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Chapter 7: Basic Vibration Control: Reduction at source (Part III)

Noise and vibration generated by fluid flow


In fluid mechanics, turbulence refers to disturbance in a flow, which under other
circumstances would be ordered, and as such would be laminar. These disturbances
exert an effect on the flow itself, as well as on the elements it contains, or which are
submerged in it. Flowing gases or liquids can generate high sound pressure levels
when they interact with a solid structure or as a free stream jet. In addition the
machines generating the flow, as for instance compressors pumps and IC-engines
usually give high pressure pulsations in the connected pipes. The pressure pulsations
can however also excite the structure and generate structural vibrations which produce
sound. Figure 2-17 shows an example of a circulation pump producing pressure
pulsations in the water in a heating system. The sound waves are transmitted through
the pipes to the radiators, where the large metal surfaces vibrate and radiate sound.
This is similar to how the vibrations of the strings in a musical instrument are
transmitted through the bridge to the sound box. When the sound box vibrates, sound
is transmitted to the air.
Interest in flow induced vibrations (FIV) lies in the fact that the source of vibration is
dissipated energy caused by turbulence, or in other cases, by eddies that produce
oscillating lift forces that impregnate objects immersed in the fluid with a vibratory
movement.
There are two basic FIV mechanisms:

a self-induced vibrating mechanism

a forced vibration mechanism.

Turbulent fluid flow in pipes also produces sound which can be radiated from the
pipes and transmitted to the building structure. This noise and vibration can be
controlled by reducing the turbulence in the pipe or covering the pipe with sound
absorbing material. The vibrations can be isolated from the wall or ceiling with
flexible connecting mechanisms.

Fig. 2.17 Vibraation mechannism [2]

Turbuulence collaaterally generates presssure and deensity variattion in the fluid. By


meanns of the turb
bulent stress tensor the tuurbulence prroduces variations in preessure and
densiity. The form
mer cause thee noise, and as such, are deemed to bbe sound sou
urces.
Theree are many practical appplications of
o the analyssis of turbuleence generaated noise.
Two particularly curious, albbeit useful onnes, have soolved some serious
s
problems. The
s
in question aree:
two situations

Determination of leaks through the seat of safety relief valves from the outside
by means of non-intrusive techniques.

Element breakage due to resonance frequencies.

The first of the above situations has been used to detect safety relief valve leaks in
BWR nuclear plants. The theoretical principle employed is that the seat leak flow
produces turbulence which in turn generates a characteristic sound. Turbulence, which
in general, manifests itself as vortices or eddies, will in the Von Karman sense, give
off a determined frequency. Moreover, the lower scale turbulence will have its own
frequency in accordance with the Lighthill model. Thus, the pressure waves that are
generated with a defined frequency will constitute an external dryer load that
increases its total dynamic load.

The fluid instabilities, though more specifically with that which makes the flow
bistable, given that this represents a transition within the turbulent system. Notwithstanding, what follows is a brief description of other instabilities about which
references and studies abound. Turbulent flow, as has been above, is a generalised
process, whereas instability is different. This is an unexpected situation, and one
which, in principle, should not be happening. Quite often it is associated with the
local formation of turbulence in a laminar, ordered flow. The most widely known
instabilities model and study turbulence of this type of situation, but there are other
instabilities in a turbulent flow that cause changes to the flow pattern. As with
turbulent flow and its transition, instabilities possess factors that give rise to same
instability. One of the most absurd process features is that the white noise can induce
order in a system that is non linear and non stationary, is not in equilibrium. That is, a
chaotic system can be ordered by itself.

Figurre 0-18 Exaample of nooise and viibration conntrol by redduction of turbulence


t
generrated vibratiions in pipes. (Picture: Asf, Bullerbekmpninng, 1977, Illustrator:
I
Claess Folkesson.) [1]

Whenn air passes an object at


a certain speeeds, a stronng pure tonee, known as a Strohal
tone, can be pro
oduced. Thiss can be preevented by making the object longger in the
directtion of flow,, such as witth a "tail," orr by making the object's shape irreguular.

Figurre 2-19 Sou


und generatioon by air fllow past an object in aan air stream
m. For the
circullar cross secction bar a looud Strohal tone is prodduced. Noise and vibratio
on control

measures includde disturbinng the reguular producttion of vorrtices. (Pictture: Asf,


ng, 1977, Illuustrator: Claes Folkessonn.) [1]
Bulleerbekmpnin
This type of sounnd generatioon can be off importancee for instance around chhimneys at
o sheet mettal on the
certaiin wind speeeds. A posssible solutioon is to mouunt a strip of
chimnney in a spiiral. The pittch of the sppiral must noot be constaant. Regardless of the
wind direction, it
i encounterss an irregulaar object. A
An example of this type of sound
generration can bee found in a cutter wheeel revolvingg under no-looad conditioons, where
soundd can arise from the traack for holdding the planne blade. A
An air stream
m is being
choppped, creating
g a siren (puure tone) noise and vibrration. Minim
mizing the cavities
c
by
fillingg the emptyy space in thhe track withh a rubber plate
p
reducees the pumpiing action
and tthe noise andd vibration. A strong toonal sound iss generated bby vortices formed at
the eddge interactiing with thee cavity at ceertain frequeencies. Afterr filling the cavity the
charaacter of the sound
s
becom
mes broad band.

Figurre 0-20 Noisse and vibrattion control of a cutter wheel


w
by fillling the cavvity with a
rubbeer material. (Picture:
(
Asf, Bullerbekkmpning, 19977, Illustrattor: Claes Foolkesson.)
[1]

quid flows inn ducts or pipes there iss always som


me turbulencce exciting
Whenn a gas or liq
the du
duct walls. The
T noise andd vibration from
f
turbuleence is increeased if the flow
f
must
rapiddly change direction,
d
if the
t flow mooves at a fastt rate, and iff objects bloocking the
flow are close toggether.

Figurre 0-21 Smo


ooth pipe walls
w
withoutt discontinuiities give lesss turbulence exciting
duct wall vibratiions and souund. (Picturre: Asf, Bulllerbekmpniing, 1977, Illustrator:
I
Claess Folkesson.) [1]

Figurre 2-22 show


ws a branch oof a steam liine having thhree valves which produuce a loud
shriekking sound. The branchh has two shharp bends which
w
also produce
p
a loot of noise
and vvibration. To
o control the noise and vibration
v
a neew branch w
was created with
w softer
bendss. Tubing pieces were placed between the valvees, so that tuurbulence waas reduced
beforre the stream
m reaches thee next valve.

Figurre 0-23 Noiise and vibraation controll of a steam


m line by intrroducing soffter bends
and increasing
i
th
he distance between vaalves. Both measures rreduce the turbulence
t
incident on the valve. (Piccture: Asf, Bullerbekm
mpning, 19777, Illustrattor: Claes
Folkeesson.) [1]

Whenn a flowing gas mixes with


w a non-m
moving gas so called jeet noise andd vibration
will bbe generated
d. This has already beeen discussedd in chapter 10. A loweer outflow
speedd will producce a lower soound level. For
F speeds below
b
200 m
m/s the sound
d power is
propoortional to th
he flow speed to the pow
wer of 8 (U8).
) A reductioon of the speed by half
will ttherefore meean that the sound
s
will bee reduced byy about 24 dB
B.

Figurre 0-24 Jet noise


n
and vibration geneerating by frree stream tuurbulence. The
T sound
generration

is

increased

by

disturrbances

in

the

streaam.

(Pictuure:

Asf,

Bulleerbekmpnin
ng, 1977, Illuustrator: Claes Folkessonn.) [1]

Sincee, the jet noiise and vibraation level iss determinedd by the speeed of the jet stream in
relation to the sppeed of the surroundingg air, noise and vibratioon productioon can be
b using an air
a stream wiith a lower speed
s
outsidee the jet stream.
greatlly reduced by

Figurre 0-25 Princciple for jet noise and viibration reduuction by inttroducing a secondary
s
air sttream arounnd the core jet
j exhaust to reduce thhe relative flow
f
speed difference
d
betweeen the jet stream andd the surrounnding air. (Picture:
(
Asf, Bullerbekkmpning,
1977, Illustrator: Claes Folkeesson.) [1]

n
and viibration from
m cleaning of machine
This principle cann be used too reduce the noise
a
processsing which is often carrried out wiith simple
parts with compressed air after
tubullar mouthpieeces. Very high exit speeeds are requuired, and a sstrong high frequency
mple tubular mouthpiecee can be repplaced by
noisee and vibrattion developps. The simp
moutthpieces whiich produce less noise annd vibration, such as a ddual flow mo
outhpiece.
In this mouthpieece, part of the compresssed air movves at a low
wer speed ouutside the
centraal stream.

Figurre 0-26 Noiise and vibrration reducction by intrroducing a secondary air


a stream
arounnd the core jet exhaust in the form
m of a dual flow mouthhpiece. (Piccture: Asf,
Bulleerbekmpnin
ng, 1977, Illuustrator: Claes Folkessonn.) [1]

If thee diameter of
o a gas outllet is large, the noise annd vibrationn will peak at
a the low
frequuency. If the diameter is small the nooise and vibrration will peeak at high frequency.
f
The low
l frequenccy noise andd vibration caan be reduceed by replaciing a large outlet
o
with
severral small ones. To somee extent thiss will increaase the highh frequency noise and
vibraation, but thiss is more eassily controlleed.

Figurre 0-27 Prinnciple for jett noise and vibration reeduction by dividing th
he core jet
stream
m into severral smaller jeet streams. This
T reduces the turbulennt mixing areea and the
noisee and vibrattion generatiion. (Picturee: Asf, Bulllerbekmpniing, 1977, Illustrator:
I
Claess Folkesson.)

Steam
m safety vallves may disscharge manny times eacch day. Souund production during
steam
m escape can
n produce hiigh level, low
w frequencyy sound. To control the noise and
vibraation a diffusser was form
med as a perrforated conee. The holess produce many
m
small
jet sttreams and high
h
frequenncy noise annd vibration which is abbsorbed in the
t downstream
m pack.

Figurre 0-28 Jet noise


n
and vibbration reduuction in a stteam safety valve by divviding the
core jet stream into severall smaller jett streams. (Picture:
(
Asf, Bullerbekkmpning,
1977, Illustrator: Claes Folkeesson) [1]

The inflow to fans


fa is very important for sound generation.
g
I there is an
If
a inflow
disturrbance givinng a lot of turbulence the sound will
w be morre intense. The
T same
principle applies,, for examplee, to propellers in water..

Figurre 0-29 Priinciple fan and propelller sound generation. Inflow dissturbances
generrating inflow
w turbulencee increases the
t noise annd vibrationn generation.. (Picture:
Asf, B
Bullerbekm
mpning, 19777, Illustratorr: Claes Folkkesson.) [1]
Fans should thereefore not be placed closee to any disccontinuities iin a duct. Inn Figure 230 exxamples are shown wheere the fan iss placed tooo close to coontrol vanes, and too
close to a sharp bend.
b
The floow is disturbbed and the nnoise and vibbration at thhe outlet is
increaased. To conntrol the noiise and vibration the control vanes can be movved farther
from the fan so that
t
the turbbulence has ttime to die down.
d
In thee other case,, the bend
b made smo
oother, and tthe fan moveed away from
m the bend. Guide vanes can also
can be
be ussed to give a smoother flow through the bend.

Figurre 0-30 Fan noise and vvibration conntrol by incrreasing the ddistance betw
ween duct
discoontinuities annd the fan. (Picture:
(
Asff, Bullerbekkmpning, 19977, Illustraator: Claes
Folkeesson.) [1]

Turbuulence will form


f
if the pressure
p
in a liquid system drops raapidly. Gas is released
in thee form of buubbles and produces
p
a rooaring noise and vibratioon. The presssure drop
can bbe produced by a large, rapid changge in volumee. Noise andd vibration is
i avoided
by a sslow changee in volume.

Figurre 0-312 Priinciple for noise


n
and vibbration reduuction in a liquid filled pipe
p
using
smoooth duct transitions. Becaause a rapid pressure droop is avoided less gas buubbles are
formeed. (Picture: Asf, Bullerbbekmpningg, 1977, Illusstrator: Claess Folkesson..)[1]

Rota
ating Balan
nce & Unba
alance
mon source of
o vibration in machine with rotatinng parts. It
Unbaalance is the most comm
is a very
v
importaant factor to be considerred in the modern
m
machhine design, especially
where high speed and reliabbility are siggnificant connsiderationss. Balancing of rotors
ve loading of
o bearings and
a avoids fa
fatigue failurre, thus increeasing the
preveents excessiv
usefuul life. Unballance in a rootor is the reesult of an unneven distribbution of maass, which
causees the rotorr to vibrate. The vibraation is prooduced by tthe interactiion of an
unballanced masss componennt with the radial acceeleration duue to rotatioon, which
togethher generatee a centrifugaal force. Sinnce the mass component rotates, the force also
rotatees and tries to
t move the rotor alongg the line of action of thee force. Thee vibration
will be transmittted to the rotor's beaarings, and any point on the beaaring will
f
once per
p revolutioon. Balancinng is the proocess of attempting to
experrience this force
improove the masss distributioon of a rotoor, so that it
i rotates inn its bearing
gs without
uncom
mpensated centrifugal
c
foorces.
Dynaamic Unballance, illustrrated in Fig.. 2.27, is a combinationn of static an
nd couple
unballances and is
i the most common tyype of unballance found in rotors. To
T correct

dynam
mic unbalannce, it is necessary
n
too make vibbration meaasurements while
w
the
machhine is runninng and to addd balancing masses in tw
wo planes.

F 2.32: Dyynamic unbaalance


Fig
A rottor is balanceed by placinng a correctioon mass of a certain sizee in a positionn where it
countteracts the unbalance
u
inn the rotor. The
T size andd position oof the correcction mass
must be determin
ned. The priinciple of peerforming fieeld balancinng is to make (usually
tempoorary) alteraations to the mass distribbution of the rotor, by addding trial masses, and
to meeasure the resulting
r
phase and magnitude of bearing
b
vibrration. The effects of
these trial correcttions enablee the amountt and positioon of the reqquired correcction mass
p
on the bearing expperiences thee centrifugal force due
to be determined. Any fixed point
T
in a frequency
y spectrum
to thee unbalance,, once per reevolution off the rotor. Therefore
of thhe vibration signal, unbbalance is sseen as an increase in the vibration at the
frequuency of rotaation. The viibration due to the unballance is meaasured by meeans of an
accellerometer moounted on thhe bearing hoousing. The vibration siggnal is passeed through
he rotationall frequency of
o the rotor, so that onlyy the compon
nent of the
a filteer tuned to th
vibraation at the rotational
r
frrequency is measured. The
T filtered signal is paassed to a
vibraation meter, which dispplays the magnitude.
m
T
The
indicateed vibrationn level is
directtly proportio
onal to the foorce produceed by the unbbalanced maass.

Fundamentals of
o Sound annd Vibrationns by KTH
H Sweden [1], this boook is used
H MOU for course deveelopment. Tuurbulence, V
Vibrations, Noise
N
and
underr IITR-KTH
Fluidd Instabilitiess, Practical Approach
A
byy Carlos Gavviln Morenoo [2]