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THE BAROQUE | DOUBLE BASS VIOLONE ALFRED PLANYAVSKY translated by | JAMES BARKET SCARECROW PRESS, INC. Published in the United States of America by Scarecrow Press, Inc. 4720 Boston Way Lanham, Maryland 20706 4 Pleydell Gardens, Folkestone Kent CT20 2DN, England Copyright © 1998 by James Barket and Alfred Planyavsky All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available ISBN 0-8108-3448-0 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN: 978-0-8 108-3448-4 Se ‘The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. Manufactured in the United States of America. Contents List of Illustrations ix Foreword xiii Preface xv Chapter 1 1 A Short Survey Concerning the Development of the Suing Bass During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, | Polemics, 10 Derivation, 14 Geige/Bakgeige, 16 Contradictions, 19 Chapter 2 23 The Violone in Italy, 23 “Violoni ovvero contrabassi,”” 30 Michael Praetorius, 35 Notation in 16’ and 8’, 40 Baritone Clef, 44 Chapter 3 47 Trio sonata, 47 Jakob Stainer's Violone, 56 Chapter 4 63 The Violone in France, 63 viii ‘The Baroque Double Bass Violone Chapter 5 Violone/Contrabbasso, 73 Low Range of “C,” 80 Chapter 6 Corelli's Use of the Violone, 91 Violone and Violoncello, 102 Chapter 7 Terminology in the Eighteenth Century, 111 “Subjects of the Highest Necessity,” 116 Chapter 8 The Violone as a Concert Instrument, 125 The Three-String Double Bass, 133 Chapter 9 The Violone/Double Bass Since the Nineteenth Century, 143 Chapter 10 Concluding Remarks Concerning Violone and Double-Bass Making, 153 Bibliography Appendix Index About the Author About the Translator 73 71 111 125 143 153 163 177 181 195 197 Illustrations Figures 1 2 10 11 12 13 Violone, from Telc (Moravia), before 1580 Double-bass gamba from Memmingen (Bavaria), 1598 Violone, Salzburg, 1603 Violone, Luython, 1609 Violone at the time of Lasso, 1570 Violone at the time of Praetorius, 1619 Violone of Merten Weber, Dresden, 1597 Violone of Maggini, before 1630 Violone as depicted by Pieter Lastmann, 1618 Violone depicted by Valentin de Boulogne around 1620 Tuning diagram by Agricola, 1529 Drey Geiger, Jost Amman, 1568 Bass gamba and violone represented by Philipp de Monte, 1575 15 16 x The Baroque Double Bass Violone 14 Bafgeige in Praetorius's Musae Sioniae, 1607 18 15 Italian violone represented by Carlo Caliari, before 1596 23 16 Large music group on an Italian balcony 24 17A “Violone o basso di Viola (contrabasso) a 5 corde di Gasparo da Sald” 26 17B Double bass by Gasparo da Sald (“Ex-Tarisio”) 27 18 Small double bass represented by Sacchi, Rome, 1634 34 19 Four-string violone of Edward Lewis, London, 1695 37 20 Twofold notation of the violone, Falck, 1688 42 21 Use of F-clefs by Matheson, 1713 43 22 Title page of Practorius's Theatrum Instrumentorum, 1620 48 23 Painting by Palamedesz, circa 1640 49 24 Violone in a German consort, 1645 50 25 Hammerschmidt Quartet, 1633 51 26 Speer: Baf-Violon 53 27 Speer: Trio Sonata 53 28 Cesti, Foreword to Serenata, 1662 55 29 Stainer, double bass, 1648 58 30 Gobelin, 1533 4 31 Escole de Musique, 1584 66 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 ‘The Baroque Double Bass Violone Mersenne, 1636 Corrette 1781 Grande Basse de Viole de Gamba from Mahillon Gaultier, 1655 Paul Scarron, Roman comique, 1651 Prandi, fingering diagram Chords by Abbado, 1972 Kircher, Phonurgia 1673 Tuning by Malusi Ottoboni Theater, Rome, 1727 Ottoboni Theater, Rome, 1729 Contrabasso al Cembalo, Turin, 1740 Violone, Salzburg Cathedral, 1670-80 Contrabasso al Cembalo, Vienna, 1683 Contrabasso al Cembalo, Dresden, 1695 Taglietti, op. 3 Reali, op. 1 Regole per Violoncello e Violone, Bismontova, 1694 Bonanni, Violone Bonanni, Accordo Playing Position of the Violoncello on the Right Shoulder, Bologna, 1703 xi 67 67 68 69 70 81 84 85 86 95 96 100 101 101 103 104 113 xii 53 54 55 56 57 58 Tables 1 2 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Tunings by Janowka, 1715 121 Haydn, Birthday Divertimento 151 Maggini violone, copy by Horst Griinert 157 Maggini violone, copy by Trip and Joost van der Grinten 157 ISB double bass list 160 Double bass, Leidolff, 1741 161 String-bass names used by Praetorius 19 Praetorius, excerpt from Yabella Universalis 39 Foreword Soon after I started my studies of the double bass, I asked my teacher, “What is the difference between a violone and a double bass?” He lifted his eyebrows, took a deep sigh and used his handkerchief. “Well,” he answered thoughtfully, “Let me think . . .” and trailed off into silence. So, I had to search for the answer in dictionaries and special literature. The result was disappointing. One author says violone means violin. Another says that it was a viol or gamba. “No,” insists the next, “That is the former cello!” I think they did not use the tight sources. Let us begin with the authentic sources, Heinrich Schiitz, for example, states clearly that the term violone means a grof Bapgeige and Fundamentinstrument. Nevertheless, in later editions, violone parts by Schiitz (and even Haydn!) became violoncello parts or were at least doubled by that instrument. Haydn’s concertante violone variations, which appear in some of his symphonies around 1765, were later changed to cello variations. This practice was common until the time of the first recordings. Quartets fiir 2 Violinen, Bratsche und Contrabass, composed in the 1770s by Michael Haydn, were edited for the usual string quartet cast in 1802. The quintets per due violini, alto-viola, violoncello e contrabasso by Boccherini are described by Yves Gérard. (Thematic Catalogue) as a “unique incursion” into the double bass region and are therefore catalogued as “quintets with two ceili.” Motto: IN DUBIO CONTRA BASSO! If a violone part contained large intervals and quick movement, it was customarily determined to be for gamba in new editions. If the part had melodic appeal, then it could only have been executed by the cello. However, as soon as the part remained limited to pedal point (motto: simple and loud), then it was certainly determined to be an authentic double-bass part. xiv The Baroque Double Bass Violone Why did our nineteenth-century colleagues eliminate the violone? Were they unable to incorporate its tuning, sound, and volume into Beethoven’s orchestra? Were they uninterested in playing the two dozen violone (double bass) concertos composed during the Viennese Classical period with the authentic tuning? Why did our highly admired heroes Dragonetti and Bottesini ignore the violone concerto by Haydn (composed c. 1763 and now lost), the obligato piece by Mozart, and the most famous of all quintets by Schubert? Questions concerning the violone/double bass and violoncello were discussed in the nineteenth century without reference to the original practice, and reflected instead a “new sense of hearing.” Even today, the treatment of the subject is more a reflection of commercial possibilities than historical practice. Since the appearance of my Geschichte des Kontrabasses (1970; 2d ed. 1984) and the original publication of this work (1989), a fresh wind has blown through the relevant literature. In the process of expanding one chapter of a book into a larger specialized work, I have been able to tap many sources that were either misinterpreted or neglected. Astonishingly, progress in developing a more critical repre- sentation of the violone/violoncello controversy has been interpreted by some as interference into old habitual rights. The idea that the double bass was used earlier and more frequently than the violoncello has angered many and provoked contemptuous comments about the instrument and its players. The violoncello became the ideal bass instrument during the eighteenth century. However, the understandable efforts to transfer this role to the seventeenth century unfortunately give in to unrealistic flattery. Let us try some answers to the many questions posed above. First, let me thank our colleague James Barket for his skill and effort in the difficult work of translating such specialized literature into another language. His contribution will help familiarize more musicians, composers, conductors, and publishers with the five- hundred-year-old history of our instrument and thus create the best possible expectations for the double bass of our time. Alfred Planyavsky Vienna, February 1995 Preface Alfred Planyavsky, with his impressive work Die Geschichte des Kontrabasses (1984), set a new standard for historical research concerning the double bass. Planyavsky was the first author to deal with the entire history of this instrument, and his work has contributed to a rising interest in performance practice and performance with original instruments. His research has indeed found a permanent place in the field, and it is usually the first source uncovered by those interested in early bass instruments. Since the first appearance of Die Geschichte, the growth of the specific interest in the violone, or baroque double bass, prompted Professor Planyavsky in 1989 to expand the early chapters of that work into a single work entitled Der Barockkontrabap Violone. This is the most comprehensive treatment of violone available in one cover, and Planyavsky is one of the few authors to treat this subject from the point of view of a double bassist. He does not claim to be the final authority on the subject, but he does treat the subject in the most thorough manner possible. He takes issue with many authors who insist that the word violone is also a synonym for violoncello. The point of this translation is not necessarily to disqualify the research of these authors, but to allow English-speaking musicians easier access to Planyavsky's research. There are many ways of dealing with the violone question. Most authors have approached this question by examining scores that call for the instrument. Planyavsky enlarges this perspective by exhaustively examining many thcorctical treatises that define instruments called violone. He is the first author to explore human-sized double-bass instruments with various names that were played as early as the Renaissance. Since the nineteenth century, many have interpreted the small double bass or Bass Violon (Daniel Speer) that played at pitch as a “sort of cello.” Through Planyaysky, bassists learn that their xvi The Baroque Double Bass Violone instrument is one hundred years older than had been documented previously. It is hoped that this English translation will allow more musicians to understand the details of Planyavsky's work. Too often Planyavsky's name is found in bibliographies only, and one does not see his research quoted in texts. It is not uncommon to read articles that discuss the violone and mention his work, but do not demonstrate a thorough knowledge of it. I sincerely hope that this translation will make his research common knowledge among all musicians who are interested in this subject. In this translation, I have tried to maintain the flavor of Planyavsky's writing style while still making some adjustments that conform to contemporary American English. All quotes from older German authors have been translated, but the original text is present. Contemporary German quotes have been translated only. Planyavsky quoted some authors in French and Italian. I have included these and attempted an approximate English translation. There are various names for double-bass instruments used in this text. When Planyavsky used the word Konirabaf, | translated it as double bass. However, I have tried to leave the original term in the text for all other examples, and I have endeavored to list them in the index. This way, the reader can sce all of the different names used in their proper context. I am indebted to all those involved in the Fulbright exchange Pptogram, which allowed me to live in Vienna for two years and work closely with Professor Planyavsky. Lastly, I express my personal thanks to Professor Kenneth Kirk, the Valdosta State University Music Department, the Office of International Programs at VSU, and Professor Aubrey S. Garlington Jr. of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, for their invaluable aid in the preparation of this book. Chapter 1 A Short Survey Concerning the Development of the String Bass During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries The use of the term violone as a collective noun for viols can be found in Italy as early as 1500. At this time in German-speaking countries, string instruments were called Geigen (grof Geigen = viols; klein Geigen = violins). Silvestro Ganassi! used the term violone synonymously with viola da gamba, including a violone with the adjectival suffix contrabasso. The double denotation violone/contrab(b)asso was used alternately for the double bass until the nineteenth century. Agostino Agazzari* defined the violone as a bowed bass whose “dolce risonanza” reached into the contra range (“nelle corde grosse, toccando spesso il contrabassi”). Michael Praetorius? described the double bass as follows: The tall Bafgeig or violone, which sounds, as a result of its deep tuning, very stately, supporis the harmony of the other voices with its lovely resonance and should be played as much as possible on the lower strings, usually as Contrabaf, that means activating the lowest strings [Die grosse Bapgeig / den welschen Violone, gehet / als es den tieffen stimmen gebithret / gar gravitetisch / erhellt mit ihrem lieblichen Resonantz die Harmony der andern Stimmen / und bleibt so viel sie immer kan uff den groben Sditen / zum offtern auch der ContraBaf / das ist uff den gribsten Siiten die Octav anrithrend|. 1, Silvestro Ganassi, Regola Rubertina (Venice, 1542/1543), trans. (German) Wolfgang Eggers (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1974). 2. Agostino Agazzari, Del Sonare Sopra'l Basso con Tuttie li stromenti E Dell'Uso Loro Nel Conserto (Siena, 1607), 9. 3. Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, vol. 3 (Wolfenbiittel, 1619), 148. z The Baroque Double Bass Violone At this same time, Adriano Banchieri‘ confirmed the definition of the violoni as gamba-type instruments with the ability to reach into the contra range, and he gave two examples: Violone da gamba G-CRAdg Violone in Contrabasso Dj-G]-CB-Ad Pictures of such double basses can be seen in Praetorius’s Syntagma Musicum: Gro8 Contra-Bas-Geig, Gar gro8 Ba6-Viol etc. Plate V Violone, Contrabasso da gamba etc. Plate VI ‘These prototypes were used for more than three hundred years in various forms and were called: Violone / double bass Violone grande / Large double bass Giovanni Battista Doni’ still used the suffix da gamba, although this was superfluous because of the increased use and knowledge of the violone as a common basso continuo instrument. Heinrich Schiitz, Battista Doni’s German contemporary, reported that this instrument was widely used all over Europe. In the two centuries that followed, a gradual change is observed from the six-string violone tuned in fourths (and usually with one third as well) with frets, to the four- or five-string double bass tuned in fourths without frets. But this metamorphosis did not proceed in a steady linear pattern. Instead it occurred by means of countless intermediate, overlapping forms and types and was not completed until the nineteenth century. However, already by the end of the seventeenth century, Bartolomeo Bismantova® demonstrates the impact of this process by using the following synonymous designations: Contrabasso / Violone grande / Violone. 4. Adriano Banchieri, Conclusioni nel suono del’organo (Bologna, 1609), 53-54. 5. Giovanni Battista Doni, Compendio del Trastato de’ Generi ed de’ Modi della Musica (Rome, 1635). 6. Bartolomeo Bismantova, Compendio Musicale (Ferrara, 1677, 1694); reprinted in Adriano Cavicchi “Prassi strumentale in Emilia nell'ultimo quarto del secento,” Studi musicali 2 (1973): 118-19. Chapter 1 3 The definition used by Praetorius at the beginning of the century (Die grof Viol de gamba [Italis Violono] oder Contrabasso da gamba) was also accepted at the end of the century by Georg Muffat.” These documents demonstrate the equivalent use of the terms Violone and Contrabasso. In my opinion, the deciding features that characterize the violone as a double-bass instrument are: the range, which reaches into the sub-bass region; the tuning of the strings in fourths (fourths/third); the gamba form (mixed with braccio details); the standing playing position (or Sitting on a high stool); the use of a short end-pin; and, finally, the size of the instrument, which varies, but is generally that of a human being. The pictures of early double-bass instruments of the gamba type seen in figures 1-4, 9 and 10 show these characteristics.? There are many subsequent illustrations which, when examined with actual instruments that have been preserved, help create a distinct picture of the baroque double bass. 7. Georg Muffat, Florilegium secundum (Passau, 1698), as it appears in the foreword to Denkmdler der Tonkunst in Osterreich 4 (1895). 8. The standing playing position can also be accomplished with smaller string bass instruments if they are supported from below (e.g., with a stool) or are held with a carrying belt fastened around the body. But I speak of the specific playing position based on the large size that also determines the sound range of the instrument. The illustration by Hans Mielich shows a violone, in the foreground of the Munich Hofkapelle under the direction of Orlando di Lasso ( around 1570), with a nearly sitting playing position. The prevailing standing playing posture is represented by, among others, the often varied motif by Pieter Lastman, King David in the Temple (1618), the painting Musical Company (Musizierende Gesellschaft) by Valentin de Boulogne, and the picture by A. Palamedesz (see figures 9, 10, 23). 9. In addition, consult my Geschichte des Kontrabasses 2d ed. (Tutzing: Schneider, 1984), chap. “Frihformen” and the appendix of the present book. 4 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Figure 1, Violone from Figure 2, Double-bass gamba, Telc (Moravia), 1580. Memmingen (Bavaria), 1598. Chapter 1 Figure 3, Violone, Figure 4, Violone on a Mass Salzburg, 1603. by Charles Luython, 1609. 6 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Figure 5, Violone at the ume Figure 6, Violone as pictured of Lasso, Munich, ¢.1570. by Praetorius, 1619. Chapter 1 Figure 7, Violone, Merten Weber, Figure 8, Violone of Dresden 1597. (Kunstsammlung Maggini, before 1630. Augsburg) (Horniman Museum, London) The Baroque Double Bass Violone Figure 9, Violone as depicted by Pieter Lastmann, 1618. Chapter 1 Figure 10, Violone depicted by Valentin de Boulogne, Rome? c.1620. 10 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Polemics In spite of these and other sources that sufficiently document the violone (with words and pictures) in the decisive European countries, this instrument remains the object of controversy in connection with its family, size, tuning, and role outside of the orchestra. The retrospective discussion of its role in the trio sonata especially has caused some authors to speculate, aside from the documentation, that the violone was actually a cello. Careless evaluation of sources and a fatal inclination to typify the instruments of today’s taste have seduced authors into hypothetical solutions. The violone was defamed as the fifth wheel on the string cart whose monstrosity corresponded neither in sound nor in playing technique for anything more than des Basses Grundgewalt (supporting the fundamental pitch). The historical development of the other string basses was more favorably represented, because, according to these authors, they were better suited to play the violone parts. Henry Burnett!° finds the use of a double bass in trio sonatas “absolutely ludicrous,” and Eleanor Selfridge-Field!! maintains that between 1620 and 1690, the violone was wned like a large cello. According to Stephen Bonta!?, the Italians would not have used a double bass in trio sonatas “because they do not knowingly hold to a Klangideal that is weird or ugly.” In the same way, Theraid Borgir!3 claims that the violone is “even in some Italian sources a cello.” Also in the German cultural realm, it is a given to assume the violone to be identical with the violoncello. Francis Baines!4 reports that Handel’s violone is “unquestionably a cello,” and Ginter Hellwig (informal correspondence of October 22, 1971) finds that Buxtehude “always understood the meaning violoncello” when he used the term violone. 10. Henry Burnett, “The Various Meanings of the Term Violone,” Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America 8 (1971):29-35. (Compare with Correspondence, in the same journal, 10 (1973):98-100.) 11. Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Venetian Instrumental Music from Gabrieli to Vivaldi (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1975), 315. 12. Stephen Bonta, “Further thoughts on the History of Strings,” Catgut Acoustical Society Newsletter 26 (Nov. 1976): 21-26; “From Violone to Violoncello: A question of Strings?” Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 3 (1977): 64-99; “Terminology for the Bass Violin in Seventeenth-Century Italy,” Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 4 (1978): 5-42. 13. Stanley Sadie, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), s.v. “Violone I,” by Therald Borgir. 14. Francis Baines, “Der Brummende Violone,” The Galpin Society Journal 23 (1970): 82-85 Chapter 1 iL However, we must remember that, in the early part of its development, the bass of the violin family (later called violoncello) was outfitted with only three strings and sometimes played in the manner of the viola (on the shoulder). Its four-stringed tuning of C-G-d-a was not yet uniform in the seventeenth century. Apparently, the predominating taste for the viol instruments hindered the equal development of the violin bass. Regardless of its designations of violoncino and violoncello (this is first found in the literature in the middle of the seventeenth century), Monteverdi occasionally referred to this instrument as “Basso da Brazzo” or “Viola da Braccio basso.” Praetorius also names a “Gross Quint Ba” with the tuning Fj-C-G-D-a and a “Bas Viol de Braccio” tuned C-G-d-a (F-c-g-d!) under the heading “Viole de Braccio” in his Tabella universalis. Neither of these instruments are designated here as Violone. Manfred Hermann Schmid! also maintains, through a complicated analysis of terminology, that the violone was a violoncello during certain parts of its development. He concludes with Bonta that the term violone does not refer to a double-bass instrument until the eighteenth century (“Instrumentennamen,” 31). One striking contradiction is the differing judgments made by musicians of the seventeenth century and those of today concerning the sound of the violone.!© As mentioned previously, Michael Praetorius, 15. Manfred Hermann Schmid, “Instrumentennamen und Stimmlagen- bezeichnungen vom 16. bis 18. Jahrhundert,” in Kontrabaf und Baf- funktion (Innsbruck: Helbling, 1986), 17-32; “Der Violone in der italienischen Instrumentalmusik des 17.Jahrhunderts,” in Siudia Organologica (Tutzing: Schneider, 1987), 407-36. 16. The effort to present the violone as the baroque double bass through documentation and the use of practical examples and iconography can be followed through many chapters in Geschichte des Kontrabasses (see note 9). Manfred Hermann Schmid ("Instrumentennamen," 17) presents an opposing point of view. He maintains that through this book, “in the field of terminology, a certain amount of confusion was created.” In a later essay, Schmid ("Der Violone,” 407) interpreted my attempts at clarification and documentation as “irrefutable rejection,” through which further studies of this theme have “disappeared from German-speaking research.” He describes my work as “understandable, but not very credible.” This polemic is all the more difficult to understand because both sides should be interested in correcting obvious mistakes, incomplete (and, therefore, incorrect) quotations from secondary sources, and the use, by some authors, of statements that have long been refuted. Both sides must put the over- exaggerated condemnation of the sound of the baroque double bass (“laughable,” “unusual,” “ugly”) into proper context. Schmid overrates sources that have not been critically scrutinized and overlooks such aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chapter | 15 demonstrate that these instruments were used in small ensembles (as small as trios) around 1500 (see note 9, above). Kamper (“Studien,” 84) reports on the popularity of the “musica delle quattro viole” at Italian renaissance courts. The ensembles were expanded to five voices through the use of a contrabasso di viola. The Munich Hojkapelle already had such a viol quintet at its disposal at the time of Ludwig Senfl (1520- 40),22 One can see the manifold forms of those early human-sized viols depicted in Innsbruck, 1516, and Niirnberg, 1518 (Geschichte des Kontrabasses, illustrations 5 and 6). Perhaps the earliest information about a Gro Geigen Bassus with the tuning G1-C-F-A-d-g in German music can be found with Martin Agricola.23 Drea Were Canieet “vt Figure 11, Tuning of a Grog Geigen-Bassus with contra G, Agricola, 1529. Thus, we realize that double bass instruments had been used individually for about one hundred years before they were used as double basses in the orchestra. 22. Hans-Joachim Nésselt, Ein dliest Orchester (Munich, 1980), 33. 23. Martin Agricola, Musica instrumentalis deudsch (Wittenberg, 1528), ch. 8. 16 ‘The Baroque Double Bass Violone Geige / BaBgeige The uncritical use of the term Geige frequently leads to a confusion in terminology. This is especially true when the word is interpreted as a synonym for the violin. Every violin is a Geige, but not every Geige is a violin! Also Fidels, lyras, viols, and gambas respectively were designated as Geigen (noun) as well as practically anything that one could geigen (verb). The most well-known example for this use of terminology is the wood cut from Jost Amman from 1568: DOrey Geiger. Figure 12, Drey Geiger by Jost Amman 1568. Chapter 1 17 In the same year that this wood cut was completed, Philipp de Monte took up service in the Hapsburg court, and he was active for over three decades in both Vienna and Prague. In the parts of his Sonetz de P. Ronsard, published in Paris in 1575, one finds four examples of string instruments held like gambas, including bass and double bass. Figure 13, Bafgamba and violone, on the title page of the Sonetz de Ronsard by Philipp de Monte, Paris, 1575. That Geige as well as BaBgeige were used as collective nouns without any specific reference to family, is demonstrated in the terminology used by Michael Praetorius (see figure 14 on page 18). The grofe Bafgeige was exclusively designated as Violone: Violonista - BaBgeiger Violone - GroBe BaBgeige (III, 143) Finally, at the end of the seventeenth century, Georg Muffat wrote Ballette for four or five Geigen. The parts listed are designated for: Violino, Violetta, Viola, Violone, and Basso continuo. The confusion over the term Geige would certainly not have been sO great, if it had remained limited to its original meaning as Geiginstrument. Leopold Mozart?4 used it this way: 24, Leopold Mozart, Griindliche Violinschule, 3rd ed. (Augsburg, 1787), 1. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. 22 The Baroque Double Bass Violone original intentions of the masters, who used the violone so astonishingly often in their music, again recognizable. Chapter 2 The Violone in Italy The Italian culture is characterized by regional development that only began to search for common roots in the nineteenth century. The political situation of this country led to the steady development of individnal regions and cities that retained indenendent cultmral imoulses. 1070). (WlaaLILUS Urapuisue SamMULy, Au) 24 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Figure 16, Large group of musicians (Italian?) with a double bass in the foreground. I have already pointed out the situation in Mantua, where human- sized viols were brought from Rome in 1493. We discover important information conceming our subject from the gamba school of Ganassi in Venice (see note 1). Here, the efforts to extend the range lower than that of the human voice are described precisely. Also, the practical instructions for the extension of the low range (adjusted bridges, thicker strings, etc.) underlines the search for sub-basses. The assessment: “The bass voice is more important than any other” (Ganassi, II, 199). But this makes the classification of the instruments more difficult. The catalogue of the South Kensington Museum exhibition of 1872 refers to double basses from Gasparo da Sald and Maggini. These can doubtlessly be counted among the earliest instruments of this type that remain intact (at least until the appearance of this catalogue).2> The attempt to differentiate the small type (which is the first mentioned in 25. Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instrumenis (London, 1872), 17. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chapter 2 29 The instruments ch’io quini are to be tuned with the organ and harpsichord, lute, guitar, Violone in contrabbasso in consort with the four viola da gambas and the four viola da braccio in the upper range. [Gli instromenti ch’io quini, sono per accordare con organo & Arpicordo, Liuto, Chitarrone, Violone in contrabbasso concerto di quattro Viole da gamba & Concerto di quattro viole da braccio in soprani].29 G. P. Cima’s Sonata of 1610 was composed for violino e violone. Francesco Todeschini, who was active in Mantua from 1641, refers to himself as “Suonatore di Violino et di Violone” (MGG [1966] vol. 13, 447). Also, a musician named Tomaso Motta calls himself “Suonatore di Chittara Spagnola, Musico Luitista, e di Violino e Violone” on his op. 1, 1681 (S. Gaspari, Cat. vol. 4 [Bologna 1905], 57). ‘The increase in evidence from the end of the sixteenth century adds continuing support to the identity of the violone as a double-bass instrument. This evidence is based on both orchestra lists and written documentation. For example, one Giovanni Marchetti, detto Ventura col Violon, was active as a violone player at St. Mark’s from 1593 (Selfridge-Field, Venetian, appendix, 298). From 1614 on, his instrument was referred to as contrabasso (Venetian, 299). Selfridge- Field (Venetian, 300-301) mentions two violone players named Alvise and Gaspare Serena. Monteverdi, in a letter from June 9, 1637, refers to both as conirabassi.2° Bonta’s assumption (“From Violone,” 80) that the violone should only be interpreted as double bass in the cightcenth century (“the eighteenth-century meaning of the term violone: contrabasso”), is thus also refuted by Italian sources. Venice developed as a center of printed music. But Lesure reports a “Basse contre de viollon fagon de Venize” from the year 1570.3! One of the oldest double-bass instruments that remains intact, made by Linarol, who died in Venice, comes from the year 1585. Zacconi, whose Prattica of 1592 was printed in this city, mentions a Basso with the tuning Gy- C-F-A-d-g. What did these instruments look like? In 1608, a traveler in 29. The same is stated by Nicolaus Gengenbach, Musica nova (Leipzig, 1626), 150. “Viola di braccio or Brazzo, Discant-, Alt and Tenor-Geigen; BaBviola: common (gemeine) Ba8geige; Violone: Grosse BaBgeige.” Also compare Christoph Demantius, Isagoge artis musicae (Freiberg, 1632), appendix. “Viola di gamba: Geigen that one holds between the shins; Violone: grosse BaBgeige.” 30. Claudio Monteverdi, Briefe, ed. Denis Stevens, (Munich, 1989), 416. 31. Frangois Lesure, “La Facture Instrumentale & Paris au Seiziéme Sidcle.” Galpin Society Journal 7 (1954): 25. 30 The Baroque Double Bass Violone St. Mark’s was struck by “two violedegamboes of extraordinary greatness,”>? and a few years later, Constanijn Huygen saw a “viole basse de monstreuse grandeur’? in the cappella under Monteverdi's direction. Similar evidence for the existence of string basses of the contra range, whose names were not yet normalized, can be uncovered in other Italian cities. These instruments, through reference to their size and their low range, doubtlessly cannot be counted among the usual bass instruments. “Violoni ovvero contrabassi” One can also find convincing evidence in Ferrara for the violone as a double-bass instrument. Valdrighi*4 refers to a Viola grande ina list of 1520. This same instrument is designated in 1612 and again in 1625 as Il violone grande (Valdrighi, 64, 69). It would be an error to interpret every contrabasso of this period a priori as a double bass, however. Voice parts of this period were also occasionally designated as contrabasso (comparable to contralto). Ferrara was well-known for its festivities. Cristoforo Messisburgo illustrates a festival from the year 1529. The astonishingly large instrumental list is concluded with reference to the following bass instruments: Una viuola chiamata la orchestra per contrabasso, una dolziana per contrabasso secondo (MGG 4 [1955], 59). Contrabassi are also recognizable here as violoni.5> In the records of the Accademia della Morte that exist since 1594, one can find name lists of violoni o contrabbassi (appendix I, 57), as well as violoni ovvero contrabassi (appendix I, 58): thus violoni means contrabassi (spelled with bb as well as with b). Here are a few examples for the combination of instrument names: 1613: Vincenzo dal viulon, suonatore di contrabasso 1619: Vincenzo Mainardi del violon contrabasso 1664: Musico da Bologna: Don Giovanni Bonini, violone 1684: Magistro Cantavalli chitarraro ripara il contrabasso 32. Egon Kenton, Life and Works of Giovanni Gabrieli (Rome, 1967), 364. 33. Denis Stevens, “Monteverdiana 1993,” Early Music (November, 1993), 574. 34. L. F. Valdrighi, “Concerti e musiche di Casa d'Este (dal sec. XV- XVII,” in Musurgiana 12, (Modena, 1884), 48. 35. Compare this to the explanation by Giovanni Pierluigi Calessi, “Ricerche sull’ Accademia della Morte di Ferrara,” in Quadrivium. Studi di filologia e musicologia, vol. 16/2 (Bologna, 1975). Chapter 2 31 C. basso Giuseppe da Mirandola 1685: Contrabasso D. Giuseppe di Mirandola 1689: Violone Gaetano, 2 fratelli Ferrari Stephen Bonta has shed clear and welcome light on the situation in the church of St. Maria Maggiore, in Bergamo. Violone research is indebted to him for the numerous interesting references to the violone he has uncovered in this very important church. However, Bonta presumes that “inexact statements”?6 lie behind the evidence for the congruence of the Violone and Violone grande. I, on the other hand, see confirmation that large double basses in Bergamo also were differentiated from small ones. This clearly emerges from the development, commendably traced by Bonta, of an instrument that in 1597 was called violone doppio and later called Contrabasso and Violone. Nevertheless, Bonta speculates as to whether the fact that the four instruments (due violini, viola et violone) were communally designated as le viole, would not confirm their inclusion in the violin family.37 From this, Bonta concludes that this reference had to include a “contrabass violin.” The term Contrabasso da viola is encountered frequently; however, I have not yet encountered the term Contrabasso da braccio. We thank Stephen Bonta for the reference to Gasparo da Sald as a violone player28 Bonta concludes from the fact that Gasparo’s pay was “ten times higher” than any of the other musicians, that he must have played “a bass violin,” not a double bass. He says further that the double bass at Santa Maria was often called Violone doppio and contends that there is not enough evidence to claim that the simple, often encountered, designation Violone refers to any one specific instrument. Tracing this hypothesis further, Bonta finally concludes that since 1595 in Bergamo, the violone at least occasionally was a bass violin.39 With no clear evidence present, one can also imagine other scenarios. For example, Gasparo could have received the higher pay for 36. Bonta (““Terminology,” 14): “Clearly notaries were also lax in their use of names since in the first document the same instrument is called both violone and violone grosso.” 37. Bonta (“Terminology,” 9): “Here too the terms viola and viole appear to imply da braccio.” 38, Bonta (“Terminology,” 21). Footnote 68 quotes from the receipt of the Biblioteca Comunale Bergamo LXXU3B, fol. 231: “di pui ha servito con il suono del Violone mr. Gasparo Bertulotti da Brescia - 1. 35.” 39. Bonta (“Terminology,” 22): “It is a reasonable presumption that Gasparo was playing the bass violin in 1604, and that the term violone, at least on occasion, refers to a bass violin in Santa Maria from 1595 on.” aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chapter 2 33 we have reason to believe that evidence may yet surface that will recognize the violone, without the suffix da gamba, as a double-bass instrument of the gamba family. Problems of recognition exist with other instruments as well. They are expressions of a developmental process which is well known in the literature.4? The congruence of double bass and violone “after 1609” can also be observed with Monteverdi in the designation Contrabasso da gamba. This emerges in the letter quoted above. In 1635, G. B. Doni mentions the Violone da gamba, and in 1640, he describes the difference between the type he names--the Violone Panarmonico--and the usual violone. For the latter instrument, he claims that the playing position (“instrument standing on the ground”) and comparison of the frets (“wider distance”) allow it to be easily recognized as a gamba-type. Therefore it does not require the suffix da gamba. The following instruments are found in a Florentine inventory from the middle of the century:43 1652: Cinque Violoni a sei corde grandi, un Violone 1654: un Contra Basso di Viola a sei corde, un Violone a quattro corde con suo Arco. The names of the instrument pass through many stages of development from the gamba double bass to the four-string double bass. For a 1662 Serenata composed in Florence, Cesti required a double bass along with a cembalo and teorba to accompany the solo (see note 56). Thus, I conclude that, for large Violoni with six strings or double bass viols with six strings respectively, the suffix da gamba is superfluous. Illustrations of this time also speak against the thesis of thorough- bass music without the double bass. The allegorical representation of a richly orchestrated Intermezzo (Intermedium) in a 1616 performance in Florence shows a truly uncountable number of instrumentalists. Among these are a few human-sized string bass instruments played in standing position (see MGG I, [1949] Tafel XLVII). The French painter Valentin de Boulogne lived in Rome from the second decade of the 42. “One finds the suffix “da gamba” only very seldom, even in the realm of the basses, where the Violone clearly dominates,” and especially in the trio sonata “where the violoncello enters only very lute.” Wolfgang Sawodny, “Viola ‘da gamba’ oder ‘da braccio’: Zur Klarung der Besetzungsproblematik der Streichermittelstimmen im sicbzehnten Jahrhundert,” in Jakob Stainer und seiner Zeit: Tagungsbericht (Innsbruck: Helbling, 1984), 143-151. 43. Frederick Hammond, “Musical Instruments of the Medici Court in the Mid-Seventeenth Century,” Analecta Musicologica 15 (1975): 206-213. 34 The Baroque Double Bass Violone seventeenth century, and it is assumed that his 1620 painting Musizierende Gesellschaft originated there. Both pictures portray a bow hold which was later recognized as a German or Dragonetti bow hold (see figure 10).44 In 1634, A. Sacchi produced a copper engraving that is carried in MGG (vol. XI, [1963] 725-26) with the title Festa di Saracino, In the left foreground, a theorbe and a six-stinged gamba instrument the size of a small double bass are grouped around a keyboard instrument (see figure 18). The frequent coupling of the theorbe and the violone can be traced to their related low range, and it remained common into the eighteenth century. Alessandro Piccinini reports about the range of this instrument, which also was called Pandora, in his Intavolatura di Liuto (Bologna, 1623). To create the low range: “The large body was fitted Figure 18, Balletto at the home of H. Mazalotti, A Sacchi, Rome, 1634. 44. This type of designation proves to be historically questionable. It is best not to speak of a German or French hold, but of an underhand (gamba) or overhand (violin) hold. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Table 2 Chapter 2 39 Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, 1619, Tabella universalis, vol. II, 25-26. a) D-E-A-D-G EADG-c DG-CE-Ad E-A-D-G-c-f G-C-F-A-d-2* GCEAG-2 AD-G-H-e-a Fis-H-E-A-d-g b) F-C-G-D-A C-G-D-A F-C-G-D Viole_de_Gamba/Violen Gar groB BaB-Viol Gro8 Contra-BaB-Geig (Tafel V) Gar grosse Violn de Gamba Sub Bisse (p. 46) Gro8 Contra-BaGgeig (Index) Gro8 Ba8 Viol de Gamba Violone, Gro8 Viol-de Gamba Basz (Tafel VI) Die gro8 Viol de gamba (Italis Violono) oder Contrabasso da gamba (11/44) Gro8 BaBgeig. Violone (Index) Klein Ba8-Viol de Gamba Viole de Braccio/Gei Gro8 Quint-Bag BaB Viol de Braccio Tafel XXI: Bas-Geig de bracio * Praetorius designates this same instrument in another place (vol. II, 48) as “groBe BaBviol de Gamba.” 40 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Notation in 16° and 8° The double bass is designated as a sixteen-foot instrument because it sounds one octave lower than its notation. This characteristic is irrelevant, however, when considered alongside the practice of individually used bass instruments which predominated in the sixteenth century. This designation only becomes significant with the practice of bass-line doubling along with an 8” instrument. The iconography recognizes the use of human-sized string basses since 1516, and the tuning diagrams of this period confirm the non-transposing notation. In some cultural circles, the double bass is still written in actual pitch (8). Since musical instruments were named long after their human voice counterparts, some that reached either a bit higher or lower remained lost in this nomenclature. Therefore, the Ba@ instruments that reached into the contra range were so designated before and after, although they long belonged to the contra region. Adriano Banchieri (Conclusioni, 53) calls the deepest string of the Violone in Contrabasso a “Basso con D sotto Gravissimo.” This designation would never be used for an ordinary bass instrument. Michael Praetorius (Synitagma II, 48), using the terminology of the sixteenth century, speaks of a “grossen Bapviol de Gamba mit dem gar grosse GG uff der untersten Sditen,” and still at the end of the century, Bismantova calls the lowest string of the double bass “Basso.” Corresponding to the sound image from around 1600, the Quartposaun and Ocatav-Posaun (Syntagma II, 138) or BaB-Geige (Syntagma III, 177) shared the thoroughbass. This also illustrates the strong emphasis of the sub-bass region. Misunderstandings in the evaluation of Praetorius’s statements occasionally occur because the various measurements are overlooked. Often the size difference between both double-bass types (Tafel V and VI) is shoved aside, although Praetorius offers two types of measuring devises. I know at least three different conversions of these measurements. A smaller size difference effectively exists than many approximate illustrations would demonstrate. However, this slight difference has appeared in the literature as a grotesque exaggeration of the monstrosity of the larger double bass. It is learned from the Tabella that the lowest string of the small Gambabdsse lies merely a third (and in some cases, only a whole tone) above the large Gambabdsse. Nothing demonstrates this situation better than a comparison of the gar grofen (i.c., sub basses) with the grofen basses. Both registers are outfitted with a contra-D string. One can hardly wonder, therefore, that even Praetorius himself occasionally designates a small BaBgamba as a large one: Chapter 2 So it often happens also with the grossen BaBviol de Gamba when the very large low GG string is intoned sharply with the bow that the upper string which is tuned justly with the octave moves and resonates along with it [So geschichts auch ofi uff der grossen Basviol de Gamba, wenn das gar grosse GG uff der untersten Saiten mit dem Bogen scharff intoniert wird / daB oben die Saiten / welche just in der Octaven mit dem G einstimmet / zugleich sich bewegt und resoniren thut]. (Syntagma Il, 48) 41 This is how Praetorius treats an instrument mentioned in his Tabella universalis as a small BaBgamben. The violone with the same tuning, Gy-C-F-A-d-g, is one of the most frequently encountered double basses well into the nineteenth century. Until now, discussions conceming the judgment of double-bass practice have seldom observed that Praetorius mentions the octave notation for the large bass instruments as a new phenomenon. This new practice was “somewhat unusual and catches the players unprepared.” Therefore one must (in Epidiapason) transpose the parts for these basses an octave higher . . . this way it goes well and is useful for the instrumentalist [Derowegen mu man dieselbe Basse in Epidiapason in die Octay dariiber abschreiben . . .So kommt es dem Instrumentisien gar recht und wohl zu gebrauchen]. (Syntagma Il, 160) We can trace from this statement that bassis s of this time were better trusted with the 8° notation as opposed to the 16’. Praetorius reports elsewhere that these notational changes were necessary due to the widening of the low register. Another deciding point for the judgment of double basses has received too little attention in the literature. This subject was, however, dealt with during this time period by Agazzari, Banchieri, and Praetorius (Syntagma II, 46). In recent times, new gar grosse Violn de Gamba Sub-basse (picture can be seen on Col. V) have been completed with this, one can use the other grossen Contra-bisse (sic!] for the tenor and alto voices and the small Viol da Gamben Baf instead of the Discants [Es sind newlicher zeit zween gar grosse Violn de Gamba Sub Basse (deren Abrif Col V. zu finden) gefertiget worden / darbey man die andern grossen Contra-Basse [sic!] zu den Tenor- und Altstimmen / den Kleinen Viol de Gamben Bap aber anstadt des Discants gebrauchen kan]. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chapter 2 45 direction for such a practice. Double basses are no less arbitrarily put an octave lower or left out of higher passages. J. J. Fux presumed that the basses would arrange their own part, and J. J. Quantz had no objection to the basses dividing into octaves. Handel and Gluck used the tenor clef for all bass instruments. The notion that tenor clef brought the cello an “emancipation from the thoroughbass” and was always used for more demanding and interesting passages is refuted by examples to the contrary. Occasionally the high range of the cello was used along with the viola as a filler voice while the melodic material alternated between the upper voices and the bass (see Gluck’s Ezio, 1750). The high range of the violone was expanded into the violin register by Handel and Gluck. The Furientanz, in Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridce of 1762, demands a furious bow and position technique that can only be compared to the ripping of the temple curtain in Bach’s St. Mathew Passion. Even those who object to the use of the tenor clef with the double bass must admit that it was often used. All of the classical Viennese masters used the tenor clef with the orchestral double bass and the violin clef for solo and concertante playing. This has rarely been recognized in the literature and lexicons. Only in the most recent times have publishers considered the authentic notation for the double bass and began rejecting the arbitrary usc of octave division (see page 149). The tenor clef is integrated into the methods of the nineteenth century authored by double bassists (Hause, Hindle). However, there is no such reference in those produced by non-double bassists of this time (Nicolai, Frohlich). The practical use of the baroque double bass, shown through evidence contained in illustrative documents, was no less neglected. These illustrations show the participation of this instrument in both the trio and quartet setting. 52. See also Planyavsky, Geschichte des Kontrabasses, 16, 18, 23, 26, 27, 39, 40, as well as the chapters “Triosonate” and “Friihe Kammermusik.” Chapter 3 Trio Sonata The instrumentation of trio sonatas has been the subject of various interpretations since retrospective studies of this music began. The performance of trio sonatas was so anchored in the practice of the time that scoring instructions were superfluous, and composers only occasionally referred to the instrumentation. It was always a matter of composing for three voices (two canti and one basso) in the appropriate performance style. How the various instrumentations allow themselves to be reconstructed is the matter at hand. From the sonata titles and parts, it can be concluded that in suring sonatas due violini e violone was the most prominent instrumentation. This combination remained in practice, moreover, in Catholic church music into the nineteenth century. This was the so-called Kirchentrio, and it comprised two violins, double bass, and organ. Michael Praetorius occasionally mentioned the instrumentation of the trio. In one instance (Syntagma, III, 109), he referred to Claudio Monteverdi, whose Trincinia were performed with the instrumentation of: “Two violins and a Bafgeige or bassoon. If a Clavicymbal or Ghitaron is not available, a Theorbe will suffice” [Zwei Violinen und einer Baf-Geigen oder Fagott (wofern kein Clavicymbal oder Ghitaron, daf ist eine Theorba vorhanden)]. The search for a more secure foundation was taken up many times in the seventeenth century. The statements made by Banchieri agree with those of Monteverdi, Practorius, and Cesti. The extensive foreword to the Musicalischen Exequien of 1636 shows that Heinrich Schiitz also used the violone to accompany the Trincinia (vocal trios). The use of the tenor clef is also mentioned here: 48 The Baroque Double Bass Violone Figure 22, Two Viols and a Violone in Michael Praetorius's, Theatrum Instrumentorum, 1620. Where the alto or tenor clef appears, the violone can also be used, but always in the low range--bowed an octave lower. For example in aTrincinio. .. (Wo ein Alt oder Tenor Clavis geceichnet stehen / kann der Violon ebener massen / doch immer in der tieffen / oder in der Octaven darunter mit gestrichen werden /zum Exempel: zu einem Trincinio . . J. This passage and its context help define the meaning of violone for the music of this period. It also describes a practice that has been only rarely represented in the subject literature. Aside from the flowery praise of the time (“the most charming and best instrument to give the music a special color” [das anmutigste und beste Instrument der Music auch eine sonderbahre Zierde}), a more important reference is that this practice was supported through “the most well-known musicians in Europe” [die beriihmbtesten Musicorum in Europa]. Schiitz decided to publish a separate violone part, independent from the organ, and to ad- vise other composers to do the same. The premise for using the independent violone was that, in this way, it “is used correctly” [recht gebraucht werde}, After a detailed reference to this, he states: And it is trusted to anyone who has learned to deal with this fundamental instrument, that he will know well how to treat it with a sharp ear and good understanding [Und wird dem jenigen / welcher solch fundamental Instrument zu tractiren gelernt hat /zugetauet, dafs alles mit scharffen Gehér und gutem Verstand / Er zu handeln selbst wol wissen werde]. Chapter 3 49 Figure 23, Song, Lute, and Double bass (painting by Anthonic Palamedesz, c. 1640). The nonuniform designation for the violone (Violon, Violono, etc.) has raised the question of whether the term could be traced back to a relative of the violin family (Violon: violin in French). Thus Klaus Marx®3 looks beyond the meaning double bass for the violone toward “still another, broader meaning: This broader meaning of the word violone is signified by the diminutive violoncello, which when traced back, means: a small instrument which can perform the bass part of the violin choir.” This supposed additional meaning must still be proven. The various endings used during the time are colloquialisms or local deviations signifying the same instrument. If indeed Marx belicves that Heinrich Schiitz “also used the term in this way for a small instrument,” this notion should be dispelled with the designation Violon oder die grosse Bassgeigen in the above-mentioned Exequien. Another contradiction to Marx’s meaning appears in the Deutschen Concerten from 1647, whose geduppelter Basso continuo demanded a Violon, that is named in the part labelled Violone. Schiitz proves the 53. Klaus Marx, Die Entwicklung des Violoncells und seiner Spieltechnik bis J. L. Duport (1520-1820), (Regensburg, 1963), 69. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. Chapter 3 53 ‘Don einem BASS-VIOLON. Wie wisd cin Bas Vioion geftimamet/ und wie viel bat ex Saiten ? 18 Bas Violon bat auc) fecbs Geaitens roid aber aus folgende Werle aeiminet Die grdbfleundert & ten fom tbs coneatefeG.Dicantere ine tiefe ©. DieDett ind tee F coer E- ti ietbe wok out finite ins d. die fedete oder Quine i {leben unten gufiaden, fo vel hatjede Gs Sefer wiein olgender Borktellung suecfchens und rwie viel Bub 1d Grife. Bafs - Violons Srimming, _antere brite” De aiitbiben? Bien Sal Safe iene scales an au tien Tener sug ‘dh der ordinari Ginimung auf ner Viol di Camb feeidben. een aber inrpemen ih bor. fern feanemn anges Gein su Obes Nd fen angelegen ep. Figure 26, Speer: Bab-Violon. Gierdey onbenpace Grempel mie 2. Viol. Brazen it iheer Are gu eefihery ibe ancy cup Viol di Gamben €nnencracbet werden. = cttretin ret eas z Sonata. Viol L. ~ atl Sue ‘ola I. Figure 27, Speer: Trio Sonata. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book. aa You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your 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