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35 Aufrufe34 Seiten31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines

Jul 01, 2015

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TXT, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines

© All Rights Reserved

Als TXT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

35 Aufrufe

31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines
31-Testing of D.C. Machines

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Learning Objectives

Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives

Brake Test

TESTINGTESTING

TESTING

TESTINGTESTING

Swinburnes Test

Advantages of Swinburnes

Test

OF D.C.OF D.C.

OF D.C.

OF D.C.OF D.C.

Main Disadvantages

Regenerative or

Hopkinsons Test

MACHINESMACHINES

MACHINES

MACHINESMACHINES

Hopkinsons Test

Merits of Hopkinsons Test

Retardation or Running

Down Test

Fields Test for Series Motors

Objective Test

Questions

and

Answers

on

D.C. Motors.

Electrical Technology

31.1 Brake Test

31.1 Brak31.1 Brakee TTestest

It is a direct method and consists of applying a brake to a water-cooled p

ulley mounted on the motor

shaft as shown in Fig. 31.1. The brake band is fixed with the help of

wooden blocks gripping the pulley. One end of the band is fixed to

earth via a spring balance S and the other is connected to a suspended weight W1. The motor is running and the load on the motor

is adjusted till it carries its full load current.

Let

W1 = suspended weight in kg

W

= reading on spring balance in kg-wt

2

The net pull on the band due to friction at the pulley is

( W W ) kg. wt. or 9.81 ( W W ) newton.

1

2

1

2

If

and

R

N

=

=

Motor shaft

Then , shaft torque Tsh

=

Motor output power =

motor or pulley speed in r.p.s.

developed by the motor

(W W ) R kg m = 9.81 ( W W ) R N m

1

2

1

Tsh 2 N watt

2 9.81 N ( W W ) R watt

1

2

61.68 N ( W W ) R watt

1

2

Then, inut ower = VI watt

61.68

(

)

Outut

N W1

W2 R

=

=

Input

VI

Te simple brake test described above can be used for small motors

only, because in te case of large motors, it is difficult to dissipate te larg

e

amount of eat generated at te brake.

Anoter simple metod of measuring motor output is by te use of

poney brake one form of wic is sown in Fig. 31.2 (a). A rope is wound

round te pulley and its two ends are attaced to two spring balances S1

and S . Te tension of te rope can be adjusted wit te elp of swivels.

Fig. 31.1

2

Obviously, te force acting tangentially on te pulley is equal to te difference between te readings of te two spring balances. If R is te pulley radius,

te torque at te pulley is T

= (S

s

S )R. If (= 2N) is the angular velocity of the ulley, then

1

2

motor outut = T

) R att.

= 2 N (S

sh

1

The motor inut may be measured as shon in Fig. 31.2 (b). Efficiency may,

as usual, be found by

using the relation = output/input.

Example 31.1. In a brake test te effective load on te branc pulley was

38.1 kg, te effective

diameter of te pulley 63.5 cm and speed 12 r.p.s.

Te motor took

49 A at 220 V.

Calculate te

output power and te efficiency at tis load.

Solution. Effective load ( W W ) = 38.1 kg. t ; radius = 0.635/2 = 0.317

5 m

1

2

Shaft torque = 38.1 0.3175 kg m = 9.81 38.1 0.3175 = 118.6 N m

Poer outut = torque angular velocity in rad/s = 118.6 2 12 = 8,945 W

8, 945

No, motor inut = 49 220 W

Motor =

= 0.8

3 or 83%

49 220

----------------------- Page 3----------------------Testing of D

.C. Macines

1093

Fig. 31.2 (a)

Fig.

31.2 (b)

Example 31.2(a).

Te following readings are obtained wen doing a loa

d test on a d.c. sunt

motor using a brake drum :

Spring balance reading

10 kg and 35 kg

Diameter of te

drum

40 cm

Speed of te motor

950 r.p.m.

Applied volta

ge

200 V

Line current

30 A

Calculate te output power and te efficiency.

(Electrical Engin

eering, Madras Univ. 1986)

Solution. Force on te drum surface F = (35 10) = 25 kg t = 25 9.8 N

Drum radius

R = 20 cm = 0.2 m ; Torque Tsh = F R = 25 9.8 0.2

= 49 N

N = 950/60 = 95/6 r..s. ; = 2 (95/6) = 99.5 rad/s

Motor outut

Motor inut

=

=

200 30 = 6000 W ; = 4876/6000 = 0.813 or 81.3

e two sides of te brake

were 2.9 kg and 0.17 kg. Radius of te pulley was 7 cm. Input current was 2 am

p at 230 volts. Te

motor speed was 1500 rpm.

Find te torque, power-output and efficiency.

(Baratiar Univ. April 1998)

Fig. 31.3. D.C. Sunt Motor Brake Test

Solution.

= 2.73 9.81 = 26.78 N

Page 4

1094

Electrical Technology

Net torque = Force Radius

= 26.78 7/100

= 1.8746 N m

Poer outut

= Torque Radians/sec.

= 1.8746 2 1500/60

= 294 atts

Efficiency

% efficiency

= 294/(230 2) = 0.639

= 63.9%

or Losses Losses Method) Method)

31.2. Sinburnes* Test (or No load Test or Losses Method)

31.2.31.2. SinburSinburnenes*s* TTestest (or (or No load No load TTestest or

or Losses Losses Method) Method)

It is a simle method in hich losses are

measured searately and from their knoledge,

efficiency at any desired load can be redetermined

in advance. The only running test needed is no load

test. Hoever, this test is alicable to those

machines in hich flux is ractically constant

i.e. shunt and comound ound machines.

The machine is running as a motor on no load at

its rated voltage i.e. voltage stamed on the name

late. The seed is adjusted to the rated seed ith

the

hel

of shunt

regulator

as shon

in

Fig. 31.4.

The no load current I0

is measured by the

Shunt regulator

ammeter A

is given by ammeter A .

hereas shunt field current I

The no load armature current is

1

sh

2

(I0 Ish) or Ia0.

Let, suly voltage

=

V

no load inu

t

=

VI0 att

=

V (I I ) ;

Poer inut to s

hunt

=

VI

0

sh

sh

No load oer inut to armature sulies the folloing :

(i) Iron losses in core

(ii) friction loss

(iii) indage loss and

2

2

(iv) armature Cu loss, (I

I ) R or I

R

0

sh

a

a0 a

A stationary measure

ment of armature circuit resistance at the room temerature of, say, 15C is made

by assing current through

the armature from a lo voltage d.c. suly [Fig. 31.5 (a)].

Fig. 31.4

Fig. 31.5

*

Sir James Sinburne (1858 1958) made outstanding contributions to the deve

loment of electric lams,

electric machines and synthetic resins.

Page 5

Testi

ng of D.C. Machines

1095

Then, the hot resistance, alloing a temerature rise of 50C is found thus :

1

65

+

R

= R (1 + 15 ) ; R

= (1 + 65 ), R

= R

0

15

0

0

65

0

65

15

1

15

+

0

234.5 + 65

= 1.2 R

(pprox.*)

0

15

= R

65

15

234.5 + 15

If we subtrct from the totl input the no-lod rmture Cu loss, then we

get constnt losses.

Constnt losses

W

c

= VI (I

I ) R

0

0

sh

a

Knoing the constant losses of the machine, its efficiency at any other lo

ad can be determined as given

belo. Let I = load current at hich efficiency is required.

Then, armature current is

Ia = I Ish

...if machine is motoring

= I + Ish

...if machine is generating

EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor

Efficiency hen running as a motor

EfEffficienciciency hen ry hen running as a motorunning as a motor

Inut = VI,

2

Armature Cu loss = I R = (I I

a a

Constant losses

...found above

= W

c

2

) R

sh

a

inut losses

2

VI ( I I

) R

sh

a

c

Total losses = (I I

VI

s

) R + W ;

a

c

input

r

Efficiency wen running as a generator

EfEffficienciciencyy wen wen r runningunning as as a a genera generatorto

r

2

) R ; Constant loss =

...found above

s

a

output

VI

2

Total losses = (I + I

2

VI + ( I + I

)

s

R

a

+ W

) R + W ; = output + losses

s

31.3.

Advantages of Swinburnes Test

31.3.31.3. AdvAdvantages of Swinburantages of Swinburneness TTestest

1.

It is convenient and economical because power required to test a lar

ge macine is small i.e. only

no-load input power.

2.

Te efficiency can be predetermined at any load because constant-los

ses are known.

31.31.4.4. Main DisadvantagesMain Disadvantages

31.4.

Main Disadvantages

31.31.4.4. Main DisadvantagesMain Disadvantages

1. No account is taken of te cange in iron losses from no-load to full

-load. At full-load, due to

armature reaction, flux is distorted wic increases te iron losses in some cas

es by as muc as 50%.

2.

As te test is on no-load, it is impossible to know weter commutat

ion would be satisfactory at

full-load and weter te temperature rise would be witin te specified limits.

Example 31.3. A 220 V, d.c. sunt motor at no load takes a current of 2.5

A. Te resistances of

te armature and sunt field are 0.8 and 200 respectively. Estimate the efficie

ncy of the motor

(Electri

Solution. No-load input = 220 2.5 = 550

This input meets all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss and con

stant losses.

Ish = 220/200 = 1.1 A. No-load arm current, Ia0 = 2.5 1.1 = 1.4 A

*

The armature resistance is found to decrease slightly ith increasing arma

ture current as shon in Fig. 31.5

(b). This is due to the fact that brush contact resistance is inversely r

oortional to the armature current.

Page 6

1096

Electrical Technology

2

No load armature Cu loss = I

R = 1.4

a0 a

2

0.8 = 1.6 W

When inut current is 20 A

I

0.8 = 764 W

a

Total loss = 764 + 548.4 = 1312 W (arox.) ; Inut = 220 20 = 4,400 W

Outut = 4,400 1,312 = 3,088 W ; Efficiency = (3088/4400) 100 = 70.2%

In the above calculations, it has been assumed that :

1. mechanical losses remain constant even through motor seed changes from

no load to the given

load.

2. effect of armature reaction on main ole flux ith a consequent change

in iron losses has been

neglected.

3. decrease in flux due to increase in shunt resistance by heating has bee

n neglected.

Examle 31.4.

When running on no load, a 400 V shunt motor takes 5 A

. Armature resistance

is 0.5 and field resistance 200 . Find the output of the motor and efficiency w

hen running on fullload and taking a current of 50 A.

Also, find the percentage change in

speed from no-load to fullload.

(Electro Me

chanics, Allahabad Univ. 1991)

Solution. No-load input = 400 5 = 2,000

This input goes to meet all kinds of no-load losses i.e. armature Cu loss

and constant losses.

I

= 400/200 = 2 A ; No-load I = 5 2 = 3 A

sh

a

2

No load arm. Cu loss

= 3 0.5 = 4.5 W ; Constant losses = 2,000 4.

5 = 1,995.5 W

When line current is 50 A

2

Ia = 50 2 = 48 A ; Arm. Cu loss = 48

0.5 =

1,152 W

Total loss on F.L.

= 1,152 + 1,995.5 = 3,147.5 W ; Inut = 50 400

= 20,000 W

No,

= 376 V

Outut

=

F.L. efficiency

=

Eb 1 =

N 1

16,852.5/20,000 = 0.8426 or 84.26%

400 (3 0.5) = 398.5 V ; Eb2 = 400 (48 0.5)

Eb1

398.5

=

N 1 N 2

22.5

=

= 0.0598

N 2

Eb2

376

N 2

37

Examle 31.5.

The no load test of a 44.76 kW, 220 V, d.c. shunt mot

or gave the folloing

figures:

Inut current = 13.25 A ; field current = 2.55 A ; resistance of armature

at 75C = 0.032 and

brush drop = 2 V.

Estimate the full-load current and efficiency.

(Electrical En

gineering, Madras Univ. 1987)

Solution. No-load Condition

No-load input = 220 13.25 = 2915 ; Armature current = 13.25 2.55 = 10.7

A

2

Armature Cu loss

= 10.7 0.032 = 3.6 W

Loss due to brush dro

= 2 10.7 = 21.4 W

Variable loss = 21.4 + 3.6 = 25 W , Constant losses W = 2915 25 = 2890 W

e

c

Full load Condition

If I is the full load armature current, then full load motor inut curren

t is (I + 2.55) A.

a

a

F.L. motor oer inut = 220 (I + 2.55) W

a

This inut must be equal to the sum of

(i) outut = 44.76 kW = 44,760 W

(ii) W = 2,890 W

c

2

(iii) brush loss = 2Ia att

032 Ia

Page 7

Testing o

f D.C. Machines

1097

220 (I

+ 2.55)

a

a

a

2

or

0.032I

a

218 I + 47,090 = 0

a

2

218

or

218

= 223.5 A

a

Line inut current I

F.L. oer inut

F.L. efficiency

2 0.032

= Ia + Ish = 223.5 + 2.55 = 226 A

= 226 220 = 49,720 W

= 44,760/49,720 = 0.9 or 90%.

Examle 31.6.

A 200 V, shunt motor develos an outut of 17.158 kW h

en taking 20.2 kW.

The field resistance is 50 and armature resistance 0.06 . hat is the efficiency

and power input

when the output is 7.46 k ?

(Elect. Machines-I,

Aligarh Muslim Univ. 1989)

Solution. In the first case

Output

=

20,200

Total losses

=

,200/200 = 101 A

I

=

sh

(I

17,158

Input

200/50 = 4 A ; I

= 101 4 = 97 A

a

2

= 97 0.06 = 564.5 W

= 3,042 564.5 = 2,477.5 = 2478 W (arox.)

Armature Cu loss

Constant losses

In the second case :

Let,

I

+ 4) A

Inut current =

= armature current

a

a

inut oer

No,

2

= outut + I R + constant losses

a a

2

= 7,460 + 0.06 I + 2,478

a

200(I + 4)

a

2

0.06I

200I + 9,138 = 0

a

a

or

2

200

0.12

Ia

= 3,283.3 A or 46 A

200

4 0.06 9,138

2 0.06

200 194

=

on of the motor. Hence, take

I = 46 A.

a

Inut current

100

= 74.6%

Poer inut

I = Ia + Ish = 46 + 4 = 50 A

50 200

=

= 10 kW

1000

7, 460

=

10

, 000

Example 31.7. A 200-V, 14.92 kW dc sunt motor wen tested by te Swinbur

ne metod gave

te following results :

Running ligt : armature current was 6.5 A and field current 2.2 A.

Wit te armature locked,

te current was 70 A wen a potential difference of 3 V was applied to te brus

es.

Estimate te

efficiency of te motor wen working under full-load conditions.

(Electri

cal Engg.-I, Bombay Univ. 1985)

Solution. No-load input current = 6.5 + 2.2 = 8.7 A

No-load power input

= 200 8.7 = 1,740 W

No-load input equals Cu losses and stray losses.

Field Cu loss

= 200 2.2 = 440 W

2

Armature Cu loss

= 6.5 0.04286 = 1.8 W

( R = 3/70 = 0.04286 )

a

Constant losses

= 1,740 1.8 = 1738 W

We ill assume that constant losses are the same at full load also.

Let,

Ia = full load armature current

Page 8

1098

Electrical Technology

F.L. armature Cu loss

2

0.04286 Ia W ; Constant losses

= 1,738 W

F.L. total loss =

F.L. outut

=

+ 2.2) W

2

1,738 + 0.04286 Ia

14,920 W ; F.L. inut = 200 (I

a

inut =

We kno,

outut + losses

2

or

200 I

+ 440

a

a

2

or

0.04286 I

200 I

a

+ 16,218 = 0

a

Inut current =

F.L. oer inut

=

=

I = 82.5 A

a

200 84.7 A = 16,940 W

14,920 100/16,940 = 88%

s 200 kW at 250 V, te

following figures were obtained :

(a) Wen running ligt as a motor at full speed, te line current was 36

A, te field current

12 A, and te supply voltage 250.

(b) Wit te macine at rest, a p.d. of 6 V produced a current of 400 A

troug te armature

circuit. Explain ow tese results may be utilised to obtain te efficiency of

generator at full-load

and alf-load.

Solution. At no-load :

I =

a

Armature Cu loss

No-load input

Constant losses

At full load :

Outut

800 A ; Ish = 12 A

=

=

=

36 12 = 24 A ; R = 6/400 = 0.015

a

2

24 0.015 = 8.64 watt

total losses in machine = 250 36 = 9,000

9,000 8.64 = 8,991.4 W

= 800 + 12 = 812 A

2

F.L. armature Cu losses = 812

0.015 = 9890 W

= 91.4%

=

20

At alf-load :

Output

400 + 12 = 412 A

400 A

I

2

2

I R = 412 0.0

15 = 2,546 W

a

a a

Total losses

= 89.6%

111, 537

Example 31.9. A 250-V, 14.92

% and a speed of

700 r.p.m. wen delivering

tance of its sunt field

Determine the efficiency and speed

he mains.

80% of its rated output. Te resis

is 100 .

when the motor draws a current of 78 A from t

Full-load output

= 14,920

80% of F.L. output

= 0.8 14.920 = 11,936 ; = 0.88

Input = 11,936/0.88 = 13,564 W

Total losses

= 13,564 11,936 = 1,628 W

As efficiency is maximum at this load, the variable loss is equal to const

ant losses.

2

2

W

= I R = 1,628/2

I R = 814

W

c

a a

a a

Solution.

No,

5 2.5 = 51.75 A

inut current

=

=

I

sh

Page 9

13,564/250 = 54.25 A

250/100 = 2.5 A

I = 54.2

a

Testing

of D.C. Machines

1099

2

51.75

814

R = 814/51.75 = 0.30

45

a

2

2

I

= 75.5

78 2.5 = 75.5 A

I R

0.3045 = 1,736 W

a

a a

Total losses

250 78 = 19,500 W

100 = 86.9%

19, 550

Speed :

N 2

Eb2

N2

227

=

; N = 680 r..m.

N 1

Eb1

=

234.25

or

=

700

(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)

31.5. Regenerative or Hokinsons Test (Back to Back Test)

31.5.31.5. RegeneraRegenerativtivee or or Hokinson Hokinsonss TTestest (Bac

(Back to Back to Backk TTest)est)

By this method,full load test can be carried out on to shunt machines,

referably identical ones,

ithout asting their oututs. The to machines are mechanically couled and are

so adjusted electrically

that one of them runs as a motor and the other as a generator. The mechanical ou

tut of the motor drives the

generator and the electrical outut of generator is used in sulying the greate

r art of inut to the motor. If

there ere no losses in the machines, they ould have run ithout any external

oer suly. But due to

these losses, generator outut is not sufficient to drive the motor and vice ver

sa. The losses are sulied

either by an extra motor hich is belt connected to the motor generator set or a

s suggested by Ka,

electrically from the suly mains.

Essential connections for the test

are shon in Fig. 31.6. The to shunt

machines are connected in arallel.

They are, to begin ith, started as un

loaded motors. Then, the field of one

is eakened and that of the other is

strengthened so that the former runs

tor. The usual method of rocedure is

as follos :

Machine M is started u from the

suly mains ith the hel of a starter

(not shon) hereas main sitch S of

the other machine is ket oen. Its

Fig. 31.6

seed is adjusted to normal value by means of its shield regulator. Machine M d

rives machine G as a

gen

erator and its voltage is read on volt

mete

r V1. The voltage of G is adjusted

by i

ts field regulator until voltmeter V1

read

s zero, thereby shoing that its volt

age

is the same, both in olarity and mag

nitu

de as that of the main suly. There

aft

er, S is closed to arallel the machines.

By

adjusting the resective field regula

tors

, any load can no be thron on to

the

machines. Generator current I can

1

Motor cum generator set

djusted to any desired value by in

be a

cre

asing the excitation of G or by reduc

ing the excitation of M and the corresonding values of different ammeters are r

ead.

Page 10

1100

Electrical Technology

The electrical outut of the generatorlus the small oer taken from the

suly, is taken by the motor

and is given out as a mechanical oer after sulying the motor losses.

If suly voltage is V, then

Motor inut

= V(I + I ), here I is the current take

n from the suly.

1

2

2

Generator outut

VI1

...(i)

Output of motor

1

2

2

Output of generator

= input = V(I

...(ii)

+ I ) =

1

V(I + I )

2

Hence, from (i) and (ii), we get

I

2

V(I + I )

1

2

1

=

VI

or

1

=

I + I

1

2

However, it is not quite correct to assume equal efficiencies for two mac

ines because teir armature

currents as well as excitations are different. We will not find te efficiencies

separately.

Let

R

= armature resistance of eac macine

a

I 3 = exciting current of te generator

I4 = exciting current of te motor

2

2

Armature Cu loss in generator = (I + I ) R ; Armature Cu loss in motor

= (I + I

I ) R

1

3

a

1

2

4

a

Shunt Cu loss in generator = VI ; Shunt Cu loss in motor = VI

3

4

But total motor and generator losses are equal to the oer sulied by th

e mains.

Poer dran from suly = VI

2

If e subtract the armature and shunt Cu losses from this, e get the stra

y losses of both machines.

2

2

= VI [(I + I ) R + (I + I I ) R

+ VI + VI ] = W (say)

2

1

3

a

1

2

4

a

3

4

Making one assumtion that stray losses are equally divided beteen the t

o machines, e have

Stray loss er machine = W/2

For Generator

2

Total losses

= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W (say)

1

3

a

3

g

VI

Outut

= VI

=

1

1

g

VI + W

1

g

Total losses

2

(I + I I ) R + VI + W/2 = W

(say)

m

V ( I + I

) W

1

2

Inut

V(I

1

+ I )

2

=

m

V ( I1

+ I2)

31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop

kinsonss TTestest

31.6. Alter native Connections for Hopkinsons Test

31.6.31.6. AlterAlternanativtive Connectionse Connections f foror Hopkinson Hop

kinsonss TTestest

In Fig. 31.7 is sown in sligtly different metod of connecting te two m

acines to te supply. Here,

te main difference is tat te sunt windings are directly connected across te

lines. Hence, te line input

current is I 1 excluding te field currents. Te efficiencies can be calculated

as detailed below :

2

2

Motor armature Cu loss = (I + I ) R

; Generator armature Cu los

s =I

R

1

2

a

2 a

Power drawn from te supply = V I1

Total stray losses i.e. iron, friction and windage losses for te two

macines are

2

2

= VI [(I + I ) R I R ] = W (say)

1

1

2

a

2 a

Page 11

Testing o

f D.C. Machines

1101

Motor Efficiency

Motor inut

= armature inut + shunt field inut = V (I +

I ) + VI + W

1

inut

Motor losses

ses

2

= (I + I ) R + VI + W/2 = W

1

2

a

3

W

Motor

W

input

m 100

(say)

m

W

input

Generator Efficiency

Generator output

/2 = W (say)

2

R + V I + W

= VI ; Generator losses = I

2

g

VI

Generator

2

+ W

VI

2

31.7. Merits of Hopkinsons Test

31.7.31.7. MerMeritsits of of Hopkinson Hopkinsonss TTestest

1. Power required for te test is small as compared to te full-load pow

ers of te two macines.

2.

As macines are being tested under full-load conditions, te temperat

ure rise and te commutation

qualities of te macines can be observed.

Fig. 31.7

3.

Because of full-load conditions, any cange in iron loss due to flux

distortion at full-load, is being

taken into account.

Te only disadvantage is wit regard to te availability of two identical

macines.

Example 31.10 (a).

In a Hopkinsons test on two 220-V, 100-kW generat

ors, te circulating

current is equal to te full-load current and, in addition, 90 A are taken from

te supply. Obtain te

efficiency of eac macine.

Solution. Output current of te generator

100, 000

5, 000

I

=

=

= 454.4 A, I = 90 A

1

220

11

2

Assuming equal efficiencies, from Art. 29.5, we ave

I 1

I + I

1

454.5

454.5 + 90 = 0.914 or 91.4%

Example 31.10 (b). In te Hopkinsons test on two d.c. macines, macine A a

s a field current

of 1.4 A and macine B as a field current of 1.3 A. Wic macine acts as a ge

nerator ?

(Barati

tasan University April 1997)

----------------------- Page 12-----------------------

1102

Electrical Tecnology

Solution. In Hopkinsons test (on two identical d.c. sunt macines), since t

e two macines are

coupled, te speed is common and is decided by te field current of te motor. T

e field windings of bot

te macines are in parallel wit a separate D.C. source.

Since te macines are identical and are running at te same speed, teir e

.m.fs are in proportion to

teir field currents.

E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine A

1.4

=

E.M.F. induced in te armature of macine B

1.3

E

= (1.4/1.3) E = 1.077 E

A

B

B

Since E is larger tan E , Macine A supplies power to Macine B. It me

ans, A is working as a

A

B

generator, and B is motoring.

Example 31.11. Two sunt macines loaded for te Hopkinsons test take 15 A

at 200 V from te

supply. Te motor current is 100 A and te sunt currents are 3 A and 2.5 A.

If te armature

resistance of eac macine is 0.05 om, calculate te efficiency of eac macine

for tis particular

load-condition.

(Bar

atitasan Univ. April 1997)

Solution. Line current into armature circuits = 15 A, Motor armature coppe

r-loss = 500 W

Motor-armature-current = 100 A, Generator armature copper loss = 361 W

Hence generator-armature-current = 85 A

For eac macine, No load Mecanical losses + Core-loss + Stray losses

2

2

= ( VI I

r I

r )

a

am am

ag ag

2

2

= (200 15 100

0.05 85

0.05)

= (3000 500 361) = 1069.5 W

Motor field coer loss

= 200 3 = 600 W 1.07 kW

Generator field coer loss

= 200 2.5 = 500 W

Total Losses in motor = 600 + 1069.5 + 500 = 2169.5 W

Total Losses in Generator

= 500 + 1069.5 + 361 = 1931 W

Motor outut

Efficiency of motor

=

100%

Motor inut

Motor Inut :

(b) 0.6 kW to field inding

Total Inut to motor = 20.6 kW

From armature side, losses to be catered are :

(i) Stray losses + No Load Mech. Losses + Core Losses = 1.07 kW

(ii) Armature coer loss = 0.5 kW

Motor Outut from armature = 20 0.5 1.07 = 18.43 kW

18.43

Motor efficiency =

100% = 89.47%

20.6

3

Generator armature outut = 200 85 10

= 17 kW

Generator losses : (a)

Field dg : 0.5 kW

(c) armature coer loss = 0.36 kW

Total losses in Generator = 1.93 kW

17

Generator efficiency =

100% = 89.80%

17 + 1.93

Secial Note: 15 A current for d.c. suly is related here to armature inu

t for to machines

hich are under back to back regenerative tests. There are different variations

in handling and giving

the test data. It is alays desirable to dra the circuit diagram according to

hich the calculations are

being related.

Page 13

Testing of D.C

. Machines

1103

Examle 31.12.

The Hokinsons test on to similar shunt machines gave t

he folloing full

load data :

Line voltage

= 110 V

Field currents are

3 A and 3.5 A

Line current

= 48 A

Arm. resistance of

each is 0.035

Motor arm. current

= 230 A

Calculate the efficiency of each machine assuming a brush contact drop of 1

volt per brush.

(Electrical Machi

nes, Nagpur Univ. 1992)

Solution. The motor-generator set is shown in Fig. 31.8. It should also be

noted that the machine with

lesser excitation is motoring. e will find the total armature Cu losses and bru

sh contact loss for both

machines.

Motor

2

Arm. Cu loss

= 230 0.035 = 1,851.5

Brush contact loss

= 230 2 = 460

Total arm. Cu loss

= 1851.5 +

460

= 2,312

Shunt Cu loss

= 110 3 = 330

Total Cu loss

= 2,312 + 330 = 2,642

Generator

Generator arm. current = 233 48 + 3.5

= 188.5 W

2

Arm. Cu loss = 188.5

0.035 = 1,244 W

Brush contact Cu loss = 188.5 2 = 377 W

Total arm. Cu loss = 1,244 + 377 = 1,621 W

Shunt Cu loss = 110 3.5 = 385 W ;

Total Cu loss = 1,621 + 385 = 2,006 W

For the Set

Total arm. and shunt Cu loss for the set

= 2,642 + 2,006 = 4,648 W

Fig. 31.8

= 632 W

Total inut = 110 48 = 5,280 W ; Stray losses for the set = 5,280 4,648

Motor Efficiency

Arm. Cu + brush dro loss = 2,312 W

Shunt Cu loss = 330 W

Stray losses = 316 W

Total loss = 2,312 + 330

+ 316 = 2,958 W

Motor inut = 110 233 = 25,630 W ; Motor outut = 25,630 2,9

58 = 22,672

Generator Efficiency

Total losses = 2,006 + 316 = 2,322 W ; Output = 110 185 = 20,

350 W

Generator input

= 20,350 + 2,322 = 22,672 W = motor input

= 20,350/22,672 = 0.894 or 89.4%

Example 31.13. In a Hopkinsons test on a pair of 500-V, 100-kW sunt generat

ors, te following data was obtained :

Auxiliary supply, 30 A at 500 V : Generator output current, 200 A

Field currents, 3.5 A and 1.8 A

Armature circuit resistances, 0.075 each machine. Voltage drop at brushes,

2 V (each machine).

Calculate the efficiency of the machine acting as a generator.

(Elect. Technolog

y-1, Gwalior Univ. 1986)

----------------------- Page 14----------------------1104

Electrical Technology

Solution. Motor arm. current = 200 + 30 = 230 A, as shown in Fig. 31.9.

2

Motor arm. Cu loss

= 230 0.075 + 230 2 = 4,428

Motor field Cu loss

= 500 1.8 = 900

2

Generator arm. Cu loss

= 200 0.075 +

200 2 = 3,400

Geneator field Cu loss =

500 3.5 = 1,750

Total Cu loss for two machines

= 4,428 + 900 + 3400 + 1750

= 10,478

Power taken from auxiliary supply

= 500 30 = 15,000

Stray losses for the two machines

= 15,000 10,478 = 4,522 W

Fig. 31.9

Total losses in generator = 3400 + 1750 + 2261 = 7,411 W

Generator outut

= 500 200 = 100,000 W

outut

100, 000

=

=

100 = 93.09%

g

output + losses

107, 411

Example 31.14. Explain te Hopkinsons test on a pair of sunt motors.

In suc a test on 250-V macines, te line current was 50 A and te motor c

urrent 400 A not

including te field currents of 6 A and 5 A. Te armature resistance of eac ma

cine was 0.015 .

, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1991)

Motor armature Cu loss

2

= 400 0.015 = 2,400

Generator armature Cu loss

2

= 350 0.015 = 1,838

Power drawn from supply

= 250 50 = 12,500

Iron, friction and windage losses for the two

machines

= 12,500 (2,400 + 1,838)

= 8,262 W

Iron, friction and indage loss er machine

= 8.262/2 = 4,130 W* (arox.)

Fig. 31.10

Motor Losses and Efficiency

Motor arm. Cu loss = 2,400 W ; Motor field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1,250 W

Iron, friction and indage losses = 4,130 W

Total motor losses

= 2,400 + 1,250 + 4,130 = 7,780 W

Motor inut

= 250 400 + 250 5 = 101,250 W

Motor efficiency

= (101,250 7,780)/101,250 = 0.923 or 92.3%

We could also get this value as follos :

Total suly inut = 250 61 = 15,250 W ; Gen. and motor field Cu loss = 250

6 + 250 5 = 2,750 W

Iron, friction and indage losses for both machines

= 15,250 (2,400 + 1,838 + 2,750) = 8,26

2 W

as before

*

D.C. Machines

1105

Generator arm. Cu loss = 1,838 ; Generator field Cu loss = 250 6 = 1,500

Iron, friction and windage loss = 4,130

Total losses = 1,838 + 1,500 + 4,130 = 7.468

Generator output = 250 350 = 87,500

Generator efficiency = (87,500 7.468)/87,500 = 0.915 or 91.5%

Examle 31.15. The Hokinsons test on to shunt machines gave the folloing

results for full

load :

Line voltage = 250 V ; current taken from suly system excluding field cur

rents = 50 A ; motor

armature current = 380 A ; field currents 5 A and 4.2 A.

Calculate

the efficiency of the machine

Armature resistance of each machine is 0.2 .

orking as a generator.

(Electrical Machi

nery-I Mysore Univ. 1988)

Solution. The connections are shown in Fig. 31.11.

0.02 = 2,888

2

Generator arm. Cu loss = 330

0.02 = 2,178

Power drawn from supply = 250 50 = 12,500

Stray losses for the two machines

= 12,500 (2,888 + 2,178) = 7.434 W

Stray losses er machine = 7,434/2 = 3,717 W

Motor Efficiency

Arm. Cu loss

= 2,888 W

Field Cu loss

= 250 4.2 = 1050 W

Stray losses = 3,717 W

Total loss = 2,888 + 1050 + 3,717

= 7,655 W

Motor inut

= 250 380 + 250 4.2

= 96,050 W

Motor outut

= 96,050 7,655

Fig. 31.11

= 88,395 W

Generator Efficiency

Arm. Cu loss

= 2,178 W ; Field Cu loss = 250 5 = 1250 W

Stray losses

= 3,717 W ; Total losses = 7,145 W

Generator output =

250 330 = 82,500 W

Generator input

= 82,500 + 7,145 = 89,645 W

= 82,500/89,645 = 0.9202 or 92.02%

Motor arm. Cu loss

= 380

31.8. Retardation or Running Down Test

31.8.31.8. RetarRetardadationtion or or Running Running Do Downwn TTestest

Tis metod is applicable

nding stray losses. Ten,

knowing te armature and sunt

be calculated.

Te macine under test is

en supply is cut off from

te armature wile keeping te

own and its kinetic energy

is used to meet te rotational

Cu losses at a given load current, efficiency can

speeded up sligtly beyond its normal speed and t

field excited. Consequently, te armature slows d

1

2

Kinetic energy of te armature is K.E. =

I

2

I = moment of inertia of the armature and = angular velocity

here

*

If armature slos don ith no excitation, then energy of the armature is u

sed to overcome mechanical

losses only, there being no iron losses (see Ex. 31.19).

Page 16

1106

Electrical Technology

d

1

2

d

dt ( 2 I ) = I . dt

d

dN

To quantities need be knon (i) moment of inertia (I) of the armature and

(ii)

or

dt

dt

because N. These are found as follos :

d

(a) Finding

dt

Fig. 31.12

Fig. 31.13

As shon in Fig. 31.12, a voltmeter V is connected

across the armature.

This voltmeter is used as a seed

indicator by suitably graduating it, because E N. When

suly is cut off, the armature seed and hence voltme

ter reading falls. By noting different amounts of voltage

fall in different amounts of time, a curve is dran be

teen time and the seed (obtained from voltage values)

as shon in Fig. 31.13.

From any oint P hich corresonds to normal seed,

a tangentAB is dran.

dN

OB (in r..m.)

Then

=

dt

OA (in seconds)

d

From (i), above

W = I dt

t ound generator

No

2N

60

Shun

...(N in r..m.)

2

2N

2N

dN

dN

;

0.011

=

. .

. .

I N

dt

W = I ( 60 ) dt ( 60

...(ii)

) W = ( 60 ) I N

dt

(a) First Methodwhere I is calculated.

First, slowing down curve is drawn with armature alone. Next, a fly-wheel o

f known moment of inertia

I is keyed onto the shaft and slowing down curve is drawn again. Obviously, slo

wing down time will be

1

longer due to combined increased moment of inertia of the tw

o.

For any given speed,

(dN/dt ) and (dN/dt ) are determined as before. It should be noted that the loss

es in both cases would be

1

2

almost the same, because addition of a fly-wheel will not make much difference t

o the losses.

Hence, from equation (ii) above

2 2

dN

In the first case,

W = ( 60 ) IN

dt1

Page 17

Testing of

D.C. Machines

1107

2 2

( 60 ) (I + I 1)N

(I + I )

dN

1

dt

2

dN

dt

or

dN

dt2

I + I 1

I

1

(

/

dN dt

dN

dt

1

dN

dt

2

)

dt

I = I 1

I =

I 1

= I 1

1

(

/ ) (

/

dN dt

dN dt

)

dt dt

t t

1

1

In this method, first, time taken to slow down, say by 5%, is noted with a

rmature alone. Next, a

retarding torquemechanical or preferably electrical, is applied to the armature

and again time is noted.

The method using electrical torque is shown in Fig. 31.12. The double-throw swi

tch S while cutting off

the armature from supply, automatically joins it to a non-inductive resistance

R as shown. The power

drawn by this resistance acts as a retarding torque on the armature, thereby ma

king it slow down

2

comparatively quickly. The additional loss is I (R + R) or VI ,

a a

a

where

Ia = average current through R ; V = average volt

age across R.

Let be this power. Then from (i) above

2

2

dN

. .

( 60 ) I N dt1

W =

W + W

W + W

2

2

. . dN

( 60 ) I N dt2

dt1

If dN is the same

dt2

t2

=

W

dt2

W= W

or

dt1 dt 2

t1 t2

here

dN

=

dt

1

dN

W = W

=

l load.

dt

2

Examle 31.16.

In a retardation test on a searately excited motor,

the induced e.m.f. in the

armature falls from 220 V to 190 V in 30 seconds on disconnecting the armature

from the suly.

The same fall takes lace in 20 seconds if, immediately after disconnection, ar

mature is connected

to a resistance hich takes 10 A (average) during this fall.

Find str

ay losses of the motor.

(Adv. Elect. Mac

hines, A.M.I.E. Sec. B, 1992)

Solution. Let

W =

)

Average voltage across resistance = (200 + 190)/2 = 195 V, Average current

= 10 A

W

t2

20

Using the relation

=

; e get W = 1950

3,900 att

W

t t

30 20

1

2

Examle 31.17. In a retardation test on a d.c. motor,

ally excited, the seed

fell from 1525 to 1475 r..m. in 25 seconds.

load of 1.0 kW sulied by the

armature, the same seed dro occurred in 20 seconds. Find

nertia of the rotat

2

ing arts in kg.m .

es III, Gujarat Univ. 1984)

With

an

average

(Electrical Machin

2 2

dN

W =

. .

. Also W = W

( 60 ) I N

dt

t2

t1

t2

Here,

1

2

Page 18

1108

Electrical Technology

No,

5 = 50 r..m. ; dt = 25

W

N

= 1500 r..m. (average seed) ; dN = 1525 147

2

4000

I = 121.8 kg.

m .

Examle 31.18. A retardation test is made on a searately excited d.c. mac

hine as a motor. The

on oening the armature circuit and

6 seconds on suddenly changing the armature connection from suly to a load r

esistance taking

10 A (average). Find the efficiency of the machines hen running as a motor an

d taking a current of

25 A on a suly of 250 V. The resistance of its armature is 0.4 and that of i

ts field winding is 250 .

(Elect. T

echnology, Allahabad Univ. 1991)

oss

= (240 + 225)/2 = 232.5 V ; Iav = 10 A

Power absorbed =

232.5 10 = 2,325

and

t = 30 second, t = 6 second ; = stray l

1

Using

2

t2

= 734.1 , we get

=

t t

1

2

6

Stray losses

= 24 A

W =

Inut current =

2325

= 734.1 W

25 6

25 A ; I = 250/250 = 1 A ; I

sh

= 25 1

a

2

Armature Cu loss =

1 = 250 W

Total

losses =

Inut =

734.1 + 230.4 + 250 = 1,215 W (arox.)

250 25 = 6,250 W ; Outut = 6,250 1,215

= 5,035 W

=

5,035/6,250 = 0.806 or 80.6%

Example 31.19. A retardation test is carried out on a 1000 r.p.m. d.c. mac

ine. Te time taken

for te speed to fall from 1030 r.p.m. to 970 r.p.m. is :

(a) 36 seconds wit no excitation

(b) 15 seconds wit full excitation and

(c) 9 seconds wit full excitation and te armature supplying an extra l

oad of 10 A at 219 V.

2

Calculate (i) te moment of inertia of te armature in kg. m (ii) iron lo

sses and (iii) te mecanical losses at te mean speed of 1000 r.p.m.

Solution. It sould be noted tat

(i) wen armature slows down wit no excitation, its kinetic energy is u

sed to overcome mecanical

losses only ; because due to te absence of flux, tere is no iron loss.

(ii) wit excitation, kinetic energy is used to supply mecanical and iro

n losses collectively known as

stray losses.

2

(iii) If I is taken in kg-m unit, ten rate of loss of energy is in watts

.

2

2

dN

Mechanical loss

W

...Art. 31.8

=

. .

I N

m

Here

conds, N = 1000 r..m.

( 60 )

dt

dN

2

2

60

. .

( 60 ) I N 36

Wm

=

...(i)

2

2

Similarly

W

=

...(ii)

s

(

60

Also W

= 3,285 W

60

. .

) I N

15

t2

= 219 10

t t

1

2

15 9

Page 19

Testi

ng of D.C. Machines

1109

2

3,285

2

( 60 )

60

I 1000 15

2

(i)

I =

W

75 kg.m

15

m

=

W

36

s

(ii)

(iii)

Wm

Iron losses

=

=

W W = 3,285 1,369 = 1,916 W

s

m

31.9. Fields Test for Series Motor

31.9.31.9. FieldFieldss TTest fest for Seror Series Motories Motor

This test is alicable to to similar

series motors. Series motors hich are

mainly used for traction ork are easily

available in airs. The to machines are

couled mechanically.

motor and drives generator hose outut

is

asted in a variable load R (Fig.

31.14). Iron and friction losses of to

machines are made equal (i) by joining

the series field inding of the generator

in the motor armature circuit so that both

Fig. 31.14

machines are equally

excited and (ii) by running them at

ull load value indicated by ammeter

A 1. After this adjus

tment for full load current, different

ammeter and voltmeter

readings are noted.

1

.d. of generator ; I

= load current.

2

= VI ; outut = V I .

set

2 2

Total losses in the s

et,

W = VI

t

V I

1

2 2

2

2

Armature and field Cu

losses W

cu

= (R + 2R

)I

+ I R

se 1

re resistance of each machine

a

R

se

=

s

W W

t

W W

t

2

cu

cu

Stray losses are equally divided beteen the machines because of their equ

Motor Efficiency

Motor inut

Motor losses

V I

1 1

2

= (R + R

)I + W = W (say)

a

se 1

s

m

V I W

1 1

m

V I

1 1

Electrical Tecnology

Generator Efficiency

Te generator efficiency will be of little use because it is running under

abnormal conditions of separate

excitation. However, te efficiency under tese unusual conditions can be found

if desired.

Generator output

= V I

2 2

2

Field Cu loss

= I 1Rse

( Mo

tor current is passing troug it.)

2

Armature Cu loss

= I R ; Stray losses = W

2 a

s

2

2

Total losses

= I R

+ I R + W = W (say)

1 se

2 a

s

g

V

I

2 2

=

g

V I + W

2 2

g

It sould be noted tat altoug te two macines are mecanically coupled

yet it is not a regenerative

metod, because te generator output is wasted instead of being fed back into t

e motor as in Hopkinsons

(back-to-back) test.

Example 31.20. A test on two coupled similar tramway motors, wit teir f

ields connected in

series, gave te following results wen one macine acted as a motor and te ot

er as a generator.

Motor :

Armature current

= 56 A ; Armature voltage

= 590 V

Voltage drop across field winding

= 40 V

Generator :

Armature current

= 44 A ; Armature voltage

= 400 V

Field voltage drop

= 40 V ; Resistance of ea

c armature = 0.3

Calculate the efficiency of the motor and gearing at this load.

Hyderabad, 2000)

Solution. The connection for the two machines are shown in Fig. 31.15.

Total input = 630 56 = 35,280

Output

= 400 44 = 17,600

Total losses in the two machines are

= 35,280 17,600 = 17,680 W

Series field resistance

R

= 40/56

se

= 0.714

2

0.3 = 5,425 + 581 = 6,006

Stray losses of the set= 17,680 6,006

= 11,674 W

Stray losses/machine=

11,674/2 = 5,837 W

Motor Efficiency

Motor armature inut = arm. voltage motor

Fig. 31.15

current = 590 56 = 33,040 W

Armature circuit Cu loss

2

= (0.3 + 0.714) 56 = 3,180 W

= 5,837 W found above

= 3,180 + 5,837 = 9,017 , Output = 33,040 9,0

Stray loss

Total losses

17 = 24,023 W

ng of D.C. Macines

1111

Generator Efficiency

2

Armature Cu loss

0 56 = 2,240 W

Stray losses

837 = 8,658 W

Output

= 44

=

= 400 44 = 17,600 W

= 17,600/(17,600 + 8,658) = 0.67 or 67%

g

TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N

o. 31.1 31.1

Tutorial Problem No. 31.1

TTutorutorial Prial Problem No.oblem N

o. 31.1 31.1

1. A 500-V, sunt motor takes a total current of 5 A wen running unloa

ded.

Te resistance of

armature circuit is 0.25 and the field resistance is 125 . Calculate the effic

iency and output when the

motor is loaded and taking a current of 100 A.

[90.4% ; 45.2 k]

2. A d.c. shunt motor rated at 12.5 k output runs at no-load at 1000 r

.p.m. from a 250-V supply

The armature resistance is 0.5 and

shunt field resistance is 250 .

Calculate the efficiency of the machine when delivering full-load output of 12

.5 k while operating at 250

V.

[81.57%] (Elect

. Technology-I Madras Univ. 1979)

3. The following results were obtained during Hopkinsons test on two sim

ilar 230-V machines;

armature currents 37 A and 30 A; field currents 0.85 A and 0.8 A. Calculate t

he efficiencies of machines if

each has an armature resistance of 0.33 .

[Generator 87.9%, Motor 87.7%]

4. In a Fields test on two 230-V, 1.492 k mechanically-coupled similar

series motors, the following

figures were obtained. Each has armature and compole winding resistance of 2.4

, series field resistance of

1.45 and total brush drop of 2 V. The p.d. across armature and field was 230

V with a motor current of

10.1 A. The generator supplied a current of 8.9 A at a terminal p.d. of 161 V

. Calculate the efficiency and

output of the motor for this load.

[76.45%, 1.775 k]

5. Describe the Hopkinsons test for obtaining the efficien

cy of two similar shunt motors. The

readings obtained in such a test were as follows ; line voltage 100 V ; motor

current 30 A ; generator current

25 A ; armature resistance of each machine 0.25 .

Calculate the effi

ciency of each machine from these

results, ignoring the field currents and assuming that their iron and mechanic

al losses are the same.

[Motor 90.05%, Generator 92.5%]

6. The Hopkinsons test on two similar d.c. shunt machines gave the follo

wing results :

Line voltage = 220 V ; line current excluding field currents = 40 A ; th

e armature current of motoring

machine = 200 A ; field currents 6 A and 7 A. Calculate the efficiency of eac

h of the machines at the given

load conditions. The armature resistance of each of the machines is 0.05 .

. Baroda 1980)

m

g

OBJECTIVE TEST 31

economical metod of finding no-load

is tat it

of a large d.c. sunt motor istest.

(a) is applicable bot to sunt and compound

pkinsons

motors

inburnes

(b) needs one running test

tardation

(c) is very economical and convenient

elds

3. Te most

losses

(a) Ho

(b) Sw

(c) re

(d) Fi

tion test on a d.c. sunt motor is used for

2. Te main disadvantage of Hopkinsons test for

ses.

finding efficiency of sunt d.c. motors is tat it

ray

(a) requires full-load power

pper

(b) ignores any cange in iron loss

iction

(c) needs one motor and one generator

on

(d) requires two identical sunt macines

4. Retarda

findinglos

(a) st

(b) co

(c) fr

(d) ir

Electrical Tecnology

for determining te efficiency of a

test and Fields test is tat bot

is te .............. test.

(a) require two electrically-coupled series motors

(b) need two similar mecanically-coupled

tion

motors

ons

(c) use negligible power

nes

(d) are regenerative tests

traction motor

(a) Fields

(b) retarda

(c) Hopkins

(d) Swinbur

ANSWERS

1. c

2. d

3. b

4. a

5. b

6.

a

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON D.C. MOTORS

Q. 1. How may te direction of rotation of a d.c. motor be reversed ?

Ans.

By reversing eiter te field current or current troug te armatu

re. Usually, reversal of

current troug te armature is adopted.

Q. 2. Wat will appen if bot currents are reversed ?

Ans.

Te motor will run in te original direction.

Q. 3. Wat will appen if te field of a d.c. sunt motor is opened ?

Ans.

Te motor will acieve dangerously ig speed and may destroy itsel

f.

Q. 4. Wat appens if te direction of current at te terminals of a seri

es motor is reversed ?

Ans.

It does not reverse te direction of rotation of motor because curr

ent flows troug te

armature in te same direction as troug te field.

Q. 5. Explain wat appens wen a d.c. motor is connected across an a.c.

supply ?

Ans.

1. Since on a.c. supply, reactance will come into te picture, t

e a.c. supply will be offered

impedance (not resistance) by te armature winding. Consequent

ly, wit a.c. supply,

current will be muc less. Te motor will run but it would not

carry te same load as it

2. Tere would be more sparking at te bruses.

3. Toug motor armature is laminated as a rule, te field poles

are not. Consequently, eddy

currents will cause te motor to eat up and eventually burn o

n a.c. supply.

Q. 6. Wat will appen if a sunt motor is directly connected to te supp

ly line ?

Ans.

Small motors up to 1 kW rating may be line-started witout any adve

rse results being produced. Hig rating motors must be started troug a suitable starte

r in order to avoid te uge

starting current wic will

(i) damage te motor itself and (ii) badly affect te voltage regu

lation of te supply line.

Q. 7. Wat is te function of interpoles and ow are interpole windings c

onnected ?

Ans.

Interpoles are small poles placed in between te main poles. Teir

function is to assist commutation by producing te auxiliary or commutating flux. Consequently

, brus sparking is practically eliminated. Interpole windings are connected in series wit t

e armature windings.

Q. 8. In rewinding te armature of a d.c. motor, progressive connections

are canged to

retrogressive ones. Will it affect te operation in any way ?

Ans.

Yes. Now, te armature will rotate in te opposite direction.

----------------------- Page 23----------------------Macines

Testing of D.C.

1113

Q. 9. A d.c. motor fails to start wen switced on. Wat could be te possibl

e reasons and

remedies ?

Ans. Any one of te following reasons could be responsible :

1. Open-circuit in controllersould be cecked for open starting resis

tance or open switc

or open fuse.

2. Low terminal voltagesould be adjusted to name-plate value.

3. Overloadsould be reduced if possible oterwise larger motor sould

be installed.

4. Excessive frictionbearing lubrication sould be cecked.

Q. 10. A d.c. motor is found to stop running after a sort period of time. Wa

t do you tink

could be te reasons ? How would you remedy eac ?

Ans. Possible causes are as under :

1. Motor not getting enoug powerceck voltage at motor terminals as w

ell as fuses, clups

and overload relay.

2. Weak or no fieldin te case of adjustable-speed motors, ceck if r

eostat is correctly

set. Also, ceck field winding for any open.

Additionally

, look for any loose

winding or broken connection.

3. Motor torque insufficient for driving te given loadceck line volt

age wit name-plate

voltage. If necessary, use larger motor to matc te load.

Q. 11. Wat are te likely causes if a d.c. motor is found to run too slow und

er load ? And

te remedy ?

Ans. 1. Supply line voltage too lowremove any excessive resistance in suppl

y line, connections

or controller.

2. Bruses aead of neutralset tem on neutral.

3. Overloadreduce it to allowable value or use larger motor.

Q. 12. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime run too fast wen under load ? Give diff

erent possible

causes and teir remedies.

Ans. Different possible causes are as under :

1. Weak fieldremove any extra resistance in sunt field circuit. Also,

ceck for grounds.

2. Line voltage too igreduce it to name-plate value.

3. Bruses back of neutralset tem on neutral.

Q. 13. Under wat conditions is sparking produced at te bruses of a d.c. mot

or ? How

would you remedy it ?

Ans. 1. Commutator in bad conditionclean and reset bruses.

2. commutator eiter eccentric or rouggrind and true te commutator.

Also, undercut

mica.

3. Excessive vibrationbalance armature. Make sure tat bruses ride fr

eely in olders.

4. Brus-olding spring broken or sluggisreplace spring a

nd adjust pressure to

recommended value.

5. Motor overloadedreduce load or install motor of proper rating.

6. Sort-circuit in armature circuitremove any metallic particles betw

een commutator

segments and ceck for sort between adjacent commutator risers. L

ocate and repair

internal armature sort if any.

Q. 14. Sometimes a issing noise (or brus catter) is eard to emanate from t

e commutator

end of a running d.c. motor. Wat could it be due to and ow could it b

e removed ?

----------------------- Page 24----------------------Electrical Tecnology

1114

Ans.

1. Excessive clearance of brus oldersadjust properly

2. Incorrect angle of brusesadjust to correct value

3. Unsuitable brusesreplace tem

4. Hig micaundercut it

5. Wrong brus spring pressureadjust to correct value.

Wat are te possible causes of excessive sparking at bruses in a d

Q. 15.

.c. motor ?

Ans.

1. Poor brus fit on commutatorsand-in te bruses and polis commu

tator.

2. Bruses binding in te brus oldersclean olders and bruses an

d remove any irregularities on surfaces of brus olders or roug spots on bruses

.

3. Excessive or insufficient pressure on brusesadjust pressure.

4. Bruses off neutralset tem on neutral.

Q. 16. Wy does a d.c. motor sometime spark on ligt load ?

Ans. Due to te presence of paint spray, cemical, oil or grease etc. on

commutator.

Q. 17. Wen is te armature of a d.c. motor likely to get over-eated ?

Ans.

1. Wen motor is over-loaded.

2. Wen it is installed at a place aving restricted ventilation.

3. Wen armature winding is sorted.

Q. 18. Wat causes are responsible for over-eating of commutator in a d.c.

motor ?

Ans. It could be due eiter to te bruses being off neutral or being und

er excessive spring

pressure. Accordingly, bruses sould be adjusted proper

ly and te spring pressure

sould be reduced but not to te point were sparking is introduced.

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