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Dyeingapplicationswith

reactivedyes

History of reactive dyes

Introductionofreactivedyes suchasProcion YellowR,BrilliantRed2BandBlue3GbyICIin


1956madeitsentryintothesyntheticdyestuffmarketinabigway

Thesedyeschemicallyreactedwiththefibres withtheformationofcovalentbondbetween
thedyeandthefibre andthereforetheirnameREACTIVEDye

Reactive dyes quality requirements

Shouldbepowderorliquiddyes

Shouldhaveexcellentstability

Shouldhavegoodsolubility

Lowtomediumsubstantivity

Goodcompatibility

Gooddiffusionandlevelling properties

Rapidfixation

Highdegreeoffixation

Excellentwashingfastness

Application of Reactive dyestuff

Applicationofthisdyestuffwasduetothefollowingfacts:

Physicaladsorptionofthewatersolubledyestuffsfromanaqueousmediumbythefibre byreversible
attachmenttoactivesitespresentinthefibre

Mechanicalretentionofthewaterinsolubledyesinthefibre byapplicationinvolvingtemporary
solubilization beforeapplying

Dissolutionofthedyestuffinthefibre

Reactivity and affinity of this dye

Reactivityofthedyeisrelatedtofacts ifthereactivityofthedyeisincreasedconsiderably,therateof
reactionwiththefibre increases,dyeingrateisfast

However,iftherateofhydrolysisofthedyeincreases,itleadstodeactivationofapartofthedye,
resultinginwastageofthedye

Ifthereactivityofthedyeisdecreased,theextentofhydrolysiscanbereducedconsiderably,butthis
wouldresultinslowrateofreactionwiththefibre

Howevertheultimateobjectiveofdyeingistoreactasmucho9fthedyeaspossiblewiththefibre and
minimise thehydrolysisofthedye.

How it happens
Thisisachievedinpracticeintwostages
1.
dyingshouldbestartedinneutralmediumwhenthedyedoesnotreacteitherwiththefibre ofwith
water
2.

Glaubers saltorcommonsaltshouldbeaddedtoexhaustthedyeontothefibre asmuchispossible

3.Thenfinallythefixingofthedyeisdonebytheadditionofthealkali(sodaash)asthedyeisalready
exhaustedintothefibre,willnotbeavailableforreactingwithwater
4.

Itisalreadyknownthatthehydrolysed dyecannotfurtherreactwiththefibre,butduetoaffinity
forces,itisabsorbedbythefibre andretainedinit.

Stripping
Duringthesubsequentwashingorsoapingthesubstantialhydrolysed dyegetsstrippedintothe
washingbaththusreducingthewashfastnessofthedyedfibre.
Iftheaffinityoftheoriginaldyeisreducedtoaverylowvalue,thisproblemcanbeavoided,however
iftheaffinityistoolow,exhaustionofthedyepriortofixationcannotbeachievedsubstantially.
Ifthedyeaffinityishigh,thenitisverydifficulttoremovethehydrolysed dyesinceitisabsorbedand
retainedinthefibre byfairlystrongaffinityforces
Thusinactualpracticelowaffinitydyesareselected

Process applied for dyeing


Dyeingcanbecarriedoutby1.Batchdyeingprocesses
2.Continuousdyeingprocess
Batchdyeingprocesseskeepinginmindthefollowingpoints:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

ThepHofthedyebath
Thetemperatureofthedyeing
Theconcentrationoftheelectrolyte
Thetimeofdyeing
Theliquorratio

2. Continuous dyeing processes


Reactionofdyewiththefibre inthepresenceofwaterandalkaliinashorttimeatelevatedtemperatures
takeplace
TherateisfurtherincreasedifthepHishigh
Thisisthebasisofcontinuousdyeingprocesstobepossiblyusedwithreactivedyes
Dependingonthereactivityofthedye twoprocessesarepossiblesinglepaddinganddoublepadding

Single padding

Insinglepadding thepadliquorcontainsthedyeandthealkali,whichdoesnothydrolyse thedyeatroom


temperature

Forexample coldbrandreactivedyessodiumbicarbonateisthepreferredalkali,whichonheating
producesstrongalkali sodiumcarbonate

Hotbrandreactivedyes sodiumcarbonateisaddedtothepadliquor forpadbicarbonateindryprocess

Pad(alkali)drysteamprocesswithbicarbonateorcarbonate

Dye solubility in presence of Alkali

Goodsolubilityofthereactivedyeshelpsinpreparationofhighlystableandsolventfree
solutionsofthedyestuff

Highsolubilityatroomtemperature

Noriskofdyebeingdegraded

Easydyebath preparation

Double padding

Inthisprocessthefabricispaddedwiththedyesolutionandrepadded(withorwithout
intermediatedrying)withanalkalisolutioncontainingahighconcentrationofsaltto
minimise bleedingofthedyefromtheclothintoalkalibathandthenitissteamed

Thewastageoftheresidualliquorattheendofpaddingislow

Fiber reactive dyes

Fiber reactivedyes areindisputablythebestchoicefordyeinganycellulosefiber includingcotton,


rayon,hemp and flax.They'resimplertouse,morefaderesistantandgenerallysaferthandirectdyes,
vatdyes,napthol dyesandallpurposedyes

Fiber Reactivedyescanalsoproduceexceptionalresultson silk (whenused properly)withoutthe


drawbacksofotherdyestraditionallyusedonsilk includingaciddyes,naturaldyesandvatdyes.

Fiber reactivedyesoffer superioreaseofuse and vivid,permanentcolors yettheystillcleanupeasily


withwater.Allwhilebeingnontoxic,safeforhomeuseandactually fun toworkwith.

How much reactive dyes are fixed

Monoreactivedye Dyefixationis75%anddyehydrolysisis25%

CIBACRONDYES Padbatch9099%

Paddry padsteam 8595%

Padthermofix 8292%

Padhumidityfix 8292%

Padsteam7090%

How important is affinity factor

Ifthereactivedyechosenhaslow/mediumaffinity,itwillshowthefollowing:

1.

Goodpenetrationandlevelling

2.

Excellentwashoffandwetfastnessproperties

3.

Lowriskoftailing

Pad batch dyeing


Merits

Modestinvestmentlayout

Suitableforsmallandfairlylargebatches

Verysimpleworkingconditions,Limitedmanpowerrequired

Lowenergyconsumption

Lowerwaterconsumptionthanexhaustdyeing

Goodpenetrationandleveldyeing,Good reproducibility

Suitablefordyeingknitgoods
Demerits

Batchprocess

Higherdyeconsumptionthan paddrypadsteam

Moderatecoverageofdeadandimmaturecotton

Continuous method( Pad steam)


Continuousmethodmainlyusedfordyeingfabricswithhighliquorretention,suchcorduroy,becauseno
intermediateddryingisrequired
Merits
Nomigrationproblems

Reducedenergycosts

Goodappearanceofthedyedfabrics

Nodetrimentalinfluenceonfastness

Demerits

Higheramountsofdyearerequiredtoproducedeepshadescomparedtothepadbatchorpaddrypad
steamprocesses

Worthwhilefordyeingdeepshadeswhenthehigherdyecostsareatleastbalancedbysavingsinenergy
andgainsinproductivity

Pad dry- pad steam process


Merits

Economicalprocessforlargeproductionruns

Stilleconomicalforfairlysmallruns(>5000m)onmodernequipment

Highcolouryield

Verygoodappearanceofthedyedfabric

Goodreproducibility

Nodetrimentalinfluenceonlightand/orchlorinefastness

Demerits

Shadechangesaretimeconsuming

Lesssuitablefordyeingfabricsproneto migrationproblemsordifficulttodry(pilefabrics)

Pad Thermofix process


Merits

Goodcolouryieldonfabricandcoverageofdeadfabric

Verygoodlabtobulkreproducibility

Goodbatchtobatchreproducibility

Moderatesoilingof machinery

Noneedforachemicalpadliquor
Demerits

Notrecommendedfordyeingregeneratedcellulose

Possiblespecky appearanceofthe dyedfabric

Anegativeinfluenceonthefabrichandleispossible

Dangerofyellowingofthesubstrate

Lowerlight/chlorinefastnesslevel

Theprocessrequiresurea

Cotton dyeing with Reactive dyes

Cottonfabric afterpretreatmentse.g desizing,scouring&bleachingcanbedyedusingthefollowing


recipe:

ReactiveDyesX%
Sequesteringagent0.5G/L
Wettingagent0.10.5G/L
Antcreasingagent0.52.0G/L
Salt1080G/L
Soda220G/L
Temperature6080Degree
Dyeingtime 60minute.

Whenthecottonfabricdyeingiscomplete,thedyeliquorisdrainoff. Thefabriciswashedwithhot
waterat40degreec&thenwithcoldwater.Againwashthedyedfabricwith13G/Lsoapordetergent
at60degree 80degreecforatleast10minutes.Thendrainoffthewashingliquor.Againwashthe
dyedfabricwithhotwater&thenwithcoldwater.
Finally,thedyedfabricsistakenoutfromthemachine,hydroextuct thefabricanddrythefabricpassing
throughanyotherdryingmachine.