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Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives


Learning Objectives
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives
Brake Test
TESTINGTESTING
TESTING
TESTINGTESTING
Swinburnes Test
Advantages of Swinburnes
Test

OF D.C.OF D.C.
OF D.C.
OF D.C.OF D.C.

Main Disadvantages
Regenerative or
Hopkinsons Test

MACHINESMACHINES
MACHINES
MACHINESMACHINES

Alternative Connections for


Hopkinsons Test
Merits of Hopkinsons Test
Retardation or Running
Down Test
Fields Test for Series Motors
Objective Test
Questions

and

Answers

on

D.C. Motors.

----------------------- Page 2----------------------1092

Electrical Technology

31.1 Brak31.1 Brakee TTestest


31.1 Brake Test
31.1 Brak31.1 Brakee TTestest
It is a direct method and consists of applying a brake to a water-cooled p
ulley mounted on the motor
shaft as shown in Fig. 31.1. The brake band is fixed with the help of
wooden blocks gripping the pulley. One end of the band is fixed to
earth via a spring balance S and the other is connected to a suspended weight W1. The motor is running and the load on the motor
is adjusted till it carries its full load current.
Let
W1 = suspended weight in kg
W
= reading on spring balance in kg-wt
2
The net pull on the band due to friction at the pulley is
( W W ) kg. wt. or 9.81 ( W W ) newton.
1
2
1
2
If
and

R
N

=
=
Motor shaft
Then , shaft torque Tsh
=
Motor output power =

radius of the pulley in metre


motor or pulley speed in r.p.s.
developed by the motor
(W W ) R kg m = 9.81 ( W W ) R N m
1
2
1

Tsh 2 N watt
2 9.81 N ( W W ) R watt
1
2

61.68 N ( W W ) R watt
1
2

Let V = suly voltage ; I = full load current taken by the motor.


Then, inut ower = VI watt
61.68
(

)
Outut
N W1
W2 R

=
=
Input
VI
Te simple brake test described above can be used for small motors
only, because in te case of large motors, it is difficult to dissipate te larg
e
amount of eat generated at te brake.
Anoter simple metod of measuring motor output is by te use of
poney brake one form of wic is sown in Fig. 31.2 (a). A rope is wound
round te pulley and its two ends are attaced to two spring balances S1
and S . Te tension of te rope can be adjusted wit te elp of swivels.
Fig. 31.1
2
Obviously, te force acting tangentially on te pulley is equal to te difference between te readings of te two spring balances. If R is te pulley radius,
te torque at te pulley is T
= (S

s
S )R. If (= 2N) is the angular velocity of the ulley, then
1
2

motor outut = T
) R att.

= 2 N (S

S )R m kg. t. = 9.81 2N (S

sh
1

The motor inut may be measured as shon in Fig. 31.2 (b). Efficiency may,
as usual, be found by
using the relation = output/input.
Example 31.1. In a brake test te effective load on te branc pulley was
38.1 kg, te effective
diameter of te pulley 63.5 cm and speed 12 r.p.s.
Te motor took
49 A at 220 V.
Calculate te
output power and te efficiency at tis load.
Solution. Effective load ( W W ) = 38.1 kg. t ; radius = 0.635/2 = 0.317
5 m
1
2
Shaft torque = 38.1 0.3175 kg m = 9.81 38.1 0.3175 = 118.6 N m
Poer outut = torque angular velocity in rad/s = 118.6 2 12 = 8,945 W
8, 945
No, motor inut = 49 220 W

Motor =
= 0.8
3 or 83%
49 220
----------------------- Page 3----------------------Testing of D

.C. Macines

1093
Fig. 31.2 (a)

Fig.

31.2 (b)
Example 31.2(a).
Te following readings are obtained wen doing a loa
d test on a d.c. sunt
motor using a brake drum :
Spring balance reading
10 kg and 35 kg
Diameter of te
drum
40 cm
Speed of te motor
950 r.p.m.
Applied volta
ge
200 V
Line current
30 A
Calculate te output power and te efficiency.
(Electrical Engin
eering, Madras Univ. 1986)
Solution. Force on te drum surface F = (35 10) = 25 kg t = 25 9.8 N
Drum radius
R = 20 cm = 0.2 m ; Torque Tsh = F R = 25 9.8 0.2
= 49 N
N = 950/60 = 95/6 r..s. ; = 2 (95/6) = 99.5 rad/s

Motor outut
Motor inut

=
=

Tsh att = 49 99.5 = 4,876 W


200 30 = 6000 W ; = 4876/6000 = 0.813 or 81.3

Example 31.2(b). In a brake-test, on a d.c. sunt motor, te tensions on t


e two sides of te brake
were 2.9 kg and 0.17 kg. Radius of te pulley was 7 cm. Input current was 2 am
p at 230 volts. Te
motor speed was 1500 rpm.
Find te torque, power-output and efficiency.
(Baratiar Univ. April 1998)
Fig. 31.3. D.C. Sunt Motor Brake Test

Solution.

Net force on pulley

= 2.90 0.17 = 2.73 kg


= 2.73 9.81 = 26.78 N

Page 4
1094

Electrical Technology
Net torque = Force Radius

= 26.78 7/100
= 1.8746 N m

Poer outut

= Torque Radians/sec.
= 1.8746 2 1500/60
= 294 atts

Efficiency
% efficiency

= 294/(230 2) = 0.639
= 63.9%

31.2.31.2. SinburSinburnenes*s* TTestest (or (or No load No load TTestest or


or Losses Losses Method) Method)
31.2. Sinburnes* Test (or No load Test or Losses Method)
31.2.31.2. SinburSinburnenes*s* TTestest (or (or No load No load TTestest or
or Losses Losses Method) Method)
It is a simle method in hich losses are
measured searately and from their knoledge,
efficiency at any desired load can be redetermined
in advance. The only running test needed is no load
test. Hoever, this test is alicable to those
machines in hich flux is ractically constant
i.e. shunt and comound ound machines.
The machine is running as a motor on no load at
its rated voltage i.e. voltage stamed on the name
late. The seed is adjusted to the rated seed ith
the
hel
of shunt
regulator
as shon
in
Fig. 31.4.
The no load current I0
is measured by the
Shunt regulator
ammeter A
is given by ammeter A .
hereas shunt field current I
The no load armature current is
1
sh
2
(I0 Ish) or Ia0.
Let, suly voltage
=
V
no load inu
t
=
VI0 att

Poer inut to armature


=
V (I I ) ;
Poer inut to s
hunt
=
VI
0
sh
sh
No load oer inut to armature sulies the folloing :
(i) Iron losses in core
(ii) friction loss
(iii) indage loss and
2
2
(iv) armature Cu loss, (I
I ) R or I
R
0
sh
a
a0 a

In calculating armature Cu loss, hot resistance of armature should be used.


A stationary measure
ment of armature circuit resistance at the room temerature of, say, 15C is made
by assing current through
the armature from a lo voltage d.c. suly [Fig. 31.5 (a)].
Fig. 31.4
Fig. 31.5
*
Sir James Sinburne (1858 1958) made outstanding contributions to the deve
loment of electric lams,
electric machines and synthetic resins.
Page 5
Testi
ng of D.C. Machines

1095

Then, the hot resistance, alloing a temerature rise of 50C is found thus :
1
65
+

R
= R (1 + 15 ) ; R
= (1 + 65 ), R
= R

0
15
0
0
65
0
65
15
1
15
+

0
234.5 + 65

Tking = 1/234.5, we hve


= 1.2 R
(pprox.*)
0
15

= R
65

15

234.5 + 15

If we subtrct from the totl input the no-lod rmture Cu loss, then we
get constnt losses.
Constnt losses

W
c

= VI (I
I ) R
0
0
sh

a
Knoing the constant losses of the machine, its efficiency at any other lo
ad can be determined as given
belo. Let I = load current at hich efficiency is required.
Then, armature current is
Ia = I Ish
...if machine is motoring
= I + Ish
...if machine is generating
EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor
Efficiency hen running as a motor
EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor
Inut = VI,

2
Armature Cu loss = I R = (I I
a a
Constant losses
...found above

= W
c

2
) R
sh
a

inut losses

2
VI ( I I

) R

sh
a
c
Total losses = (I I
VI

s

) R + W ;
a
c

input

EfEffficienciciencyy wen wen r runningunning as as a a genera generatorto


r
Efficiency wen running as a generator
EfEffficienciciencyy wen wen r runningunning as as a a genera generatorto
r

2
) R ; Constant loss =

Output = VI ; Armature, Cu loss = (I + I


...found above

s

a
output

VI
2

Total losses = (I + I
2

VI + ( I + I

)
s

R
a

+ W

) R + W ; = output + losses
s

31.3.31.3. AdvAdvantages of Swinburantages of Swinburneness TTestest


31.3.
Advantages of Swinburnes Test
31.3.31.3. AdvAdvantages of Swinburantages of Swinburneness TTestest
1.
It is convenient and economical because power required to test a lar
ge macine is small i.e. only
no-load input power.
2.
Te efficiency can be predetermined at any load because constant-los
ses are known.
31.31.4.4. Main DisadvantagesMain Disadvantages
31.4.
Main Disadvantages
31.31.4.4. Main DisadvantagesMain Disadvantages
1. No account is taken of te cange in iron losses from no-load to full
-load. At full-load, due to
armature reaction, flux is distorted wic increases te iron losses in some cas
es by as muc as 50%.
2.
As te test is on no-load, it is impossible to know weter commutat
ion would be satisfactory at
full-load and weter te temperature rise would be witin te specified limits.
Example 31.3. A 220 V, d.c. sunt motor at no load takes a current of 2.5
A. Te resistances of
te armature and sunt field are 0.8 and 200 respectively. Estimate the efficie
ncy of the motor

when the input current is 20 A.

State precisely the assumptions made.


(Electri

cal Technology, Kerala Univ. 1986)


Solution. No-load input = 220 2.5 = 550 
This input meets all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss and con
stant losses.
Ish = 220/200 = 1.1 A. No-load arm current, Ia0 = 2.5 1.1 = 1.4 A
*
The armature resistance is found to decrease slightly ith increasing arma
ture current as shon in Fig. 31.5
(b). This is due to the fact that brush contact resistance is inversely r
oortional to the armature current.
Page 6
1096

Electrical Technology
2
No load armature Cu loss = I

R = 1.4
a0 a

2
0.8 = 1.6 W

Constant losses = 550 1.6 = 548.4 W


When inut current is 20 A
I

= 32 1.1 = 30.9 A ; Armature Cu loss = 30.9

0.8 = 764 W
a
Total loss = 764 + 548.4 = 1312 W (arox.) ; Inut = 220 20 = 4,400 W
Outut = 4,400 1,312 = 3,088 W ; Efficiency = (3088/4400) 100 = 70.2%
In the above calculations, it has been assumed that :
1. mechanical losses remain constant even through motor seed changes from
no load to the given
load.
2. effect of armature reaction on main ole flux ith a consequent change
in iron losses has been
neglected.
3. decrease in flux due to increase in shunt resistance by heating has bee
n neglected.
Examle 31.4.
When running on no load, a 400 V shunt motor takes 5 A
. Armature resistance
is 0.5 and field resistance 200 . Find the output of the motor and efficiency w
hen running on fullload and taking a current of 50 A.
Also, find the percentage change in
speed from no-load to fullload.
(Electro Me
chanics, Allahabad Univ. 1991)
Solution. No-load input = 400 5 = 2,000 
This input goes to meet all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss
and constant losses.
I
= 400/200 = 2 A ; No-load I = 5 2 = 3 A
sh
a
2
No load arm. Cu loss
= 3 0.5 = 4.5 W ; Constant losses = 2,000 4.
5 = 1,995.5 W
When line current is 50 A
2
Ia = 50 2 = 48 A ; Arm. Cu loss = 48
0.5 =
1,152 W
Total loss on F.L.
= 1,152 + 1,995.5 = 3,147.5 W ; Inut = 50 400

= 20,000 W
No,
= 376 V

Outut
=
F.L. efficiency
=
Eb 1 =
N 1

20,000 3,147.5 = 16,852.5 W = 16.8 kW


16,852.5/20,000 = 0.8426 or 84.26%
400 (3 0.5) = 398.5 V ; Eb2 = 400 (48 0.5)
Eb1

398.5
=

N 1 N 2

22.5
=

= 0.0598
N 2

Eb2

376

N 2

37

ercentage change in seed = 5.98

Examle 31.5.
The no load test of a 44.76 kW, 220 V, d.c. shunt mot
or gave the folloing
figures:
Inut current = 13.25 A ; field current = 2.55 A ; resistance of armature
at 75C = 0.032 and
brush drop = 2 V.
Estimate the full-load current and efficiency.
(Electrical En
gineering, Madras Univ. 1987)
Solution. No-load Condition
No-load input = 220 13.25 = 2915  ; Armature current = 13.25 2.55 = 10.7
A
2
Armature Cu loss
= 10.7 0.032 = 3.6 W
Loss due to brush dro
= 2 10.7 = 21.4 W
Variable loss = 21.4 + 3.6 = 25 W , Constant losses W = 2915 25 = 2890 W
e
c
Full load Condition
If I is the full load armature current, then full load motor inut curren
t is (I + 2.55) A.
a
a
F.L. motor oer inut = 220 (I + 2.55) W
a
This inut must be equal to the sum of
(i) outut = 44.76 kW = 44,760 W
(ii) W = 2,890 W
c
2
(iii) brush loss = 2Ia att
032 Ia

(iv) Arm. Cu loss = 0.

Page 7
Testing o
f D.C. Machines

1097

220 (I

+ 2.55)
a

= 44,750 + 2,890 + 2I + 0.032 I


a

a
2
or

0.032I
a

218 I + 47,090 = 0
a
2
218

or

218

4 0.032 47, 090

= 223.5 A
a
Line inut current I
F.L. oer inut
F.L. efficiency

2 0.032
= Ia + Ish = 223.5 + 2.55 = 226 A
= 226 220 = 49,720 W
= 44,760/49,720 = 0.9 or 90%.

Examle 31.6.
A 200 V, shunt motor develos an outut of 17.158 kW h
en taking 20.2 kW.
The field resistance is 50 and armature resistance 0.06 . hat is the efficiency
and power input
when the output is 7.46 k ?
(Elect. Machines-I,
Aligarh Muslim Univ. 1989)
Solution. In the first case
Output
=
20,200 
Total losses
=
,200/200 = 101 A
I
=
sh

(I

17,158 

Input

20,200 17,158 = 3,042 W ; Inut current = 20


200/50 = 4 A ; I

= 101 4 = 97 A
a

2
= 97 0.06 = 564.5 W
= 3,042 564.5 = 2,477.5 = 2478 W (arox.)

Armature Cu loss

Constant losses
In the second case :
Let,
I
+ 4) A

Inut current =

= armature current
a

a
inut oer

No,

2
= outut + I R + constant losses
a a
2
= 7,460 + 0.06 I + 2,478
a

200(I + 4)
a
2
0.06I
200I + 9,138 = 0
a
a

or

2
200

0.12

Ia
= 3,283.3 A or 46 A

200

4 0.06 9,138
2 0.06

200 194
=

We ill reject the larger value because it corresonds to unstable oerati


on of the motor. Hence, take
I = 46 A.
a

Inut current

100
= 74.6%

Poer inut

I = Ia + Ish = 46 + 4 = 50 A
50 200
=

= 10 kW
1000

7, 460

=
10

, 000
Example 31.7. A 200-V, 14.92 kW dc sunt motor wen tested by te Swinbur
ne metod gave
te following results :

Running ligt : armature current was 6.5 A and field current 2.2 A.
Wit te armature locked,
te current was 70 A wen a potential difference of 3 V was applied to te brus
es.
Estimate te
efficiency of te motor wen working under full-load conditions.
(Electri
cal Engg.-I, Bombay Univ. 1985)
Solution. No-load input current = 6.5 + 2.2 = 8.7 A
No-load power input
= 200 8.7 = 1,740 W
No-load input equals Cu losses and stray losses.
Field Cu loss
= 200 2.2 = 440 W
2
Armature Cu loss
= 6.5 0.04286 = 1.8 W
( R = 3/70 = 0.04286 )
a

Constant losses
= 1,740 1.8 = 1738 W
We ill assume that constant losses are the same at full load also.
Let,
Ia = full load armature current
Page 8
1098

Electrical Technology
F.L. armature Cu loss

2
0.04286 Ia W ; Constant losses

= 1,738 W
F.L. total loss =
F.L. outut
=

+ 2.2) W

2
1,738 + 0.04286 Ia
14,920 W ; F.L. inut = 200 (I

a
inut =

We kno,

outut + losses

2
or

200 I

+ 440

14,920 + 1,738 + 0.04286 I

a
a
2
or

0.04286 I

200 I
a

+ 16,218 = 0
a

Inut current =
F.L. oer inut
=
=

I = 82.5 A
a

82.5 + 2.2 = 84.7 A


200 84.7 A = 16,940 W
14,920 100/16,940 = 88%

Example 31.8. In a test on a d.c. sunt generator wose full-load output i


s 200 kW at 250 V, te
following figures were obtained :
(a) Wen running ligt as a motor at full speed, te line current was 36
A, te field current
12 A, and te supply voltage 250.
(b) Wit te macine at rest, a p.d. of 6 V produced a current of 400 A
troug te armature
circuit. Explain ow tese results may be utilised to obtain te efficiency of
generator at full-load

and alf-load.

Neglect brus voltage drop.

Solution. At no-load :
I =
a
Armature Cu loss
No-load input
Constant losses
At full load :
Outut
800 A ; Ish = 12 A

F.L. armature current

=
=
=

36 12 = 24 A ; R = 6/400 = 0.015
a
2
24 0.015 = 8.64 watt
total losses in machine = 250 36 = 9,000 
9,000 8.64 = 8,991.4 W

200,000 W ; Outut current = 200,000/250 =

= 800 + 12 = 812 A
2
F.L. armature Cu losses = 812
0.015 = 9890 W

200, 000 100

F.L. total losses = 9890 + 8,991.4 = 18881 W


= 91.4%

=
20

0, 000 + 18, 881


At alf-load :

Output

100,000 W ; Output current = 100,000/250 =

400 + 12 = 412 A

400 A
I

2
2
I R = 412 0.0

15 = 2,546 W
a

a a

100, 000 100


Total losses
= 89.6%

8,991.4 + 2,546 = 11,537 W

111, 537
Example 31.9. A 250-V, 14.92
% and a speed of
700 r.p.m. wen delivering
tance of its sunt field
Determine the efficiency and speed
he mains.

kW sunt motor as a maximum efficiency of 88


80% of its rated output. Te resis
is 100 .
when the motor draws a current of 78 A from t

Full-load output
= 14,920 
80% of F.L. output
= 0.8 14.920 = 11,936  ; = 0.88
Input = 11,936/0.88 = 13,564 W
Total losses
= 13,564 11,936 = 1,628 W
As efficiency is maximum at this load, the variable loss is equal to const
ant losses.
2
2

W
= I R = 1,628/2

I R = 814
W
c
a a
a a
Solution.

No,

5 2.5 = 51.75 A

inut current

=
=

I
sh

Page 9

13,564/250 = 54.25 A
250/100 = 2.5 A

I = 54.2
a

Testing
of D.C. Machines

1099
2

51.75

814

R = 814/51.75 = 0.30

45
a

hen input current is 78 A


2

2
I

= 75.5

78 2.5 = 75.5 A

I R

1,736 + 814 = 2,550 W ; Inut =

0.3045 = 1,736 W
a

a a
Total losses
250 78 = 19,500 W

19, 500 2, 550

100 = 86.9%
19, 550

Speed :
N 2

Eb2

N2

250 (75.5 0.3045)

227
=
; N = 680 r..m.
N 1
Eb1

=
234.25

or

=
700

250 (51.75 0.3045)

31.5.31.5. RegeneraRegenerativtivee or or Hokinson Hokinsonss TTestest (Bac


(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)
31.5. Regenerative or Hokinsons Test (Back to Back Test)
31.5.31.5. RegeneraRegenerativtivee or or Hokinson Hokinsonss TTestest (Bac
(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)
By this method,full load test can be carried out on to shunt machines, 
referably identical ones,
ithout asting their oututs. The to machines are mechanically couled and are
so adjusted electrically
that one of them runs as a motor and the other as a generator. The mechanical ou
tut of the motor drives the
generator and the electrical outut of generator is used in sulying the greate
r art of inut to the motor. If
there ere no losses in the machines, they ould have run ithout any external 
oer suly. But due to
these losses, generator outut is not sufficient to drive the motor and vice ver
sa. The losses are sulied
either by an extra motor hich is belt connected to the motor generator set or a
s suggested by Ka,
electrically from the suly mains.
Essential connections for the test
are shon in Fig. 31.6. The to shunt
machines are connected in arallel.
They are, to begin ith, started as un
loaded motors. Then, the field of one
is eakened and that of the other is
strengthened so that the former runs

as a motor and the latter as a genera


tor. The usual method of rocedure is
as follos :
Machine M is started u from the
suly mains ith the hel of a starter
(not shon) hereas main sitch S of
the other machine is ket oen. Its
Fig. 31.6
seed is adjusted to normal value by means of its shield regulator. Machine M d
rives machine G as a
gen
erator and its voltage is read on volt
mete
r V1. The voltage of G is adjusted
by i
ts field regulator until voltmeter V1
read
s zero, thereby shoing that its volt
age
is the same, both in olarity and mag
nitu
de as that of the main suly. There
aft
er, S is closed to arallel the machines.
By
adjusting the resective field regula
tors
, any load can no be thron on to
the
machines. Generator current I can
1
Motor cum generator set
djusted to any desired value by in

be a

cre
asing the excitation of G or by reduc
ing the excitation of M and the corresonding values of different ammeters are r
ead.
Page 10
1100

Electrical Technology

The electrical outut of the generatorlus the small oer taken from the
suly, is taken by the motor
and is given out as a mechanical oer after sulying the motor losses.
If suly voltage is V, then
Motor inut
= V(I + I ), here I is the current take
n from the suly.
1
2
2
Generator outut

VI1
...(i)

Assuming tat bot macines ave te same efficiency ,


Output of motor

= input = V(I + I ) = generator input


1
2
2

Output of generator

= input = V(I
...(ii)

+ I ) =
1

V(I + I )

2
Hence, from (i) and (ii), we get
I
2
V(I + I )
1
2

1
=

VI

or
1

=
I + I
1
2

However, it is not quite correct to assume equal efficiencies for two mac
ines because teir armature
currents as well as excitations are different. We will not find te efficiencies
separately.
Let
R
= armature resistance of eac macine
a
I 3 = exciting current of te generator
I4 = exciting current of te motor
2
2
Armature Cu loss in generator = (I + I ) R ; Armature Cu loss in motor
= (I + I
I ) R
1
3
a
1
2
4
a
Shunt Cu loss in generator = VI ; Shunt Cu loss in motor = VI
3
4
But total motor and generator losses are equal to the oer sulied by th
e mains.
Poer dran from suly = VI
2
If e subtract the armature and shunt Cu losses from this, e get the stra
y losses of both machines.

Total stray losses for the set


2
2
= VI [(I + I ) R + (I + I I ) R
+ VI + VI ] = W (say)
2
1
3
a
1
2
4
a
3
4
Making one assumtion that stray losses are equally divided beteen the t
o machines, e have
Stray loss er machine = W/2
For Generator
2
Total losses
= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W (say)
1
3
a
3
g
VI
Outut
= VI

=
1
1
g
VI + W
1
g

Total losses

2
(I + I I ) R + VI + W/2 = W

(say)

m
V ( I + I
) W
1
2

Inut

V(I
1

+ I )
2

=
m

V ( I1

+ I2)
31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop
kinsonss TTestest
31.6. Alter native Connections for Hopkinsons Test
31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop
kinsonss TTestest
In Fig. 31.7 is sown in sligtly different metod of connecting te two m
acines to te supply. Here,
te main difference is tat te sunt windings are directly connected across te
lines. Hence, te line input
current is I 1 excluding te field currents. Te efficiencies can be calculated
as detailed below :
2
2
Motor armature Cu loss = (I + I ) R
; Generator armature Cu los
s =I
R
1
2
a
2 a
Power drawn from te supply = V I1

Total stray losses i.e. iron, friction and windage losses for te two
macines are
2
2
= VI [(I + I ) R I R ] = W (say)
1
1
2
a
2 a
Page 11
Testing o
f D.C. Machines

1101

stray loss for each machine = W/2


Motor Efficiency
Motor inut
= armature inut + shunt field inut = V (I +
I ) + VI + W
1

inut
Motor losses

= armature Cu loss + shunt Cu loss + stray los

ses
2
= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W
1
2
a
3
W
Motor

W
input

m 100

(say)
m

W
input
Generator Efficiency
Generator output
/2 = W (say)

2
R + V I + W

= VI ; Generator losses = I
2

g
VI

Generator

2
+ W

VI
2

31.7.31.7. MerMeritsits of of Hopkinson Hopkinsonss TTestest


31.7. Merits of Hopkinsons Test
31.7.31.7. MerMeritsits of of Hopkinson Hopkinsonss TTestest
1. Power required for te test is small as compared to te full-load pow
ers of te two macines.
2.
As macines are being tested under full-load conditions, te temperat
ure rise and te commutation
qualities of te macines can be observed.
Fig. 31.7
3.
Because of full-load conditions, any cange in iron loss due to flux
distortion at full-load, is being
taken into account.
Te only disadvantage is wit regard to te availability of two identical
macines.
Example 31.10 (a).
In a Hopkinsons test on two 220-V, 100-kW generat
ors, te circulating
current is equal to te full-load current and, in addition, 90 A are taken from
te supply. Obtain te
efficiency of eac macine.
Solution. Output current of te generator
100, 000
5, 000
I
=
=
= 454.4 A, I = 90 A
1
220
11
2
Assuming equal efficiencies, from Art. 29.5, we ave

I 1
I + I
1

454.5
454.5 + 90 = 0.914 or 91.4%

Example 31.10 (b). In te Hopkinsons test on two d.c. macines, macine A a
s a field current
of 1.4 A and macine B as a field current of 1.3 A. Wic macine acts as a ge
nerator ?
(Barati
tasan University April 1997)
----------------------- Page 12-----------------------

1102

Electrical Tecnology

Solution. In Hopkinsons test (on two identical d.c. sunt macines), since t
e two macines are
coupled, te speed is common and is decided by te field current of te motor. T
e field windings of bot
te macines are in parallel wit a separate D.C. source.
Since te macines are identical and are running at te same speed, teir e
.m.fs are in proportion to
teir field currents.
E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine A
1.4
=
E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine B
1.3
E
= (1.4/1.3) E = 1.077 E
A
B
B
Since E is larger tan E , Macine A supplies power to Macine B. It me
ans, A is working as a
A
B
generator, and B is motoring.
Example 31.11. Two sunt macines loaded for te Hopkinsons test take 15 A
at 200 V from te
supply. Te motor current is 100 A and te sunt currents are 3 A and 2.5 A.
If te armature
resistance of eac macine is 0.05 om, calculate te efficiency of eac macine
for tis particular
load-condition.
(Bar
atitasan Univ. April 1997)
Solution. Line current into armature circuits = 15 A, Motor armature coppe
r-loss = 500 W
Motor-armature-current = 100 A, Generator armature copper loss = 361 W
Hence generator-armature-current = 85 A
For eac macine, No load Mecanical losses + Core-loss + Stray losses
2
2
= ( VI I
r I
r )
a
am am
ag ag
2
2
= (200 15 100
0.05 85
0.05)
= (3000 500 361) = 1069.5 W
Motor field coer loss
= 200 3 = 600 W 1.07 kW
Generator field coer loss
= 200 2.5 = 500 W
Total Losses in motor = 600 + 1069.5 + 500 = 2169.5 W
Total Losses in Generator
= 500 + 1069.5 + 361 = 1931 W
Motor outut
Efficiency of motor
=
100%
Motor inut
Motor Inut :

(a) 200 100 = 20 kW to armature


(b) 0.6 kW to field inding
Total Inut to motor = 20.6 kW
From armature side, losses to be catered are :
(i) Stray losses + No Load Mech. Losses + Core Losses = 1.07 kW
(ii) Armature coer loss = 0.5 kW
Motor Outut from armature = 20 0.5 1.07 = 18.43 kW
18.43
Motor efficiency =
100% = 89.47%
20.6
3
Generator armature outut = 200 85 10
= 17 kW
Generator losses : (a)
Field dg : 0.5 kW

(b) Total no load losses : 1.07 kW


(c) armature coer loss = 0.36 kW
Total losses in Generator = 1.93 kW
17
Generator efficiency =
100% = 89.80%
17 + 1.93
Secial Note: 15 A current for d.c. suly is related here to armature inu
t for to machines
hich are under back to back regenerative tests. There are different variations
in handling and giving
the test data. It is alays desirable to dra the circuit diagram according to 
hich the calculations are
being related.
Page 13
Testing of D.C
. Machines

1103

Examle 31.12.
The Hokinsons test on to similar shunt machines gave t
he folloing full
load data :
Line voltage
= 110 V
Field currents are
3 A and 3.5 A
Line current
= 48 A
Arm. resistance of
each is 0.035
Motor arm. current
= 230 A
Calculate the efficiency of each machine assuming a brush contact drop of 1
volt per brush.
(Electrical Machi
nes, Nagpur Univ. 1992)
Solution. The motor-generator set is shown in Fig. 31.8. It should also be
noted that the machine with
lesser excitation is motoring. e will find the total armature Cu losses and bru
sh contact loss for both
machines.
Motor
2
Arm. Cu loss
= 230 0.035 = 1,851.5 
Brush contact loss
= 230 2 = 460 
Total arm. Cu loss
= 1851.5 +
460
= 2,312 
Shunt Cu loss
= 110 3 = 330 
Total Cu loss
= 2,312 + 330 = 2,642 
Generator
Generator arm. current = 233 48 + 3.5
= 188.5 W
2
Arm. Cu loss = 188.5
0.035 = 1,244 W
Brush contact Cu loss = 188.5 2 = 377 W
Total arm. Cu loss = 1,244 + 377 = 1,621 W
Shunt Cu loss = 110 3.5 = 385 W ;
Total Cu loss = 1,621 + 385 = 2,006 W
For the Set
Total arm. and shunt Cu loss for the set
= 2,642 + 2,006 = 4,648 W
Fig. 31.8
= 632 W

Total inut = 110 48 = 5,280 W ; Stray losses for the set = 5,280 4,648

Stray losses er machine = 632/2 = 316 W


Motor Efficiency
Arm. Cu + brush dro loss = 2,312 W
Shunt Cu loss = 330 W
Stray losses = 316 W
Total loss = 2,312 + 330
+ 316 = 2,958 W
Motor inut = 110 233 = 25,630 W ; Motor outut = 25,630 2,9
58 = 22,672

= 22,672 100/25,630 = 88.8%


Generator Efficiency
Total losses = 2,006 + 316 = 2,322 W ; Output = 110 185 = 20,
350 W
Generator input
= 20,350 + 2,322 = 22,672 W = motor input
= 20,350/22,672 = 0.894 or 89.4%
Example 31.13. In a Hopkinsons test on a pair of 500-V, 100-kW sunt generat
ors, te following data was obtained :
Auxiliary supply, 30 A at 500 V : Generator output current, 200 A
Field currents, 3.5 A and 1.8 A
Armature circuit resistances, 0.075 each machine. Voltage drop at brushes,
2 V (each machine).
Calculate the efficiency of the machine acting as a generator.
(Elect. Technolog
y-1, Gwalior Univ. 1986)
----------------------- Page 14----------------------1104

Electrical Technology
Solution. Motor arm. current = 200 + 30 = 230 A, as shown in Fig. 31.9.
2
Motor arm. Cu loss
= 230 0.075 + 230 2 = 4,428 
Motor field Cu loss
= 500 1.8 = 900 
2
Generator arm. Cu loss
= 200 0.075 +
200 2 = 3,400 
Geneator field Cu loss =
500 3.5 = 1,750 
Total Cu loss for two machines
= 4,428 + 900 + 3400 + 1750
= 10,478 
Power taken from auxiliary supply
= 500 30 = 15,000 
Stray losses for the two machines
= 15,000 10,478 = 4,522 W

Stray loss er machine = 4,522/2 = 2,261 W


Fig. 31.9
Total losses in generator = 3400 + 1750 + 2261 = 7,411 W
Generator outut
= 500 200 = 100,000 W
outut
100, 000

=
=
100 = 93.09%
g
output + losses
107, 411
Example 31.14. Explain te Hopkinsons test on a pair of sunt motors.
In suc a test on 250-V macines, te line current was 50 A and te motor c
urrent 400 A not
including te field currents of 6 A and 5 A. Te armature resistance of eac ma
cine was 0.015 .

Calculate the efficiency of each machine.


, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1991)

(Adv. Elect. Machines

Solution. The connections are shown in Fig. 31.10.


Motor armature Cu loss
2
= 400 0.015 = 2,400 
Generator armature Cu loss
2
= 350 0.015 = 1,838 
Power drawn from supply
= 250 50 = 12,500 
Iron, friction and windage losses for the two
machines
= 12,500 (2,400 + 1,838)
= 8,262 W
Iron, friction and indage loss er machine
= 8.262/2 = 4,130 W* (arox.)
Fig. 31.10
Motor Losses and Efficiency
Motor arm. Cu loss = 2,400 W ; Motor field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1,250 W
Iron, friction and indage losses = 4,130 W
Total motor losses
= 2,400 + 1,250 + 4,130 = 7,780 W
Motor inut
= 250 400 + 250 5 = 101,250 W
Motor efficiency
= (101,250 7,780)/101,250 = 0.923 or 92.3%
We could also get this value as follos :
Total suly inut = 250 61 = 15,250 W ; Gen. and motor field Cu loss = 250
6 + 250 5 = 2,750 W
Iron, friction and indage losses for both machines
= 15,250 (2,400 + 1,838 + 2,750) = 8,26
2 W
as before
*

----------------------- Page 15----------------------Testing of


D.C. Machines

1105

Generator Losses and Efficiency


Generator arm. Cu loss = 1,838  ; Generator field Cu loss = 250 6 = 1,500

Iron, friction and windage loss = 4,130 
Total losses = 1,838 + 1,500 + 4,130 = 7.468 
Generator output = 250 350 = 87,500 
Generator efficiency = (87,500 7.468)/87,500 = 0.915 or 91.5%
Examle 31.15. The Hokinsons test on to shunt machines gave the folloing
results for full
load :
Line voltage = 250 V ; current taken from suly system excluding field cur
rents = 50 A ; motor
armature current = 380 A ; field currents 5 A and 4.2 A.
Calculate
the efficiency of the machine
Armature resistance of each machine is 0.2 .
orking as a generator.
(Electrical Machi
nery-I Mysore Univ. 1988)
Solution. The connections are shown in Fig. 31.11.

0.02 = 2,888 
2
Generator arm. Cu loss = 330
0.02 = 2,178 
Power drawn from supply = 250 50 = 12,500 
Stray losses for the two machines
= 12,500 (2,888 + 2,178) = 7.434 W
Stray losses er machine = 7,434/2 = 3,717 W
Motor Efficiency
Arm. Cu loss
= 2,888 W
Field Cu loss
= 250 4.2 = 1050 W
Stray losses = 3,717 W
Total loss = 2,888 + 1050 + 3,717
= 7,655 W
Motor inut
= 250 380 + 250 4.2
= 96,050 W
Motor outut
= 96,050 7,655
Fig. 31.11
= 88,395 W

= 88,395/96,050 = 0.9203 or 92.03%


Generator Efficiency
Arm. Cu loss
= 2,178 W ; Field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1250 W
Stray losses
= 3,717 W ; Total losses = 7,145 W
Generator output =
250 330 = 82,500 W
Generator input
= 82,500 + 7,145 = 89,645 W
= 82,500/89,645 = 0.9202 or 92.02%
Motor arm. Cu loss

= 380

31.8.31.8. RetarRetardadationtion or or Running Running Do Downwn TTestest


31.8. Retardation or Running Down Test
31.8.31.8. RetarRetardadationtion or or Running Running Do Downwn TTestest
Tis metod is applicable
nding stray losses. Ten,
knowing te armature and sunt
be calculated.
Te macine under test is
en supply is cut off from
te armature wile keeping te
own and its kinetic energy
is used to meet te rotational

to sunt motors and generators and is used for fi


Cu losses at a given load current, efficiency can
speeded up sligtly beyond its normal speed and t
field excited. Consequently, te armature slows d

losses i.e. friction, windage and iron losses.*


1
2
Kinetic energy of te armature is K.E. =
I
2
I = moment of inertia of the armature and = angular velocity
here

Rotational losses, W = Rate of loss of K.E.

*
If armature slos don ith no excitation, then energy of the armature is u
sed to overcome mechanical
losses only, there being no iron losses (see Ex. 31.19).
Page 16
1106

Electrical Technology

d
1
2
d
dt ( 2 I ) = I . dt

d
dN
To quantities need be knon (i) moment of inertia (I) of the armature and
(ii)
or

dt
dt
because N. These are found as follos :
d
(a) Finding
dt
Fig. 31.12
Fig. 31.13
As shon in Fig. 31.12, a voltmeter V is connected
across the armature.
This voltmeter is used as a seed
indicator by suitably graduating it, because E N. When
suly is cut off, the armature seed and hence voltme
ter reading falls. By noting different amounts of voltage
fall in different amounts of time, a curve is dran be
teen time and the seed (obtained from voltage values)
as shon in Fig. 31.13.
From any oint P hich corresonds to normal seed,
a tangentAB is dran.
dN
OB (in r..m.)
Then
=
dt
OA (in seconds)
d
From (i), above
W = I dt
t ound generator
No

2N
60

Shun

...(N in r..m.)
2

2N

2N

dN

dN
;
0.011
=

. .

. .
I N

dt

W = I ( 60 ) dt ( 60
...(ii)

) W = ( 60 ) I N

dt

(ii) Finding Moment of Inertia (I)


(a) First Methodwhere I is calculated.
First, slowing down curve is drawn with armature alone. Next, a fly-wheel o
f known moment of inertia
I is keyed onto the shaft and slowing down curve is drawn again. Obviously, slo
wing down time will be
1
longer due to combined increased moment of inertia of the tw
o.
For any given speed,
(dN/dt ) and (dN/dt ) are determined as before. It should be noted that the loss
es in both cases would be
1
2
almost the same, because addition of a fly-wheel will not make much difference t
o the losses.
Hence, from equation (ii) above
2 2
dN
In the first case,
W = ( 60 ) IN
dt1
Page 17

Testing of
D.C. Machines

1107

In the second case, W

2 2
( 60 ) (I + I 1)N

(I + I )
dN
1
dt
2

dN
dt

or

dN
dt2

I + I 1
I

1
(

/
dN dt

dN
dt
1

dN
dt
2

)
dt

I = I 1

I =

I 1

= I 1

1
(

/ ) (
/
dN dt
dN dt

)
dt dt

t t
1
1

(b) Second Methodwhere I is eliminated.


In this method, first, time taken to slow down, say by 5%, is noted with a
rmature alone. Next, a
retarding torquemechanical or preferably electrical, is applied to the armature
and again time is noted.
The method using electrical torque is shown in Fig. 31.12. The double-throw swi
tch S while cutting off
the armature from supply, automatically joins it to a non-inductive resistance
R as shown. The power
drawn by this resistance acts as a retarding torque on the armature, thereby ma
king it slow down
2
comparatively quickly. The additional loss is I (R + R) or VI ,
a a
a
where
Ia = average current through R ; V = average volt
age across R.
Let  be this power. Then from (i) above
2
2

dN
. .
( 60 ) I N dt1

W =

W + W

W + W

2
2
. . dN
( 60 ) I N dt2
dt1

If dN is the same

dt2

t2

=
W

dt2

W= W

or
dt1 dt 2

t1 t2

here

dN
=
dt
1
dN

rate of change of seed ithout extra load

W = W

rate of change of seed ith extra electrica

=
l load.
dt
2

Examle 31.16.
In a retardation test on a searately excited motor,
the induced e.m.f. in the
armature falls from 220 V to 190 V in 30 seconds on disconnecting the armature
from the suly.
The same fall takes lace in 20 seconds if, immediately after disconnection, ar
mature is connected
to a resistance hich takes 10 A (average) during this fall.
Find str
ay losses of the motor.
(Adv. Elect. Mac
hines, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1992)
Solution. Let

W =

stray losses (mechanical and magnetic losses

)
Average voltage across resistance = (200 + 190)/2 = 195 V, Average current
= 10 A

Poer absorbed W = 1950 W


W
t2
20
Using the relation
=
; e get W = 1950
3,900 att
W
t t
30 20
1
2
Examle 31.17. In a retardation test on a d.c. motor,
ally excited, the seed
fell from 1525 to 1475 r..m. in 25 seconds.
load of 1.0 kW sulied by the
armature, the same seed dro occurred in 20 seconds. Find
nertia of the rotat
2
ing arts in kg.m .
es III, Gujarat Univ. 1984)

ith its field norm


With

an

average

out the moment of i


(Electrical Machin

Solution. As seen from Art. 31.8 (ii) (b).


2 2
dN
W =
. .
. Also W = W
( 60 ) I N
dt

t2
t1

t2
Here,

1 kW = 1000 W, t = 25 second, t = 20 second


1
2

Page 18
1108

Electrical Technology

No,
5 = 50 r..m. ; dt = 25

W
N

= 1000 20/(25 20) = 4000 W


= 1500 r..m. (average seed) ; dN = 1525 147
2

4000

= (2/60) I .1500 50/25

I = 121.8 kg.

m .
Examle 31.18. A retardation test is made on a searately excited d.c. mac
hine as a motor. The

induced voltage falls from 240 V to 225 V in 25 seconds


on oening the armature circuit and
6 seconds on suddenly changing the armature connection from suly to a load r
esistance taking
10 A (average). Find the efficiency of the machines hen running as a motor an
d taking a current of
25 A on a suly of 250 V. The resistance of its armature is 0.4 and that of i
ts field winding is 250 .
(Elect. T
echnology, Allahabad Univ. 1991)

oss

Solution. Average voltage across load


= (240 + 225)/2 = 232.5 V ; Iav = 10 A

Power absorbed  =
232.5 10 = 2,325 
and
t = 30 second, t = 6 second ;  = stray l
1

Using

2
t2

= 734.1 , we get

=
t t
1
2

6
Stray losses
= 24 A

W =
Inut current =

2325

= 734.1 W
25 6
25 A ; I = 250/250 = 1 A ; I
sh

= 25 1
a

2
Armature Cu loss =
1 = 250 W

Total

losses =
Inut =

24 0.4 = 230.4 W ; Shunt Cu loss = 250


734.1 + 230.4 + 250 = 1,215 W (arox.)
250 25 = 6,250 W ; Outut = 6,250 1,215

= 5,035 W

=
5,035/6,250 = 0.806 or 80.6%
Example 31.19. A retardation test is carried out on a 1000 r.p.m. d.c. mac
ine. Te time taken
for te speed to fall from 1030 r.p.m. to 970 r.p.m. is :
(a) 36 seconds wit no excitation
(b) 15 seconds wit full excitation and
(c) 9 seconds wit full excitation and te armature supplying an extra l
oad of 10 A at 219 V.
2

Calculate (i) te moment of inertia of te armature in kg. m (ii) iron lo
sses and (iii) te mecanical losses at te mean speed of 1000 r.p.m.
Solution. It sould be noted tat
(i) wen armature slows down wit no excitation, its kinetic energy is u
sed to overcome mecanical
losses only ; because due to te absence of flux, tere is no iron loss.
(ii) wit excitation, kinetic energy is used to supply mecanical and iro
n losses collectively known as
stray losses.
2
(iii) If I is taken in kg-m unit, ten rate of loss of energy is in watts
.
2
2

dN

Mechanical loss

W
...Art. 31.8

=
. .
I N
m

Here
conds, N = 1000 r..m.

( 60 )

dt

= 1030 970 = 60 r..m., dt = 36 se

dN

2
2

60
. .
( 60 ) I N 36

Wm
=
...(i)

2
2
Similarly

W
=
...(ii)
s

(
60

Also W
= 3,285 W

60
. .
) I N
15
t2

= 219 10

t t
1
2

15 9

Page 19
Testi
ng of D.C. Machines

1109

Using equation (ii), e get


2
3,285

2
( 60 )

60
I 1000 15
2

(i)

I =
W

Dividing (i) by (ii), e get

75 kg.m
15

m
=
W

36
s

(ii)
(iii)

Wm
Iron losses

=
=

3,285 15/36 = 1,369 W


W W = 3,285 1,369 = 1,916 W
s
m

31.9.31.9. FieldFieldss TTest fest for Seror Series Motories Motor


31.9. Fields Test for Series Motor
31.9.31.9. FieldFieldss TTest fest for Seror Series Motories Motor
This test is alicable to to similar
series motors. Series motors hich are
mainly used for traction ork are easily
available in airs. The to machines are
couled mechanically.

One machine runs normally as a


motor and drives generator hose outut
is
asted in a variable load R (Fig.
31.14). Iron and friction losses of to
machines are made equal (i) by joining
the series field inding of the generator
in the motor armature circuit so that both
Fig. 31.14
machines are equally
excited and (ii) by running them at

equal seed. Load re

sistance R is varied till the motor

current reaches its f


ull load value indicated by ammeter
A 1. After this adjus
tment for full load current, different
ammeter and voltmeter
readings are noted.

Let V = suly voltag

e ; I = motor current ; V = terminal


1

.d. of generator ; I

= load current.
2

Intake of the hole

= VI ; outut = V I .

set

2 2
Total losses in the s

et,

W = VI
t

V I
1

2 2
2

2
Armature and field Cu

losses W
cu

= (R + 2R

)I

+ I R

se 1

here R = hot armatu

Micro series motors


re resistance of each machine

a
R

= hot series fie

ld resistance of each machine


se

Stray losses for the set

Stray losses er machine

=
s

W W
t
W W
t
2

cu
cu

Stray losses are equally divided beteen the machines because of their equ

al excitation and seed.


Motor Efficiency
Motor inut

Motor losses

V I
1 1

= armature + field Cu losses + stray losses


2
= (R + R
)I + W = W (say)
a
se 1
s
m

V I W
1 1
m
V I
1 1

----------------------- Page 20----------------------1110

Electrical Tecnology

Generator Efficiency
Te generator efficiency will be of little use because it is running under
abnormal conditions of separate
excitation. However, te efficiency under tese unusual conditions can be found
if desired.
Generator output
= V I
2 2
2
Field Cu loss
= I 1Rse
( Mo
tor current is passing troug it.)
2
Armature Cu loss
= I R ; Stray losses = W
2 a
s
2
2
Total losses
= I R
+ I R + W = W (say)
1 se
2 a
s
g
V

I
2 2

=
g

V I + W
2 2
g

It sould be noted tat altoug te two macines are mecanically coupled
yet it is not a regenerative
metod, because te generator output is wasted instead of being fed back into t
e motor as in Hopkinsons
(back-to-back) test.
Example 31.20. A test on two coupled similar tramway motors, wit teir f
ields connected in
series, gave te following results wen one macine acted as a motor and te ot
er as a generator.
Motor :
Armature current
= 56 A ; Armature voltage
= 590 V
Voltage drop across field winding
= 40 V
Generator :
Armature current
= 44 A ; Armature voltage
= 400 V
Field voltage drop
= 40 V ; Resistance of ea
c armature = 0.3
Calculate the efficiency of the motor and gearing at this load.

(Elect. Machinery-II, Nagpur Univ. 1992 & JNTU,


Hyderabad, 2000)
Solution. The connection for the two machines are shown in Fig. 31.15.
Total input = 630 56 = 35,280 
Output
= 400 44 = 17,600 
Total losses in the two machines are
= 35,280 17,600 = 17,680 W
Series field resistance
R
= 40/56
se
= 0.714
2

Total Cu loss = (0.3 + 2 0.714) 56 + 44


0.3 = 5,425 + 581 = 6,006 
Stray losses of the set= 17,680 6,006
= 11,674 W

Stray losses/machine=
11,674/2 = 5,837 W
Motor Efficiency
Motor armature inut = arm. voltage motor
Fig. 31.15
current = 590 56 = 33,040 W
Armature circuit Cu loss
2
= (0.3 + 0.714) 56 = 3,180 W
= 5,837 W found above
= 3,180 + 5,837 = 9,017 , Output = 33,040 9,0

Stray loss
Total losses
17 = 24,023 W

= 24,023/33,040 = 0.727 or 72.7%

----------------------- Page 21----------------------Testi

ng of D.C. Macines

1111

Generator Efficiency
2
Armature Cu loss
0 56 = 2,240 W
Stray losses
837 = 8,658 W
Output

= 44
=

0.3 = 581 W, Series field Cu loss = 4

5,837 W ; Total losses = 581 + 2,240 + 5,

= 400 44 = 17,600 W
= 17,600/(17,600 + 8,658) = 0.67 or 67%
g
TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N

o. 31.1 31.1
Tutorial Problem No. 31.1
TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N
o. 31.1 31.1
1. A 500-V, sunt motor takes a total current of 5 A wen running unloa
ded.
Te resistance of
armature circuit is 0.25 and the field resistance is 125 . Calculate the effic
iency and output when the
motor is loaded and taking a current of 100 A.
[90.4% ; 45.2 k]
2. A d.c. shunt motor rated at 12.5 k output runs at no-load at 1000 r
.p.m. from a 250-V supply

consuming an input current of 4 A.


The armature resistance is 0.5 and
shunt field resistance is 250 .
Calculate the efficiency of the machine when delivering full-load output of 12
.5 k while operating at 250
V.
[81.57%] (Elect
. Technology-I Madras Univ. 1979)
3. The following results were obtained during Hopkinsons test on two sim
ilar 230-V machines;
armature currents 37 A and 30 A; field currents 0.85 A and 0.8 A. Calculate t
he efficiencies of machines if
each has an armature resistance of 0.33 .
[Generator 87.9%, Motor 87.7%]
4. In a Fields test on two 230-V, 1.492 k mechanically-coupled similar
series motors, the following
figures were obtained. Each has armature and compole winding resistance of 2.4
, series field resistance of
1.45 and total brush drop of 2 V. The p.d. across armature and field was 230
V with a motor current of
10.1 A. The generator supplied a current of 8.9 A at a terminal p.d. of 161 V
. Calculate the efficiency and
output of the motor for this load.
[76.45%, 1.775 k]
5. Describe the Hopkinsons test for obtaining the efficien
cy of two similar shunt motors. The
readings obtained in such a test were as follows ; line voltage 100 V ; motor
current 30 A ; generator current
25 A ; armature resistance of each machine 0.25 .
Calculate the effi
ciency of each machine from these
results, ignoring the field currents and assuming that their iron and mechanic
al losses are the same.
[Motor 90.05%, Generator 92.5%]
6. The Hopkinsons test on two similar d.c. shunt machines gave the follo
wing results :
Line voltage = 220 V ; line current excluding field currents = 40 A ; th
e armature current of motoring
machine = 200 A ; field currents 6 A and 7 A. Calculate the efficiency of eac
h of the machines at the given
load conditions. The armature resistance of each of the machines is 0.05 .

= 86.58% ; = 86.3%] (Electrical Engg-I, M.S. Univ

. Baroda 1980)
m

g
OBJECTIVE TEST 31

1. One of te main advantages of Swinburnes test


economical metod of finding no-load
is tat it
of a large d.c. sunt motor istest.
(a) is applicable bot to sunt and compound
pkinsons
motors
inburnes
(b) needs one running test
tardation
(c) is very economical and convenient
elds

3. Te most
losses
(a) Ho
(b) Sw
(c) re
(d) Fi

(d) ignores any carge in iron loss


tion test on a d.c. sunt motor is used for
2. Te main disadvantage of Hopkinsons test for
ses.
finding efficiency of sunt d.c. motors is tat it
ray
(a) requires full-load power
pper
(b) ignores any cange in iron loss
iction
(c) needs one motor and one generator
on
(d) requires two identical sunt macines

4. Retarda
findinglos
(a) st
(b) co
(c) fr
(d) ir

----------------------- Page 22----------------------1112

Electrical Tecnology

5. Te main ting common between Hopkinsons


for determining te efficiency of a
test and Fields test is tat bot
is te .............. test.
(a) require two electrically-coupled series motors
(b) need two similar mecanically-coupled
tion
motors
ons
(c) use negligible power
nes
(d) are regenerative tests

6. Te usual test


traction motor
(a) Fields
(b) retarda
(c) Hopkins
(d) Swinbur

ANSWERS
1. c

2. d

3. b

4. a

5. b

6.

a
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON D.C. MOTORS
Q. 1. How may te direction of rotation of a d.c. motor be reversed ?
Ans.
By reversing eiter te field current or current troug te armatu
re. Usually, reversal of
current troug te armature is adopted.
Q. 2. Wat will appen if bot currents are reversed ?
Ans.
Te motor will run in te original direction.
Q. 3. Wat will appen if te field of a d.c. sunt motor is opened ?
Ans.
Te motor will acieve dangerously ig speed and may destroy itsel
f.
Q. 4. Wat appens if te direction of current at te terminals of a seri
es motor is reversed ?
Ans.
It does not reverse te direction of rotation of motor because curr
ent flows troug te
armature in te same direction as troug te field.
Q. 5. Explain wat appens wen a d.c. motor is connected across an a.c.
supply ?
Ans.
1. Since on a.c. supply, reactance will come into te picture, t
e a.c. supply will be offered
impedance (not resistance) by te armature winding. Consequent
ly, wit a.c. supply,
current will be muc less. Te motor will run but it would not
carry te same load as it

would on d.c. supply.


2. Tere would be more sparking at te bruses.
3. Toug motor armature is laminated as a rule, te field poles
are not. Consequently, eddy
currents will cause te motor to eat up and eventually burn o
n a.c. supply.
Q. 6. Wat will appen if a sunt motor is directly connected to te supp
ly line ?
Ans.
Small motors up to 1 kW rating may be line-started witout any adve
rse results being produced. Hig rating motors must be started troug a suitable starte
r in order to avoid te uge
starting current wic will
(i) damage te motor itself and (ii) badly affect te voltage regu
lation of te supply line.
Q. 7. Wat is te function of interpoles and ow are interpole windings c
onnected ?
Ans.
Interpoles are small poles placed in between te main poles. Teir
function is to assist commutation by producing te auxiliary or commutating flux. Consequently
, brus sparking is practically eliminated. Interpole windings are connected in series wit t
e armature windings.
Q. 8. In rewinding te armature of a d.c. motor, progressive connections
are canged to
retrogressive ones. Will it affect te operation in any way ?
Ans.
Yes. Now, te armature will rotate in te opposite direction.
----------------------- Page 23----------------------Macines

Testing of D.C.
1113

Q. 9. A d.c. motor fails to start wen switced on. Wat could be te possibl
e reasons and
remedies ?
Ans. Any one of te following reasons could be responsible :
1. Open-circuit in controllersould be cecked for open starting resis
tance or open switc
or open fuse.
2. Low terminal voltagesould be adjusted to name-plate value.
3. Overloadsould be reduced if possible oterwise larger motor sould
be installed.
4. Excessive frictionbearing lubrication sould be cecked.
Q. 10. A d.c. motor is found to stop running after a sort period of time. Wa
t do you tink
could be te reasons ? How would you remedy eac ?
Ans. Possible causes are as under :
1. Motor not getting enoug powerceck voltage at motor terminals as w
ell as fuses, clups
and overload relay.
2. Weak or no fieldin te case of adjustable-speed motors, ceck if r
eostat is correctly
set. Also, ceck field winding for any open.
Additionally
, look for any loose
winding or broken connection.
3. Motor torque insufficient for driving te given loadceck line volt
age wit name-plate
voltage. If necessary, use larger motor to matc te load.
Q. 11. Wat are te likely causes if a d.c. motor is found to run too slow und

er load ? And
te remedy ?
Ans. 1. Supply line voltage too lowremove any excessive resistance in suppl
y line, connections
or controller.
2. Bruses aead of neutralset tem on neutral.
3. Overloadreduce it to allowable value or use larger motor.
Q. 12. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime run too fast wen under load ? Give diff
erent possible
causes and teir remedies.
Ans. Different possible causes are as under :
1. Weak fieldremove any extra resistance in sunt field circuit. Also,
ceck for grounds.
2. Line voltage too igreduce it to name-plate value.
3. Bruses back of neutralset tem on neutral.
Q. 13. Under wat conditions is sparking produced at te bruses of a d.c. mot
or ? How
would you remedy it ?
Ans. 1. Commutator in bad conditionclean and reset bruses.
2. commutator eiter eccentric or rouggrind and true te commutator.
Also, undercut
mica.
3. Excessive vibrationbalance armature. Make sure tat bruses ride fr
eely in olders.
4. Brus-olding spring broken or sluggisreplace spring a
nd adjust pressure to
recommended value.
5. Motor overloadedreduce load or install motor of proper rating.
6. Sort-circuit in armature circuitremove any metallic particles betw
een commutator
segments and ceck for sort between adjacent commutator risers. L
ocate and repair
internal armature sort if any.
Q. 14. Sometimes a issing noise (or brus catter) is eard to emanate from t
e commutator
end of a running d.c. motor. Wat could it be due to and ow could it b
e removed ?
----------------------- Page 24----------------------Electrical Tecnology

1114
Ans.

Any one of te following causes could produce brus catter :


1. Excessive clearance of brus oldersadjust properly
2. Incorrect angle of brusesadjust to correct value
3. Unsuitable brusesreplace tem
4. Hig micaundercut it
5. Wrong brus spring pressureadjust to correct value.
Wat are te possible causes of excessive sparking at bruses in a d

Q. 15.
.c. motor ?
Ans.
1. Poor brus fit on commutatorsand-in te bruses and polis commu
tator.
2. Bruses binding in te brus oldersclean olders and bruses an
d remove any irregularities on surfaces of brus olders or roug spots on bruses
.
3. Excessive or insufficient pressure on brusesadjust pressure.
4. Bruses off neutralset tem on neutral.
Q. 16. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime spark on ligt load ?
Ans. Due to te presence of paint spray, cemical, oil or grease etc. on

commutator.
Q. 17. Wen is te armature of a d.c. motor likely to get over-eated ?
Ans.
1. Wen motor is over-loaded.
2. Wen it is installed at a place aving restricted ventilation.
3. Wen armature winding is sorted.
Q. 18. Wat causes are responsible for over-eating of commutator in a d.c.
motor ?
Ans. It could be due eiter to te bruses being off neutral or being und
er excessive spring
pressure. Accordingly, bruses sould be adjusted proper
ly and te spring pressure
sould be reduced but not to te point were sparking is introduced.