4, +9, +16, …

Quadratic probing: 0 th probe

+1, +4, +9, +16, … Quadratic probing: 0 t h probe t occupied occupied occupied occupied
t occupied occupied occupied occupied
t
occupied
occupied
occupied
occupied

1 s probe

2 nd probe

3 rd probe

Continue until an empty slot is found #failed probes is a measure of performance

Quadratic Probin g  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) d s
Quadratic Probin g  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) d s

Quadratic Probing

Quadratic Probin g  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) d s qua
Quadratic Probin g  Avoids primary clustering i  f i ( ) d s qua

Avoids primary clustering i

f i

( )

d

s qua

ra

ti

c

i

n

I

f i

, e.g., ( )

= i 2

h i (x) = (h(x) + i 2 ) mod TableSize

Probe sequence: +0, +1, +4, +9, +16, …

Example:

h 0 (58) = (h(58)+f(0)) mod 10 = 8 (X)

h 1 (58) = (h(58)+f(1)) mod 10 = 9 (X)

h 2 (58) = (h(58)+f(2)) mod 10 = 2

Q) Delete(49), Find(69) - is there a problem?

Q) Delete(49), Find(69) - is there a problem? Quadratic Probin g Example I nser t sequence:
Q) Delete(49), Find(69) - is there a problem? Quadratic Probin g Example I nser t sequence:

Quadratic Probing Example

Find(69) - is there a problem? Quadratic Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 ,
Find(69) - is there a problem? Quadratic Probin g Example I nser t sequence: 89 ,

Insert sequence: 89, 18, 49, 58, 69

+1 2 +2 2 +0 2 +0 2 +0 2 +1 2 +0 2
+1
2
+2
2
+0
2
+0 2
+0
2
+1
2
+0 2

+1 2

+2 2

+0 2

#unsuccessful

probes:

0

0

1

22

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

5 total 37
5
total
37
Quadratic Probin g : Analysis  Difficult to analyze  T heorem 5.1  New
Quadratic Probin g : Analysis  Difficult to analyze  T heorem 5.1  New

Quadratic Probing: Analysis

Quadratic Probin g : Analysis  Difficult to analyze  T heorem 5.1  New element
Quadratic Probin g : Analysis  Difficult to analyze  T heorem 5.1  New element

Difficult to analyze Theorem 5.1

New element can always be inserted into a table that is at least half empty and TableSize is prime

Otherwise, may never find an empty slot, even is one exists

Ensure table never gets half full

If close, then expand it

Quadratic Probin g  May cause “secondary clustering”  Deletion  Emptying slots can break
Quadratic Probin g  May cause “secondary clustering”  Deletion  Emptying slots can break

Quadratic Probing

Quadratic Probin g  May cause “secondary clustering”  Deletion  Emptying slots can break probe
Quadratic Probin g  May cause “secondary clustering”  Deletion  Emptying slots can break probe

May cause “secondary clustering”

Deletion

Emptying slots can break probe sequence and could cause find stop prematurely

Lazy deletion

Differentiate between empty and deleted slot

When finding skip and continue beyond deleted slots

If you hit a non-deleted empty slot, then stop find procedure returning not found

May need compaction at some time

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

39

Quadratic Probing:

Implementation

Quadratic Probing: Implementation Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 40
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 40
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 40
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 40
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 40

Quadratic Probing:

Implementation

Quadratic Probing: Implementation Lazy deletion Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 41
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Lazy deletion Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 41
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Lazy deletion Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 41
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Lazy deletion Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 41
Lazy deletion
Lazy deletion

Quadratic Probing:

Implementation

Quadratic Probing: Implementation Ensure table size is prime Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 42
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Ensure table size is prime Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 42
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Ensure table size is prime Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 42
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Ensure table size is prime Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 42
Ensure table size is prime
Ensure table
size is prime

Quadratic Probing:

Implementation

Quadratic Probing: Implementation Find Skip DELETED; No duplicates Quadratic probe sequence (really) Cpt S 223. School
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Find Skip DELETED; No duplicates Quadratic probe sequence (really) Cpt S 223. School
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Find Skip DELETED; No duplicates Quadratic probe sequence (really) Cpt S 223. School
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Find Skip DELETED; No duplicates Quadratic probe sequence (really) Cpt S 223. School
Find Skip DELETED; No duplicates Quadratic probe sequence (really)
Find
Skip DELETED;
No duplicates
Quadratic probe
sequence (really)

Quadratic Probing:

Implementation

Quadratic Probing: Implementation Insert No duplicates Remove No deallocation needed Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Insert No duplicates Remove No deallocation needed Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Insert No duplicates Remove No deallocation needed Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Insert No duplicates Remove No deallocation needed Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
Quadratic Probing: Implementation Insert No duplicates Remove No deallocation needed Cpt S 223. School of EECS,
Insert
Insert
No duplicates
No duplicates
Remove
Remove
No deallocation needed
No deallocation
needed

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

44

Double Hashing: keep two hash functions h 1 and h 2

Double Hashing: keep two hash functions h 1 and h 2  Use a second hash
Double Hashing: keep two hash functions h 1 and h 2  Use a second hash
Double Hashing: keep two hash functions h 1 and h 2  Use a second hash
Double Hashing: keep two hash functions h 1 and h 2  Use a second hash

Use a second hash function for all tries I

other than 0:

f(i) = i * h 2 (x)

Good choices for h 2 (x) ?

Should never evaluate to 0

h 2 (x) = R – (x mod R)

R is prime number less than TableSize

Previous example with R=7

h 0 (49) = (h(49)+f(0)) mod 10 = 9 (X)

*

h 1 (49) = (h(49)+1 (7 – 49 mod 7)) mod 10 = 6

f(1)
f(1)

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

45 45

Double Hashin g Example Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 46
Double Hashin g Example Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 46

Double Hashing Example

Double Hashin g Example Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 46
Double Hashin g Example Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 46
Double Hashin g Example Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 46
Double Hashin g : Analysis  Imperative that TableSize is prime  E . g
Double Hashin g : Analysis  Imperative that TableSize is prime  E . g

Double Hashing: Analysis

Double Hashin g : Analysis  Imperative that TableSize is prime  E . g .,
Double Hashin g : Analysis  Imperative that TableSize is prime  E . g .,

Imperative that TableSize is prime

E.g., insert 23 into previous table

Empirical tests show double hashing close to random hashing

Extra hash function takes extra time to compute

… Probin g Techniques - review i 0 t h t ry 1 s t try
… Probin g Techniques - review i 0 t h t ry 1 s t try

Probing Techniques - review

… Probin g Techniques - review i 0 t h t ry 1 s t try

i

… Probin g Techniques - review i 0 t h t ry 1 s t try

0 th try

1 st try

2 nd try

3 rd try

i

Quadratic probing: 0 th try 1 st try 2 n d try 3 rd try
Quadratic probing:
0 th try
1 st try
2 n
d try
3
rd
try

i

Linear probing:

try 1 st try 2 n d try 3 rd try … i Linear probing: Double
Double hashing*: 0 th try 2 nd try 1 st try 3 rd try …
Double hashing*:
0 th try
2 nd try
1 st try
3 rd try

*(determined by a second hash function)

48

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

Rehashing  Increases the size of the hash table when load factor becomes “too high”
Rehashing  Increases the size of the hash table when load factor becomes “too high”

Rehashing

Rehashing  Increases the size of the hash table when load factor becomes “too high” (defined
Rehashing  Increases the size of the hash table when load factor becomes “too high” (defined

Increases the size of the hash table when load factor becomes “too high” (defined by a cutoff) Anticipating that prob(collisions) would become higher

Typically expand the table to twice its size (but still prime)

Need to reinsert all existing elements into new hash table

Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S
Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S

Rehashing Example

Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S 223.
Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S 223.
Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S 223.
Rehashing Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S 223.

Insert 23

h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29

Rehashing
Rehashing
Example Insert 23 h(x) = x mod 17 λ = 0.29 Rehashing Cpt S 223. School

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

h(x) = x mod 7 λ = 0.57

λ = 0.71

50

Rehashing Analysis  Rehashing takes time to do N insertions  Th ere f ore
Rehashing Analysis  Rehashing takes time to do N insertions  Th ere f ore

Rehashing Analysis

Rehashing Analysis  Rehashing takes time to do N insertions  Th ere f ore s
Rehashing Analysis  Rehashing takes time to do N insertions  Th ere f ore s

Rehashing takes time to do N insertions Therefore should do it infrequently

Specifically

Must have been N/2 insertions since last rehash Amortizing the O(N) cost over the N/2 prior insertions yields only constant additional time per insertion

Rehashing Implementation  When to rehash  When load factor reaches some threshold (e.g,. λ
Rehashing Implementation  When to rehash  When load factor reaches some threshold (e.g,. λ

Rehashing Implementation

Rehashing Implementation  When to rehash  When load factor reaches some threshold (e.g,. λ ≥
Rehashing Implementation  When to rehash  When load factor reaches some threshold (e.g,. λ ≥

When to rehash

When load factor reaches some threshold (e.g,. λ 0.5), OR

When an insertion fails

Applies across collision handling schemes

Rehashing for Chainin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 53
Rehashing for Chainin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 53

Rehashing for Chaining

Rehashing for Chainin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 53
Rehashing for Chainin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 53
Rehashing for Chainin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 53

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

53

Rehashing for Quadratic Probing

Rehashing for Quadratic Probin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 54
Rehashing for Quadratic Probin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 54
Rehashing for Quadratic Probin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 54
Rehashing for Quadratic Probin g Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU 54

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

54

Hash Tables in C++ STL  Hash tables not part of the C++ Standard Library
Hash Tables in C++ STL  Hash tables not part of the C++ Standard Library

Hash Tables in C++ STL

Hash Tables in C++ STL  Hash tables not part of the C++ Standard Library 
Hash Tables in C++ STL  Hash tables not part of the C++ Standard Library 

Hash tables not part of the C++ Standard Library

Some implementations of STL have hash tables (e.g., SGIs STL)

hash_set

hash_map

Hash Set in STL #include <hash_set> struct eqstr { bool operator()(const char* s1, const char*
Hash Set in STL #include <hash_set> struct eqstr { bool operator()(const char* s1, const char*

Hash Set in STL

Hash Set in STL #include <hash_set> struct eqstr { bool operator()(const char* s1, const char* s2)
Hash Set in STL #include <hash_set> struct eqstr { bool operator()(const char* s1, const char* s2)

#include <hash_set>

struct eqstr

{

bool operator()(const char* s1, const char* s2) const

{

return strcmp(s1, s2) == 0;

}

};

void lookup(const hash_set<const char*, hash<const char*>, eqstr>& Set, const char* word)

{

hash_set<const char*, hash<const char*>, eqstr>::const_iterator it = Set.find(word); cout << word << ": " << (it != Set.end() ? "present" : "not present") << endl;

}

int main()

{

Key
Key
Hash fn
Hash fn
Key equality test
Key equality test

hash_set<const char*, hash<const char*>, eqstr> Set; Set.insert("kiwi"); lookup(Set, “kiwi");

}

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

56

Hash Map in STL #i nclud e <h as h _map > struct eqstr {
Hash Map in STL #i nclud e <h as h _map > struct eqstr {

Hash Map in STL

Hash Map in STL #i nclud e <h as h _map > struct eqstr { bool
Hash Map in STL #i nclud e <h as h _map > struct eqstr { bool

#include <hash_map>

struct eqstr

{

bool operator() (const char* s1, const char* s2) const

{

return strcmp(s1, s2) == 0;

}

};

Key
Key

Data

Hash fn
Hash fn
Key equality test
Key equality test

int main()

 

{

Internally

 

t

t

rea e

d

like

insert

(or overwrite if key already present)

}

hash_map<const char*, int, hash<const char*>, eqstr> months; months["january"] = 31; months["february"] = 28;

months["december"] = 31; cout << “january -> " << months[“january"] << endl;

Problem with Lar g e Tables  What if hash table is too large to
Problem with Lar g e Tables  What if hash table is too large to

Problem with Large Tables

Problem with Lar g e Tables  What if hash table is too large to store
Problem with Lar g e Tables  What if hash table is too large to store

What if hash table is too large to store in main memory?

Solution: Store hash table on disk

Minimize disk accesses

But…

Collisions require disk accesses

Rehashing requires a lot of disk accesses

Solution: Extendible Hashing
Solution: Extendible Hashing
Hash Table Applications  Symbol table in compilers  Accessing tree or graph nodes by
Hash Table Applications  Symbol table in compilers  Accessing tree or graph nodes by

Hash Table Applications

Hash Table Applications  Symbol table in compilers  Accessing tree or graph nodes by name
Hash Table Applications  Symbol table in compilers  Accessing tree or graph nodes by name

Symbol table in compilers

Accessing tree or graph nodes by name

E.g., city names in Google maps

Maintaining a transposition table in games

Remember previous game situations and the move taken (avoid re-computation)

Dictionary lookups

Spelling checkers

Natural language understanding (word sense)

Heavily used in text processing languages

E.g., Perl, Python, etc.

Summary  Hash tables support fast insert and search  O(1) average case performance 
Summary  Hash tables support fast insert and search  O(1) average case performance 

Summary

Summary  Hash tables support fast insert and search  O(1) average case performance  Deletion
Summary  Hash tables support fast insert and search  O(1) average case performance  Deletion

Hash tables support fast insert and search

O(1) average case performance

Deletion possible, but degrades performance

Not suited if ordering of elements is important

Many applications

Points to remember - Hash tables

Points to remember - Hash tables  Table size prime  Table size much larger than
Points to remember - Hash tables  Table size prime  Table size much larger than
Points to remember - Hash tables  Table size prime  Table size much larger than
Points to remember - Hash tables  Table size prime  Table size much larger than

Table size prime

Table size much larger than number of inputs (to maintain λ closer to 0 or < 0.5)

Tradeoffs between chaining vs. probing

Collision chances decrease in this order:

linear probing => quadratic probing => {random probing, double hashing} Rehashing required to resize hash table at a time when λ exceeds 0.5

Good for searching. Not good if there is some order implied by data.

Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

61