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4/9/2014

Diploma in Mechanical Engineering (Material)

JF 302 MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY 1


www.pis.edu.my

CLO 3 : Show various principles of materials testing


and material defects.

Week 10

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materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

non destructive tests

HARDNESS
Describe materials testing
Define mechanical properties

Hardness is the ability to withstand dents or scratches.

Describe destructive tests


Describe non destructive tests

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materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

Why are the top 10 strongest


materials on Earth?

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non destructive tests

Think critically 4.8

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

Why are the top 10 strongest


materials on Earth?

non destructive tests

Think critically 4.8

Wurtzite Boron Nitride


from valcanic residue

Lonsdaleite from
meteoroids

Diamond

Borazon (boron +
nitrogen)

Synthetic Rhenium
Diboride

Titanium Carbide
(ceramic materials)

Titanium Diboride

Zirconium Carbide

Boron Carbide

Alumina/ Aluminium
Oxide

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materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

HARDNESS TESTING
MACHINE

materials testing mechanical properties

Think critically 4.9

Knoop
Brinell
Vickers
Rockwell

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destructive tests

non destructive tests

Match the following indenters:-

The indenter is pressed into the


metal
Softer materials leave a deeper
indentation
Hardness Test methods :
Brinell Test
Vickers Test
Rockwell Test
Knoop Test
Shore Test

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

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non destructive tests

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

non destructive tests

BRINELL HARDNESS
TEST

Match the following indenters:Think critically 4.9

Knoop

Hardness is measured by pressing a hard steel ball into the surface of the test piece
using a known load.

Brinell

A steel ball indenter of (10, 5, 1mm) diameter, indent into the surface of a metal with
fixed load of 500kg (4.905kN), 1500kg (14.715kN) or 3000kg (29.43kN) and
remained for 10 to 15 seconds.

Vickers

Combination of load (P) and ball size (D) must be accurate to avoid distortion.

Rockwell

P = K where K is constant
D2
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materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

BRINELL HARDNESS
TEST

non destructive tests

BRINELL HARDNESS
TEST

P = K where K is constant
D2

Surface area of indentation with diameter d (mm) indented by ball indenter D (mm)
is given by the following formula :

Typical K values are:-

Area = D [ D - (D2 d2)] mm2


2
Brinell Hardness Number (HB) given by :
HB

=
=

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test load
surface area of indentation
2P
D [ D - (D2 d2) ]
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non destructive tests

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

VICKERS HARDNESS
TEST

Diamond pyramid (6000 HB) test indentor with an angle of 136, gives an indentation
that appears as a square. Indented with static loads for 10 to 15 minutes.
Static loads applied for materials used :
Materials
Steel and cast iron
Cuprum alloys
Pure cuprum, aluminium alloys
Pure aluminium
Lead (PB), tin (St) and tin alloys

Loads (kgf)
30
10
5
2.5
1

VICKERS HARDNESS
TEST

The Vickers Hardness Number (HV) given by the formula below :


HV
=
Test loads
Surface area of the indentation
=
F (kgf)
d2 / [2 sin / 2]
where = 136
= 2 F sin 68
2
d
=
1.8544 F
d2
F = test load (kg)
d = average length of diagonals (mm)

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Indicate the HV value for a steel with


d1= 183m and d2=209m.

materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

Think critically 4.10

d1= 183m and d2=209m.

d1 + d2
2
183 + 209
2
196m

196 x 10-3 mm

HV =
=
=

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destructive tests

Unloaded
Minor load applied
Major load applied
Loads were released

Think critically 4.10

1.8544 F
d2
1.8544 (30)
(196 x 10-3)2
1448HV/30

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non destructive tests

materials testing mechanical properties

ROCKWELL HARDNESS
TEST

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

non destructive tests

Indicate the HV value for a steel with


d =

materials testing mechanical properties

non destructive tests

destructive tests

non destructive tests

ROCKWELL HARDNESS
TEST

The indenters most commonly used are :


1. diamond cone with an apex angle of 120
2. hard steel ball by varies of diameter
Loads

d - the differentiate of indentation depth by P1 and P2

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Scale

Indenter

First

Major

Total

B (ball)

Hard steel ball 1.6mm

10

90

100

C (cone)

Diamond cone with apex angle of 120

10

140

150

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ROCKWELL HARDNESS
TEST

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non destructive tests

KNOOP HARDNESS
TEST

Principle :
To determine the hardness over very small areas or the hardness of certain microconstituents for identification purposes.
Loads
Scale

Indenter

First

Major

Total

B (ball)

Hard steel ball 1.6mm

10

90

100

C (cone)

Diamond cone with apex angle of 120

10

140

150

Requires the use of extremely low loads, careful surface preparation of the specimen
and measurement of indentation at higher magnification.

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KNOOP HARDNESS
TEST

Knoop indenter is a diamond ground to a pyramidal form that produces a diamondshaped indentation with the long and short diagonals by using 25g to 5kg of loads.

The indenter size is between 0.01 to 0.1mm, the length of the indent is seven times
longer than its width and almost 30 times bigger than its depth.
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materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

The Knoop Hardness Number (HK) given as the formula below :

The main disadvantages are the difficulty of using a


microscope to measure the indentation (with an
accuracy of 0.5 micrometre), and the time needed to
prepare the sample and apply the indenter.
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=
=

Test load (kgf)


Area of spread indentation (mm2)
P
CPL2
L
= length of indentation along its long axis
Cp
= correction factor related to the shape of the
= indenter, ideally 0.070279
P
= load
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non destructive tests

KNOOP HARDNESS
TEST

The advantages of the test are that only a very


small sample of material is required, and that it is
valid for a wide range of test forces.

non destructive tests

KNOOP HARDNESS
TEST

HK
It is suitable to test smaller and thinner specimen, brittle material such as gem stones,
carbide and glass, and to measure grain hardness in metal.

destructive tests

materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

SHORE HARDNESS
TEST

Durometer is the hardness tester for shore hardness test of a material.


It measures the depth of an indentation in the material created by a given force on a
standardized presser foot.
This depth is dependent on the hardness of the material, its visco-elastic properties,
the shape of the presser foot, and the duration of the test.

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SHORE HARDNESS
TEST

non destructive tests

IMPACT
Impact is the force or energy of a collision of two objects.
Toughness is a measurement of the amount of energy a
material can absorb before fracturing.

Method of measurement:
The basic test requires applying the force in a consistent manner, without shock, and
measuring the hardness (depth of the indentation).
If a timed hardness is desired, force is applied for the required time and then read.
The material under test should be a minimum of 6.4 mm (0.25 inches) thick.

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materials testing mechanical properties

destructive tests

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non destructive tests

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non destructive tests

IMPACT TEST

Match the correct type of impact test.


Think critically 4.11

Principle :
Striking a specimen with a controlled
pendulum and measuring the energy
absorbed in bending or breaking the
specimen.
The energy value indicates the
toughness of the material.

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materials testing mechanical properties

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Izod

Charpy

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IZOD IMPACT TEST

Match the correct type of impact test.

1.

Think critically 4.11

2.

Izod

3.
4.

Breaking by one blow from a


swinging hammer (with 162J of the
kinetic energy and 3.8m/s of
velocity).
A test piece gripped vertically at the
bottom.
The notch in the same plane as the
upper face of the grips.
The blow is struck at a fixed
position facing the notch.

Charpy

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CHARPY IMPACT TEST


1.

Breaking by one blow from a


swinging hammer (with 300J of the
kinetic energy and 5m/s of velocity).
The test piece is notched in the
middle.
The test piece is supported at each
end as a beam.
The test piece should be in
horizontal position, struck by the
hammer in the plane of symmetry of
the notch.

2.
3.
4.

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Effect of temperature to
impact toughness

It can be seen that at low temperatures the material is more brittle and
impact toughness is low. At high temperatures the material is more ductile
and impact toughness is higher.
The transition temperature is the boundary between brittle and ductile
behaviour.

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materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

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non destructive tests

TENSILE
Tensile indicates how the material will react to forces being
applied in tension.
A tensile test is a fundamental mechanical test where a
carefully prepared specimen is loaded in a controlled manner
while measuring the applied load and the elongation of the
specimen over some distance.

What are the properties that a tensile


test can determine?

Think critically 4.12

Modulus of elastic
Tensile strength

Hardness
Elastic limit
Yield strength
Reduction in area

Fracture

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Elongation

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non destructive tests

What are the properties that a tensile


test can determine?

materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

TENSILE TEST
SPECIMENS

Think critically 4.12

Modulus of elastic
Tensile strength
Fracture

Hardness
Elastic limit
Yield strength
Reduction in area
Elongation

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STRESS-STRAIN
GRAPH

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STRESS-STRAIN
GRAPH

Cup and Cone

Stress

The stress and strain initially increase with a linear


relationship (with no plastic deformation).

Gauge
length
Elastic
limit

In this region of the curve, when the stress is


reduced, the material will return to its original shape
(elastic deformation).

Necking
Limit of proportionality

Returns to original length


Gauge
length

The extension of a metal


is proportional to the
force up to the limit of
proportionality

The slope of the line in this region where stress is


proportional to strain and is called the modulus of
elasticity or Young's modulus.

Lower yield point

Load for force kN

Proportionality range

upper yield point

tensile strength

Gauge
length

Strain

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STRESS-STRAIN
GRAPH

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STRESS-STRAIN
GRAPH

Increasing of stress or load leads to some permanent


deformation in the specimen and the material is deformed
plastically.

The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or


the tensile strength, is the maximum
engineering stress level reached in a
tension test.

The material will not return to its original condition when


the load is removed.

The strength of a material is its ability


to withstand external forces without
breaking in necking phenomena.

The yield strength is defined as the stress required to


produce a small, amount of plastic deformation.
Lower yield point is the minimum stress required to
produce plastic deformation.

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materials testing mechanical properties

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STRESS-STRAIN
GRAPH
Fracture cup
material.

and

cone

of

destructive tests

non destructive tests

Draw a stress-strain graph for this


tensile test.

Think critically 4.13

The following data was obtained from a tensile test on a specimen of 10mm diameter and
gauge length 60mm.

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Draw a stress-strain graph for this


tensile test.

materials testing mechanical properties

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non destructive tests

Think critically 4.13

Describe creep and fatigue?

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