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Fluid Mechanics II Lab Sheet

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN


Faculty

Course

Year/
:
Semester
Session :

Engineering and Science


Bachelor of Engineering (Hons)
Mechanical/Civil/Chemical
Engineering

Unit Code

UEME3112

Unit Title

Fluid Mechanics II

Lecturer

: En. Wan Mohd Faizal

201505

Experiment 4: FREE TURBULENT JET


Objectives:
1. To calibrate the flow profile against blower motor frequencies.
2. To measure dynamic pressure at different distances in the free turbulent jet flow using
pitot-static tube and digital manometer, and to calculate the flow velocity and obtain
the velocity profiles in the free turbulent jet for different blower motor frequencies.
3. To compare the effect of different nozzle orifice diameters on the velocity profiles of
the free turbulent jet.
Introduction:
Wall turbulence is turbulence motions which are constrained by one or more boundaries.
In wall turbulence, the turbulence is generated in velocity gradient caused by the no-slip condition.
Free turbulence is turbulence motions which are unaffected by walls and develop and spread in
an open ambient fluid. Three examples of free turbulence are free-shear layer (mixing layer), free
jet, and wake behind a body immersed in a stream.
Free turbulent jet (Figure 1) occurs when the fluid is discharged between nozzle or orifice
into a stationary or moving fluid. Just downstream of the disturbance that caused the velocity
gradients, the flow will be developing and non-similar. Further downstream, the flow will be
similar and the velocity profiles will all look alike when suitably scaled. When the fluid exits from
the orifice, the fluid becomes completely turbulent at a short distance from the pint of discharge.
The emerging jet becomes partly mixed with the surrounding fluid at rest, causing particles from
the surroundings to be carried away by the jet, so that the mass flow in creases in a downstream
direction. Thus, as the free turbulent jet spreads out, the velocity decreases, but the total
momentum remains constant. The velocity decreases is mainly due to the shear interaction with the
surrounding fluid. This shear interaction will tend to reduce the jets kinetic energy, which is
ultimately dissipated as heat. Some examples or applications of free turbulent jet include aircraft
turbine, smoke stack, cooling towers and volcanoes.
As mentioned above, when fluid elements move downstream, they interact with surround
fluid and their speed decreases. Fluid near the centerline, however, interact less with the
surrounding medium and maintains nearly its initial speed at some distance downstream. The
region in which the centerline speed is nearly that of the exit is called the potential core. Its radial
extent, which decreases downstream, can be estimated by measuring the streamwise variation of
the centerline speed. The potential core vanishes quickly at a distance of about one diameter from
the exit, where the velocity profile loses its mixing-layer-flat-core shape. Finally, at about 20

Fluid Mechanics II Lab Sheet


diameters downstream of the exit, the velocity profile reaches and maintains a self-preserving
u
u
y
r
f or
f
shape,
U max
U max
b
b
depending on whether the jet is plane (plane jet) or axisymmetric (circular jet). The width growth
rates (b) and velocity decay rates (u) are bplane ~ x, bcircular ~ x, and uplane ~ x-1/2, and ucircular ~ x-1
for plane and circular jet, respectively.

Figure 1. Development of free turbulent jet.


There are two types of turbulent free jet, i.e., the momentum jet (Figure 2a) and buoyant jet
(Figure 2b). In the momentum jet, the fluid motion is as a result of kinetic energy. The jet and
surrounding may be the same fluid at the same temperature. Typical examples are jet engine
exhaust and pump outlets. In the buoyant jet, the jet arises from a stationary fluid at nozzle. The jet
results from a difference in nozzle and surrounding temperature or density. Typical examples are
heated air rising through cold air, salt water entering fresh water.

(b)

(a)
Figure 2. (a) Momentum jet; (b) Buoyant jet.

Fluid Mechanics II Lab Sheet


Equations:
2( Pstagnation Pstatic )

(i)

The velocity formula, V =

(ii)

stagnation or total pressure (Pa), Pstatic = static pressure (Pa), and = air density (kg/m3).
The density formula, = 1.325 PB / T , where V = air speed (ft/min), Pv = velocity
pressure (inches of water), = air density (lb/ft3), PB = barometric atmospheric pressure
(inches of mercury), T = absolute room temperature (indicated temperature (F) + 460).

, where V = air speed (m/s), Pstagnation =

Materials and Apparatus:

LEGEND
A = Main ON/OFF
B = Blower ON/OFF
C = Frequency Inverter
D = Ring blowers outlet
E = Horizontal axis transverse unit
F = Digital differential pressure transducer
G = Pitot static tube
H = Ring blower
I = Nozzles
Procedure:
1. Select the desired nozzle size and fix it to the ring blowers outlet (D).
2. Move the pitot-static tube (G) to the opening of the nozzle (at x = 0). Tighten the screw.
3. Connect the tubing from the pitot static tube to the digital differential pressure
transducer (F). Set the frequency to 5 Hz.

Fluid Mechanics II Lab Sheet


4. Allow the system to run for about 1 minute. Keep an eye on the digital differential
pressure transducer. Record down the readings.
5. Adjust the frequency with 5 Hz increment till 25 Hz. Repeat the experiment using
different orifice size. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against blower
motor frequency, and the graph of air speed against blower motor frequency.
6. Compare the air speed profiles for different orifice diameters.
7. Select the desired nozzle size and fix it to the ring blowers outlet (D). Repeat with 10
Hz. Move the pitot-static tube along the centreline of the jet starting at x = 0 measured
from the orifice opening. Record measurement at 1cm intervals up to x = 10 cm.
8. Repeat the experiment using different orifice size. Repeat the experiment with
frequency value set to 20 Hz.
9. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against axial distance for different
frequency setting and different orifice size. Compare the jet speed profile for all the
cases.
10. At x = 10 cm, move the pitot-static tube vertically starting from y = 0 measured from
the centerline of the jet. Record measurement at 0.5 cm intervals up to y = 2 cm.
11. Repeat the experiment using different orifice size. Repeat the experiment with
frequency value set to 20 Hz.
12. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against vertical distance for different
frequency setting and different orifice size. Compare the jet speed profile for all the
cases.
Results and Discussion:
1. Discuss on the graph of air speed against blower motor frequency.
2. From the graph of air speed against axial distance from the orifice opening for different
frequency setting and different orifice size,
(i) Discuss the effect of different orifice size on the air speed.
(ii) The velocity decay rate (u) is ucircular ~ x-1 for circular jet. Does your experimental
result agree with this statement? Prove it with calculation.
(iii) Explain why the velocity profile for the jet decreasing as the distance away from the
orifice increasing.
3. On the graph plot, identify the core length for each case.
4. Discuss the effect of different orifice size on the air speed from the plot of air speed against
vertical distance from the centerline in the flow direction for different frequency setting
and different orifice size.
5. What is the jet noise? How can the jet noise be minimized? Explain with an example.
Laboratory Report
1. This is an INDIVIDUAL report. DO NOT COPY, or you will not obtain any mark.
However, you will share the data with your group members.
2. Attach the ORIGINAL spreadsheets and plots containing the experimental data with your
report.
3. Provide a sample calculation. Coordinate with your group members to avoid presenting the
same sample calculation.

Fluid Mechanics II Lab Sheet

4. Your report should include: Objective, Introduction, Apparatus, Procedures, Results and
Discussion, and Conclusions and Recommendations.