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# ----------------------- Page 1-----------------------

## Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives

Learning Objectives
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives
Brake Test
TESTINGTESTING
TESTING
TESTINGTESTING
Swinburnes Test
Test

OF D.C.OF D.C.
OF D.C.
OF D.C.OF D.C.

Regenerative or
Hopkinsons Test

MACHINESMACHINES
MACHINES
MACHINESMACHINES

## Alternative Connections for

Hopkinsons Test
Merits of Hopkinsons Test
Retardation or Running
Down Test
Fields Test for Series Motors
Objective Test
Questions

and

on

D.C. Motors.

## ----------------------- Page 2----------------------1092

Electrical Technology

## 31.1 Brak31.1 Brakee TTestest

31.1 Brake Test
31.1 Brak31.1 Brakee TTestest
It is a direct method and consists of applying a brake to a water-cooled p
ulley mounted on the motor
shaft as shown in Fig. 31.1. The brake band is fixed with the help of
wooden blocks gripping the pulley. One end of the band is fixed to
earth via a spring balance S and the other is connected to a suspended weight W1. The motor is running and the load on the motor
Let
W1 = suspended weight in kg
W
= reading on spring balance in kg-wt
2
The net pull on the band due to friction at the pulley is
( W W ) kg. wt. or 9.81 ( W W ) newton.
1
2
1
2
If
and

R
N

=
=
Motor shaft
Then , shaft torque Tsh
=
Motor output power =

## radius of the pulley in metre

motor or pulley speed in r.p.s.
developed by the motor
(W W ) R kg m = 9.81 ( W W ) R N m
1
2
1

Tsh 2 N watt
2 9.81 N ( W W ) R watt
1
2

61.68 N ( W W ) R watt
1
2

## Let V = suly voltage ; I = full load current taken by the motor.

Then, inut ower = VI watt
61.68
(

)
Outut
N W1
W2 R

=
=
Input
VI
Te simple brake test described above can be used for small motors
only, because in te case of large motors, it is difficult to dissipate te larg
e
amount of eat generated at te brake.
Anoter simple metod of measuring motor output is by te use of
poney brake one form of wic is sown in Fig. 31.2 (a). A rope is wound
round te pulley and its two ends are attaced to two spring balances S1
and S . Te tension of te rope can be adjusted wit te elp of swivels.
Fig. 31.1
2
Obviously, te force acting tangentially on te pulley is equal to te difference between te readings of te two spring balances. If R is te pulley radius,
te torque at te pulley is T
= (S

s
S )R. If (= 2N) is the angular velocity of the ulley, then
1
2

motor outut = T
) R att.

= 2 N (S

## S )R m kg. t. = 9.81 2N (S

sh
1

The motor inut may be measured as shon in Fig. 31.2 (b). Efficiency may,
as usual, be found by
using the relation = output/input.
Example 31.1. In a brake test te effective load on te branc pulley was
38.1 kg, te effective
diameter of te pulley 63.5 cm and speed 12 r.p.s.
Te motor took
49 A at 220 V.
Calculate te
output power and te efficiency at tis load.
Solution. Effective load ( W W ) = 38.1 kg. t ; radius = 0.635/2 = 0.317
5 m
1
2
Shaft torque = 38.1 0.3175 kg m = 9.81 38.1 0.3175 = 118.6 N m
Poer outut = torque angular velocity in rad/s = 118.6 2 12 = 8,945 W
8, 945
No, motor inut = 49 220 W

Motor =
= 0.8
3 or 83%
49 220
----------------------- Page 3----------------------Testing of D

.C. Macines

1093
Fig. 31.2 (a)

Fig.

31.2 (b)
Example 31.2(a).
Te following readings are obtained wen doing a loa
d test on a d.c. sunt
motor using a brake drum :
10 kg and 35 kg
Diameter of te
drum
40 cm
Speed of te motor
950 r.p.m.
Applied volta
ge
200 V
Line current
30 A
Calculate te output power and te efficiency.
(Electrical Engin
Solution. Force on te drum surface F = (35 10) = 25 kg t = 25 9.8 N
R = 20 cm = 0.2 m ; Torque Tsh = F R = 25 9.8 0.2
= 49 N
N = 950/60 = 95/6 r..s. ; = 2 (95/6) = 99.5 rad/s

Motor outut
Motor inut

=
=

## Tsh att = 49 99.5 = 4,876 W

200 30 = 6000 W ; = 4876/6000 = 0.813 or 81.3

## Example 31.2(b). In a brake-test, on a d.c. sunt motor, te tensions on t

e two sides of te brake
were 2.9 kg and 0.17 kg. Radius of te pulley was 7 cm. Input current was 2 am
p at 230 volts. Te
motor speed was 1500 rpm.
Find te torque, power-output and efficiency.
(Baratiar Univ. April 1998)
Fig. 31.3. D.C. Sunt Motor Brake Test

Solution.

## = 2.90 0.17 = 2.73 kg

= 2.73 9.81 = 26.78 N

Page 4
1094

Electrical Technology

= 26.78 7/100
= 1.8746 N m

Poer outut

= 1.8746 2 1500/60
= 294 atts

Efficiency
% efficiency

= 294/(230 2) = 0.639
= 63.9%

## 31.2.31.2. SinburSinburnenes*s* TTestest (or (or No load No load TTestest or

or Losses Losses Method) Method)
31.2. Sinburnes* Test (or No load Test or Losses Method)
or Losses Losses Method) Method)
It is a simle method in hich losses are
measured searately and from their knoledge,
efficiency at any desired load can be redetermined
test. Hoever, this test is alicable to those
machines in hich flux is ractically constant
i.e. shunt and comound ound machines.
The machine is running as a motor on no load at
its rated voltage i.e. voltage stamed on the name
late. The seed is adjusted to the rated seed ith
the
hel
of shunt
regulator
as shon
in
Fig. 31.4.
is measured by the
Shunt regulator
ammeter A
is given by ammeter A .
hereas shunt field current I
The no load armature current is
1
sh
2
(I0 Ish) or Ia0.
Let, suly voltage
=
V
t
=
VI0 att

## Poer inut to armature

=
V (I I ) ;
Poer inut to s
hunt
=
VI
0
sh
sh
No load oer inut to armature sulies the folloing :
(i) Iron losses in core
(ii) friction loss
(iii) indage loss and
2
2
(iv) armature Cu loss, (I
I ) R or I
R
0
sh
a
a0 a

## In calculating armature Cu loss, hot resistance of armature should be used.

A stationary measure
ment of armature circuit resistance at the room temerature of, say, 15C is made
by assing current through
the armature from a lo voltage d.c. suly [Fig. 31.5 (a)].
Fig. 31.4
Fig. 31.5
*
Sir James Sinburne (1858 1958) made outstanding contributions to the deve
loment of electric lams,
electric machines and synthetic resins.
Page 5
Testi
ng of D.C. Machines

1095

Then, the hot resistance, alloing a temerature rise of 50C is found thus :
1
65
+

R
= R (1 + 15 ) ; R
= (1 + 65 ), R
= R

0
15
0
0
65
0
65
15
1
15
+

0
234.5 + 65

## Tking = 1/234.5, we hve

= 1.2 R
(pprox.*)
0
15

= R
65

15

234.5 + 15

If we subtrct from the totl input the no-lod rmture Cu loss, then we
get constnt losses.
Constnt losses

W
c

= VI (I
I ) R
0
0
sh

a
Knoing the constant losses of the machine, its efficiency at any other lo
ad can be determined as given
belo. Let I = load current at hich efficiency is required.
Then, armature current is
Ia = I Ish
...if machine is motoring
= I + Ish
...if machine is generating
EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor
Efficiency hen running as a motor
EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor
Inut = VI,

2
Armature Cu loss = I R = (I I
a a
Constant losses
...found above

= W
c

2
) R
sh
a

inut losses

2
VI ( I I

) R

sh
a
c
Total losses = (I I
VI

s

) R + W ;
a
c

input

## EfEffficienciciencyy wen wen r runningunning as as a a genera generatorto

r
Efficiency wen running as a generator
EfEffficienciciencyy wen wen r runningunning as as a a genera generatorto
r

2
) R ; Constant loss =

## Output = VI ; Armature, Cu loss = (I + I

...found above

s

a
output

VI
2

Total losses = (I + I
2

VI + ( I + I

)
s

R
a

+ W

) R + W ; = output + losses
s

31.3.
1.
It is convenient and economical because power required to test a lar
ge macine is small i.e. only
2.
Te efficiency can be predetermined at any load because constant-los
ses are known.
31.4.
1. No account is taken of te cange in iron losses from no-load to full
armature reaction, flux is distorted wic increases te iron losses in some cas
es by as muc as 50%.
2.
As te test is on no-load, it is impossible to know weter commutat
ion would be satisfactory at
full-load and weter te temperature rise would be witin te specified limits.
Example 31.3. A 220 V, d.c. sunt motor at no load takes a current of 2.5
A. Te resistances of
te armature and sunt field are 0.8 and 200 respectively. Estimate the efficie
ncy of the motor

(Electri

## cal Technology, Kerala Univ. 1986)

Solution. No-load input = 220 2.5 = 550 
This input meets all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss and con
stant losses.
Ish = 220/200 = 1.1 A. No-load arm current, Ia0 = 2.5 1.1 = 1.4 A
*
The armature resistance is found to decrease slightly ith increasing arma
ture current as shon in Fig. 31.5
(b). This is due to the fact that brush contact resistance is inversely r
oortional to the armature current.
Page 6
1096

Electrical Technology
2
No load armature Cu loss = I

R = 1.4
a0 a

2
0.8 = 1.6 W

## Constant losses = 550 1.6 = 548.4 W

When inut current is 20 A
I

## = 32 1.1 = 30.9 A ; Armature Cu loss = 30.9

0.8 = 764 W
a
Total loss = 764 + 548.4 = 1312 W (arox.) ; Inut = 220 20 = 4,400 W
Outut = 4,400 1,312 = 3,088 W ; Efficiency = (3088/4400) 100 = 70.2%
In the above calculations, it has been assumed that :
1. mechanical losses remain constant even through motor seed changes from
2. effect of armature reaction on main ole flux ith a consequent change
in iron losses has been
neglected.
3. decrease in flux due to increase in shunt resistance by heating has bee
n neglected.
Examle 31.4.
When running on no load, a 400 V shunt motor takes 5 A
. Armature resistance
is 0.5 and field resistance 200 . Find the output of the motor and efficiency w
hen running on fullload and taking a current of 50 A.
Also, find the percentage change in
(Electro Me
Solution. No-load input = 400 5 = 2,000 
This input goes to meet all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss
and constant losses.
I
= 400/200 = 2 A ; No-load I = 5 2 = 3 A
sh
a
2
= 3 0.5 = 4.5 W ; Constant losses = 2,000 4.
5 = 1,995.5 W
When line current is 50 A
2
Ia = 50 2 = 48 A ; Arm. Cu loss = 48
0.5 =
1,152 W
Total loss on F.L.
= 1,152 + 1,995.5 = 3,147.5 W ; Inut = 50 400

= 20,000 W
No,
= 376 V

Outut
=
F.L. efficiency
=
Eb 1 =
N 1

## 20,000 3,147.5 = 16,852.5 W = 16.8 kW

16,852.5/20,000 = 0.8426 or 84.26%
400 (3 0.5) = 398.5 V ; Eb2 = 400 (48 0.5)
Eb1

398.5
=

N 1 N 2

22.5
=

= 0.0598
N 2

Eb2

376

N 2

37

## ercentage change in seed = 5.98

Examle 31.5.
The no load test of a 44.76 kW, 220 V, d.c. shunt mot
or gave the folloing
figures:
Inut current = 13.25 A ; field current = 2.55 A ; resistance of armature
at 75C = 0.032 and
brush drop = 2 V.
Estimate the full-load current and efficiency.
(Electrical En
No-load input = 220 13.25 = 2915  ; Armature current = 13.25 2.55 = 10.7
A
2
Armature Cu loss
= 10.7 0.032 = 3.6 W
Loss due to brush dro
= 2 10.7 = 21.4 W
Variable loss = 21.4 + 3.6 = 25 W , Constant losses W = 2915 25 = 2890 W
e
c
If I is the full load armature current, then full load motor inut curren
t is (I + 2.55) A.
a
a
F.L. motor oer inut = 220 (I + 2.55) W
a
This inut must be equal to the sum of
(i) outut = 44.76 kW = 44,760 W
(ii) W = 2,890 W
c
2
(iii) brush loss = 2Ia att
032 Ia

Page 7
Testing o
f D.C. Machines

1097

220 (I

+ 2.55)
a

## = 44,750 + 2,890 + 2I + 0.032 I

a

a
2
or

0.032I
a

218 I + 47,090 = 0
a
2
218

or

218

## 4 0.032 47, 090

= 223.5 A
a
Line inut current I
F.L. oer inut
F.L. efficiency

2 0.032
= Ia + Ish = 223.5 + 2.55 = 226 A
= 226 220 = 49,720 W
= 44,760/49,720 = 0.9 or 90%.

Examle 31.6.
A 200 V, shunt motor develos an outut of 17.158 kW h
en taking 20.2 kW.
The field resistance is 50 and armature resistance 0.06 . hat is the efficiency
and power input
when the output is 7.46 k ?
(Elect. Machines-I,
Aligarh Muslim Univ. 1989)
Solution. In the first case
Output
=
20,200 
Total losses
=
,200/200 = 101 A
I
=
sh

(I

17,158 

Input

## 20,200 17,158 = 3,042 W ; Inut current = 20

200/50 = 4 A ; I

= 101 4 = 97 A
a

2
= 97 0.06 = 564.5 W
= 3,042 564.5 = 2,477.5 = 2478 W (arox.)

Armature Cu loss

Constant losses
In the second case :
Let,
I
+ 4) A

Inut current =

= armature current
a

a
inut oer

No,

2
= outut + I R + constant losses
a a
2
= 7,460 + 0.06 I + 2,478
a

200(I + 4)
a
2
0.06I
200I + 9,138 = 0
a
a

or

2
200

0.12

Ia
= 3,283.3 A or 46 A

200

4 0.06 9,138
2 0.06

200 194
=

## We ill reject the larger value because it corresonds to unstable oerati

on of the motor. Hence, take
I = 46 A.
a

Inut current

100
= 74.6%

Poer inut

I = Ia + Ish = 46 + 4 = 50 A
50 200
=

= 10 kW
1000

7, 460

=
10

, 000
Example 31.7. A 200-V, 14.92 kW dc sunt motor wen tested by te Swinbur
ne metod gave
te following results :

Running ligt : armature current was 6.5 A and field current 2.2 A.
Wit te armature locked,
te current was 70 A wen a potential difference of 3 V was applied to te brus
es.
Estimate te
efficiency of te motor wen working under full-load conditions.
(Electri
cal Engg.-I, Bombay Univ. 1985)
Solution. No-load input current = 6.5 + 2.2 = 8.7 A
= 200 8.7 = 1,740 W
No-load input equals Cu losses and stray losses.
Field Cu loss
= 200 2.2 = 440 W
2
Armature Cu loss
= 6.5 0.04286 = 1.8 W
( R = 3/70 = 0.04286 )
a

Constant losses
= 1,740 1.8 = 1738 W
We ill assume that constant losses are the same at full load also.
Let,
Ia = full load armature current
Page 8
1098

Electrical Technology
F.L. armature Cu loss

2
0.04286 Ia W ; Constant losses

= 1,738 W
F.L. total loss =
F.L. outut
=

+ 2.2) W

2
1,738 + 0.04286 Ia
14,920 W ; F.L. inut = 200 (I

a
inut =

We kno,

outut + losses

2
or

200 I

+ 440

a
a
2
or

0.04286 I

200 I
a

+ 16,218 = 0
a

Inut current =
F.L. oer inut
=
=

I = 82.5 A
a

## 82.5 + 2.2 = 84.7 A

200 84.7 A = 16,940 W
14,920 100/16,940 = 88%

## Example 31.8. In a test on a d.c. sunt generator wose full-load output i

s 200 kW at 250 V, te
following figures were obtained :
(a) Wen running ligt as a motor at full speed, te line current was 36
A, te field current
12 A, and te supply voltage 250.
(b) Wit te macine at rest, a p.d. of 6 V produced a current of 400 A
troug te armature
circuit. Explain ow tese results may be utilised to obtain te efficiency of

## Neglect brus voltage drop.

I =
a
Armature Cu loss
Constant losses
Outut
800 A ; Ish = 12 A

## F.L. armature current

=
=
=

36 12 = 24 A ; R = 6/400 = 0.015
a
2
24 0.015 = 8.64 watt
total losses in machine = 250 36 = 9,000 
9,000 8.64 = 8,991.4 W

## 200,000 W ; Outut current = 200,000/250 =

= 800 + 12 = 812 A
2
F.L. armature Cu losses = 812
0.015 = 9890 W

= 91.4%

=
20

Output

400 + 12 = 412 A

400 A
I

2
2
I R = 412 0.0

15 = 2,546 W
a

a a

Total losses
= 89.6%

## 8,991.4 + 2,546 = 11,537 W

111, 537
Example 31.9. A 250-V, 14.92
% and a speed of
700 r.p.m. wen delivering
tance of its sunt field
Determine the efficiency and speed
he mains.

## kW sunt motor as a maximum efficiency of 88

80% of its rated output. Te resis
is 100 .
when the motor draws a current of 78 A from t

= 14,920 
80% of F.L. output
= 0.8 14.920 = 11,936  ; = 0.88
Input = 11,936/0.88 = 13,564 W
Total losses
= 13,564 11,936 = 1,628 W
As efficiency is maximum at this load, the variable loss is equal to const
ant losses.
2
2

W
= I R = 1,628/2

I R = 814
W
c
a a
a a
Solution.

No,

5 2.5 = 51.75 A

inut current

=
=

I
sh

Page 9

13,564/250 = 54.25 A
250/100 = 2.5 A

I = 54.2
a

Testing
of D.C. Machines

1099
2

51.75

814

R = 814/51.75 = 0.30

45
a

2

2
I

= 75.5

78 2.5 = 75.5 A

I R

## 1,736 + 814 = 2,550 W ; Inut =

0.3045 = 1,736 W
a

a a
Total losses
250 78 = 19,500 W

100 = 86.9%
19, 550

Speed :
N 2

Eb2

N2

227
=
; N = 680 r..m.
N 1
Eb1

=
234.25

or

=
700

## 31.5.31.5. RegeneraRegenerativtivee or or Hokinson Hokinsonss TTestest (Bac

(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)
31.5. Regenerative or Hokinsons Test (Back to Back Test)
31.5.31.5. RegeneraRegenerativtivee or or Hokinson Hokinsonss TTestest (Bac
(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)
By this method,full load test can be carried out on to shunt machines, 
referably identical ones,
ithout asting their oututs. The to machines are mechanically couled and are
that one of them runs as a motor and the other as a generator. The mechanical ou
tut of the motor drives the
generator and the electrical outut of generator is used in sulying the greate
r art of inut to the motor. If
there ere no losses in the machines, they ould have run ithout any external 
oer suly. But due to
these losses, generator outut is not sufficient to drive the motor and vice ver
sa. The losses are sulied
either by an extra motor hich is belt connected to the motor generator set or a
s suggested by Ka,
electrically from the suly mains.
Essential connections for the test
are shon in Fig. 31.6. The to shunt
machines are connected in arallel.
They are, to begin ith, started as un
loaded motors. Then, the field of one
is eakened and that of the other is
strengthened so that the former runs

## as a motor and the latter as a genera

tor. The usual method of rocedure is
as follos :
Machine M is started u from the
suly mains ith the hel of a starter
(not shon) hereas main sitch S of
the other machine is ket oen. Its
Fig. 31.6
seed is adjusted to normal value by means of its shield regulator. Machine M d
rives machine G as a
gen
erator and its voltage is read on volt
mete
r V1. The voltage of G is adjusted
by i
ts field regulator until voltmeter V1
s zero, thereby shoing that its volt
age
is the same, both in olarity and mag
nitu
de as that of the main suly. There
aft
er, S is closed to arallel the machines.
By
tors
, any load can no be thron on to
the
machines. Generator current I can
1
Motor cum generator set
djusted to any desired value by in

be a

cre
asing the excitation of G or by reduc
ing the excitation of M and the corresonding values of different ammeters are r
Page 10
1100

Electrical Technology

The electrical outut of the generatorlus the small oer taken from the
suly, is taken by the motor
and is given out as a mechanical oer after sulying the motor losses.
If suly voltage is V, then
Motor inut
= V(I + I ), here I is the current take
n from the suly.
1
2
2
Generator outut

VI1
...(i)

Output of motor

## = input = V(I + I ) = generator input

1
2
2

Output of generator

= input = V(I
...(ii)

+ I ) =
1

V(I + I )

2
Hence, from (i) and (ii), we get
I
2
V(I + I )
1
2

1
=

VI

or
1

=
I + I
1
2

However, it is not quite correct to assume equal efficiencies for two mac
ines because teir armature
currents as well as excitations are different. We will not find te efficiencies
separately.
Let
R
= armature resistance of eac macine
a
I 3 = exciting current of te generator
I4 = exciting current of te motor
2
2
Armature Cu loss in generator = (I + I ) R ; Armature Cu loss in motor
= (I + I
I ) R
1
3
a
1
2
4
a
Shunt Cu loss in generator = VI ; Shunt Cu loss in motor = VI
3
4
But total motor and generator losses are equal to the oer sulied by th
e mains.
Poer dran from suly = VI
2
If e subtract the armature and shunt Cu losses from this, e get the stra
y losses of both machines.

## Total stray losses for the set

2
2
= VI [(I + I ) R + (I + I I ) R
+ VI + VI ] = W (say)
2
1
3
a
1
2
4
a
3
4
Making one assumtion that stray losses are equally divided beteen the t
o machines, e have
Stray loss er machine = W/2
For Generator
2
Total losses
= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W (say)
1
3
a
3
g
VI
Outut
= VI

=
1
1
g
VI + W
1
g

Total losses

2
(I + I I ) R + VI + W/2 = W

(say)

m
V ( I + I
) W
1
2

Inut

V(I
1

+ I )
2

=
m

V ( I1

+ I2)
31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop
kinsonss TTestest
31.6. Alter native Connections for Hopkinsons Test
31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop
kinsonss TTestest
In Fig. 31.7 is sown in sligtly different metod of connecting te two m
acines to te supply. Here,
te main difference is tat te sunt windings are directly connected across te
lines. Hence, te line input
current is I 1 excluding te field currents. Te efficiencies can be calculated
as detailed below :
2
2
Motor armature Cu loss = (I + I ) R
; Generator armature Cu los
s =I
R
1
2
a
2 a
Power drawn from te supply = V I1

Total stray losses i.e. iron, friction and windage losses for te two
macines are
2
2
= VI [(I + I ) R I R ] = W (say)
1
1
2
a
2 a
Page 11
Testing o
f D.C. Machines

1101

## stray loss for each machine = W/2

Motor Efficiency
Motor inut
= armature inut + shunt field inut = V (I +
I ) + VI + W
1

inut
Motor losses

## = armature Cu loss + shunt Cu loss + stray los

ses
2
= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W
1
2
a
3
W
Motor

W
input

m 100

(say)
m

W
input
Generator Efficiency
Generator output
/2 = W (say)

2
R + V I + W

= VI ; Generator losses = I
2

g
VI

Generator

2
+ W

VI
2

## 31.7.31.7. MerMeritsits of of Hopkinson Hopkinsonss TTestest

31.7. Merits of Hopkinsons Test
31.7.31.7. MerMeritsits of of Hopkinson Hopkinsonss TTestest
1. Power required for te test is small as compared to te full-load pow
ers of te two macines.
2.
As macines are being tested under full-load conditions, te temperat
ure rise and te commutation
qualities of te macines can be observed.
Fig. 31.7
3.
Because of full-load conditions, any cange in iron loss due to flux
taken into account.
Te only disadvantage is wit regard to te availability of two identical
macines.
Example 31.10 (a).
In a Hopkinsons test on two 220-V, 100-kW generat
ors, te circulating
current is equal to te full-load current and, in addition, 90 A are taken from
te supply. Obtain te
efficiency of eac macine.
Solution. Output current of te generator
100, 000
5, 000
I
=
=
= 454.4 A, I = 90 A
1
220
11
2
Assuming equal efficiencies, from Art. 29.5, we ave

I 1
I + I
1

454.5
454.5 + 90 = 0.914 or 91.4%

Example 31.10 (b). In te Hopkinsons test on two d.c. macines, macine A a
s a field current
of 1.4 A and macine B as a field current of 1.3 A. Wic macine acts as a ge
nerator ?
(Barati
tasan University April 1997)
----------------------- Page 12-----------------------

1102

Electrical Tecnology

Solution. In Hopkinsons test (on two identical d.c. sunt macines), since t
e two macines are
coupled, te speed is common and is decided by te field current of te motor. T
e field windings of bot
te macines are in parallel wit a separate D.C. source.
Since te macines are identical and are running at te same speed, teir e
.m.fs are in proportion to
teir field currents.
E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine A
1.4
=
E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine B
1.3
E
= (1.4/1.3) E = 1.077 E
A
B
B
Since E is larger tan E , Macine A supplies power to Macine B. It me
ans, A is working as a
A
B
generator, and B is motoring.
Example 31.11. Two sunt macines loaded for te Hopkinsons test take 15 A
at 200 V from te
supply. Te motor current is 100 A and te sunt currents are 3 A and 2.5 A.
If te armature
resistance of eac macine is 0.05 om, calculate te efficiency of eac macine
for tis particular
(Bar
atitasan Univ. April 1997)
Solution. Line current into armature circuits = 15 A, Motor armature coppe
r-loss = 500 W
Motor-armature-current = 100 A, Generator armature copper loss = 361 W
Hence generator-armature-current = 85 A
For eac macine, No load Mecanical losses + Core-loss + Stray losses
2
2
= ( VI I
r I
r )
a
am am
ag ag
2
2
= (200 15 100
0.05 85
0.05)
= (3000 500 361) = 1069.5 W
Motor field coer loss
= 200 3 = 600 W 1.07 kW
Generator field coer loss
= 200 2.5 = 500 W
Total Losses in motor = 600 + 1069.5 + 500 = 2169.5 W
Total Losses in Generator
= 500 + 1069.5 + 361 = 1931 W
Motor outut
Efficiency of motor
=
100%
Motor inut
Motor Inut :

## (a) 200 100 = 20 kW to armature

(b) 0.6 kW to field inding
Total Inut to motor = 20.6 kW
From armature side, losses to be catered are :
(i) Stray losses + No Load Mech. Losses + Core Losses = 1.07 kW
(ii) Armature coer loss = 0.5 kW
Motor Outut from armature = 20 0.5 1.07 = 18.43 kW
18.43
Motor efficiency =
100% = 89.47%
20.6
3
Generator armature outut = 200 85 10
= 17 kW
Generator losses : (a)
Field dg : 0.5 kW

## (b) Total no load losses : 1.07 kW

(c) armature coer loss = 0.36 kW
Total losses in Generator = 1.93 kW
17
Generator efficiency =
100% = 89.80%
17 + 1.93
Secial Note: 15 A current for d.c. suly is related here to armature inu
t for to machines
hich are under back to back regenerative tests. There are different variations
in handling and giving
the test data. It is alays desirable to dra the circuit diagram according to 
hich the calculations are
being related.
Page 13
Testing of D.C
. Machines

1103

Examle 31.12.
The Hokinsons test on to similar shunt machines gave t
he folloing full
Line voltage
= 110 V
Field currents are
3 A and 3.5 A
Line current
= 48 A
Arm. resistance of
each is 0.035
Motor arm. current
= 230 A
Calculate the efficiency of each machine assuming a brush contact drop of 1
volt per brush.
(Electrical Machi
nes, Nagpur Univ. 1992)
Solution. The motor-generator set is shown in Fig. 31.8. It should also be
noted that the machine with
lesser excitation is motoring. e will find the total armature Cu losses and bru
sh contact loss for both
machines.
Motor
2
Arm. Cu loss
= 230 0.035 = 1,851.5 
Brush contact loss
= 230 2 = 460 
Total arm. Cu loss
= 1851.5 +
460
= 2,312 
Shunt Cu loss
= 110 3 = 330 
Total Cu loss
= 2,312 + 330 = 2,642 
Generator
Generator arm. current = 233 48 + 3.5
= 188.5 W
2
Arm. Cu loss = 188.5
0.035 = 1,244 W
Brush contact Cu loss = 188.5 2 = 377 W
Total arm. Cu loss = 1,244 + 377 = 1,621 W
Shunt Cu loss = 110 3.5 = 385 W ;
Total Cu loss = 1,621 + 385 = 2,006 W
For the Set
Total arm. and shunt Cu loss for the set
= 2,642 + 2,006 = 4,648 W
Fig. 31.8
= 632 W

Total inut = 110 48 = 5,280 W ; Stray losses for the set = 5,280 4,648

## Stray losses er machine = 632/2 = 316 W

Motor Efficiency
Arm. Cu + brush dro loss = 2,312 W
Shunt Cu loss = 330 W
Stray losses = 316 W
Total loss = 2,312 + 330
+ 316 = 2,958 W
Motor inut = 110 233 = 25,630 W ; Motor outut = 25,630 2,9
58 = 22,672

## = 22,672 100/25,630 = 88.8%

Generator Efficiency
Total losses = 2,006 + 316 = 2,322 W ; Output = 110 185 = 20,
350 W
Generator input
= 20,350 + 2,322 = 22,672 W = motor input
= 20,350/22,672 = 0.894 or 89.4%
Example 31.13. In a Hopkinsons test on a pair of 500-V, 100-kW sunt generat
ors, te following data was obtained :
Auxiliary supply, 30 A at 500 V : Generator output current, 200 A
Field currents, 3.5 A and 1.8 A
Armature circuit resistances, 0.075 each machine. Voltage drop at brushes,
2 V (each machine).
Calculate the efficiency of the machine acting as a generator.
(Elect. Technolog
y-1, Gwalior Univ. 1986)
----------------------- Page 14----------------------1104

Electrical Technology
Solution. Motor arm. current = 200 + 30 = 230 A, as shown in Fig. 31.9.
2
Motor arm. Cu loss
= 230 0.075 + 230 2 = 4,428 
Motor field Cu loss
= 500 1.8 = 900 
2
Generator arm. Cu loss
= 200 0.075 +
200 2 = 3,400 
Geneator field Cu loss =
500 3.5 = 1,750 
Total Cu loss for two machines
= 4,428 + 900 + 3400 + 1750
= 10,478 
Power taken from auxiliary supply
= 500 30 = 15,000 
Stray losses for the two machines
= 15,000 10,478 = 4,522 W

## Stray loss er machine = 4,522/2 = 2,261 W

Fig. 31.9
Total losses in generator = 3400 + 1750 + 2261 = 7,411 W
Generator outut
= 500 200 = 100,000 W
outut
100, 000

=
=
100 = 93.09%
g
output + losses
107, 411
Example 31.14. Explain te Hopkinsons test on a pair of sunt motors.
In suc a test on 250-V macines, te line current was 50 A and te motor c
urrent 400 A not
including te field currents of 6 A and 5 A. Te armature resistance of eac ma
cine was 0.015 .

## Calculate the efficiency of each machine.

, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1991)

## Solution. The connections are shown in Fig. 31.10.

Motor armature Cu loss
2
= 400 0.015 = 2,400 
Generator armature Cu loss
2
= 350 0.015 = 1,838 
Power drawn from supply
= 250 50 = 12,500 
Iron, friction and windage losses for the two
machines
= 12,500 (2,400 + 1,838)
= 8,262 W
Iron, friction and indage loss er machine
= 8.262/2 = 4,130 W* (arox.)
Fig. 31.10
Motor Losses and Efficiency
Motor arm. Cu loss = 2,400 W ; Motor field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1,250 W
Iron, friction and indage losses = 4,130 W
Total motor losses
= 2,400 + 1,250 + 4,130 = 7,780 W
Motor inut
= 250 400 + 250 5 = 101,250 W
Motor efficiency
= (101,250 7,780)/101,250 = 0.923 or 92.3%
We could also get this value as follos :
Total suly inut = 250 61 = 15,250 W ; Gen. and motor field Cu loss = 250
6 + 250 5 = 2,750 W
Iron, friction and indage losses for both machines
= 15,250 (2,400 + 1,838 + 2,750) = 8,26
2 W
as before
*

D.C. Machines

1105

## Generator Losses and Efficiency

Generator arm. Cu loss = 1,838  ; Generator field Cu loss = 250 6 = 1,500

Iron, friction and windage loss = 4,130 
Total losses = 1,838 + 1,500 + 4,130 = 7.468 
Generator output = 250 350 = 87,500 
Generator efficiency = (87,500 7.468)/87,500 = 0.915 or 91.5%
Examle 31.15. The Hokinsons test on to shunt machines gave the folloing
results for full
Line voltage = 250 V ; current taken from suly system excluding field cur
rents = 50 A ; motor
armature current = 380 A ; field currents 5 A and 4.2 A.
Calculate
the efficiency of the machine
Armature resistance of each machine is 0.2 .
orking as a generator.
(Electrical Machi
nery-I Mysore Univ. 1988)
Solution. The connections are shown in Fig. 31.11.

0.02 = 2,888 
2
Generator arm. Cu loss = 330
0.02 = 2,178 
Power drawn from supply = 250 50 = 12,500 
Stray losses for the two machines
= 12,500 (2,888 + 2,178) = 7.434 W
Stray losses er machine = 7,434/2 = 3,717 W
Motor Efficiency
Arm. Cu loss
= 2,888 W
Field Cu loss
= 250 4.2 = 1050 W
Stray losses = 3,717 W
Total loss = 2,888 + 1050 + 3,717
= 7,655 W
Motor inut
= 250 380 + 250 4.2
= 96,050 W
Motor outut
= 96,050 7,655
Fig. 31.11
= 88,395 W

## = 88,395/96,050 = 0.9203 or 92.03%

Generator Efficiency
Arm. Cu loss
= 2,178 W ; Field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1250 W
Stray losses
= 3,717 W ; Total losses = 7,145 W
Generator output =
250 330 = 82,500 W
Generator input
= 82,500 + 7,145 = 89,645 W
= 82,500/89,645 = 0.9202 or 92.02%
Motor arm. Cu loss

= 380

## 31.8.31.8. RetarRetardadationtion or or Running Running Do Downwn TTestest

31.8. Retardation or Running Down Test
31.8.31.8. RetarRetardadationtion or or Running Running Do Downwn TTestest
Tis metod is applicable
nding stray losses. Ten,
knowing te armature and sunt
be calculated.
Te macine under test is
en supply is cut off from
te armature wile keeping te
own and its kinetic energy
is used to meet te rotational

## to sunt motors and generators and is used for fi

Cu losses at a given load current, efficiency can
speeded up sligtly beyond its normal speed and t
field excited. Consequently, te armature slows d

## losses i.e. friction, windage and iron losses.*

1
2
Kinetic energy of te armature is K.E. =
I
2
I = moment of inertia of the armature and = angular velocity
here

## Rotational losses, W = Rate of loss of K.E.

*
If armature slos don ith no excitation, then energy of the armature is u
sed to overcome mechanical
losses only, there being no iron losses (see Ex. 31.19).
Page 16
1106

Electrical Technology

d
1
2
d
dt ( 2 I ) = I . dt

d
dN
To quantities need be knon (i) moment of inertia (I) of the armature and
(ii)
or

dt
dt
because N. These are found as follos :
d
(a) Finding
dt
Fig. 31.12
Fig. 31.13
As shon in Fig. 31.12, a voltmeter V is connected
across the armature.
This voltmeter is used as a seed
indicator by suitably graduating it, because E N. When
suly is cut off, the armature seed and hence voltme
ter reading falls. By noting different amounts of voltage
fall in different amounts of time, a curve is dran be
teen time and the seed (obtained from voltage values)
as shon in Fig. 31.13.
From any oint P hich corresonds to normal seed,
a tangentAB is dran.
dN
OB (in r..m.)
Then
=
dt
OA (in seconds)
d
From (i), above
W = I dt
t ound generator
No

2N
60

Shun

...(N in r..m.)
2

2N

2N

dN

dN
;
0.011
=

. .

. .
I N

dt

W = I ( 60 ) dt ( 60
...(ii)

) W = ( 60 ) I N

dt

## (ii) Finding Moment of Inertia (I)

(a) First Methodwhere I is calculated.
First, slowing down curve is drawn with armature alone. Next, a fly-wheel o
f known moment of inertia
I is keyed onto the shaft and slowing down curve is drawn again. Obviously, slo
wing down time will be
1
longer due to combined increased moment of inertia of the tw
o.
For any given speed,
(dN/dt ) and (dN/dt ) are determined as before. It should be noted that the loss
es in both cases would be
1
2
almost the same, because addition of a fly-wheel will not make much difference t
o the losses.
Hence, from equation (ii) above
2 2
dN
In the first case,
W = ( 60 ) IN
dt1
Page 17

Testing of
D.C. Machines

1107

## In the second case, W

2 2
( 60 ) (I + I 1)N

(I + I )
dN
1
dt
2

dN
dt

or

dN
dt2

I + I 1
I

1
(

/
dN dt

dN
dt
1

dN
dt
2

)
dt

I = I 1

I =

I 1

= I 1

1
(

/ ) (
/
dN dt
dN dt

)
dt dt

t t
1
1

## (b) Second Methodwhere I is eliminated.

In this method, first, time taken to slow down, say by 5%, is noted with a
rmature alone. Next, a
retarding torquemechanical or preferably electrical, is applied to the armature
and again time is noted.
The method using electrical torque is shown in Fig. 31.12. The double-throw swi
tch S while cutting off
the armature from supply, automatically joins it to a non-inductive resistance
R as shown. The power
drawn by this resistance acts as a retarding torque on the armature, thereby ma
king it slow down
2
comparatively quickly. The additional loss is I (R + R) or VI ,
a a
a
where
Ia = average current through R ; V = average volt
age across R.
Let  be this power. Then from (i) above
2
2

dN
. .
( 60 ) I N dt1

W =

W + W

W + W

2
2
. . dN
( 60 ) I N dt2
dt1

If dN is the same

dt2

t2

=
W

dt2

W= W

or
dt1 dt 2

t1 t2

here

dN
=
dt
1
dN

W = W

## rate of change of seed ith extra electrica

=
dt
2

Examle 31.16.
In a retardation test on a searately excited motor,
the induced e.m.f. in the
armature falls from 220 V to 190 V in 30 seconds on disconnecting the armature
from the suly.
The same fall takes lace in 20 seconds if, immediately after disconnection, ar
mature is connected
to a resistance hich takes 10 A (average) during this fall.
Find str
ay losses of the motor.
hines, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1992)
Solution. Let

W =

## stray losses (mechanical and magnetic losses

)
Average voltage across resistance = (200 + 190)/2 = 195 V, Average current
= 10 A

## Poer absorbed W = 1950 W

W
t2
20
Using the relation
=
; e get W = 1950
3,900 att
W
t t
30 20
1
2
Examle 31.17. In a retardation test on a d.c. motor,
ally excited, the seed
fell from 1525 to 1475 r..m. in 25 seconds.
load of 1.0 kW sulied by the
armature, the same seed dro occurred in 20 seconds. Find
nertia of the rotat
2
ing arts in kg.m .
es III, Gujarat Univ. 1984)

With

an

average

## out the moment of i

(Electrical Machin

2 2
dN
W =
. .
. Also W = W
( 60 ) I N
dt

t2
t1

t2
Here,

## 1 kW = 1000 W, t = 25 second, t = 20 second

1
2

Page 18
1108

Electrical Technology

No,
5 = 50 r..m. ; dt = 25

W
N

## = 1000 20/(25 20) = 4000 W

= 1500 r..m. (average seed) ; dN = 1525 147
2

4000

## = (2/60) I .1500 50/25

I = 121.8 kg.

m .
Examle 31.18. A retardation test is made on a searately excited d.c. mac
hine as a motor. The

## induced voltage falls from 240 V to 225 V in 25 seconds

on oening the armature circuit and
6 seconds on suddenly changing the armature connection from suly to a load r
esistance taking
10 A (average). Find the efficiency of the machines hen running as a motor an
d taking a current of
25 A on a suly of 250 V. The resistance of its armature is 0.4 and that of i
ts field winding is 250 .
(Elect. T

oss

## Solution. Average voltage across load

= (240 + 225)/2 = 232.5 V ; Iav = 10 A

Power absorbed  =
232.5 10 = 2,325 
and
t = 30 second, t = 6 second ;  = stray l
1

Using

2
t2

= 734.1 , we get

=
t t
1
2

6
Stray losses
= 24 A

W =
Inut current =

2325

= 734.1 W
25 6
25 A ; I = 250/250 = 1 A ; I
sh

= 25 1
a

2
Armature Cu loss =
1 = 250 W

Total

losses =
Inut =

## 24 0.4 = 230.4 W ; Shunt Cu loss = 250

734.1 + 230.4 + 250 = 1,215 W (arox.)
250 25 = 6,250 W ; Outut = 6,250 1,215

= 5,035 W

=
5,035/6,250 = 0.806 or 80.6%
Example 31.19. A retardation test is carried out on a 1000 r.p.m. d.c. mac
ine. Te time taken
for te speed to fall from 1030 r.p.m. to 970 r.p.m. is :
(a) 36 seconds wit no excitation
(b) 15 seconds wit full excitation and
(c) 9 seconds wit full excitation and te armature supplying an extra l
oad of 10 A at 219 V.
2

Calculate (i) te moment of inertia of te armature in kg. m (ii) iron lo
sses and (iii) te mecanical losses at te mean speed of 1000 r.p.m.
Solution. It sould be noted tat
(i) wen armature slows down wit no excitation, its kinetic energy is u
sed to overcome mecanical
losses only ; because due to te absence of flux, tere is no iron loss.
(ii) wit excitation, kinetic energy is used to supply mecanical and iro
n losses collectively known as
stray losses.
2
(iii) If I is taken in kg-m unit, ten rate of loss of energy is in watts
.
2
2

dN

Mechanical loss

W
...Art. 31.8

=
. .
I N
m

Here
conds, N = 1000 r..m.

( 60 )

dt

## = 1030 970 = 60 r..m., dt = 36 se

dN

2
2

60
. .
( 60 ) I N 36

Wm
=
...(i)

2
2
Similarly

W
=
...(ii)
s

(
60

Also W
= 3,285 W

60
. .
) I N
15
t2

= 219 10

t t
1
2

15 9

Page 19
Testi
ng of D.C. Machines

1109

2
3,285

2
( 60 )

60
I 1000 15
2

(i)

I =
W

75 kg.m
15

m
=
W

36
s

(ii)
(iii)

Wm
Iron losses

=
=

## 3,285 15/36 = 1,369 W

W W = 3,285 1,369 = 1,916 W
s
m

## 31.9.31.9. FieldFieldss TTest fest for Seror Series Motories Motor

31.9. Fields Test for Series Motor
31.9.31.9. FieldFieldss TTest fest for Seror Series Motories Motor
This test is alicable to to similar
series motors. Series motors hich are
mainly used for traction ork are easily
available in airs. The to machines are
couled mechanically.

## One machine runs normally as a

motor and drives generator hose outut
is
asted in a variable load R (Fig.
31.14). Iron and friction losses of to
machines are made equal (i) by joining
the series field inding of the generator
in the motor armature circuit so that both
Fig. 31.14
machines are equally
excited and (ii) by running them at

## current reaches its f

ull load value indicated by ammeter
tment for full load current, different
ammeter and voltmeter

## e ; I = motor current ; V = terminal

1

.d. of generator ; I

2

## Intake of the hole

= VI ; outut = V I .

set

2 2
Total losses in the s

et,

W = VI
t

V I
1

2 2
2

2
Armature and field Cu

losses W
cu

= (R + 2R

)I

+ I R

se 1

## Micro series motors

re resistance of each machine

a
R

se

## Stray losses er machine

=
s

W W
t
W W
t
2

cu
cu

Stray losses are equally divided beteen the machines because of their equ

Motor Efficiency
Motor inut

Motor losses

V I
1 1

2
= (R + R
)I + W = W (say)
a
se 1
s
m

V I W
1 1
m
V I
1 1

## ----------------------- Page 20----------------------1110

Electrical Tecnology

Generator Efficiency
Te generator efficiency will be of little use because it is running under
abnormal conditions of separate
excitation. However, te efficiency under tese unusual conditions can be found
if desired.
Generator output
= V I
2 2
2
Field Cu loss
= I 1Rse
( Mo
tor current is passing troug it.)
2
Armature Cu loss
= I R ; Stray losses = W
2 a
s
2
2
Total losses
= I R
+ I R + W = W (say)
1 se
2 a
s
g
V

I
2 2

=
g

V I + W
2 2
g

It sould be noted tat altoug te two macines are mecanically coupled
yet it is not a regenerative
metod, because te generator output is wasted instead of being fed back into t
e motor as in Hopkinsons
(back-to-back) test.
Example 31.20. A test on two coupled similar tramway motors, wit teir f
ields connected in
series, gave te following results wen one macine acted as a motor and te ot
er as a generator.
Motor :
Armature current
= 56 A ; Armature voltage
= 590 V
Voltage drop across field winding
= 40 V
Generator :
Armature current
= 44 A ; Armature voltage
= 400 V
Field voltage drop
= 40 V ; Resistance of ea
c armature = 0.3
Calculate the efficiency of the motor and gearing at this load.

## (Elect. Machinery-II, Nagpur Univ. 1992 & JNTU,

Solution. The connection for the two machines are shown in Fig. 31.15.
Total input = 630 56 = 35,280 
Output
= 400 44 = 17,600 
Total losses in the two machines are
= 35,280 17,600 = 17,680 W
Series field resistance
R
= 40/56
se
= 0.714
2

## Total Cu loss = (0.3 + 2 0.714) 56 + 44

0.3 = 5,425 + 581 = 6,006 
Stray losses of the set= 17,680 6,006
= 11,674 W

Stray losses/machine=
11,674/2 = 5,837 W
Motor Efficiency
Motor armature inut = arm. voltage motor
Fig. 31.15
current = 590 56 = 33,040 W
Armature circuit Cu loss
2
= (0.3 + 0.714) 56 = 3,180 W
= 5,837 W found above
= 3,180 + 5,837 = 9,017 , Output = 33,040 9,0

Stray loss
Total losses
17 = 24,023 W

## ----------------------- Page 21----------------------Testi

ng of D.C. Macines

1111

Generator Efficiency
2
Armature Cu loss
0 56 = 2,240 W
Stray losses
837 = 8,658 W
Output

= 44
=

## 5,837 W ; Total losses = 581 + 2,240 + 5,

= 400 44 = 17,600 W
= 17,600/(17,600 + 8,658) = 0.67 or 67%
g
TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N

o. 31.1 31.1
Tutorial Problem No. 31.1
TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N
o. 31.1 31.1
1. A 500-V, sunt motor takes a total current of 5 A wen running unloa
ded.
Te resistance of
armature circuit is 0.25 and the field resistance is 125 . Calculate the effic
iency and output when the
motor is loaded and taking a current of 100 A.
[90.4% ; 45.2 k]
2. A d.c. shunt motor rated at 12.5 k output runs at no-load at 1000 r
.p.m. from a 250-V supply

## consuming an input current of 4 A.

The armature resistance is 0.5 and
shunt field resistance is 250 .
Calculate the efficiency of the machine when delivering full-load output of 12
.5 k while operating at 250
V.
[81.57%] (Elect
3. The following results were obtained during Hopkinsons test on two sim
ilar 230-V machines;
armature currents 37 A and 30 A; field currents 0.85 A and 0.8 A. Calculate t
he efficiencies of machines if
each has an armature resistance of 0.33 .
[Generator 87.9%, Motor 87.7%]
4. In a Fields test on two 230-V, 1.492 k mechanically-coupled similar
series motors, the following
figures were obtained. Each has armature and compole winding resistance of 2.4
, series field resistance of
1.45 and total brush drop of 2 V. The p.d. across armature and field was 230
V with a motor current of
10.1 A. The generator supplied a current of 8.9 A at a terminal p.d. of 161 V
. Calculate the efficiency and
output of the motor for this load.
[76.45%, 1.775 k]
5. Describe the Hopkinsons test for obtaining the efficien
cy of two similar shunt motors. The
readings obtained in such a test were as follows ; line voltage 100 V ; motor
current 30 A ; generator current
25 A ; armature resistance of each machine 0.25 .
Calculate the effi
ciency of each machine from these
results, ignoring the field currents and assuming that their iron and mechanic
al losses are the same.
[Motor 90.05%, Generator 92.5%]
6. The Hopkinsons test on two similar d.c. shunt machines gave the follo
wing results :
Line voltage = 220 V ; line current excluding field currents = 40 A ; th
e armature current of motoring
machine = 200 A ; field currents 6 A and 7 A. Calculate the efficiency of eac
h of the machines at the given
load conditions. The armature resistance of each of the machines is 0.05 .

## = 86.58% ; = 86.3%] (Electrical Engg-I, M.S. Univ

. Baroda 1980)
m

g
OBJECTIVE TEST 31

## 1. One of te main advantages of Swinburnes test

is tat it
of a large d.c. sunt motor istest.
(a) is applicable bot to sunt and compound
pkinsons
motors
inburnes
(b) needs one running test
tardation
(c) is very economical and convenient
elds

3. Te most
losses
(a) Ho
(b) Sw
(c) re
(d) Fi

## (d) ignores any carge in iron loss

tion test on a d.c. sunt motor is used for
2. Te main disadvantage of Hopkinsons test for
ses.
finding efficiency of sunt d.c. motors is tat it
ray
pper
(b) ignores any cange in iron loss
iction
(c) needs one motor and one generator
on
(d) requires two identical sunt macines

4. Retarda
findinglos
(a) st
(b) co
(c) fr
(d) ir

## ----------------------- Page 22----------------------1112

Electrical Tecnology

## 5. Te main ting common between Hopkinsons

for determining te efficiency of a
test and Fields test is tat bot
is te .............. test.
(a) require two electrically-coupled series motors
(b) need two similar mecanically-coupled
tion
motors
ons
(c) use negligible power
nes
(d) are regenerative tests

## 6. Te usual test

traction motor
(a) Fields
(b) retarda
(c) Hopkins
(d) Swinbur

1. c

2. d

3. b

4. a

5. b

6.

a
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON D.C. MOTORS
Q. 1. How may te direction of rotation of a d.c. motor be reversed ?
Ans.
By reversing eiter te field current or current troug te armatu
re. Usually, reversal of
current troug te armature is adopted.
Q. 2. Wat will appen if bot currents are reversed ?
Ans.
Te motor will run in te original direction.
Q. 3. Wat will appen if te field of a d.c. sunt motor is opened ?
Ans.
Te motor will acieve dangerously ig speed and may destroy itsel
f.
Q. 4. Wat appens if te direction of current at te terminals of a seri
es motor is reversed ?
Ans.
It does not reverse te direction of rotation of motor because curr
ent flows troug te
armature in te same direction as troug te field.
Q. 5. Explain wat appens wen a d.c. motor is connected across an a.c.
supply ?
Ans.
1. Since on a.c. supply, reactance will come into te picture, t
e a.c. supply will be offered
impedance (not resistance) by te armature winding. Consequent
ly, wit a.c. supply,
current will be muc less. Te motor will run but it would not
carry te same load as it

## would on d.c. supply.

2. Tere would be more sparking at te bruses.
3. Toug motor armature is laminated as a rule, te field poles
are not. Consequently, eddy
currents will cause te motor to eat up and eventually burn o
n a.c. supply.
Q. 6. Wat will appen if a sunt motor is directly connected to te supp
ly line ?
Ans.
Small motors up to 1 kW rating may be line-started witout any adve
rse results being produced. Hig rating motors must be started troug a suitable starte
r in order to avoid te uge
starting current wic will
(i) damage te motor itself and (ii) badly affect te voltage regu
lation of te supply line.
Q. 7. Wat is te function of interpoles and ow are interpole windings c
onnected ?
Ans.
Interpoles are small poles placed in between te main poles. Teir
function is to assist commutation by producing te auxiliary or commutating flux. Consequently
, brus sparking is practically eliminated. Interpole windings are connected in series wit t
e armature windings.
Q. 8. In rewinding te armature of a d.c. motor, progressive connections
are canged to
retrogressive ones. Will it affect te operation in any way ?
Ans.
Yes. Now, te armature will rotate in te opposite direction.
----------------------- Page 23----------------------Macines

Testing of D.C.
1113

Q. 9. A d.c. motor fails to start wen switced on. Wat could be te possibl
e reasons and
remedies ?
Ans. Any one of te following reasons could be responsible :
1. Open-circuit in controllersould be cecked for open starting resis
tance or open switc
or open fuse.
2. Low terminal voltagesould be adjusted to name-plate value.
3. Overloadsould be reduced if possible oterwise larger motor sould
be installed.
4. Excessive frictionbearing lubrication sould be cecked.
Q. 10. A d.c. motor is found to stop running after a sort period of time. Wa
t do you tink
could be te reasons ? How would you remedy eac ?
Ans. Possible causes are as under :
1. Motor not getting enoug powerceck voltage at motor terminals as w
ell as fuses, clups
2. Weak or no fieldin te case of adjustable-speed motors, ceck if r
eostat is correctly
set. Also, ceck field winding for any open.
, look for any loose
winding or broken connection.
3. Motor torque insufficient for driving te given loadceck line volt
age wit name-plate
voltage. If necessary, use larger motor to matc te load.
Q. 11. Wat are te likely causes if a d.c. motor is found to run too slow und

te remedy ?
Ans. 1. Supply line voltage too lowremove any excessive resistance in suppl
y line, connections
or controller.
2. Bruses aead of neutralset tem on neutral.
3. Overloadreduce it to allowable value or use larger motor.
Q. 12. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime run too fast wen under load ? Give diff
erent possible
causes and teir remedies.
Ans. Different possible causes are as under :
1. Weak fieldremove any extra resistance in sunt field circuit. Also,
ceck for grounds.
2. Line voltage too igreduce it to name-plate value.
3. Bruses back of neutralset tem on neutral.
Q. 13. Under wat conditions is sparking produced at te bruses of a d.c. mot
or ? How
would you remedy it ?
Ans. 1. Commutator in bad conditionclean and reset bruses.
2. commutator eiter eccentric or rouggrind and true te commutator.
Also, undercut
mica.
3. Excessive vibrationbalance armature. Make sure tat bruses ride fr
eely in olders.
4. Brus-olding spring broken or sluggisreplace spring a
recommended value.
6. Sort-circuit in armature circuitremove any metallic particles betw
een commutator
segments and ceck for sort between adjacent commutator risers. L
ocate and repair
internal armature sort if any.
Q. 14. Sometimes a issing noise (or brus catter) is eard to emanate from t
e commutator
end of a running d.c. motor. Wat could it be due to and ow could it b
e removed ?
----------------------- Page 24----------------------Electrical Tecnology

1114
Ans.

## Any one of te following causes could produce brus catter :

1. Excessive clearance of brus oldersadjust properly
2. Incorrect angle of brusesadjust to correct value
3. Unsuitable brusesreplace tem
4. Hig micaundercut it
5. Wrong brus spring pressureadjust to correct value.
Wat are te possible causes of excessive sparking at bruses in a d

Q. 15.
.c. motor ?
Ans.
1. Poor brus fit on commutatorsand-in te bruses and polis commu
tator.
2. Bruses binding in te brus oldersclean olders and bruses an
d remove any irregularities on surfaces of brus olders or roug spots on bruses
.
3. Excessive or insufficient pressure on brusesadjust pressure.
4. Bruses off neutralset tem on neutral.
Q. 16. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime spark on ligt load ?
Ans. Due to te presence of paint spray, cemical, oil or grease etc. on

commutator.
Q. 17. Wen is te armature of a d.c. motor likely to get over-eated ?
Ans.